Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

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Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka  

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

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Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

I-inki ze-Bayer zijongana neenkampani ezintathu zomthetho we-Roundup zomthetho njengoko kuhlala kuqhubeka

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I-Bayer AG ifikelele kwimigqaliselo yokugqibela kunye neefemu ezintathu zomthetho ezimele amawaka abamangali abathi babhencwa kwimichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglosfosate esekwe eMonsanto yabangela ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izivumelwano ezintsha zenziwe ngokusekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law waseKentucky. Iifemu nganye nganye ifake isaziso malunga nezivumelwano kunye neNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili esiseMantla eCalifornia ngoMvulo.

Izivumelwano ziza emva kwezityholo zeefemu zamagqwetha amathathu zokuba iBayer ibuyela umva ngokweemvumelwano esele zenziwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo. Amafemu axelele inkundla ngoMvulo ukuba ngoku umntu ngamnye "unesivumelwano esenziwe ngokupheleleyo nesibophelelayo sokuHanjiswa kweMasteranto neMonsanto."

Ngokukodwa, ukujongana kuphawula inyathelo elibalulekileyo ekuziseni ukuvalwa kwesigwebo seminyaka emihlanu ubudala ngoku esiba ngaphezulu kwama-100,000 amabango aziswe ngabantu abavela e-United States abasebenzisa i-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate-based herbicides ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kokuba waba nomhlaza.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka i-bankruptcy ukuba akukho kufikelelwa kwilizwe lonke, ngokonxibelelwano oluvela kwiifemu zabamangali ukuya kubaxhasi bazo.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha zimbini kuphela iifemu ezinkulu zomthetho kwityala elitshabalalisayo elinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe kunye neBayer - iMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg, ngokutsho kwemithombo ekufutshane nengxoxo. Inkampani yaseBaum, iAndrus Wagstaff kunye neyase Moore zazineememorandam zokuqonda kodwa ingezizo izivumelwano zokugqibela, itsho imithombo.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani. I-Bayer izamile ukufumana imvume yenkundla ngesicwangciso esiya kulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha omhlaza we-Roundup iminyaka emine, kwaye ngesekwe ngamalungu amahlanu "ipaneli yesayensi" yokufumanisa ukuba ngaba i-Roundup ingadala non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo , kweliphi inqanaba elisezantsi lokuvezwa. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria walikhaba icebo,  ukuthumela iBayer emva kwibhodi yokudweba.

Bayer wayenayo utshilo uLwesine ukuba ibisenza inkqubela phambili kuphuhliso lwesicwangciso "esihlaziyiweyo" sokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho seRoundup kwixa elizayo. Iinkcukacha zesicwangciso seklasi esihlaziyiweyo ziya kugqitywa kwezi veki zizayo, ngokukaBayer.

Abamangali abaliqela abakhange bonwabe yile ndawo yokuhlala, besithi abazukufumana mali ininzi ngaphandle kweminyaka yokunyanga umhlaza obiza kakhulu kunye neentlungu eziqhubekayo kunye nokubandezeleka. Ewe, uninzi lwabamangali sele lusweleke ngelixa lilinde isisombululo.

NgoSeptemba 9, amagqwetha kaMarie Bernice Dinner kunye nomyeni wakhe uBruce Dinner bafaka inkundla ukuba uMarie oneminyaka engama-73 ubudala wasweleka ngoJuni 2 kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yena nomyeni wakhe batyholwa ukuba babangelwa kukuvezwa kwakhe ngababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto .

Amagqwetha kaBruce Dinner acele inkundla ukuba iwavumele ukuba enze izilungiso kwisikhalazo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ukongeza ibango lokufa ngokungekho mthethweni. Esi sibini sitshatile sineminyaka engama-53 kwaye sinabantwana ababini nabazukulwana abane.

“UMarie Bernice wayengumntu ongaqhelekanga. Ukusweleka kwakhe bekufanele ukuba kuthintelwe, ”litshilo igqwetha uBeth Klein, omele usapho.

