Uvavanyo lwe-EPA lweekhemikhali lutsala ukugxeka kwizazinzulu zalo

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Uninzi lwezazinzulu zase-US ezisebenzela i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) zithi azizithembi iinkokheli eziphezulu ze-arhente ukuba ziyokunyaniseka kwaye bayoyika ukuziphindezela xa bezokuxela ukwaphulwa komthetho, ngokophando lwabasebenzi olwenziwe ngo-2020.

Ngokutsho Uphando lweProjenti yokujonga abasebenzi ngo-2020, olwaqhutywa yiOfisi yoLawulo lwaBasebenzi e-US, iipesenti ezingama-75 zabasebenzi be-EPA kwiCandelo leSizwe leeNkqubo zeMichiza abaphendule kolu phando babonisa ukuba babengacingi ukuba iinkokeli eziphezulu ze-arhente zigcina “imigangatho ephezulu yokunyaniseka nokuthembeka.” Amashumi amathandathu anesihlanu eepesenti abasebenzi abaphendula kwiCandelo loVavanyo loMngcipheko baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Eyothusayo, iipesenti ezingama-53 zabaphenduli kwiCandelo loVavanyo loMngcipheko lwe-EPA bathi abanakukuchaza ukophulwa komthetho okanye ummiselo ngaphandle koloyiko lokuphindezela. Amashumi amane anesithathu eepesenti abasebenzi be-EPA abaphendulayo kwiOfisi yoThintelo loNgcoliseko kunye neToxics (OPPT) baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Uluvo olubi olubonakaliswe kwiziphumo zophando zihambelana neengxelo ezandayo zokungalunganga ngaphakathi kwiinkqubo zovavanyo lweekhemikhali ze-EPA, ngokutsho kwabasebenzi bakaRhulumente boXanduva lwezeNdalo (PEER).

"Kufanele ukuba kuxhalabise ukuba ngaphezulu kwesiqingatha seekhemikhali ze-EPA kunye nezinye iingcali ezisebenza ngokubaluleka kwezempilo zikarhulumente aziziva zikhululekile ukuxela iingxaki okanye ukophulwa kweflegi," utshilo uMlawuli oyiNtloko we-PEER uTim Whitehouse, owayengummeli we-EPA. ingxelo.

Kwangoko kule nyanga, iiZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi, ubuNjineli, kunye noNyango yatsho i-EPAIindlela zokuvavanya ubungozi ngaphakathi kwesakhelo soMthetho wokuLawulwa kweziTyhefu "bezikumgangatho ophantsi kakhulu."

Ubunkokheli obutsha be-EPA buza kuzalisa izandla zabo kule nqanawa itshonayo, utshilo uWhitehouse.

Emva kokuthatha i-ofisi ngoJanuwari, uMongameli uJoe Biden wakhupha umthetho olawulayo ephawula ukuba i-EPA phantsi kweBiden inokuphambuka kwisikhundla sayo kwiikhemikhali ezininzi kwizigqibo ezenziwe yiarhente phantsi komongameli wangaphambili uDonald Trump.

In lelana yomhla kaJan. 21, iOfisi ye-EPA ye-Counsellar yathi oku kulandelayo:

"Ngokuhambelana noMyalelo kaMongameli uBiden wokuKhusela iMpilo yoLuntu kunye nokusiNgqongileyo kunye nokuBuyiselwa kwezeNzululwazi ukuJongana neNgxaki yeMozulu ekhutshwe nge-20 kaJanuwari, 2021, (yezeMpilo kunye ne-EO), oku kuyakuqinisekisa isicelo sam egameni le-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US ( EPA) ukuba iSebe lezoBulungisa lase-US (i-DOJ) lifune kwaye lifumane ama-abeyance okanye ukuhlala kwenkqubo kulindelwe isimangalo sokufuna ukuphononongwa kwezomthetho kwawo nawuphi na umgaqo we-EPA obhengezwe phakathi kukaJanuwari 20, 2017, noJanuwari 20, 2021, okanye efuna ukumisela umhla wokugqibela we-EPA ukubhengeza ummiselo onxulumene nesihloko sayo nayiphi na into enjalo

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

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NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka  

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

I-inki ze-Bayer zijongana neenkampani ezintathu zomthetho we-Roundup zomthetho njengoko kuhlala kuqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

I-Bayer AG ifikelele kwimigqaliselo yokugqibela kunye neefemu ezintathu zomthetho ezimele amawaka abamangali abathi babhencwa kwimichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglosfosate esekwe eMonsanto yabangela ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izivumelwano ezintsha zenziwe ngokusekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law waseKentucky. Iifemu nganye nganye ifake isaziso malunga nezivumelwano kunye neNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili esiseMantla eCalifornia ngoMvulo.

