Izifundo ezitsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa inkxalabo kwimpilo yokuzala

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Njengoko iBayer AG ifuna ukuphungula inkxalabo yokuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides ibangela umhlaza, izifundo ezininzi ezitsha ziphakamisa imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho lwekhemikhali kwimpilo yokuzala.

Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ezikhutshiweyo ehlotyeni zibonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeza ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Kwi iphepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo in I-Endocrinology yeMelecular and Cellular, Abaphandi abane baseArgentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yokuba i-glyphosate ikhuselekile.

Uphando olutsha luza njengoko iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezulu kwamabango e-100,000 aziswe e-United States ngabantu abathi batyhileka kwi-Roundup yeMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso ze-glyphosate-based based herbicide ezibangele ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

I-Bayer izuze njengelifa ityala le-Roundup xa wathenga iMonsanto Ngo-2018, kungekudala phambi kokuphumelela kwamatyala amathathu kwabamangali.

Izifundo ziye zeza njengamaqela abathengi esebenzela ukuqonda ngcono indlela yokunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwabo kwi-glyphosate ngokutya. Isifundo ipapashwe nge-11 ka-Agasti ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokusika amanqanaba e-glyphosate afunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwepesenti ze-70. Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya.

IGlyphosate, eyona nto isebenzayo kwiRoundup, sesona sibulali sokhula sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. IMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinyamezelayo nge-glyphosate kwii-1990s ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba afafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuwo onke amasimi ezityalo, abulale ukhula kodwa hayi izityalo eziguqulweyo. Ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngamafama kunye nabanini bamakhaya, izixhobo kunye nezinto zikarhulumente, kuye kwatsala inkxalabo ekhulayo kule minyaka ngenxa yokuxhaphaka kwayo kunye noloyiko malunga nokuba inokwenza ntoni na kwimpilo yabantu kunye nokusingqongileyo. Imichiza ngoku ifunyanwa ngokutya nakumanzi kunye nomchamo womntu.

Ngokwenzululwazi yaseArgentina, ezinye zeempembelelo zeglyphosate ezibonwe kwizifundo ezitsha zezilwanyana zibangelwa kukuvezwa kweedosi eziphezulu; kodwa kukho ubungqina obutsha obubonisa ukuba nokuba sesichengeni sokweedosi esezantsi kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwendlela yokuzala kwabasetyhini, neziphumo ekuchumeni. Xa izilwanyana zichanekile kwi-glyphosate ngaphambi kokufikisa, utshintsho lubonakala kuphuhliso kunye nokwahlulahlula ii-ovari follicles kunye nesibeleko, zitsho izazinzulu. Ukongeza, ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe ngeglyphosate ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwembewu. Konke kudibanisa ukubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ziziphazamiso ze-endocrine, baphetha abaphandi.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osuka kwiYunivesithi yasePurdue, uthe uphando olutsha lwandisa ulwazi malunga nobungakanani bomonakalo onxulunyaniswa ne-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides kwaye inikezela "ukuqonda okungcono kobuzaza bokubhengeza okuxhaphakileyo inkcubeko ngoku. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka ukuba iMonsanto's Roundup inokuba negalelo kwiingxaki zokuzala kwimfuyo.

inye isifundo esibalulekileyo yapapashwa kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi kwiphephancwadi Ukutya kunye neTyxicology, ezimisele ukuba i-glyphosate okanye i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "i-hormonal ebalulekileyo kunye neethagethi zesibeleko seemolekyuli" kwiigundane ezikhulelweyo.

Isifundo esahlukileyo kutshanje papashwe kwincwadi I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yase-Iowa State bajonge ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kwiimpuku. Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kwinqanaba eliphantsi kwi-glyphosate "kuguqula iproteome ye-ovari" (iseti yeeprotein ezivakalisiweyo kuhlobo oluthile lweseli okanye komzimba) kwaye "inokuba nefuthe ekusebenzeni kwe-ovari. Kwiphepha elinxulumene nelaba baphandi babini baseIowa State kunye nombhali omnye owongezelelweyo, papashwa ngo Inzala yetyhefu, Abaphandi bathi abafumananga ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine kwiimpuku ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate, nangona kunjalo.  

Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseGeorgia kuchazwe kwiphephancwadi Inzululwazi yezilwanyana kunye neNzululwazi yezilwanyana Ukusetyenziswa kwemfuyo yengqolowa edityaniswe nentsalela ye-glyphosate kubonakala ngathi inokwenzakalisa izilwanyana, ngokujonga izifundo kwesihloko. Ngokusekwe kuphononongo loncwadi, i-glyphosate-based herbicides ibonakala ngathi "yityhefu yokuzala, ineziphumo ezahlukeneyo kwiinkqubo zokuzala zamadoda nabasetyhini," utshilo umphandi.

Iziphumo ezothusayo zazikhona ikwabonwa nasezimvini. Uphando lupapashwe kwiphephancwadi Ungcoliseko lwendalo kujonge iimpembelelo zokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuphuhliso lwesibeleko kwiimvana zabasetyhini. Bafumene utshintsho abathi lunokuchaphazela impilo yokuzala kwabasetyhini yeegusha kwaye babonise i-glyphosate-based herbicides esebenza njengophazamisayo kwi-endocrine.

Ikwapapashwe kwakhona kwi Ungcoliseko lwendalo, izazinzulu ezivela eFinland naseSpain zithe kwi iphepha elitsha Ukuba benze uvavanyo lokuqala lwexesha elide lweziphumo ze- "sub-toxic" glyphosate exposure kwiinkukhu. Bazama ukuvavanya izagwityi zabasetyhini nezamadoda kwii-glyphosate-based herbicides ukusuka kwiintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kwiiveki ezingama-52.

Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate herbicides "inokuguqula iindlela eziphambili zomzimba, inqanaba le-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kunye ne-microbiome" kodwa khange bafumane ziphumo zokuzala. Bathe iimpembelelo zeglyphosate azinakuhlala zibonwa “ngokwesiko, ngakumbi ixesha elifutshane, uvavanyo lwetyhefu, kwaye olo vavanyo alunakho ukububeka ngokupheleleyo ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate kunye neNeonicotinoids

Enye ye ezona zifundo zintsha Ukujonga iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwimpilo kwapapashwa kule nyanga kwi Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu.  Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-insectides ye-thiacloprid kunye ne-imidacloprid, zazinokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine.

Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane ayinxalenye yekhemikhali ye-neonicotinoid kwaye aphakathi kwezona zisetyenziselwa ukubulala izinambuzane ehlabathini.

Abaphandi bathi babeke iliso kwimpembelelo ye-glyphosate kunye neonicotinoids ezimbini kwiithagethi ezibalulekileyo zenkqubo ye-endocrine: I-Aromatase, i-enzyme ejongene ne-estrogen biosynthesis, kunye ne-estrogen receptor alpha, eyona proteni iphambili ekhuthaza umqondiso we-estrogen.

Iziphumo zabo zaxutywa. Abaphandi bathi ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uthintele umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa isithintelo "besingabalulekanga kwaye sibuthathaka." Ngokubalulekileyo abaphandi bathi i-glyphosate ayikhange ibangele misebenzi ye-estrogenic. Iziphumo "bezingqinelani" nenkqubo yovavanyo eqhutywa yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US, egqibe kwelokuba "abukho ubungqina obukholisayo bokunxibelelana okunokubakho kwindlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate," batsho.

Abaphandi bawubonile umsebenzi we-estrogenic kunye ne-imidacloprid kunye ne-thiacloprid, kodwa kugxininiso oluphezulu kunamanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi alinganiswe kwiisampulu zebhayiloji yomntu. Abaphandi bagqibe kwelokuba “amayeza aphantsi ezi zinambuzane akufuneki athathwe njengangenabungozi,” kodwa, kuba ezi zinambuzane, kunye nezinye ezonakalisa imichiza ye-endocrine, “zinokubangela iziphumo ze-estrogenic.”