Abanye babamangali baseMelika basilele ekusayineni isivumelwano sokuhlala eBayer; I-160,000 yeedola zokuhlawula

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Abamangali kwi-US Roundup litigation baqala ukufunda iinkcukacha zento Bayer AG's $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawulwa kwamabango omhlaza okunene kuthetha kubo ngokwahlukeneyo, kwaye abanye abayithandi into abayibonayo.

Bayer yatsho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni Kuthethathethwane ngokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zabammangali kwisivumelwano esiza kuvala ngokufanelekileyo isambuku semali engaphezulu kwe-100,000 esalindelwe ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngo-2018. Ukuvezwa kukaMonsanto's Roundup kunye namanye amayeza okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali ebizwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate, kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko.

Ngelixa isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengeendaba ezimnandi kubamangali-abanye abanengxaki yokunyanga umhlaza kunye nabanye abammangalela abatshatileyo abaswelekileyo- uninzi lufumanisa ukuba lunokuphela lungenamali, kuxhomekeke kuluhlu izinto. Iifemu zamagqwetha, nangona kunjalo, zinokufaka ipokotho kumakhulu ezigidi zeedola.

“Yimpumelelo kumashishini ezomthetho kunye nempama ebusweni babantu abonzakeleyo” utshilo omnye ummangali, ongafunanga kuchazwa ngegama.

Abamangali baxelelwa ukuba kufuneka bathathe isigqibo kwezi veki zimbalwa zizayo ukuba bazokwamkela indawo yokuhlala, nangona bengazi ukuba bazakuhlawulwa malini kude kube kamva. Zonke iintengiselwano zentengiselwano ziyalela abamangali ukuba bangathethi esidlangalaleni malunga neenkcukacha, bebasongela ngesohlwayo ukuba baxoxa ngokuhlala kunye nabani na ngaphandle "kwamalungu osapho asondeleyo" okanye umcebisi wezezimali.

Oku kubacaphukisile abanye abathi bacinga ukwala iindawo zokuhlala ngenjongo yokufuna ezinye iinkampani zomthetho ukuba zijongane namabango abo. Le ntatheli iwajongisisile amaxwebhu athunyelwe kubamangali abaninzi.

Kwabo bavumayo, iintlawulo zinokwenziwa kwangoko ngoFebruwari, nangona inkqubo yokuhlawula bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuba yolule unyaka okanye nangaphezulu. Ezonxibelelwano ezithunyelwe zivela kumafemu ezomthetho ziye kubathengi bazo beRoundup zizo zombini inkqubo yomntu ngamnye ohlaselwe ngumhlaza kuya kufuneka ehambile ukuze afumane intlawulo yemali kunye nokuba ezo ntlawulo zinokufikelela phi. Imigaqo yeentengiselwano iyahluka kumzi-mveliso wamagqwetha, oko kuthetha ukuba abamangali abemi ngokufanayo banokuphelela kwiindawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala ngathi sisinye ekuxoxiswene ngaso Ifemi yeMiller, Kwaye ke kuyadanisa abanye babaxhasi benkampani. Ekunxibelelaneni nabathengi, inkampani yathi ikwazile ukuxoxa malunga ne-849 yezigidi zeedola ukusuka eBayer ukugubungela amabango abathengi abangaphezulu kwe-5,000 Roundup. Ifemi iqikelela ixabiso lokuhlawula umtyali ngamnye kumyinge wama- $ 160,000. Elo xabiso lipheleleyo liya kuncitshiswa ngokuncitshiswa kweefizi zamagqwetha kunye neendleko.

Nangona iifizi zamagqwetha zinokwahluka ngokuqina kunye nommangali, uninzi kwityala leRoundup lihlawulisa iipesenti ezingama-30-40 kwimirhumo engxamisekileyo.

Ukuze bakulungele ukuhlala, abamangali kufuneka babe neerekhodi zonyango ezixhasa ukuxilongwa kweentlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye bakwazi ukubonisa ukuba bavezwa ubuncinci unyaka ngaphambi kokuba bafumane isifo.

