Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina bokuba ukhula olubulala ukhula luyaphazamisa iihormoni

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Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina obukhathazayo kwinkxalabo yokuba ukubulala ukhula kusetyenziswa kakhulu imichiza glyphosate inokubanakho ukuphazamisa iihomoni zabantu.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwijenali Imichiza zibizwa IGlyphosate kunye neempawu eziphambili zokuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine: Uphengululo, Isithathu senzululwazi sagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate ibonakala ineempawu ezisibhozo kwezilishumi eziphambili ezinxulunyaniswa i-endocrine ephazamisa iikhemikhali . Ababhali balumkisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba izifundo eziza kudibana ziyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokucacileyo iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwinkqubo ye-endocrine yomntu.

Ababhali, uJuan Munoz, uTammy Bleak noGloria Calaf, elowo nalowo unxulumene neYunivesithi yaseTarapacá eChile, bathi iphepha labo luphononongo lokuqala lokudibanisa ubungqina boomatshini kwi-glyphosate njenge-endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC).

Obunye bobungqina bucacisa ukuba iRoundup, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate-based herbicide, inokutshintsha i-biosynthesis yehomoni zesondo, ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ii-EDCs zinokulingisa okanye ziphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye zinxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Eli phepha litsha lilandela ukupapashwa ebutsheni balo nyaka Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ebonakalise ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuchaphazela amalungu okuzala kwaye isoyikisa ukuzala.

IGlyphosate sesona sifo sisetyenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, esithengiswa kumazwe ali-140. Yaziswa ngentengiso ngo-1974 nguMonsanto Co, imichiza sisithako esisebenzayo kwiimveliso ezithandwayo ezinje ngeRoundup kunye namakhulu abanye babulali bokhula abasetyenziswa ngabathengi, oomasipala, izixhobo, amafama, abaqhubi begalufa kunye nabanye kwihlabathi liphela.

UDana Barr, Unjingalwazi kwiYunivesithi yaseEmory iRollins School of Health Public, wathi obu bungqina “buye bubonakalise ngendlela engathethekiyo ukuba i-glyphosate ine-endocrine ephazamisa iipropathi.”

“Ayisiyonto ingalindelekanga kuba i-glyphosate inezakhiwo ezifanayo nezinye i-endocrine ephazamisa ukubulala izinambuzane; Nangona kunjalo, ingakumbi kuba ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kudlula kude ezinye izibulali zinambuzane, ”utshilo u-Barr, olawula inkqubo ngaphakathi kwiziko le-National Institutes of Health elixhaswa ngezempilo. "IGlyphosate isetyenziswa kwizityalo ezininzi nakwizicelo ezininzi zokuhlala ezinokubangela ukubonwa kwabantu ngokubanzi."

Phil Landrigan, umlawuli we-Global Observatory on Pollution and Health, kunye nonjingalwazi webhayoloji
KwiKholeji yaseBoston, uthe uphononongo ludibanise "ubungqina obuqinileyo" bokuthi i-glyphosate ngumphazamisi we-endocrine.

"Ingxelo iyahambelana nomzimba omkhulu woncwadi obonisa ukuba i-glyphosate inoluhlu olubanzi lweziphumo ezibi kwezempilo - iziphumo eziguqula imeko ende kaMonsanto ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate njengekhemikhali enobungozi engenazimpembelelo zimbi kwimpilo yabantu, ”utshilo uLandrigan.

Ii-EDC bezingumbandela oxhalabisayo ukusukela nge-1990s emva kothotho lopapasho olucebisayo ukuba ezinye iikhemikhali zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwizibulali zinambuzane, izinyibilikisi zorhwebo, iiplastikhi, iisepha, kunye nezinye izinto zinokubanakho ukuphazamisa unxibelelwano phakathi kwamahomoni kunye nezamkeli.