Iziphumo ezahluka-hlukeneyo ziza njengoko amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kuvavanya ukuba okanye akunciphisi okanye kuthintelwe ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.

Oomama babonakaliswe kuMonsanto Weed Killer Means kuthetha Iziphumo ezimbi kubantwana

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Ukuxhalaba malunga neyeza elisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi lonke lithatha into entsha njengoko abaphandi betyhila idatha ebonisa ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kombulali wokhula weMonsanto Co. kunokunxulunyaniswa neengxaki zokukhulelwa.

Abaphandi bajonge ekufumaneni iyeza lokubulala ukhula elaziwayo njenge glyphosate, eyona nto iphambili kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides enophawu, bathi bavavanya kwaye balanda oomama abakhulelweyo abangama-69 kwaye bafumanisa ukuba ubukho bamanqanaba e-glyphosate kulwelo lwabo lomzimba luhambelana neziphumo zokuzalwa ezingathandekiyo. Uphando lusekwinqanaba lokuqala kwaye ubungakanani besampulu buncinci, kodwa tIqela icwangciselwe uku thaca iziphumo zabo NgoLwesine kwinkomfa ebekwe liNethiwekhi yezeMpilo yaBantwana (i-CEHN) eWashington, DC

"Lo ngumcimbi omkhulu," utshilo uPaul Winchester, umlawuli wezonyango wecandelo labakhulelweyo abasandul 'ukuzalwa kwiNkqubo yezeMpilo yaseFranciscan eSt. Francis kunye nonjingalwazi wezifo zabantwana kwizibhedlele iRiley Hospital yaBantwana eIndianapolis, eIndiana. Uthe esi sisifundo sokuqala e-US ukubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate ikho kubafazi abakhulelweyo. Wonke umntu kufuneka ayixhalabele le nto. ”

IGlyphosate sisibulali zinambuzane esithandwayo kwezolimo, esisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwimisebenzi yokufama kwihlabathi liphela. Kuqhele ukufafazwa ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo ezininzi zokutya kunye nezo zisetyenziselwa ukutya kwemfuyo. Kodwa sele ingumbandela wengxoxo eshushu kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo ngenxa yophando oludibanisa i-herbicide neentlobo zomhlaza kunye nezinye izifo zempilo. IMonsanto ityholwa ngamakhulu abantu abathi bona okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate-based Roundup. IMonsanto, i-EPA kunye neminye imibutho elawulayo, ithi ubungqina be-carcinogenicity buyasilela kwaye imichiza iphakathi kwezona zikhuselekileyo zinambuzane ezisetyenziselwa ukuvelisa ukutya. Kodwa amaxwebhu afunyenwe Ngexesha lesimangalo bonisa ukuba inkampani inakho ndisebenzise uphando lwenzululwazi ukufihla ubungqina bokwenzakala.

Iqela elinike ingxelo yalo ngoLwesithathu libandakanya izazinzulu ekudala zikholelwa kwiimveliso zeMonsanto kunye nabaphandi bezonyango abaye banenkxalabo malunga ne-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ngokufunda kwabo iingxaki zempilo yabantwana.

UWinchester, obekhokele isifundo seesampulu zomchamo, uthe ukujonga kwakhe i-glyphosate kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo bakumanqanaba okuqala kwaye yena kunye nabaphengululi banethemba lokusungula iprojekthi enkulu kakhulu kamva kulo nyaka. Umsebenzi wokuqala wafumanisa i-glyphosate kumchamo wama-63 wama-69 (91%) wabasetyhini abakhulelweyo abafumana ukhathalelo lwangaphambi kokubeleka ngoqheliso lokubelekisa e-Indiana. Abaphandi baqokelela idatha kwisithuba seminyaka emibini, ukusuka ngo-2015-2016, kwaye bafumanisa ukuba amanqanaba aphezulu e-glyphosate kwabasetyhini ahambelana nokukhulelwa okufutshane kakhulu kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa obuhlengahlengisiweyo.