I-Firm yaseMiller ibiphambili kwityala leRoundup ukusukela ekuqaleni, ifumana uninzi lwamaxwebhu agwenxa angaphakathi eMonsanto ancede aphumelela kuzo zontathu izilingo zeRoundup ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. IMiller Firm iphathe ezibini kwezo zilingo, isizisa amagqwetha avela kwinkampani yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman ukunceda kwityala  UDewayne "Lee" Johnson emva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller enzakaliswe kabuhlungu kwingozi kanye phambi kwetyala. Ezi femu zimbini zisebenze kunye ekuphumeleleni ityala labamangali bendoda nomfazi, Alva kunye neAlberta Pilliod. UJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola kwaye ii-Pilliods zanikwa ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba amabhaso.

Kwangoko kulenyanga, inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isigwebo sikaJohnson, elawula ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba iimveliso zeRoundup zibangele umhlaza kaJohnson kodwa zinciphisa ibhaso likaJohnson ukuya kwizigidi ezingama- $ 20.5. Izibheno zisalindelwe kwezinye izigwebo ezibini ezichasene neMonsanto.

Ukufumana amanqaku kwabamangali

Ukufumanisa ukuba ngakanani na ummangali ngamnye afumana ukusuka ekuhlaleni kunye neBayer, umlawuli weqela lesithathu uya kunika amanqaku umntu ngamnye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kummangali ngamnye ophuhlileyo; ubudala bommangali ekuchongeni isifo; ubuzaza bomhlaza womntu kunye nobungakanani bonyango abalunyamezeleyo; ezinye izinto ezinobungozi; kunye nenani lokuvezwa kwabo kwiMonsanto herbicides.

Inye into yokuhlaliswa kwabantu ebambe uninzi lwabamangali bengafundanga yayikukufunda ukuba abo ekugqibeleni bafumana imali eBayer kuya kufuneka basebenzise imali yabo ukubuyisa inxenye yeendleko zonyango lwabo lomhlaza olwalugutyungelwe yiMedicare okanye i-inshurensi yabucala. Ngonyango oluthile lomhlaza oluya kumakhulu amawaka kunye nakwizigidi zeedola, oko kunokucima ngokukhawuleza intlawulo yommangali. Iifemu zomthetho zidwelise iikontraka zomntu wesithathu eziza kuthetha-thethana nabanikezeli ngeinshurensi ukuba bafune imbuyekezo ngezaphulelo, baxelelwa. Ngokwesiqhelo kolu hlobo lokumangalelwa ngobuninzi, loo malungelo onyango angancitshiswa kakhulu, utshilo iifemu zomthetho.

Kwicala elinye lesivumelwano esamkelweyo ngummangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziya kwakhiwa ukunqanda uxanduva lwerhafu, ngokolwazi olunikwe ababamangali.

Umngcipheko wokungahlali  

Iifemu zamagqwetha kufuneka zifumane uninzi lwabamangali ukuba bavumelane nemimiselo yeendawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwengcaciso enikezelwe kubamangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa ngoku ngenxa yenani lomngcipheko onxulumene nokuqhubeka nokulandela izilingo ezongezelelweyo. Phakathi kwemingcipheko echongiweyo:

  • I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile njengongenamali, kwaye ukuba inkampani iyithathile loo ndlela, ukusombulula amabango e-Roundup kuya kuthatha ixesha elide kwaye ekugqibeleni kungakhokelela kwimali encinci yabamangali.
  • I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) wakhupha incwadi ku-Agasti ophelileyo uxelele uMonsanto ukuba iarhente ayizukuvumela isilumkiso somhlaza kwiRoundup. Oko kunceda ikamva likaMonsanto lokuphumelela enkundleni.
  • Ulibaziseko lwenkundla enxulumene no-Covid kuthetha ukuba izilingo ezongezelelweyo ze-Roundup akunakulindeleka ukuba zonyaka okanye nangaphezulu.

