Iimpendulo ze-GMO liPhulo lokuThengisa kunye ne-PR kwiinkampani zezibulala-zinambuzane

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Uhlaziyo:

ketchum gmo iimpendulo

Iimpendulo zeGMO ihlawulwa njengeqonga apho abathengi banokufumana iimpendulo ezichanekileyo kwiingcali ezizimeleyo malunga nokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza, kwaye ezinye intatheli ziyithatha ngokungathí sina njengomthombo ongakhethi cala. Kodwa iwebhusayithi sisixhobo sokuthengisa esichanekileyo sokujikeleza ii-GMO ngokukhanya okuhle.

Ubungqina bokuba iimpendulo ze-GMO sisixhobo esilawula imeko yokusasazeka esingathembekanga.

Iimpendulo zeGMO zenziwa njengemoto yokuhambisa uluvo loluntu ngokuxhasa ii-GMOs. Kungekudala emva kweMonsanto kunye namahlakani ayo babetha inyathelo lokuvota lika-2012 ukubiza ii-GMO eCalifornia, eMonsanto zi cwangciso ukumilisela iphulo elitsha lobudlelwane noluntu ukwenza ngokutsha isidima se-GMOs. Baqesha inkampani yezonxibelelwano noluntu iFleishmanHillard (ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) iphulo lamanani asixhenxe.

Njengenxalenye yomzamo, inkampani ye-PR i-Ketchum (ekwangumnini we-Omnicom) yaqeshwa liBhunga loLwazi lwe-Biotechnology- ixhaswe ngemali nguMonsanto, iBASF, iBayer, iDow, iDupont kunye neSyngenta -Ukudala i-GMOAnswers.com. Isiza sithembisile susa ukudideka kwaye uphelise ukungathembani malunga nee-GMO zisebenzisa amazwi angahlelwanga abizwa ngokuba "ziingcali ezizimeleyo."

Kodwa bazimele kangakanani ezo ngcali?

Iwebhusayithi iyabhala amanqaku athetha ngononophelo athetha ibali elincomekayo malunga nee-GMOs ngelixa udlala phantsi okanye ungawuthobeli umngcipheko wezempilo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Umzekelo, xa ubuzwa ukuba ii-GMO ziqhubela phambili ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane, indawo inikezela nge-convoluted no, ngaphandle kwedatha evavanywe ngoontanga ebonisa ukuba, ewe, enyanisweni, kunjalo.

"Roundup Ready" izityalo ze-GMO zikhulise ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, a umhlaza womntu onokwenzeka, by amakhulu ezigidi zeeponti. Inkqubo entsha ye-GMO / ye-pesticide ebandakanya i-dicamba ikhokelele ekutshatyalalisweni kwe Izityalo zesoya phesheya kweMelika, kunye ne-FDA ibracing kulo nyaka ukusetyenziswa kathathu ye-2,4-D, i-herbicide endala enetyhefu, ngenxa yezityalo ezitsha ze-GMO eziyilelwe ukuyichasa. Konke oku akukho nto inokukhathazeka ngayo, ngokweempendulo zeGMO.

Imibuzo malunga nokhuselo iyaphendulwa ngeengxelo ezingezizo ezifana "nayo yonke imibutho yezempilo ekhokelayo emhlabeni isemva kokhuseleko lwe-GMOs." Asifumananga kukhankanywa ingxelo esayinwe ngoososayensi abangama-300, oogqirha kunye nabahlohli abathi kukhoakukho mvumelwano yesayensi kukhuseleko lwe-GMO,”Kwaye asifumananga mpendulo kwimibuzo esiyithumele ngale ngxelo.

Imizekelo sele iyifumene I-Ketchum PR ibhale ezinye zeempendulo ze-GMO ezisayinwe “ziingcali ezizimeleyo.”

Uluhlu olufutshane kulawulo lweengxaki PR ibhaso

Njengobunye ubungqina bokuba isiza sisithuthi esijikelezayo: Ngo-2014, iimpendulo zeGMO zazikho Uluhlu olufutshane kuluhlu lweentengiso zeCIO kudidi "Lonxibelelwano noLuntu: uLawulo lweNtlekele kunye noLawulo lweMicimbi."

Kwaye inkampani ye-PR eyenze iimpendulo ze-GMO yaqhayisa ngempembelelo yayo kwiintatheli. Kwividiyo ethunyelwe kwiwebhusayithi ye-CLIO, uKetchum waqhayisa esithi iimpendulo zeGMO “ziphantse zaphindeka kabini kumajelo eendaba e-GMO.” Ividiyo isuswe emva kokuba i-US Right to Know itsalele ingqalelo kuyo, kodwa thina ndiyigcine apha.

Kutheni iintatheli zingathemba isithuthi sentengiso esenziwe nguKetchum njengomthombo othembekileyo kunzima ukusiqonda. Ketchum, de kwaba ngu-2016 PR ngokuqinileyo eRashiya, kuye kwachaphazeleka kwi Iinzame zobuntlola ngokuchasene nokungenzi nzuzo ochaphazelekayo malunga nee-GMO. Ayisiyo ncam imbali ebolekisa ukungathembani.

Ngenxa yokuba iimpendulo ze-GMO sisixhobo sokuthengisa esidalwe saze saxhaswa ngemali ziinkampani ezithengisa ii-GMOs, sicinga ukuba ngumdlalo ofanelekileyo ukubuza: Ngaba “ziingcali ezizimeleyo” ezibolekisa ukuthembeka kwiwebhusayithi- uninzi lwazo lusebenzela iiyunivesithi zikarhulumente kwaye zihlawulwa ngabarhafi. - uzimele ngokwenene kwaye usebenza kuluntu? Okanye bayasebenza kwiligi kunye neenkampani kunye neefemu zonxibelelwano noluntu ukunceda ukuthengisa uluntu ibali elijikelezayo?

Ukukhangela ezi mpendulo, i-US Ilungelo lokwazi zingenise izicelo zoMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi befuna imbalelwano yoonjingalwazi abaxhaswa ngurhulumente ababhalela iGMOAnswers.com okanye basebenze kwezinye iinzame zokuphucula i-GMO. Ii-FOIA zizicelo ezimxinwa ezingafakwanga lwazi lomntu okanye ulwazi, kodwa endaweni yoko bafuna ukuqonda unxibelelwano phakathi koonjingalwazi, iinkampani zezolimo ezithengisa ii-GMOs, imibutho yazo yezorhwebo kunye ne-PR kunye neenkampani zokuphembelela eziqeshiweyo ukukhuthaza ii-GMO kunye nokulwa neelebheli. ke sigcinwa ebumnyameni ngento esiyityayo.

Landela iziphumo Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi uphando apha.

Bona yethu Umzi mveliso wePropaganda Tracker ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nabadlala phambili kwimichiza yobudlelwane noluntu.

Unganceda ukwandisa uphando lweLungelo lokwazi ngokuthi ukwenza umnikelo otsalelwa irhafu namhlanje

Abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwiminyaka kwidatha yesiphene yokubulala izinambuzane ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical

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Iminyaka, abalawuli base-US baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yi-Dow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga eekhemikhali ze-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika, ngokwe Uhlalutyo olutsha Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo luphinda luphonononge umsebenzi ukusuka kwiminyaka ye-1970 exhaswa yi-Dow kwaye ingeniswe kwi-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhokela iarhente ekumiseleni oko izazinzulu zibhekisa kuzo njenge- "akukho -qwalaselwe-inqanaba lesiphumo esibi" okanye i-NOAEL. Le mibundu isetyenziselwa ukumisela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwaye kwinqanaba apho ukuvezwa kweekhemikhali kunokuvunyelwa kwaye kungathathwa ngokuba kukhuselekile.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olutsha, olupapashwe kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi 3 kwiphephancwadi Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, Iziphumo ezingachanekanga zaba ziziphumo zophononongo lweedosi olwenziwe ngumphandi uFrederick Coulston kunye noogxa kwiAlbany Medical College kwii-1970s zokuqala zeDow.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baphinde bavavanya ukuba umsebenzi wangaphambili nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske weSebe lezeNdalo nezeMpilo kwiNzululwazi yezeMpilo, kwiSikolo seMpilo kaRhulumente kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Ngelixa isifundo sasibhalwa liqela laseCoulston, uhlalutyo lwagqitywa ngumbalo weDow kwaye kwagqitywa kwelokuba i-0.03 mg / kg-day yayililungu elingapheliyo le-NOAEL ye-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Kodwa uhlalutyo olutsha olwenziwe ngabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington bafumanise ukuba bagqithile kumda wokhuseleko. Ukuba idatha ibihlalutyiwe ngokufanelekileyo i-NOAEL engezantsi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ngeyifunyenwe, batsho.