Ukulungelelaniswa akubonakali kungunobangela. Okwangoku, iziphumo zinxunguphalisa kuba ubunzima bokuzalwa okuphantsi kunye nokufinyezwa kokukhulelwa kubonwa njengemingcipheko yezempilo ezininzi kunye / okanye iingxaki ze-neurodevelopmental ngexesha lobomi bomntu. Iintsana ezinobunzima bokuzalwa obuncinci Banesifo seswekile, isifo sentliziyo, uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu, kwaye batyebe, uphando lubonisa.

Abantu banokuvezwa kwi-glyphosate ngokutya nangokudibana nemisebenzi yokulima efafaza i-glyphosate kwimimandla yombona neyeesoya. Zombini i-soy kunye nombona, kunye nezinye izityalo, zenziwe ngobuchwephesha zemfuza ukunyamezelana nokusetyenziswa ngokuthe ngqo kwe-glyphosate. Amafama ahlala esebenzisa i-glyphosate ngqo kwingqolowa, i-oats kunye nezinye izityalo ezingezizo ezofuzo kungekudala ngaphambi kokuvuna, okukhokelela kwintsalela kwiimveliso zokutya ezisekwe kwingqolowa.

Ukusetyenziswa kweGlyphosate kuye kwenyuka kakhulu kule minyaka ingamashumi amabini idlulileyo ngokunyuka kwezityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli kunye nokunxibelelana okulandelayo kukhula olunganyangekiyo lwe-glyphosate. UGqirha Charles Benbrook, ongomnye wabasasazi abacwangcisiweyo kwinkomfa ye-CEHN, iiprojekthi ezithi nge-2020, "iihektare ezininzi zomhlaba wokulima eMidwest ziya kuba nokhula ezintathu okanye ngaphezulu ukhula olunganyangekiyo kunenye okanye hayi." Amafama bezama ukulwa nokhula olunganyangekiyo ngeglyphosate kunye nezinye iikhemikhali. Izityalo ezitsha ziyilelwe ukunyamezela i-2,4-D kunye ne-dicamba herbicides exutywe ne-glyphosate. Idatha yemizi-mveliso ibonisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa kweyeza kulindeleke ukuba qhubeka nokunyuka, eyenza ukuba kubaluleke ngakumbi kwizazinzulu nakwingcali yezonyango ukuba ifumane isiphatho kumanqanaba okuvezwa kunye nefuthe kwimpilo yokuzala, iqela lathi kwintetho yabo.

IWinchester ibisenza uphando ngokuchasana nokubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nefuthe kwabasetyhini abakhulelweyo iminyaka emininzi, kubandakanya nomsebenzi onzulu kwi-atrazine, enye i-herbicide eyaziwayo ngamafama. Uthe wamangaliswa kukubona ipesenti ephezulu kangaka yabasetyhini kuvavanywa ukubonisa i-glyphosate kumchamo wabo. Uthe uphando oluninzi ngakumbi kwiimpembelelo ze-glyphosate luyafuneka, kwaye idatha eninzi iyafuneka kumanqanaba okuvezwa kukutya. Wayemgxeka kabukhali urhulumente wase-US, owayedla ngokutsiba ukuvavanywa kweentsalela ze-glyphosate ekutyeni nangona iiarhente zolawulo zivavanya amawaka emveliso yokutya unyaka ngamnye kwiintsalela zezinye iintlobo zemithi yokubulala izitshabalalisi, kubandakanya i-atrazine.

Yena kunye nabanye abaphandi bacela amaziko okuLawula izifo ukuba afake i-glyphosate kunye ne-metabolite yayo ephambili, i-aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) kwi Umsebenzi wokuhlola lenza umkhondo wenqanaba lokubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nezinye iikhemikhali kumchamo nasegazini.

“Ingaba eli nqanaba lokuvezwa likhuselekile okanye akunjalo? Sixelelwe ukuba kunjalo, kodwa ukubonakaliswa akukhange kulinganiswe, ”utshilo uWinchester. Iyothusa ingqondo. ”

(Kuqala kuthunyelwe IHuffington Post)