Ayisiyonto ingaqhelekanga ukuba abamangali abachophele amatyala amakhulu bahambe bedanile nangona bezibonakala ngathi zinkulu iindawo ekuxoxiswene ngazo kumatyala abo. Incwadi ye2019 "IiNtsebenzo zoThutho oluNinzi: Ukuxoxisana kwigumbi elingasemva kwi-Multidistrict Litigation”NguElizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo wezoMthetho u-Fuller E. Callaway kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorgia, wenza imeko yokuba ukunqongophala kweetsheki kunye nemali ezilinganayo kwizityholo zolwaphulo-mthetho zinika phantse wonke umntu obandakanyekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ucaphula njengomzekelo wokumangalela i-asidi-reflux yeyeza iPropulsid, wathi ufumanise ukuba kwabamangali abangama-6,012 abangena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula, ngama-37 kuphela afumana imali. Abanye abafumani ntlawulo kodwa sele bevumile ukuwachasa amatyala abo njengemeko yokungena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula. Abamangali abangama-37 ngokudibeneyo bafumene ngaphezulu kweedola eziyi-6.5 yezigidi (phantse i-175,000 yeedola nganye kwi-avareji), ngelixa iifemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo zabamangali zifumene i-27 yezigidi zeedola, ngokweBurch,

Ukubeka bucala ukuba ngawaphi na abamangali abanokuthi okanye abangayi kuhamba nawo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho kufutshane nesimangalo seRoundup bathi kulunge ngakumbi ukufezekiswa kokungalunganga komanyano nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobungqina obuye bavela ngenxa yesimangalo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto abonisa ukuba inkampani yenze uxwebhu lokupapashwa kwamaphepha enzululwazi abonakala ngobuxoki ukuba enziwe kuphela zizazinzulu ezizimeleyo; Inkxaso mali, kunye nokusebenzisana, amaqela angaphambili abesetyenziselwa ukuzama ukunyelisa izazinzulu ezixela ukwenzakala ngamayeza okubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; kunye nokusebenzisana namagosa athile ngaphakathi kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhusela kunye nokukhuthaza isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuba iimveliso zayo azibanga ngumhlaza.

Amazwe aliqela kwihlabathi liphela, kunye noorhulumente basekhaya kunye nezithili zesikolo, baye bafudukela ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kunye / okanye ezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ngenxa yokutyhilwa kwetyala leRoundup.

(Ibali laqala ukuvela Iindaba zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo.)

Umceli mngeni ojolise kwisicwangciso sokwenza iklasi kwindawo yokuhlala yaseBayer Roundup

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Isicwangciso sokulibazisa naliphi na ibango lomhlaza we-Roundup kangangeminyaka kwaye sitshintshe umbuzo ophambili wokuba ingaba umbulali wokhula ubangela umhlaza kwi-jury ukuya kwipaneli ekhethwe ngoososayensi ejongene nenkcaso evela kwamanye amagqwetha abamangali aqala kwaye akhokelela Ubunzima bobundlobongela obuchasene nomenzi we-Roundup uMonsanto, imithombo ekufutshane nesimangalo ithe.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele amatyala amathathu kwamathathu ebeka abaguli abanomhlaza ngokuchasene neMonsanto bacinga ngokucela umngeni kwimigqaliselo yesindululo "sezenzo zodidi" ekuxoxiswene ngaso phakathi komnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha angazange umphambili wetyala leRoundup, itsho imithombo.

Isindululo sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi yinto ye sUkulila i-10 yezigidigidi zeedola Ukuhlawulwa kwamatyala eRoundup eBayer kubhengeze nge-24 kaJuni.

Kuvavanyo ngalunye olugcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, iijaji zafumanisa ukuba ubunzima bobungqina benzululwazi bubonakalisile ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweRoundup kubangele ukuba abamangali baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye iMonsanto igubungele umngcipheko. Kodwa phantsi kwesindululo loo mbuzo uza kuya kumalungu amahlanu "kwipaneli yesayensi," hayi ijaji.