Uphononongo lwaseCoulston aluzange luvavanywe ngoontanga kodwa lwalusetyenziswa yi-EPA kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's, abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington baxela.

Abaphandi baqukumbele: “Ngelo xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi zokuhlala ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kungabeka umngcipheko kuluntu ngokungeyomfuneko. ”

Kusetyenziswa kakhulu

Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kwigama lophawu lweLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos inambuzane yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kuseto lwezolimo. Eyona ntengiso inkulu yezolimo yechlorpyrifos ngumbona kodwa iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi likwasetyenziswa ngamafama alima iimbotyi zesoya, iziqhamo kunye nemithi yamandongomane, amahlumelo aseBrussels, iicranberry kunye nekholifulawa, kunye nezinye izityalo ezilandelelana. Iintsalela zekhemikhali zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni. Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ekhuthazwe yi-Dow, uphando oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi lubonakalisile ubungqina obandayo bobungozi be-chlorpyrifos, ngakumbi abantwana abancinci. Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa obusezantsi, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo, kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto.

IAmerican Academy for Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana noogqirha babantwana, ilumkise ngelithi ukuqhubeka nokusetyenziswa kwale khemikhali kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu lathi kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo.

I-EPA yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow ngo-2000 yokuphelisa yonke indawo yokuhlala ekusetyenzisweni kwayo ngenxa yophando olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zabantwana kunye nabantwana abancinci. Ngo-2012, ii-chlorpyrifos zazingavumelekanga ukuba zisetyenziswe kwizikolo zonke.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwehlabathi, uCorteva AgriScience, iqumrhu eliza kungena ngokudibana kweDow kunye neDuPont, yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Imichiza, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Izifundo zabantu

Isifundo esingumbandela wephepha elitsha labaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington sabekwa esweni ngo-1971 yiAlbany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Olu phononongo lubandakanya amabanjwa angamadoda angama-16 asempilweni aphuma echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, intolongo yezokhuseleko e-Dannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ayekhethwe ngokulandelelana kumaqela amane ovavanyo, kubandakanya elinye iqela lolawulo, amalungu alo afumana indawo ye-placebo yemihla ngemihla. Amalungu amanye amaqela amathathu afumana unyango lwe-chlorpyrifos mihla le ngeedosi ezintathu ezahlukeneyo. Isifundo senziwe ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-63.

Uhlalutyo olutsha lufumene iingxaki ezininzi kufundo, kubandakanya nokushiywa kwamanqanaba asisiseko asibhozo kwelinye lala maqela onyango.

"Ukushiyeka okunje kwedatha esebenzayo ngaphandle kokuthethelelwa yindlela yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eyaphula yonke imigaqo esemgangathweni yophando yokuziphatha kwaye ichazwe njengokuziphatha gwenxa kophando," bagqibe ngelithi abaphandi beYunivesithi yase Washington.

Abaphandi bathi ichlorpyrifos "yadlula kwinkqubo yolawulo ngaphandle kwengxoxo enkulu," nangona "ubungqina obukhulayo bokuba inokuba yingozi kwezempilo kwiindawo zokuhlala."

"Uphononongo lwaseCoulston lulahlekise abalawuli ngokushiya idatha efanelekileyo," kwaye "inokuba nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yoluntu" iminyaka eliqela, liphetha iphepha laseYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

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Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

Intshukumo yaseburhulumenteni

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

imvelaphi

I-Dicamba ibisoloko isetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngee-1960s kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukhumala kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude ukusuka apho wafafazwa khona. Xa iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithandwayo zeMonsanto, ezinje ngeRoundup, ziqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ngeglyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

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Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo

Iingxilimbela zamachiza ezothusayo zifuna indlela yokuvalwa kwenkundla ngababulali babo bokhula

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Bacaphula “imeko yongxamiseko,” izigebenga zemichiza i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont bacele inkundla yomanyano ukuba ibavumele ukuba bangenelele kwimeko apho inkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga yayalela ukuba i-dicamba herbicides ivalwe kwangoko kunye nemveliso ye-dicamba eyenziwe ngumnini-Monsanto uBayer AG .

Intshukumo yeenkampani zemichiza ilandela a Isigwebo se-3 kaJuni yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba eyathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

I-EPA ukutyeshela loo myalelo, Nangona kunjalo, ukuxelela abalimi ukuba bangaqhubeka nokutshiza ngemichiza yokubulala ukhula ekuthethwa ngayo ukuphela kukaJulayi.

Umanyano lwamaqela asefama kunye nabathengi abathi ekuqaleni bafaka ityala ngokuchasene ne-EPA babuyele enkundleni kwiveki ephelileyo, ukucela umyalelo ongxamisekileyo ibambe i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla inike i-EPA kude kube sekupheleni kosuku Lwesibini, nge-16 kaJuni, ukuba iphendule.

Uqhushululu kwiLizwe laseFama

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zeenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kula masimi ngemithi ye-dicamba eyenziwe zezi zintathu. iinkampani.

"Inkqubo yesityalo se-dicamba" ibonelela amafama ukuba atyale amasimi abo ngezityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-dicamba, abanokuthi emva koko batshize "ngaphezulu-phezulu" ngombulali we-dicamba. Inkqubo ityebise iinkampani ezithengisa imbewu kunye neekhemikhali kwaye yanceda amafama ukuba akhule umqhaphu okhethekileyo wokunyamezela i-dicamba kunye ne-soy malunga nokhula olunenkani olunganyangekiyo kwimveliso ye-Roundup esekwe kwi-glyphosate.

Kodwa kwinani elikhulu lamafama angazityali izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza, ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-dicamba herbicides kuye kwathetha ukonakala kunye nelahleko yezityalo kuba i-dicamba ithambekele ekunyukeni nasekuhambeni kude apho inokubulala izityalo, imithi kunye namatyholo ayitshintshiswanga ngokwemfuza ukumelana nemichiza.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla yomanyano yaphawula kwisigqibo sayo.

Amafama amaninzi ekuqaleni abhiyozela isigwebo senkundla kwaye bakhululeka ekubeni iifama zabo kunye neigadi zabo zingasindiswa kweli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba abaye bahlangabezana nawo ehlotyeni elingaphambili. Kodwa uncedo lwaluhlala ixesha elifutshane xa i-EPA isithi ayizukunyanzela kwangoko ukuthintelwa kwenkundla.

Kwifayile eyenziwe ngolwesiHlanu, I-BASF iyicenge inkundla ukunganyanzelisi ukuvalwa kwangoko kwaye uxelele inkundla ukuba iyakudinga ukuvala indawo yokuvelisa eBeaumont, eTexas, okwangoku "esebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku phantse ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" ukuba ayikwazi ukuvelisa uphawu lwayo lwe-dicamba olubizwa ngokuba Engenia. I-BASF ichithe i-370 yezigidi zeedola kule minyaka idlulileyo ukuphucula isityalo kwaye iqeshe abantu abayi-170 apho, utshilo inkampani.

Iphawula "utyalo-mali olubalulekileyo" kwimveliso yayo, i-BASF ikwatshele nenkundla ukuba yanele imveliso yayo okwangoku kuyo yonke "ijelo labathengi" lokunyanga ii-26.7 zezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu. I-BASF inezigidi ezongezelelekileyo ze- $ 44 yezigidi zeemveliso ze-Engenia dicamba, eyaneleyo yokunyanga ii-6.6 yezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu, utshilo inkampani.