Izazinzulu ngokubanzi ziye zamkela iipropathi ezilishumi ezisebenzayo zearhente eziguqula isenzo sehomoni, zibhekisa kwezi "njengeempawu eziphambili" ezilishumi ze-endocrine-disorors. Iimpawu ezilishumi zezi zilandelayo:

Ii-EDC's zinako:

  • Ukutshintsha kwehomoni ukuhanjiswa kwamanqanaba okujikeleza kwehomoni
  • Yenza utshintsho kwi-hormone metabolism okanye kugqitywe
  • Guqula ikamva lokuvelisa iincindi zamadlala okanye iiseli eziphendula iihomoni
  • I-Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Ukuchasene ne-hormone receptors
  • Nxibelelana okanye wenze ii-hormone receptors
  • Ukutshintshwa kwesiginali yokutshintsha kwiiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Yenza uhlengahlengiso lwe-epigenetic kwimveliso evelisa iihomoni okanye iiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Utshintsho lwehormoni yokuhambisa kwiimbrane zeseli

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi uphononongo lwedatha yoomatshini lubonise ukuba i-glyphosate idibene nazo zonke iimpawu eziphambili ngaphandle kwezi zimbini: "Ngokubhekiselele kwi-glyphosate, abukho ubungqina obunxulunyaniswa namandla okuchasana nabamkeli behomoni," batsho. Kananjalo, "abukho ubungqina bempembelelo yayo kwimetabolism ye-hormonal okanye kugqitywe," ngokutsho kwababhali.

Uphando kule minyaka ingamashumi idlulileyo lujolise ikakhulu kumakhonkco afunyanwa phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza, ngakumbi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza. I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Bangaphezu kwe-100,000 abantu Ndimangalele uMonsanto e-United States etyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate esekwe kwinkampani kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL.

Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu kwaye umnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG uchithe unyaka ophelileyo enesiqingatha ukuzama ukuhlala Ukumangalelwa ngaphandle kwenkundla.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baqaphela indalo ekuyo yonke indawo ye-glyphosate, besithi "ukusetyenziswa okukhulu" kwale khemikhali "kukhokelele ekusasazekeni kwendalo," kubandakanya nokuvela okuchaphazelayo okuboshwe kukusetyenziswa kwabantu kombulali wokhula ngokutya.

Abaphandi bathi nangona abalawuli bathi amanqanaba entsalela ye-glyphosate efumaneka ekutyeni iphantsi ngokwaneleyo ukuba ikhuseleke, "abanakuyilawula" ingozi "enokubakho ebantwini abatya ukutya okungcoliswe yimichiza, ngakumbi iinkozo kunye nezinye izityalo- ukutya okusekwe, okuhlala kunamanqanaba aphezulu kunobisi, inyama okanye iimveliso zentlanzi.

Amaxwebhu aseburhulumenteni ase-US abonisa ukuba iintsalela ze-glyphosate zifunyenwe kuluhlu lokutya, kubandakanya ubusi bendalo, yaye igranola kunye nabaqhekezi.

Abaphandi bakarhulumente waseCanada bakwachaze intsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni. Ingxelo enye ekhutshwe ngo-2019 ngoososayensi abavela kwiiLabhoratri zeAgri-Food eCanada e-Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry bafumana i-glyphosate kwi-197 ye-200 yeesampulu zobusi abazihlolisayo.

Ngaphandle kwenkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya nokuvezwa kokutya, abalawuli base-US bakhusele ngokuqinileyo ukhuseleko lweekhemikhali. Inkqubo ye- I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo igcina ayifumanekanga "nayiphi na impilo yomntu ngenxa yokuchanabeka kwi-glyphosate. ”

Izifundo ezitsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa inkxalabo kwimpilo yokuzala

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Njengoko iBayer AG ifuna ukuphungula inkxalabo yokuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides ibangela umhlaza, izifundo ezininzi ezitsha ziphakamisa imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho lwekhemikhali kwimpilo yokuzala.

Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ezikhutshiweyo ehlotyeni zibonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeza ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Kwi iphepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo in I-Endocrinology yeMelecular and Cellular, Abaphandi abane baseArgentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yokuba i-glyphosate ikhuselekile.

Uphando olutsha luza njengoko iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezulu kwamabango e-100,000 aziswe e-United States ngabantu abathi batyhileka kwi-Roundup yeMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso ze-glyphosate-based based herbicide ezibangele ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

I-Bayer izuze njengelifa ityala le-Roundup xa wathenga iMonsanto Ngo-2018, kungekudala phambi kokuphumelela kwamatyala amathathu kwabamangali.

Izifundo ziye zeza njengamaqela abathengi esebenzela ukuqonda ngcono indlela yokunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwabo kwi-glyphosate ngokutya. Isifundo ipapashwe nge-11 ka-Agasti ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokusika amanqanaba e-glyphosate afunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwepesenti ze-70. Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya.

IGlyphosate, eyona nto isebenzayo kwiRoundup, sesona sibulali sokhula sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. IMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinyamezelayo nge-glyphosate kwii-1990s ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba afafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuwo onke amasimi ezityalo, abulale ukhula kodwa hayi izityalo eziguqulweyo. Ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngamafama kunye nabanini bamakhaya, izixhobo kunye nezinto zikarhulumente, kuye kwatsala inkxalabo ekhulayo kule minyaka ngenxa yokuxhaphaka kwayo kunye noloyiko malunga nokuba inokwenza ntoni na kwimpilo yabantu kunye nokusingqongileyo. Imichiza ngoku ifunyanwa ngokutya nakumanzi kunye nomchamo womntu.

Ngokwenzululwazi yaseArgentina, ezinye zeempembelelo zeglyphosate ezibonwe kwizifundo ezitsha zezilwanyana zibangelwa kukuvezwa kweedosi eziphezulu; kodwa kukho ubungqina obutsha obubonisa ukuba nokuba sesichengeni sokweedosi esezantsi kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwendlela yokuzala kwabasetyhini, neziphumo ekuchumeni. Xa izilwanyana zichanekile kwi-glyphosate ngaphambi kokufikisa, utshintsho lubonakala kuphuhliso kunye nokwahlulahlula ii-ovari follicles kunye nesibeleko, zitsho izazinzulu. Ukongeza, ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe ngeglyphosate ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwembewu. Konke kudibanisa ukubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ziziphazamiso ze-endocrine, baphetha abaphandi.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osuka kwiYunivesithi yasePurdue, uthe uphando olutsha lwandisa ulwazi malunga nobungakanani bomonakalo onxulunyaniswa ne-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides kwaye inikezela "ukuqonda okungcono kobuzaza bokubhengeza okuxhaphakileyo inkcubeko ngoku. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka ukuba iMonsanto's Roundup inokuba negalelo kwiingxaki zokuzala kwimfuyo.

inye isifundo esibalulekileyo yapapashwa kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi kwiphephancwadi Ukutya kunye neTyxicology, ezimisele ukuba i-glyphosate okanye i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "i-hormonal ebalulekileyo kunye neethagethi zesibeleko seemolekyuli" kwiigundane ezikhulelweyo.

Isifundo esahlukileyo kutshanje papashwe kwincwadi I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yase-Iowa State bajonge ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kwiimpuku. Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kwinqanaba eliphantsi kwi-glyphosate "kuguqula iproteome ye-ovari" (iseti yeeprotein ezivakalisiweyo kuhlobo oluthile lweseli okanye komzimba) kwaye "inokuba nefuthe ekusebenzeni kwe-ovari. Kwiphepha elinxulumene nelaba baphandi babini baseIowa State kunye nombhali omnye owongezelelweyo, papashwa ngo Inzala yetyhefu, Abaphandi bathi abafumananga ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine kwiimpuku ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate, nangona kunjalo.  

Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseGeorgia kuchazwe kwiphephancwadi Inzululwazi yezilwanyana kunye neNzululwazi yezilwanyana Ukusetyenziswa kwemfuyo yengqolowa edityaniswe nentsalela ye-glyphosate kubonakala ngathi inokwenzakalisa izilwanyana, ngokujonga izifundo kwesihloko. Ngokusekwe kuphononongo loncwadi, i-glyphosate-based herbicides ibonakala ngathi "yityhefu yokuzala, ineziphumo ezahlukeneyo kwiinkqubo zokuzala zamadoda nabasetyhini," utshilo umphandi.

Iziphumo ezothusayo zazikhona ikwabonwa nasezimvini. Uphando lupapashwe kwiphephancwadi Ungcoliseko lwendalo kujonge iimpembelelo zokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuphuhliso lwesibeleko kwiimvana zabasetyhini. Bafumene utshintsho abathi lunokuchaphazela impilo yokuzala kwabasetyhini yeegusha kwaye babonise i-glyphosate-based herbicides esebenza njengophazamisayo kwi-endocrine.

Ikwapapashwe kwakhona kwi Ungcoliseko lwendalo, izazinzulu ezivela eFinland naseSpain zithe kwi iphepha elitsha Ukuba benze uvavanyo lokuqala lwexesha elide lweziphumo ze- "sub-toxic" glyphosate exposure kwiinkukhu. Bazama ukuvavanya izagwityi zabasetyhini nezamadoda kwii-glyphosate-based herbicides ukusuka kwiintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kwiiveki ezingama-52.

Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate herbicides "inokuguqula iindlela eziphambili zomzimba, inqanaba le-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kunye ne-microbiome" kodwa khange bafumane ziphumo zokuzala. Bathe iimpembelelo zeglyphosate azinakuhlala zibonwa “ngokwesiko, ngakumbi ixesha elifutshane, uvavanyo lwetyhefu, kwaye olo vavanyo alunakho ukububeka ngokupheleleyo ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate kunye neNeonicotinoids

Enye ye ezona zifundo zintsha Ukujonga iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwimpilo kwapapashwa kule nyanga kwi Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu.  Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-insectides ye-thiacloprid kunye ne-imidacloprid, zazinokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine.

Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane ayinxalenye yekhemikhali ye-neonicotinoid kwaye aphakathi kwezona zisetyenziselwa ukubulala izinambuzane ehlabathini.

Abaphandi bathi babeke iliso kwimpembelelo ye-glyphosate kunye neonicotinoids ezimbini kwiithagethi ezibalulekileyo zenkqubo ye-endocrine: I-Aromatase, i-enzyme ejongene ne-estrogen biosynthesis, kunye ne-estrogen receptor alpha, eyona proteni iphambili ekhuthaza umqondiso we-estrogen.

Iziphumo zabo zaxutywa. Abaphandi bathi ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uthintele umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa isithintelo "besingabalulekanga kwaye sibuthathaka." Ngokubalulekileyo abaphandi bathi i-glyphosate ayikhange ibangele misebenzi ye-estrogenic. Iziphumo "bezingqinelani" nenkqubo yovavanyo eqhutywa yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US, egqibe kwelokuba "abukho ubungqina obukholisayo bokunxibelelana okunokubakho kwindlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate," batsho.

Abaphandi bawubonile umsebenzi we-estrogenic kunye ne-imidacloprid kunye ne-thiacloprid, kodwa kugxininiso oluphezulu kunamanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi alinganiswe kwiisampulu zebhayiloji yomntu. Abaphandi bagqibe kwelokuba “amayeza aphantsi ezi zinambuzane akufuneki athathwe njengangenabungozi,” kodwa, kuba ezi zinambuzane, kunye nezinye ezonakalisa imichiza ye-endocrine, “zinokubangela iziphumo ze-estrogenic.”

Iziphumo ezahluka-hlukeneyo ziza njengoko amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kuvavanya ukuba okanye akunciphisi okanye kuthintelwe ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.