"Ngokusisiseko kuhlutha ummangali ilungelo labo lomgaqo-siseko lokuxoxwa kwetyala," utshilo omnye umthombo osondele kwisimangalo.

I pindawo yokuhlala eklasini unokufaka isicelo nakubani na ovezwe kwi-Roundup owayengazange afake isimangalo okanye agcine igqwetha ngoJuni 24, 2020, nokuba umntu sele efumene ukuba unomdlavuza na bakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup.

Isicwangciso sahlanganiswa yiBayer kunye neefemu zomthetho zikaLieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein; Uphicotho-zincwadi kunye namaqabane; Ifemi yoMthetho eDugan; kunye negqwetha uSamuel Issacharoff, uNjingalwazi kaReiss woMthetho woMgaqo-siseko kwiSikolo soMthetho kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York.

Isivumelwano kufikelelwe kuso emva konyaka omnye "weenzame ezingapheliyo" zothethathethwano, igqwetha u-Elizabeth Cabraser utshilo kwisibhengezo Kwinkundla exhasa ukuhlaliswa okucetywayo.

Inokubeka "ixesha lokuma" apho abamangali eklasini abanakho ukufaka isimangalo esitsha esimalunga neRoundup. Kwaye ifuna amalungu eklasi ukuba akhulule "nawaphi na amabango ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa yomonakalo owohlwayayo kunye noqwalaselo lonyango olunxulumene nokuvezwa kweRoundup kunye ne-NHL."

Ngokuqaphelekayo, esi sicwangciso sichaza ukuba endaweni yokuqhubela phambili nolunye uvavanyo lwejaji, iqela lenzululwazi liza kuqala ukumiselwa ukumisela "impendulo eyiyo" "kumda wokubuza" wokuba ingaba ikhona na ikhonkco phakathi kweRoundup neNHL .

Isicwangciso ubiza iBayer ukuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-150 yezigidi zeedola kwimirhumo kunye neendleko zamagqwetha abandakanyekayo kunye "namabhaso abamele iinkonzo zodidi" ukuya kuthi ga kwi-25,000 yeedola kumntu ngamnye okanye kwi-100,000 yeedola.

Ngokubanzi, iBayer ithe izakubeka bucala i-1.25 yezigidigidi kulungiselelo. Imali yayiza kusetyenziselwa ukubuyekeza amalungu eklasi afunyaniswe ene-NHL "ngeziphumo zokulibaziseka" kwezimangalo, kunye nokuxhasa ngezimali uphando malunga nokufunyaniswa nokunyangwa kwe-NHL, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Isindululo sokufuna imvume yokuqala yokuhlawulwa kweklasi safakwa ngolwesiThathu kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US ukuba iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia siphathwe nguJaji Vince Chhabria. I-Chhabria iye yajonga amatyala amaninzi e-Roundup adityaniswe ndawonye njengezimangalo ezininzi. Ekwaluseni inani elikhulu lamatyala asele efayilisiwe, uChhabria wajongana nolunye lovavanyo lweRoundup, kunye nento eyaziwayo njengendlebe ethi "Daubert", apho weva khona iintsuku zobungqina besayensi kuwo omabini amacala emva koko wagqiba kwelokuba zanele ezenzululwazi. ubungqina bokubangela ukuba isimangalo siqhubeke.

Isindululo sokuhlaliswa kwabantu eklasini kwaxoxwa ngaso ngokwahlukeneyo kwesahlulo esiphambili esenziwe neenkampani zomthetho ezikhokelayo.

Kwi eyona ndawo yokuhlala, U-Bayer uvumile ukubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula malunga neepesenti ezingama-75 zama-125,000 ezifakiweyo kunye nezingagcwaliswanga ezibangelwe ngabamangali abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Amagqwetha abamele ngaphezulu kwama-20,000 XNUMX abamangali bathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Nangona iMonsanto yaphulukana nesinye sezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, iBayer igcina izigqibo zejaji zinempazamo kwaye zisekwe kwiimvakalelo kwaye hayi kwisayensi elungileyo.