UDuPont / uCorteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, ukuxelela inkundla ekufayeleni kwayo ukuba ukuvalwa "kuyonakalisa ngokuthe ngqo" inkampani "kunye nabalimi abaninzi kulo lonke eli lizwe eliphakathi kwexesha lokukhula." Iya konakalisa "igama" lenkampani ukuba ukubulala iyeza kuvaliwe, inkampani ixelele inkundla.

Ngaphaya koko, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukuvelisa "ingeniso ebalulekileyo" kwintengiso ye-dicamba herbicide, ebizwa ngokuba yiFeXapan kwaye iyakuphulukana naloo mali ukuba ukuvalwa kuyanyanzeliswa, utshilo inkampani.

IMonsanto yayisebenza kwimeko exhasa ukuvunywa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesigwebo, kodwa bobabini i-BASF kunye neDuPont baqinisekisa ngokungachanekanga ukuba ityala lenkundla lisebenza kuphela kwiimveliso zikaMonsanto hayi ezabo. Inkundla ikucacisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-EPA yamkele ngokungekho mthethweni iimveliso ezenziwe zezi nkampani zontathu.

Ikhokelwe liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ngokuchasene ne-EPA lwaziswa ngumbutho weSizwe weFama yoMbutho, iZiko lokwahluka kweBioloji, kunye neNethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Xa ibuza inkundla ukuba ifumane i-EPA ngokudelela, iqumrhu liye lalumkisa ngomonakalo wezityalo oza kubakho ukuba iimveliso ze-dicamba azithintelwa kwangoko.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukutshizwa kwezigidi ezili-16 zeepiccic ze-dicamba kunye nomonakalo kwizigidi zeehektare, kunye nomngcipheko obonakalayo kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini," utshilo umdibaniso. Enye into isemngciphekweni nayo: umthetho. Inkundla kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuthintela ukungabikho kobulungisa kwaye ixhase ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yokugweba. Ngenxa yokungahoywa ngokucacileyo kwe-EPA kwisigqibo seNkundla, abafaki-zikhalazo bayabongoza iNkundla ukuba iyidelele i-EPA. ”

KWIINKCUKACHA-Inkundla igxotha ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kweBayer dicamba herbicide; Umlawuli uthi "uthoba umngcipheko"

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(UPHATHAZI ngeNgxelo evela kwi-BASF)

Ngokukhalima okumangalisayo kwe-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo, inkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yeedicamba ezisekwe kwi-herbicides ezenziwe ziikhemikhali ezinkulu Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva Agrisciences. Isigwebo esisebenzayo senza kube semthethweni ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Isigwebo seNkundla Yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe Yesithoba safumanisa ukuba i-EPA “ibubeka ecaleni kakhulu ubungozi” bokubulala ukhula i-dicamba kwaye “yasilela ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela ezinye iingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza iimpazamo ezininzi ekunikezeleni ubhaliso olunemiqathango," isigwebo senkundla sithi.

IMonsanto kunye ne-EPA babeyicelile inkundla, ukuba iyavumelana nabamangali, ukuba bangakutshintshi kwangoko ukwamkelwa kwemveliso yokubulala ukhula. Inkundla yathi: “Siyala ukwenjenjalo.”

Umgwebo waziswa nguMbutho weSizwe weFama yokuBumbana, iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, iZiko lokwahluka kweBiological, kunye neNkqubo yokubulala izinambuzane eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali batyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ekuvavanyeni iimpembelelo zenkqubo eyilwe yiMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwi2018, ethe yabangela ukonakala "kwezityalo ngokubanzi" kwihlobo ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo kwaye iyaqhubeka nokusongela iifama kwilizwe liphela.

"Isigqibo sanamhlanje siphumelele kakhulu kumafama nakwindalo esingqongileyo," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell weZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, igqwetha elikhokelayo kwityala. “Kulungile ukukhunjuzwa ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeMonsanto kunye neTrump Administration azinakho ukubaleka umthetho, ngakumbi ngexesha lobunzima obunjengale. Ufikile umhla wabo wokuziphendulela. ”

Inkundla ifumanise ukuba phakathi kwezinye iingxaki, i-EPA “iyala ukuqikelela isixa somonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza umonakalo 'njengonokubakho' kunye 'nokutyholwa,' xa ubungqina berekhodi bubonisa ukuba i-dicamba ibangele umonakalo omkhulu kwaye awunakuphikiswa.”

Inkundla ikwafumanise ukuba i-EPA ayiphumelelanga ukuvuma ukuba izithintelo ezibekwa kusetyenziso lwe-dicamba ayizukulandelwa, kwaye yafumanisa ukuba i-EPA “isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko omkhulu wokuba ubhaliso luya kuba neziphumo zoqoqosho imizi-mveliso yeembotyi zesoya nomqhaphu. ”

Okokugqibela, inkundla ithe, i-EPA isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko wokusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba herbicides esekwe yi-Monsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva "iyakudiliza imeko yentlalo yoluntu."

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo ezinokonakalisa izityalo, iigadi, izitiya, namatyholo.

IMonsanto iwuphakamisile lo mqobo xa yayisungula imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo, ikhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imixube emitsha ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zityalo zenziwe ngemfuza ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo zemozulu.

Intshukumo kaMonsanto yokudala izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza zenziwe ngemfuza emva kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-glyphosate kunye nokutshiza okuxhaphakileyo kwe-glyphosate kudala ubhubhane wokumelana nokhula kumhlaba wonke weefama wase-US.

Amafama, izazinzulu zezolimo kunye nezinye iingcali zalumkisa uMonsanto kunye ne-EPA ukuba ukuzisa inkqubo yokunyamezela i-dicamba ayizukudala kuphela ukuxhathisa i-herbicide kodwa iya kukhokelela kumonakalo owonakalisayo kwizityalo ezingezonjongo zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezilumkiso, iMonsanto, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa imveliso entsha ye-dicamba herbicides kolu hlobo lubanzi lokutshiza. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo ezichazwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwiindawo ze-18, inkundla iqaphele.

Njengoko bekuxelwe kwangaphambili, kukho amawakawaka ezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodwe kwiindawo ezininzi. Kwisigwebo sayo, inkundla iqaphele ukuba kwi-2018, kwizigidi ezili-103 zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu otyalwe e-United States, malunga ne-56 yezigidi zeehektare zatyalwa nembewu ene-Micanto dicamba-ukunyamezelana, ukusuka kwi-27 yezigidi zeehektare kunyaka ongaphambili. Ngo-2017.

NgoFebruwari, ijaji evumayo yanika umfama wase-Missouri ipesika $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo ohlawulelwayo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo ozohlawulwa yiBayer kunye ne-BASF ngomonakalo we-dicamba kwipropathi yakhe.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo elandela esi sigwebo esithi akavumelani kwaphela nesigwebo senkundla kwaye uvavanya ukhetho.

Isigqibo esisekwe kwisayensi esisekwe kwi-EPA siyasiqinisekisa ukuba esi sixhobo sibalulekile kubalimi kwaye asibeki mngcipheko wokungahambi kakuhle xa sisetyenziswa ngokwemikhombandlela yeelebheli, utshilo inkampani. "Ukuba isigwebo simi, siza kusebenza ngokukhawuleza ukunciphisa nayiphi na impembelelo kubathengi bethu kule sizini."

UCorteva ukwathe i-dicamba herbicides yayidinga izixhobo zomfama kwaye yayivavanya ukhetho lwayo.

I-BASF ibize lo mthetho wenkundla "ngendlela engazange ibonwe ngaphambili" kwaye ithi "inokuba namandla okuphazamisa amashumi amawaka amafama."

Abalimi banokuphulukana "nengeniso ebalulekileyo" ukuba abakwazi ukubulala ukhula kwiindawo zabo zesoya kunye nekotoni kunye ne-dicamba herbicides, utshilo inkampani.

"Siza kusebenzisa zonke iindlela ezisemthethweni zokufumana lo mngeni," utshilo uBASF.