Izivumelwano ziza emva kwezityholo zeefemu zamagqwetha amathathu zokuba iBayer ibuyela umva ngokweemvumelwano esele zenziwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo. Amafemu axelele inkundla ngoMvulo ukuba ngoku umntu ngamnye "unesivumelwano esenziwe ngokupheleleyo nesibophelelayo sokuHanjiswa kweMasteranto neMonsanto."

Ngokukodwa, ukujongana kuphawula inyathelo elibalulekileyo ekuziseni ukuvalwa kwesigwebo seminyaka emihlanu ubudala ngoku esiba ngaphezulu kwama-100,000 amabango aziswe ngabantu abavela e-United States abasebenzisa i-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate-based herbicides ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kokuba waba nomhlaza.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka i-bankruptcy ukuba akukho kufikelelwa kwilizwe lonke, ngokonxibelelwano oluvela kwiifemu zabamangali ukuya kubaxhasi bazo.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha zimbini kuphela iifemu ezinkulu zomthetho kwityala elitshabalalisayo elinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe kunye neBayer - iMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg, ngokutsho kwemithombo ekufutshane nengxoxo. Inkampani yaseBaum, iAndrus Wagstaff kunye neyase Moore zazineememorandam zokuqonda kodwa ingezizo izivumelwano zokugqibela, itsho imithombo.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani. I-Bayer izamile ukufumana imvume yenkundla ngesicwangciso esiya kulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha omhlaza we-Roundup iminyaka emine, kwaye ngesekwe ngamalungu amahlanu "ipaneli yesayensi" yokufumanisa ukuba ngaba i-Roundup ingadala non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo , kweliphi inqanaba elisezantsi lokuvezwa. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria walikhaba icebo,  ukuthumela iBayer emva kwibhodi yokudweba.

Bayer wayenayo utshilo uLwesine ukuba ibisenza inkqubela phambili kuphuhliso lwesicwangciso "esihlaziyiweyo" sokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho seRoundup kwixa elizayo. Iinkcukacha zesicwangciso seklasi esihlaziyiweyo ziya kugqitywa kwezi veki zizayo, ngokukaBayer.

Abamangali abaliqela abakhange bonwabe yile ndawo yokuhlala, besithi abazukufumana mali ininzi ngaphandle kweminyaka yokunyanga umhlaza obiza kakhulu kunye neentlungu eziqhubekayo kunye nokubandezeleka. Ewe, uninzi lwabamangali sele lusweleke ngelixa lilinde isisombululo.

NgoSeptemba 9, amagqwetha kaMarie Bernice Dinner kunye nomyeni wakhe uBruce Dinner bafaka inkundla ukuba uMarie oneminyaka engama-73 ubudala wasweleka ngoJuni 2 kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yena nomyeni wakhe batyholwa ukuba babangelwa kukuvezwa kwakhe ngababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto .

Amagqwetha kaBruce Dinner acele inkundla ukuba iwavumele ukuba enze izilungiso kwisikhalazo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ukongeza ibango lokufa ngokungekho mthethweni. Esi sibini sitshatile sineminyaka engama-53 kwaye sinabantwana ababini nabazukulwana abane.

“UMarie Bernice wayengumntu ongaqhelekanga. Ukusweleka kwakhe bekufanele ukuba kuthintelwe, ”litshilo igqwetha uBeth Klein, omele usapho.

IGlyphosate kwimbungu yenkukhu esetyenziswa njengesichumiso yonakalisa imveliso yokutya, abaphandi bathi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Izazinzulu zizise ezinye iindaba ezimbi ngokubhekisele kwi-herbicide glyphosate, eyaziwa ngokuba yiRoundup, kwiphepha elitsha lophando elipapashwe kule nyanga.

Abaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland ityhilwe ephepheni papashwe kwincwadi  Inzululwazi Yendalo Engqongileyo iyonke ukuba umgquba ovela kwiinkuku ezisetyenziswa njengesichumisi unganciphisa isivuno sezityalo xa umgquba uqukethe iintsalela zemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglyphosate, efana neRoundup. Izichumisi zenzelwe ukonyusa imveliso yezityalo, ke ubungqina bokuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuba neziphumo ezichaseneyo zibalulekile.

Inkunkuma yenkukhu, njengoko ibizwa njalo umgquba, ihlala isetyenziswa njengesichumisi, kubandakanywa nezolimo eziphilayo, kuba ithathwa njengezityebile kwizakhamzimba eziyimfuneko. Ukusetyenziswa kwenkunkuma yenkuku njengesichumisi bekukhula kokubini kwezolimo kunye nokulima kunye nezitiya zasekhaya.

Ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kukhula, “umngcipheko onokubakho onxulunyaniswa nokuqokelelwa kwe-agrochemicals kumgquba weenkukhu usahoywa kakhulu,” balumkisa abaphandi baseFinland.

