Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

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Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Njengokuba kugqitywa ukugwetywa ngumhlaza kwi-Roundup, iMonsanto ilwa ukugcina umsebenzi we-PR uyimfihlo

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Njengokuba iMonsanto iqhubeka nokulwa amabango asemthethweni malunga neengozi zokurhwaphiliswa kwayo kweeroundup, inkampani izama ukuthintela iiodolo zokuguqula iirekhodi zangaphakathi malunga nomsebenzi wayo nobudlelwane noluntu kunye neekhontraktha zokubonisana ngobuchule.

Kwi uthotho lweefilitha Inkundla yeSekethe yaseSt. Louis, iMonsanto ithi akufuneki ukuba ihambelane nezicelo zokufumanisa ezibandakanya ukusebenzisana okuthile phakathi kwayo kunye nenkampani yoluntu UmfundiHillard, nangona inkosi ekhethekileyo ifumene iMonsanto kufuneka ihambise loo maxwebhu. IMonsanto iyangqina ukuba unxibelelwano lwayo neFleishmanHillard kufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo "njengelungelo," ngokufana nokunxibelelana negqwetha-nomxhasi, kwaye iMonsanto akufuneki ukuba ivelise njengenxalenye yokufumanisa kumagqwetha amele abaguli abanomhlaza abammangalela uMonsanto.

UFleishmanHillard waba yiarhente yerekhodi yeMonsanto "yomsebenzi wegama elidumileyo" kwi2013, kwaye abasebenzi bayo bazibandakanya ngokunzulu nenkampani, besebenza "kwiiofisi zikaMonsanto phantse yonke imihla" kwaye bafumana "ukufikelela kwizitokhwe zekhompyuter zolwazi oluyimfihlo olungeyoluntu," yatsho inkampani. "Inyaniso yokuba ezinye zonxibelelwano zibandakanya ukwenziwa kwemiyalezo eluntwini ayizukuhlutha ilungelo labo," utshilo uMonsanto kwinkundla yayo yokufayilisha.

UFleishmanHillard usebenze kwiiprojekthi ezimbini zeMonsanto eYurophu malunga nokubhaliswa kwakhona kwe
glyphosate kwaye wasebenza namagqwetha eMonsanto "kwiprojekthi ethile yophando lwejaji." Uhlobo lomsebenzi owenziwe yinkampani yonxibelelwano noluntu "ifuna unxibelelwano olunelungelo" nomcebisi wezomthetho kaMonsanto, inkampani ithe.

Kwangoko kulo nyaka umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wathi iphelisa ubudlelwane bukaMonsanto noFleishmanHillard emva koko iindaba zaqhekeka ukuba inkampani yobudlelwane noluntu ibandakanyeke kwinkqubo yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eYurophu ngokubanzi yeMonsanto, ijolise kwiintatheli, abezopolitiko nabanye abachaphazelekayo ukuzama ukuphembelela umgaqo-nkqubo wokubulala izitshabalalisi.

IMonsanto ithathe indawo efanayo ngokubhekisele kunxibelelwano olubandakanya umsebenzi wayo kunye nenkampani yolawulo lwemifanekiso yenkampani Ukubonisana ne-FTI, apho uMonsanto waqesha ngoJuni 2016. "Ukungabikho kwegqwetha kuxwebhu olunelungelo nako akunikezi ngokuzenzekelayo olo xwebhu lube semngciphekweni womceli mngeni," utshilo uMonsanto ekubhaleni.

Kwangoko kulo nyaka, umqeshwa we-FTI waye wabanjwa ekulingiseni intatheli kolunye uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup, ukuzama ukucebisa ngemigca yamabali kwezinye iintatheli ukuba zilandele iMonsanto.

Inkampani ifuna ukunqanda ukunikezela ngamaxwebhu abandakanya ubudlelwane bayo kunye neNkampani yeScotts Miracle-Gro, Ebithengisa kwaye ithengisa iMonsanto's Roundup ingca kunye neemveliso zegadi ukusukela nge1998.