Isithethi se-EPA sithe i-arhente ngoku ijonga isigqibo senkundla kwaye "izakuhamba ngokukhawuleza ukujongana nomyalelo weNkundla."

Inkundla isamkele isigqibo singanendleko kumafama asele ethengile kunye / okanye atyale imbewu ye-dicamba enganyamezelekiyo ngelixesha lonyaka kwaye icwangcise ukusebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula kuyo ngenxa yokuba isigwebo asikuvumeli ukusetyenziswa kweyeza.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima obunokubangelwa ngaba balimi ekufumaneni amayeza okubulala ukhula asebenzayo nakwezomthetho ukukhusela izityalo zabo (ezinyamezelayo) ..." isigwebo sitsho. “Babekwe kule meko kungekho siphoso sabo. Nangona kunjalo, ukungabikho kobungqina obuninzi obuxhasa isigqibo se-EPA kusinyanzela ukuba siphume kubhaliso. ”

UDicamba: Amafama oyika elinye ixesha lomonakalo wezityalo; Kulindelwe isigwebo senkundla

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngokujika kwekhalenda ukuya kuJuni, amafama aseMelika eMidwest asonga ukutyala izityalo zesoya ezintsha kunye nokujonga amasimi akhulayo ezityalo zengqolowa kunye nemifuno. Kodwa baninzi abakwalungiselela ukubethwa lutshaba olungabonakaliyo oluye lwadala umonakalo kwilizwe lasezifama ihlobo lokugqibela- ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umfama oqinisekisiweyo wase-Robinson, e-Kansas, uchaza amaxesha okugqibela okukhula ehlotyeni njengoko ephawulwe "sisiphithiphithi," kwaye uthe waphulukana nesiqinisekiso sentsimi enye yezityalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efafazwe kude. Ngoku uyabongoza abamelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula kumasimi abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuba ikhemikhali ihlala kude kwipropathi yakhe.

"Kukho dicamba kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomnye kuphela wamakhulu amafama ajikeleze iMidwest West yase-US kunye namazwe aliqela asezantsi athe axela ukonakaliswa kwesityalo kunye nelahleko abathi zibangelwe kukukhukuliseka kwe-dicamba kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo.

Olo thintelo lwabuyiselwa umva emva kokuba uMonsanto ephehlelele imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imichiza ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zilimo zenziwe ngemfuza. IMonsanto, ngoku eyeyeBayer AG, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokuthengisa iimveliso ezintsha ze-dicamba herbicides zokutshiza ngaphezulu kweentlobo zezityalo ezikhulayo ezinganyangekiyo. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza.

Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umanyano lwamaqela amafama kunye nabathengi amangalele i-EPA malunga nokuxhasa kwayo ukusetyenziswa okuphezulu kweyeza ze-dicamba kwaye ngoku balindele isigwebo senkundla yesithoba yesibheno sezibheno eSan Francisco malunga nemfuno yabo yokuba inkundla iguqule i-EPA Ukuvunywa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Iingxoxo zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Epreli.

Abathengi kunye namaqela ezendalo atyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ngokusilela ukuhlalutya "iindleko zentlalo noqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kumafama" ekhokelela kumanqanaba "obubi" omonakalo wezityalo.

Amaqela athi i-EPA ibonakala inomdla ngakumbi ukukhusela umdla kwishishini zeMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani kunokukhusela amafama.

Amagqwetha eMonsanto, amele inkampani njengeyunithi yaseBayer, bathi abamangali abanangqiniseko ethembekileyo. Idicamba herbicide yenkampani entsha, ebizwa ngokuba yiXtendiMax, “incede abalimi ekusombululeni ingxaki enkulu yokhula kwilizwe lonke, kwaye isivuno seembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu zifikelele kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe lonke ngeli xesha lesimangalo,” ngokufutshane ifayilishwe ngamagqwetha enkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Abaceli besicelo somyalelo wokumisa kwangoko konke ukuthengisa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwento yokubulala izitshabalalisi kumema impazamo yomthetho kunye neempembelelo ezinokubakho eziyinyani kwilizwe liphela," yatsho inkampani.

Njengoko belinde isigqibo senkundla yomanyano, amafama athemba ukuba izithintelo ezitsha ezibekwe ngamanye amazwe ziya kubakhusela. ISebe lezoLimo lase-Illinois ucebisile Abafakizicelo abangenako ukutshiza emva komhla wama-20 kuJuni, nokuba akufuneki batshize iimveliso ze-dicamba ukuba amaqondo obushushu angaphezulu kwe-45 degrees Fahrenheit, kwaye kufuneka basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba xa umoya uvuthuza usuka kwiindawo “ezibuthathaka”. IMinnesota, iIndiana, iNyakatho yeDakota kunye noMzantsi Dakota ziphakathi kwamanye amazwe zibeka imihla yokuphelisa ukutshiza i-dicamba.

U-Steve Smith, umlawuli wezolimo e-Red Gold Inc, iprosesa enkulu yeetamati enkonkxiweyo, uthe nangemida karhulumente "uxhalabile kakhulu" malunga nexesha elizayo. Iihektare ezininzi zokutyala kunye neembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto ke kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuyakubakho ukutshizwa kwe-dicamba, utshilo.

"Sisebenze nzima ukugcina umyalezo phaya ukuze ungasondeli kuthi, kodwa umntu, ngamanye amaxesha, uza kwenza impazamo enokusibizela ishishini lethu," utshilo.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuba inkundla izakuchitha ukuvuma kwe-EPA kwaye "ayeke obu buhlanya benkqubo."

Ngokwahlukileyo kumonakalo onokubakho we-dicamba kwizityalo, uphando olutsha kutshanje kupapashwe kubonisa ukuba amafama avezwe kumanqanaba aphezulu e-dicamba kubonakala ngathi aphakame umngcipheko wesibindi kunye nezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Abaphandi bathi idatha entsha ibonise ukuba umbutho owawubonwe ngaphambili kwidatha phakathi kwe-dicamba kunye ne-lung kunye ne-colon cancer zazingabonakali "ngedatha ehlaziyiweyo.

IFIC: Ukutya Okukhulu Kujikeleza Njani Iindaba Ezimbi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know kunye neminye imithombo kukhanyisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwe IBhunga leLizwe loLwazi lokutya (IFIC), iqela lezorhwebo elixhaswe ngemali ziinkampani ezinkulu zokutya kunye nezolimo, kunye nengalo yayo engenzi nzuzo "ingalo yemfundo yoluntu" Isiseko se-IFIC. Amaqela e-IFIC aqhuba iinkqubo zophando kunye noqeqesho, ukuvelisa izixhobo zokuthengisa kunye nokulungelelanisa amanye amaqela oshishino ukunxibelelana nomzi-mveliso malunga nokhuselo lokutya kunye nesondlo. Imiyalezo ibandakanya ukukhuthaza nokukhusela iswekile, ukutya okwenziweyo, iiswiti ezingezizo, izongezo zokutya, amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza.

Ukutshiza ingxelo yomhlaza wezibulali zinambuzane eMonsanto

Njengomzekelo omnye wendlela amaqabane e-IFIC kunye neenkampani zokukhuthaza iimveliso ze-agrichemical kunye nokuphambukisa iinkxalabo zomhlaza, oku uxwebhu lwangaphakathi lweMonsanto ichonga i-IFIC njenge "Iqabane lomzi mveliso" kwisicwangciso sobudlelwane phakathi kukaMonsanto Ukujongela phantsi iqela lophando lomhlaza le-World Health Organisation, i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC), "ukukhusela igama" leRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Matshi 2015, i-IARC yagweba i-glyphosate, eyona nto iphambili kwi-Roundup, ukuba ibe yiyo mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini.

I-Monsanto idwelise i-IFIC njengeNqanaba 3 "iqabane loshishino" kunye namanye amaqela amabini afumana inkxaso-mali kwishishini lokutya, i Umbutho wabavelisi bokutya kwaye i Iziko lokuDibana kokutya.

IFICIC izama njani ukunxibelelana nomyalezo wayo kubafazi.