Ukukhethwa kwePaneli yeSayensi

U-Bayer kunye namagqwetha eklasi ecetywayo bazakusebenza kunye ukukhetha oososayensi abahlanu ukuba bahlale kwiphaneli engathathi cala, ezimeleyo, ngokwesicwangciso. Ukuba abanakho ukuvumelana ngokwenziwa kwepaneli icala ngalinye liya kukhetha amalungu amabini kwaye loo malungu mane aya kukhetha elesihlanu.

Akukho sazinzulu esisebenze njengengcali kumdibaniso we-Roundup litigation of federal oya kuvunyelwa ukuba abe kwiqela lenjongo. Ngokukodwa, akukho namnye "othe wanxibelelana nayo nayiphi ingcali" kwisimangalo malunga nomxholo.

Iphaneli iya kuba neminyaka emine yokuphonononga ubungqina besayensi kodwa inokufaka isicelo sokongezwa kwexesha ukuba kukho imfuneko. Ukuzimisela kuya kubopha macala omabini, esi sicwangciso sitsho. Ukuba iphaneli igqiba ekubeni kukho unxibelelwano olunokubangela phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-NHL, abamangali bangaqhubeka ukuya kufuna izilingo zamabango abo.

"Ulwazi lunamandla kwaye oku kuhlaliswa kuxhobisa amalungu eklasi ukuba abambe iMonsanto ukuba baphendule ngokwenzakala kwabo ukuba kwaye xa iSigqeba seNzululwazi sigqiba ukuba imeko iyoneliseka," sitsho esi sicwangciso.

Ukugcwaliswa kwenkundla yomdibaniso kucela ukuvunywa kwetyala lokuqala kwintsuku ezingama-30.

Igqwetha lomhlaza i-Roundup liyalivuma ityala lokuzama ukuphanga

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Igqwetha laseVirginia elalinceda ukumela ummangali wokuqala womhlaza we-Roundup ukuba athathe ityala likaMonsanto alivume ityala ngolwe-Sihlanu ukuzama ukuthoba i-200 yezigidi zeedola kumthengisi wemichiza eya eMonsanto.

UTimothy Litzenburg, 38, wavuma kwisikimu apho yena nelinye igqwetha babesoyikisa ngokulimaza imali kunye nodumo kumthengisi ngaphandle kokuba inkampani ihlawule amagqwetha amabini ezigidi zeedola ezifihliwe "njengesivumelwano sokubonisana."

Ngokutsho kwiSebe lezoBulungisa lase-US, U-Litzenburg uxelele inkampani ukuba xa behlawule le mali, wayekulungele "ukuthatha indawo" ngexesha lokufaka imali, ngenjongo yokujongela phantsi amatyala abamangali bexesha elizayo ukuzama ukumangalela.

I-Litzenburg yahlawuliswa ngenani elinye lokuzama ukuphanga, iyelenqe kunye nokuhanjiswa konxibelelwano lwangaphakathi ngenjongo yokuphanga. Yena wavuma ityala kwinani elinye lokudlulisa unxibelelwano lwangaphakathi ngenjongo yokuphanga.

Igqwetha uDaniel Kincheloe, 41, wavuma ityala Kwityala elifanayo lokuthatha inxaxheba kule nkqubo. Amadoda acwangciselwe ukugwetywa nge-18 kaSeptemba kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwi-Western District yaseVirginia.

"Le yimeko apho amagqwetha amabini aphephela ngaphaya komgaqo wobundlobongela kwaye awelele ngaphakathi kummandla wokuphanga ngokungekho mthethweni, kwilinge elingenalusini lokuzityebisa ngokufumana izigidi zeedola kwinkampani yamazwe aphesheya," uMncedisi weGqwetha Jikelele uBrian A. UBenczkowski uthe kwingxelo. Uthe esi sicelo sibonisa ukuba "xa ulwaphulo-mthetho lwenziwe, amalungu e-bar, njengabo bonke abantu, bazakubekwa ityala ngezenzo zabo."