Ngaphezulu kwamaxhoba omhlaza angama-40,000 okanye amalungu eentsapho zawo ngoku amangalela uMonsanto etyhola ukubhencwa kumgca wenkampani weeRoundup herbicides kwizifo zabo, ngokukaBayer. Amacala atyhola ukuba ukubhencwa kwi-Monsanto's herbicides kubangele ukuba abamangali baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye nangona iMonsanto ibisazi ngomngcipheko womhlaza, ngenjongo ayizange ibalumkise abathengi.

Bayer ibambe umnxeba wenkomfa kunye nabatyali-mali ngoLwesithathu ukuxoxa ngeziphumo zekota yesithathu kunye nokuhlaziya abanini zabelo kwityala leRoundup. Ebetha ithoni eqinisekisayo, u-CEO we-Bayer u-Werner Baumann uthe ngelixa abatyali mali bengothuka linani eliphezulu lezimangalo, "ayothusi loo nto." Uthe amagqwetha abamangali eMelika echithe amashumi ezigidi zeedola kwintengiso kubathengi.

"Ukonyuka kwenani lamatyala akutshintshi ukukholelwa kwethu kwiprofayili yokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate kwaye ayibonisi ukufaneleka kwesi simangalo," utshilo uBaumann. Izibheno ziyaqhubeka emva kokuba inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu zokuqala, kwaye inkampani "iyakha" ngokuzibandakanya kulamlo, ngokukaBaumann. U-Bayer uyakuvuma kuphela kwisivumelwano "esifanelekileyo ngokwasemalini" kwaye siza kuzisa "ukuvalwa okufanelekileyo kwisimangalo sisonke," utshilo.

Nangona inkampani ibhekisa kuyo njenge- "glyphosate", abamangali batyhola ukuba umhlaza wabo awubangelwa kukuvezwa yi-glyphosate yodwa, kodwa kukuvezwa yimveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate eyenziwe yiMonsanto.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi zibonise ukuba ukwenziwa kunetyhefu ngakumbi kune-glyphosate ngokwayo. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) ayifunanga zifundo zexesha elide kukhuseleko kwiifom Roundup kuyo yonke iminyaka engama-40 kunye nemveliso ibisemarikeni, kwaye unxibelelwano lwangaphakathi lwenkampani phakathi kwezazinzulu zeMonsanto zifunyenwe ngamagqwetha abamangali apho Oososayensi baxoxa ngokusilela kovavanyo lwe-carcinogenicity kwiimveliso zeRoundup.

Izilingo ezininzi ebezicwangciselwe oku kuwa eSt. Louis, eMissouri indawo ziye zalibaziseka kwade kwangunyaka olandelayo.

Iinkokheli ze-NYC Joyina iiFowuni zeBan kwiMonsanto Herbicide

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Eli nqaku lapapashwa okokuqala kwi Iindaba zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo.

"Iipaki kufuneka zenzelwe ukudlala ii-pesticides"

NguCarey Gillam

Amalungu amabini ebhunga lesiXeko saseNew York yazisa umthetho namhlanje Ingathintela iiarhente zedolophu ekutshizeni i-glyphosate-based herbicides kunye nezinye izitshabalalisi zetyhefu kwiipaki nakwezinye iindawo zoluntu.

Eli nyathelo lelokugqibela kwindawo yokuxhalaba malunga nokusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane, ngakumbi ukuvezwa kwemveliso yokubulala ukhula eveliswe yiMonsanto, ngoku eyiyunithi yeBayer AG. Izixeko, izithili zezikolo kunye nabathengisi kulo lonke elaseMelika baya besimisa ukusetyenziswa kweziyobisi.

Ikwangumqondiso ongaphaya wokuba inani elikhulayo labantu-abathengi, abafundisi-ntsapho, iinkokheli zeshishini kunye nabanye-bayasikhaba isiqinisekiso esivela eMonsanto naseBayer sokuba i-glyphosate herbicides efana ne-Roundup ikhuselekile ekusebenziseni ngokubanzi.

Kutshanje iBayer ikhuphe izibhengezo ezinkulu kwiWall Street Journal nakwiThe New York Times kwaye ibiqhuba umkhankaso wentengiso kamabonwakude nakwiintanethi ukukhusela ukhuseleko lweemveliso ezibulala ukhula. Kodwa iinkxalabo ziyaqhubeka nokunyuka.