Amaqela achongwe njengenxalenye ye "Iqela lokuzibandakanya kwabachaphazelekayo" elinokwazisa iinkampani zokutya "ngesicwangciso-qhinga sokugonyelwa" seMonsanto kwingxelo yomhlaza we-glyphosate.

Iiblogi kamva zithunyelwe kwi- IFIC iwebhusayithi bonisa indlela iqela elixhasa ngayo "ungakhathazeki, sithembe" imiyalezo kubasetyhini. Amangenelo abandakanya, "iindlela ezi-8 eziphambeneyo abazama ukoyikisa ngazo iziqhamo kunye nemifuno," "Ukusika i-clutter kwi-glyphosate," kwaye "Phambi kokuba siphume ingqondo, masibuze iingcali… iingcali zokwenyani."

Abaxhasi bezemali

IFIC ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 22 yezigidi kwisithuba seminyaka emihlanu ukusuka 2013-2017, ngelixa i-IFIC Foundation ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 5 yezigidi ngaloo minyaka mihlanu, ngokweefom zerhafu ezifayilishwe kwi-IRS. Imibutho kunye namaqela oshishino axhasa i-IFIC, ngokwe ukubhengezwa koluntu, zibandakanya iAmerican Beverage Association, American Meat Science Association, Archer Daniels Midland Inkampani, Bayer CropScience, Cargill, Coca-Cola, Dannon, DowDuPont, General Mills, Hershey, Kellogg, Mars, Nestle, Perdue Farms kunye nePepsiCo.

Uyilo lweerekhodi zerhafu ze-IFIC Foundation, ezifunyenwe ngezicelo zeerekhodi zikarhulumente, zidwelise iinkampani ezixhase iqela 2011, 2013 okanye zombini: Umbutho wabavelisi bokutya, iCoca-Cola, iConAgra, iGeneral Mills, iKellogg, iKraft Foods, iHershey, iMars, iNestle, iPepsiCo kunye ne-Unilever. ISebe lezoLimo laseMelika linike iSiseko se-IFIC i-177,480 yeedola kwi 2013 ukuvelisa "Isikhokelo somnxibelelanisi”Yokukhuthaza ukutya okwenziwe ngemfuza.

I-IFIC iphinda icele imali kwimibutho ethile kwimikhankaso ethile yokukhusela imveliso. Le Aprili 28, 2014 imeyile Ukusuka kwisigqeba se-IFIC ukuya kuluhlu olude lwamalungu ebhodi yequmrhu licela imali engama- $ 10,000 yokuhlaziya "Ukuqonda ukutya kwethu" nyathelo ukuphucula izimvo zabathengi zokutya okusetyenzisiweyo. Amanqaku e-imeyile abaxhasi bezemali bangaphambili: iBayer, iCoca-Cola, iDow, iKraft, iMars, iMcDonalds, iMonsanto, iNestle, iPepsiCo kunye neDuPont.

Ukukhuthaza ii-GMO kubantwana besikolo

IFIC ilungelelaniswe Amaqela e-130 nge Umdibaniso wokondla ikamva kwimizamo yemiyalezo "yokuphucula ukuqonda" malunga nokutya okuyimfuza. Amalungu afaka Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo, i IBhunga loLawulo lweCalori, le Iziko lokuDibana kokutya kunye noLondolozo lweNdalo.

I-Alliance to Feed the future ibonelela ngeekharityhulam zemfundo zasimahla zokufundisa abafundi ukuba bakhuthaze ukutya okwenziwe ngemfuza, kubandakanya "Inzululwazi yokondla umhlaba”Yootitshala be-K-8 kunyeUkuzisa iBiotechnology kuBomi”Kumabanga 7-10.

Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kweenkonzo ze-IFIC ze-PR

Uthotho lwamaxwebhu ifunyenwe yi-US Right to Know bonelela ngengqondo yendlela i-IFIC esebenza ngayo emfihlekweni ukujikeleza iindaba ezimbi kunye nokukhusela iimveliso zabaxhasi bayo.

Idibanisa iintatheli kwizenzululwazi ezixhaswa ngemali  

  • Ngomhla we-5 ka-Meyi ka-2014 Ukusuka kuMat Raymond, umlawuli omkhulu wezonxibelelwano, wazisa ubunkokheli be-IFIC kunye "neqela leengxoxo zosasazo" "kumabali aphakamileyo apho i-IFIC ibandakanyeka khona ngoku" ukunceda ukuhambisa iindaba ezimbi, kubandakanya ukuphendula kumdlalo bhanyabhanya weFed Up. Uye waphawula ukuba baxhume intatheli ye New York Times no “Dr. UJohn Sievenpiper, ingcali yethu eyaziwayo kwicandelo leswekile. ” USievenpiper “uphakathi kweqela elincinane lezazinzulu zemfundo zaseKhanada eziye zafumana amakhulu-khulu enkxaso-mali evela kubenzi beziselo ezinxilisayo, kwimibutho yorhwebo yokutya okuhlanganisiweyo nakwimizi-mveliso yeswekile, ukufumanisa izifundo kunye namanqaku oluvo ahlala engqinelana nemidla yamashishini, ” ngokweNational Post.
  • Iimeyile ezivela 2010 kwaye 2012 cebisa ukuba i-IFIC ixhomekeke kwiqela elincinci lezenzululwazi ezinxulumene nomzi-mveliso ukujongana nezifundo eziphakamisa iinkxalabo malunga nee-GMO. Kuzo zombini ii-imeyile, uBruce Chassy, ​​unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseIllinois ifumene iimali ezingachazwanga ezivela eMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokukhusela ii-GMOs, icebisa i-IFIC ngendlela yokuphendula kwizifundo eziphakamisa inkxalabo malunga nee-GMO.

Isigqeba seDuPont sicebisa ngesicwangciso-qhinga sokumelana neengxelo zabaThengi

  • Kwi NgoFebruwari 3, 2013 imeyile, Abasebenzi be-IFIC baxwayisa "iqela lobudlelwane beendaba" ukuba iiNgxelo zabaThengi zixela ukukhathazeka malunga nokhuseleko kunye nefuthe lokusingqongileyo kwe-GMOs. UDoyle Karr, Umlawuli womgaqo-nkqubo we-biotechnology kunye nosekela mongameli webhodi ye Iziko lokuDibana kokutya, wathumela i-imeyile kwisazinzulu esinombuzo ngeengcebiso zempendulo, saze saphakamisa ukujongana neeNgxelo zabaThengi ngeliqhinga: “Mhlawumbi yenza ileta eya kumhleli otyikitywe ngoososayensi abali-1,000 XNUMX abangadibaniyo neenkampani zembewu ye-biotech echaza ukuba bayayikhupha. kunye (neeNgxelo zabaThengi ') malunga nokhuseleko nempembelelo kokusingqongileyo. ?? "