Amafama e-organic aye akhula exhalabile malunga nomkhondo we-glyphosate kwisichumiso somgquba esivunyelwe kwimveliso yezinto eziphilayo, kodwa uninzi kolu shishino aluthandabuzi ukwazisa lo mbandela.

Amafama atshiza i-glyphosate ngokuthe ngqo kwinani lezityalo ezikhuliswe kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya iimbotyi zesoya, umbona, umqhaphu, i-canola kunye nezinye izityalo ezenzelwe ufuzo ukumelana nonyango lwe-glyphosate. Bahlala betshiza ngokuthe ngqo izityalo ezifana nengqolowa kunye ne-oats, ezingafakwanga ngokwemfuza- kwakamsinya phambi kokuvuna ukomisa izityalo.

Ngenxa yemiyinge yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate-based esetyenziselwa ukunyanga izityalo ezisetyenziswa ekutyeni kwezilwanyana, kunye nomthamo womgquba osetyenziswayo njengesichumisi, "kufanele ukuba siyazi ukuba olu hlobo lomngcipheko lukhona," utshilo omnye wababhali. yokufunda, u-Anne Muola.

Akukho mntu ubonakala enomdla wokuthetha kakhulu malunga nayo. ” Muola uqaphele.

Ukusetyenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate herbicides ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo zokutya kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto - ngoku iyunithi yeBayer AG - ukusukela nge1990s, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuxhaphake kangangokuba iintsalela zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni, emanzini nakwiisampulu zomoya.

Kuba kukho iintsalela zeglyphosate kukutya kwabantu nakwizilwanyana, amanqanaba e-glyphosate anokufunyanwa kumchamo womntu nakwimanyolo yezilwanyana.

Ezi ntsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumiso ziyingxaki kubalimi ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi, ngokutsho kwabaphandi baseFinland.

"Sifumanise ukuba umgquba weenkukhu unokuqokelela intsalela ephezulu (ye-glyphosate-based herbicides), unciphise ukukhula kwezityalo kunye nokuzala, kwaye ke kuthintele ukukhula okunyusa ukukhula komgquba xa usetyenziswa njengesichumiso," latsho iphepha. "Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba intsalela idlula kwinkqubo yokuhlafunisisa kweentaka, kwaye okona kubaluleke kakhulu, iyaqhubeka isichumiso ixesha elide."

Abaphandi bathi iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuqhubeka kwiinkqubo zendalo, zichaphazela izinto ezininzi ekungajoliswanga kuzo kwiminyaka emininzi.

Iziphumo, bathi, zibandakanya ukunciphisa ukusebenza komgquba njengesichumisi; ukungcoliseka kweherbicide esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwimijikelezo yezolimo; Ungcoliseko "olungalawulwayo" lweglyphosate yemimandla engajoliswanga kuyo; ukwanda kwesoyikiso "kwizinto ezisemngciphekweni ekungajoliswanga kuzo," kunye nomngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhathisa okuvela kwi-glyphosate.

Abaphandi bathi kufuneka kwenziwe uphando oluninzi ukuveza ubungakanani bokungcoliseka kwe-glyphosate kwizichumiso zezinto eziphilayo kunye nendlela echaphazela ngayo uzinzo.

Uphando lwaseFinland longeza kubungqina bobungozi bezintsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumisi, ngokweengcali zezolimo.

"Iimpembelelo zentsalela ye-glyphosate ethe yaqokelelwa kwilindle leenkuku yindawo engakhathalelwanga," utshilo isazinzulu somhlaba iRodale Institute, uGqirha Yichao Rui. “Kodwa oluphi uphando olwenziweyo lubonakalisile ukuba ezo ntsalela zinganefuthe elibi kwizityalo, ukuba umgquba weenkukhu wawusetyenziswa njengesichumiso. Intsalela yeGlyphosate kwizichumisi ibonakalisiwe ukuba ineziphumo ezibi kwizityalo, ii-microbiomes zomhlaba, kunye neentsholongwane ezinxulunyaniswa nezityalo kunye nezilwanyana kubandakanya nabantu kwikhonkco lokutya. Xa olu tshintsho lusasazwa ngabom ngesichumiso, lubeka uxinzelelo olukhulu kwimisebenzi nakwiinkonzo zendalo. ”

Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni yeglyphosate Utshiziwe emasimini- ngokwaneleyo ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sephawundi yeRoundup kuwo onke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.

Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amashumi amawaka abantu eUnited States abaphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ndimangalele uMonsanto, kwaye kwizilingo ezintathu ezigcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, amajaji afumanise ukuba inkampani ye-glyphosate herbicides ibekwasizathu sokubangela umhlaza.

Ukongeza, i Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana kukhutshwa kweli hlobo kubonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeze ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.