ILitzenburg yenye yegqwetha likaDewayne “Lee” Johnson elakhokelela kwityala likaJohnson ngo-2018 nxamnye neMonsanto, nto leyo eyakhokelela ekubeni $ 289 yezigidi zeerandi ngokuthanda kukaJohnson. (Ijaji kwelo tyala yasithoba isigwebo kwaye eli tyala ngoku liphantsi kwesibheno.)

Ityala lolokuqala kwezintathu ezenzekileyo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa yezityholo zokuba i-glyphosate-based herbicides efana neRoundup ibanga i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IMonsanto, kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG, baphulukene nazo zontathu izilingo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kodwa babhengeza isigwebo.

Nangona i-Litzenburg yayincede ukulungiselela uJohnson ukuba axoxwe, akazange avunyelwe ukuthatha inxaxheba ngexesha lomcimbi ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuziphatha kwakhe okwakubanjwe yi-Miller Firm, eyayingumqeshi wakhe ngelo xesha.

Ifemi yeMiller emva koko wagxothwa ILitzenburg kwaye wafaka isimangalo ekuqaleni kuka-2019 etyhola uLitzenburg ngokuzibandakanya, kunye "nokunganyaniseki nokungaziphathi kakuhle." ILitzenburg iphendule ngo counter-ibango. Amaqela athethathethane ngesivumelwano esiyimfihlo.

Isikhalazo solwaphulo-mthetho esichasene neLitzenburg asiyichazanga inkampani i-Litzenburg ukuba izame ukuxhaphaza, kodwa wathi waqhagamshelana nenkampani ngoSeptemba ka-2019 unyaka esithi ulungiselela ityala eliza kuthi inkampani ibonelele ngezixhobo zemichiza ezisetyenziswe nguMonsanto ukwenza iRoundup kwaye Inkampani ibisazi ukuba izithako zibangele i-carcinogenic kodwa yehlulekile ukulumkisa uluntu.

Ngokwentlawulo yomdibaniso, u-Litzenburg uxelele igqwetha lale nkampani ukuba ibizama ukuqhatha ukuba inkampani kufuneka ingene "kulungiselelo lokubonisana" kunye naye ukuze yakhe ukungqubana komdla okuya kumthintela ekufakeni isimangalo esisongelwayo.

U-Litzenburg wabhala nge-imeyile ukuba i-200 yezigidi zeedola zesivumelwano sakhe kunye nomlingane "lixabiso elifanelekileyo," ngokwesikhalazo solwaphulo-mthetho.

Abaphandi baseburhulumenteni babhala umnxeba kunye neLitzenburg bexoxa nge-200 yezigidi zeedola awayezifuna, sitsho isikhalazo. ILitzenburg kuthiwa yarekhodwa isithi: “Indlela endicinga ukuba niyakucinga ngayo kwaye besicinga ngayo kukonga icala lenu. Andiqondi ukuba le nto ifayilishwe kwaye ijike ibe yintsokolo enkulu, nokuba niyaphumelela amatyala kwaye niqhubele phambili ixabiso… andicingi ukuba ikhona indlela eninokuphuma ngayo ngaphantsi kweebhiliyoni zeerandi. Kwaye, niyazi, kum, eh, eli lixabiso lokuthengisa umlilo ekufuneka nilithathele ingqalelo… ”

ILitzenburg ibanga ukuba imele abathengi abamalunga ne-1,000 abamangalela uMonsanto malunga nezityholo zomhlaza we-Roundup ngexesha lokubanjwa kwakhe kunyaka ophelileyo.

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

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Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

IZENZO ZONYANGO

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

Imvelaphi: IDicamba ibisetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo1960 kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude nalapho itshizwe khona. Xa imveliso yokhula yokubulala ukhula eMonsanto, efana neRoundup, yaqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza kwayo ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa imbewu enganyamezelaniyo ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

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