Ezinye iinkonzo ze-PR IFIC ibonelela ngomzi mveliso

  • Ukusasaza amanqaku athetha ishishini elahlekisayo: Aprili 25, 2012 imeyile kumalungu ali-130 oMfelandawonye ukondla ikamva “egameni lelungu loMbutho Umbutho wabavelisi bokutya ” ibango lokuba iphulo lokuvota laseCalifornia lokufaka ukutya kwimveliso yemfuza "lingavimbela ukuthengiswa kwamashumi amawaka eemveliso zokutya eCalifornia ngaphandle kokuba zineelebheli ezikhethekileyo."
  • Ukujamelana neencwadi ezigxeka ukutya okucutshungulwayo: Februwari 20, 2013 I-imeyile ichaza isicwangciso-qhinga se-IFIC sokujikeleza iincwadi ezimbini ezigxeka ishishini lokutya, "Ityuwa, iSwekile, Amafutha" nguMichael Moss, kunye ne "Pandora's Lunchbox" kaMelanie Warner. Izicwangciso zibandakanya ukubhala uphononongo lweencwadi, ukusasaza iindawo zokuthetha kunye "nokuphonononga ezinye iindlela zokongeza ukubandakanyeka kumajelo eendaba edijithali ngokomlinganiso wobungakanani boshicilelo." Kwi-imeyile kaFebruwari 22, 2013, isigqeba se-IFIC safikelela kwizifundiswa ezintathu- URoger Clemens weDyunivesithi yaseMzantsi California, UMario Ferruzzi weYunivesithi yasePurdue kwaye UJoanne Slavin weYunivesithi yaseMinnesota -Ukubacela ukuba babekho kudliwanondlebe lweendaba malunga neencwadi. I-imeyile inike abafundi izishwankathelo zezi ncwadi zimbini kunye namanqaku okuthetha e-IFIC ekhusela ukutya okwenziweyo. “Siza kuyivuyela into yokuba nisabelana ngazo naziphi na iingongoma ezithile malunga nemiba ethile yesayensi ephakanyiswe ezincwadini,” itsho i-imeyile evela kuMarianne Smith Edge, usekela-mongameli omkhulu we-IFIC kwezesondlo nokhuselo lokutya.
  • Uphando kunye nophando ukuxhasa izikhundla zeshishini; Umzekelo wovavanyo luka-2012 olwafumanisa ukuba abathengi abangama-76% “abanakucinga ngayo nantoni na eyongezelelweyo abangathanda ukuyibona kwileyibhile leyo” esetyenziswa ngamaqela oshishino ukuchasa iilebheli ze-GMO.
  • “Sukuba nexhala, sithembe” iincwadana zokuthengisa, njenge Le Ukuchaza ukuba izongezo zokutya kunye nemibala akukho nto inokukhathazeka ngayo. Imichiza kunye nedayi "zidlale indima ebalulekileyo ekunciphiseni ukuswela ukutya okunesondlo phakathi kwabathengi," ngokutsho kwencwadana ye-IFIC Foundation "eyayilungiselelwe phantsi kwesivumelwano sokusebenzisana ne-US Food and Drug Administration."

iposwe kuqala ngoMeyi 31, 2018 kwaye ihlaziywa ngoFebruwari 2020

Uhlalutyo olungathandekiyo oluvela kwi-FDA

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kwinyanga ephelileyo uLawulo lokutya kunye neziyobisi lupapashe uhlalutyo lwamva nje lonyaka yamanqanaba entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi engcolisa iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kunye nokunye ukutya thina maMelika esihlala sikubeka kwiipleyiti zethu zokutya. Idatha entsha yongeza kwinkxalabo yabathengi ekhulayo kunye nengxoxo yezenzululwazi malunga nokuba iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni zinganegalelo njani - okanye hayi - kwizigulo, kwizifo nakwiingxaki zokuzala.

Ngaphezulu kwamaphepha angama-55 eedatha, iitshathi kunye neegrafu, ingxelo ye-FDA “yeNkqubo yokuHlolwa kweNdawo yokuBulala izinambuzane” ikwanika nomzekelo ongathandekiyo kwinqanaba apho amafama ase-US athe athembela kwizibulali zinambuzane zokwenziwa, imingxunya yokubulala iintsholongwane kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukutya kwethu.

Umzekelo, sifunda ingxelo yokugqibela, ukuba imikhondo yezibulali zinambuzane yafunyanwa kwiipesenti ezingama-84 zeziqhamo zasekhaya, kunye neepesenti ezingama-53 zemifuno, kunye neepesenti ezingama-42 zeenkozo kunye neepesenti ezingama-73 zokutya ezibhalwe nje enye. ” Iisampulu zathathwa kwilizwe liphela, kubandakanya eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Phantse iipesenti ezingama-94 zeediliya, ijusi yamagilebhisi kunye neerasentyisi kuvavanywa intsholongwane njenge-99 pesenti yamaqunube, iipesenti ezingama-88 zama-apile kunye nejusi yeapile, kunye neepesenti ezingama-33 zeemveliso zerayisi, ngokweenkcukacha ze-FDA.

Iziqhamo kunye nemifuno engenisiweyo eneneni ibonakalise ukwanda okuncinci kwezibulali zinambuzane, kunye neepesenti ezingama-52 zeziqhamo kunye neepesenti ezingama-46 zemifuno evela phesheya kuvavanyo oluqinisekileyo lweziyobisi. Ezi sampulu zazivela kumazwe angaphezu kwama-40, kubandakanya iMexico, iChina, i-India kunye ne Canada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuba kwisampulu esandula ukubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala zinambuzane ezahlukeneyo, i-FDA ifumene umkhondo we-DDT yokubulala izinambuzane ekuthinteleni ixesha elide kwiisampulu zokutya, kunye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D kunye ne-glyphosate. I-DDT inxulunyaniswa nomhlaza wamabele, ukungachumi kunye nokuphuma kwesisu, ngelixa i-chlorpyrifos -enye inambuzane-ibonakalisiwe ngokwesayensi ukuba ibangela iingxaki ze-neurodevelopmental kubantwana abancinci.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu licebise ukuvalwa kwemichiza eYurophu, ukufumanisa ukuba kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo. Amayeza okubulala ukhula 2,4-D kunye glyphosate Zombini zinxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo ngokunjalo.

Thailand kutshanje ithe iyavalwa I-glyphosate kunye ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yomngcipheko osekwe ngokwesayensi kwezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifumaneka kukutya kwase-US, i-FDA, kunye ne-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) kunye neSebe lezoLimo lase-US (i-USDA), bathi iintsalela zemichiza yokubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni ayinanto yakwenza nokukhathazeka. Ngexesha lokuphembelela okunzima ngumzi mveliso wezolimo i-EPA ixhase ukusetyenziswa glyphosate kunye neklorpyrifos kwimveliso yokutya.

Abalawuli baphinda amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto kunye nabanye kwimizi-mveliso ngokunyanzelisa ukuba iintsalela zezitshabalalisi azisongeli kwimpilo yabantu ukuba nje amanqanaba ohlobo ngalunye lwentsalela ewela phantsi kwenqanaba "lokunyamezelana" elibekwe yi-EPA.

Kuhlalutyo lwakutsha nje lwe-FDA, kuphela iipesenti ezi-3.8 zokutya kwasekhaya ezinamanqanaba entsalela abonwa njengaphakamileyo ngokungekho mthethweni, okanye "eyaphula umthetho." Ngokutya okungeniswe elizweni, iipesenti ezili-10.4 zokutya okwenziwe kwisampulu zazisephula umthetho, ngokwe-FDA.

Oko i-FDA ingazange ikuthethe, kwaye zeziphi iiarhente zolawulo ezikuphepha ukuhlala zithetha esidlangalaleni, kukuba amanqanaba okunyamezelana kwezibulali zinambuzane ezithile sele enyukile kule minyaka njengoko iinkampani ezithengisa izibulali zinambuzane zicela imida ephezulu nangaphezulu yomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukonyuka okuvunyelweyo kwintsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni, umzekelo. Kananjalo, iarhente ihlala yenza isigqibo sokuba ayifuni kuthobela imfuneko yomthetho ethi i-EPA "iyakufaka umda okongeziweyo ophindwe kalishumi wokhuselo lweentsana nabantwana" ekumiseni amanqanaba asemthethweni kwiintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane. I-EPA igqithisile le mfuno kuseto lokunyamezelwa kwezibulali zinambuzane, isithi akukho mda wokhuseleko okhoyo uyafuneka ukukhusela abantwana.

Eyona nto iphambili: Ukunyuka kwe-EPA kuseta "ukunyamezelana" kuvunyelwe njengomda osemthethweni, kokukhona kunokwenzeka ukuba abalawuli kuya kufuneka banike ingxelo ngentsalela "yokuhlukumeza" ekutyeni kwethu. Ngenxa yoko, i-US ihlala ivumela amanqanaba aphezulu entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kukutya kunamanye amazwe aphuhlileyo. Umzekelo, umda osemthethweni wokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kwi-apile zii-0.2 iinxalenye ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa sisiqingatha kuphela selo nqanaba-0.1 ppm-esivunyelwe kwi-apile kwi-European Union. Kananjalo i-US ivumela intsalela ye-glyphosate kwingqolowa nge-5 ppm, ngelixa i-EU ivumela kuphela i-1 ppm.

Njengomda osemthethweni wokunyuka kwentsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni, uninzi lwezazinzulu ziye zanda ngokwanda malunga nemingcipheko yokusetyenziswa rhoqo kweentsalela, kunye nokusilela kolawulo lokuqwalaselwa kweempembelelo ezinokubakho zokusebenzisa uluhlu lweegciwane kunye nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isidlo .

Iqela lezenzululwazi zaseHarvard bafuna ukuba uphando olunzulu malunga nokunxibelelana okunokubakho phakathi kwezifo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwesibulali zinambuzane njengoko beqikelela ukuba ngaphezulu kwe 90 pesenti yabantu eUnited States banazo iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kumchamo nakwigazi labo ngenxa yokutya ukutya okune-pesticide. A isifundo edibene neHarvard yafumanisa ukuba ukuvezwa kwento yokubulala izinambuzane ngaphakathi kuluhlu “oluqhelekileyo” kunxulunyaniswa zombini neengxaki zabasetyhini zokukhulelwa nokubeleka abantwana abaphilayo.

Izifundo ezongezelelekileyo zifumene ezinye iingxaki zempilo ezibotshelelwe kukutya okuchaseneyo nokubulala izitshabalalisi, kubandakanya ne-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate sesona sisibulala-ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi kwaye sesona sithako sisebenzayo kwi-Roundup yaseMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula.

Icandelo lamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi libuyisele umva

Kodwa njengoko inkxalabo inyuka, amahlakani eshishini lezolimo abuyela umva. Kule nyanga iqela labaphandi abathathu abanobuhlobo obude kunye neenkampani ezithengisa izitshabalalisi zezolimo bakhuphe ingxelo efuna ukuthomalalisa iinkxalabo zabathengi kunye nokuphelisa uphando lwenzululwazi.

Ingxelo, eyakhutshwa nge-21 ka-Okthobha, wathi “abukho ubungqina obungqalileyo benzululwazi okanye bezonyango obubonisa ukuba ukubhencwa okuqhelekileyo kwabathengi kwiintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane kubangela nayiphi na ingozi kwimpilo. Idatha yentsalela yamayeza okubulala izinambuzane kunye noqikelelo lokubonisa lubonisa ukuba abathengi bokutya bafumanekile kumanqanaba entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi engaphantsi kwemilinganiselo yezempilo. ”

Ayothusi into yokuba ababhali abathathu bengxelo basondelelene kakhulu nomzi mveliso wezolimo. Omnye wababhali bengxelo nguSteve Savage, ishishini lezolimo umcebisi kwaye Owayesakuba ngumqeshwa waseDuPont. Omnye nguCarol Burns, owayesakuba sisazinzulu seDow Chemical kunye nomcebisi wangoku weCortevia Agriscience, ukususwa kweDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, uSihlalo weSebe lezeNzululwazi ngezoKutya neTekhnoloji kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Iyunivesithi ifumene phantse I-2 yezigidi ngonyaka Ukusuka kumzi mveliso wezolimo, ngokomphandi weyunivesithi, nangona ukuchaneka kwelo nani kungakhange kubonwe.

Ababhali bayise ingxelo yabo ngqo kwiCongress, bebambe iintetho ezintathu ezahlukeneyo eWashington, DC, eyilelwe ukukhuthaza umyalezo wabo wokhuseleko lwezibulali zinambuzane ukuze zisetyenziswe “kumabali okhuseleko lokutya kwimidiya, kunye neengcebiso zabathengi malunga nokutya abathengi (okanye abangafanelekanga) bakutye.”

Iiseshoni zokubulala izitshabalalisi zabanjwa kwizakhiwo zeofisi zamalungu eCongress kwaye, kubonakala ngathi, kwikomkhulu CropLife Melika, lobbyist kwishishini lezolimo. 

 

IMonsanto ithembele kula "maQabane" ekuhlaseleni iiNzululwazi eziPhezulu zeCancer

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Related: Amaxwebhu ayimfihlo abonisa iMfazwe kaMonsanto kwiNzululwazi zeCancer, nguStacy Malkan

Olu xwebhu luchaza imixholo yeMonsanto isicwangciso sonxibelelwano esidlangalaleni Ukuhlazisa icandelo lophando lomhlaza le-World Health Organisation, i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC), ukuze kukhuselwe igama leRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Matshi 2015, iqela lehlabathi leengcali kwiphaneli ye-IARC yagweba i-glyphosate, eyona nto iphambili kwi-Roundup, ukuba ibe mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini.

Isicwangciso seMonsanto sichaza ngaphezulu kwamaqela "amaqabane oshishino" amaqela abaphathi beenkampani acwangcise "ukwazisa / ukufaka intsholongwane / ukubandakanya" kwimizamo yabo yokukhusela igama leRoundup, ukuthintela amabango omhlaza "angenasiseko" ekubeni abe luvo oludumileyo, kwaye ukhuseleko kwiarhente zolawulo. ” Abalingane babandakanya izifundiswa kunye neekhemikhali kunye nokutya kumaqela angaphambili, amaqela ezorhwebo kunye namaqela okulinda- landela amakhonkco angezantsi kumaphepha enqaku anikezela ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga namaqela amaqabane.

Ngokudibeneyo la maphepha ayinyani abonelela ngo-seUbunzulu nobubanzi becandeloUkuhlaselwa kweengcali zomhlaza ze-IARC ekoyiseninse kaMI-onsanto ithengisa kakhulu imveliso yokubulala ukhula.

Iinjongo zikaMonsanto zokujongana nenqanaba le-carcinogenicity ye-IARC yeglyphosate (iphepha 5).

imvelaphi

Uxwebhu oluphambili olwakhutshwa ngo-2017 iinkqubo zomthetho ngokuchasene neMonsanto ichaza iqumrhu “lokuzilungiselela kunye nesicwangciso sokuzibandakanya” sokuhlelwa komhlaza we-IARC we-glyphosate, umhlaba ezisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwezolimo. Inkqubo ye- uxwebhu lwangaphakathi lweMonsanto Ngomhla kaFebruwari 23, 2015-yabela abasebenzi abangaphezulu kwe-20 beMonsanto kwiinjongo ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa impembelelo yesigqibo," "ukufikelela kumlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa iMON POV" kunye "nelizwi eliphambili 'kwi-IARC' kunye ne-2B ingqumbo." Ngomhla wamashumi amabini ku-Matshi 20, i-IARC yabhengeza isigqibo sayo sokuhlela i-glyphosate njengeqela lesibini le-carcinogen, "mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini. "

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya, bona:Yenziwe njani iMonsanto yokucaphuka kulwahlulo lomhlaza wemichiza ekulindelwe ngayo,”NguCarey Gillam, eHuffington Post (9/19/2017)

Inqanaba lesi-1 leMonsanto “Amaqabane oShishino”

Iphepha 5 le uxwebhu lweMonsanto ichonga amanqanaba amane "amaqabane oshishino" athi abaphathi beMonsanto bacwangcise ukuzibandakanya kwisicwangciso sokulungela i-IARC. La maqela ngokudibeneyo anokufikelela ngokubanzi kunye nefuthe ekutyhaleni ingxelo malunga nomngcipheko womhlaza okhusela iinzuzo zeshishini.

Inqanaba loku-1 lamaqabane eshishini ngamagunya okuxhasa ngemali kwezolimo kunye namaqela e-PR.

Inqanaba lesi-2 kumaqabane oshishino ngamaqela angaphambili ahlala ekhankanywa njengemithombo ezimeleyo, kodwa asebenze nomzi mveliso weekhemikhali ngasemva kobudlelwane boluntu kunye namaphulo okuphembelela.

Inqanaba lesithathu labalingane kushishino kukutya okufumana inkxaso-mali kunye namaqela orhwebo. La maqela athatyathwa athi, "Lumkisa iinkampani zokutya ngeqela labathathi-nxaxheba (IFIC, GMA, CFI)" ngecebo lokutofa "ukubonelela ngemfundo yokuqala kumanqanaba entsalela ye-glyphosate, chaza izifundo ezisekwe kwinzululwazi xa kuthelekiswa ne-ajenda eqhutywa zii-ajenda” yomhlaza ozimeleyo. iphaneli.

Amahlakani emizi-mveliso emi-4 “yeyona mibutho iphambili yabalimi.” La ngamaqela orhwebo ahlukeneyo amele umbona, isoya kunye nabanye abalimi bemizi mveliso kunye nabenzi bokutya.

Ukulungisa isikhalazo ngokuchasene nengxelo yomhlaza kwi-glyphosate

Uxwebhu lwe-Monsanto PR luchaze izicwangciso zabo zokuqhuba imithombo yeendaba eyomeleleyo kunye namajelo eendaba ezentlalo ukuze "kulungiswe izikhalazo ngesigqibo se-IARC."

Indlela edlalwe ngayo inokubonwa kwimibhalo yeqabane loshishino amaqela asebenzise imiyalezo eqhelekileyo kunye nemithombo yokutyhola iarhente yophando ngomhlaza ngokungalunganga kwaye bezama ukujongela phantsi izazinzulu ezazisebenza kwingxelo yeglyphosate.

Imizekelo yemiyalezo yokuhlaselwa inokubonwa kwiwebhusayithi yeProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala. Eli qela libanga ukuba ngumthombo ozimeleyo kwisayensi, nangona kunjalo, amaxwebhu afunyenwe ngumboniso waseLungelo laseMelika lokuLwazi Iprojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project isebenza neMonsanto kwiiprojekthi ze-PR ngaphandle kokuchaza ezo ntsebenziswano. UJon Entine wasungula iqela ngo-2011 xa uMonsanto wayengumthengi we-PR firm. Eli liqhinga leqela eliphambili; ukuhambisa imiyalezo yenkampani kwiqela elibanga ukuba lizimele kodwa alinjalo.

Isicwangciso sicebisa iSense malunga neNzululwazi ukuba "ikhokele ekuphenduleni kwimizi-mveliso"

Uxwebhu lwe-Monsanto PR luxoxa ngezicwangciso zokwenza imithombo yeendaba eyomeleleyo kunye namajelo eendaba ezentlalo ukuze "kwenziwe isikhalazo ngesigqibo se-IARC." Isicwangciso sicebisa iqela leNzululwazi malunga neNzululwazi (kubakaki abanophawu lombuzo) ukuba "likhokele impendulo kumzi-mveliso kwaye libonelele ngeqonga lababukeli be-IARC kunye nesithethi seshishini."

Ingqondo malunga neNzululwazi luthando loluntu olusekwe eLondon amabango ku ukukhuthaza ukuqonda koluntu kwezenzululwazi, kodwa iqela "liyaziwa ngokuthatha indawo Ukuvumelana kwesayensi okanye ukubugxotha ubungqina obuvelayo bengozi, ”Uxele njalo uLiza Gross kwiThe Intercept. Ngo-2014, iSense malunga neNzululwazi yaqalisa inguqulelo yase-US phantsi kolawulo lwe  UTrevor Butterworth, umbhali onembali ende yokungavumelani inzululwazi ephakamisa iinkxalabo zempilo malunga neekhemikhali eziyityhefu.

Ingqondo malunga neNzululwazi inxulumene ne Iziko leMedia Media, iarhente yesayensi ye-PR eLondon efumana inkxaso-mali yokusebenzisana kwaye iyaziwa ukutyhala iimbono ezihlanganisiweyo zesayensi. Intatheli ene sisondelelene neZiko leMithombo yeendaba, UKate Kelland, upapashe amanqaku aliqela kwiReuters egxeka iarhente yomhlaza ye-IARC eyayisekwe kuyo amabali obuxoki kwaye ingxelo engachanekanga engagqitywanga. Amanqaku eReuters akhuthazwe kakhulu ngamaqela eMonsanto “amaqabane eshishini” kwaye asetyenziswa njenge isiseko se Uhlaselo lwezopolitiko ngokuchasene neIARC.

Ngolunye ulwazi:

  • "IARC iyalikhaba ibango elingelilo kwinqaku leReuters," Isiteyitimenti se-IARC (3 / 1 / 18)
  • Ibali leReuters 'lika-Aaron Blair IARC likhuthaza ingxelo engeyonyani, I-USRTK (7 / 24 / 2017)
  • Ibango lika-Reuters lokuba i-IARC "ihleliwe ngaphandle" Iziphumo aziyonyani, I-USRTK (10 / 20 / 2017)
  • "Ngaba ubudlelwane obudibeneyo buchaphazela isayensi?" Ukulingana nokuchaneka kokuBika (7 / 24 / 2017)

“Zibandakanye noHenry Miller”

Iphepha 2 loxwebhu lwe-Monsanto PR luchaza okokuqala okunikezelwa ngaphandle ekucwangcisweni nasekulungiseleleni: "Ukubandakanya uHenry Miller" ukuze "kugonywe / kusekwe umbono woluntu malunga ne-IARC kunye nokuphononongwa."

"Ndingathanda ukuba ndiqale ngoyilo olusemgangathweni ophezulu."

UHenry I. Miller, MD, olilungu leziko le-Hoover kunye nomlawuli osungula iOfisi ye-FDA ye-Biotechnology, une imbali ebhaliweyo Ukusebenza namaqumrhu ukukhusela iimveliso ezinobungozi. Isicwangciso seMonsanto sichonga "umnini we-MON" womsebenzi njengo-Eric Sachs, isayensi kaMonsanto, itekhnoloji kunye nokukhokelela kufikelelo.

Amaxwebhu kamva ixelwe yiThe New York Times kutyhila ukuba iiSachs Imeyile Miller kwiveki phambi kwengxelo ye-IARC glyphosate ukubuza ukuba uMiller unomdla wokubhala malunga "nesigqibo esinempikiswano." UMiller uphendule wathi, "ndingathanda ukuba ndiqale ngomgangatho ophezulu." Ngo-Matshi 23, uMiller uthumele inqaku KwiForbes "eboniswe ikakhulu" uyilo olunikezwe nguMonsanto, ngokwe Times. IForbes yaqhawula ubudlelwane bayo noMiller emva kwesikrokro sokubhala ghost kunye ucime amanqaku akhe kwiziko.

Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo 

Nangona uxwebhu lwe-Monsanto PR alukhange luthiye igama Ibhunga laseMelika elixhaswe ngemali liSayensi kunye neMpilo (ACSH) phakathi "kwamaqabane eshishini," ii-imeyile ezikhutshwe ngesimangalo zibonisa ukuba iMonsanto Ixhaswe ngemali liBhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo kwaye lacela iqela ukuba libhale ngengxelo ye-IARC glyphosate. Iimeyile zibonisa ukuba abaphathi beMonsanto babengakhululekanga ngokusebenza ne-ACSH kodwa benza njalo kuba, "asinabalandeli baninzi kwaye asinakukwazi ukuphulukana nabambalwa esinabo."

Inzululwazi ephezulu kaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein ubhalele oogxa bakhe, "Ndiyakuqinisekisa ukuba andijongelwa yonk 'into nge-ACSH- banenqwaba yeentsumpa- kodwa: AKUYI KUFUMANA IXABISO ELINGCONO KWI-DOLLAR YAKHO kune-ACSH" (ugxininiso lwakhe). UGoldstein wathumela amakhonkco kwizixhobo ezininzi ze-ACSH ezikhuthaza zikhusela ii-GMO kunye nezibulala-zinambuzane awazichaza ngokuba “ziluncedo kakhulu.”

Bona kwakho: Ukulandelela iNethiwekhi yezoLimo yezoLimo 

Landela iziphumo ze-US Right to Know kunye nemithombo yeendaba malunga nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqela oshishino lokutya kunye nabahlohli iphepha lethu lophando. Amaxwebhu e-USRTK ayafumaneka kwi ILayibrari yamaXwebhu amaShishini amaKhemikhali isingathwe ngu-UCSF.