"Iipaki kufanele ukuba zezokudlala hayi ukubulala izitshabalalisi," utshilo ilungu lebhunga lesiXeko saseNew York uBen Kallos, ongumxhasi kumlinganiso. "Zonke iintsapho kufuneka zikwazi ukonwabela iipaki zethu zedolophu ngaphandle kokukhathazeka ngokuba zichanabeke kwizibulali zinambuzane ezinetyhefu ezinokuthi zibanike umhlaza kunye neentsapho zabo."

Umgangatho weSixeko saseNew York ungathintela ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ngaphakathi kweenyawo ezingama-75 zomzimba wamanzi. Kwaye iyakhuthaza iiarhente zedolophu ukuba ziye kusetyenziso lwee-pesticides, ezivela kwizinto zendalo endaweni yezinto zokwenziwa.

IGlyphosate iqhele ukusetyenziswa kwisiXeko saseNew York, ifafazwe kangangezihlandlo ezilikhulu ngonyaka kwiindawo zemifuno yoluntu ukunyanga ukhula kunye nokugqitha. U-Kallos uxelele i-EHN ukuba woyika ukuvumela ukuba intombi yakhe encinci idlale eCentral Park eyaziwayo ngenxa yomngcipheko wokuchasana neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

Inzululwazi, ulwazi loluntu luyakhula

IGlyphosate sesona silwanyana sibulala mhlaba sisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwaye sisithako esisebenzayo kungekuphela kweempawu zeRoundup kodwa kunye namanye amakhulu athengiswa kwihlabathi liphela.

Ukusukela kwelungelo elilodwa lomenzi we-glyphosate njengombulali wokhula kwi-1974, iMonsanto ibisoloko iqinisekisa ukuba ayibangeli mhlaza kwaye ikhuseleke kakhulu ebantwini nakwimeko yokusingqongileyo kunezinye i-pesticides.

kodwa uphando lwezenzululwazi ephuculweyo kule minyaka ingamashumi idlulileyo iphikisana nala mabango eenkampani. Iinkxalabo ziye zanda emva kwe-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-2015.

Ngaphezulu kwamaxhoba omhlaza ayi-11,000 amangalela iMonsanto etyhola ukubhencwa kwiRoundup kunye nezinye iimveliso zeglyphosate inkampani ezithengisayo ibangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izityholo zibanga ukuba inkampani kudala yazi malunga nomngcipheko womhlaza kodwa isebenze ukugcina olo lwazi eluntwini, ngokuyinxenye ngokusebenzisa idatha yesayensi exhomekeke kubalawuli.

Izilingo ezimbini zokuqala ziphelile kwizigwebo ezivunyiweyo zejaji ezixhasa abamangali. Ityala lesithathu liyaqhubeka eCalifornia ngoku.

UKallos unethemba lokuba ulwazi loluntu oluveliswe zizilingo luya kuqhuba inkxaso yakhe. Umlinganiso ofanayo owaziswa ngo-2015 wahluleka ukuqokelela inkxaso eyaneleyo yokupasa.

"Inzululwazi iya isomelela mihla le, kwaye umdla woluntu kulo mbandela uya usomelela," utshilo uKallos.

Umzamo wamva wokunciphisa okanye wokuthintela

Inzame yaseNew York yenye yezona zijikeleze iUnited States zokuthintela okanye ukunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zeglyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane.

Amakhomishina esiXeko eMiami bavotela ukuvalwa kwi-glyphosate herbicides ngoFebruwari. Ngo-Matshi, iBhodi ye-Los Angeles yeBhodi yaBaphathi ikhuphe ukunqunyanyiswa Kwizicelo ze-glyphosate kwipropathi yendawo yokuvumela ukuvavanywa kokhuseleko ziimpilo zikawonke-wonke kunye neengcali zokusingqongileyo.

Uluhlu lwezithili zesikolo, iidolophu kunye namaqela abanini makhaya athintele okanye anciphise ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezinye izitshabalalisi ezinobungozi ezifanayo kubandakanya ezininzi eCalifornia apho iOfisi kaRhulumente ye-Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) idwelisa i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen eyaziwayo.

Kule veki, iqela laseLeesburg, eVirginia, abahlali wabiza amagosa edolophu ukuyeka ukusebenzisa i-glyphosate ecaleni kweebhanki zomjelo wommandla.

Abanye abathengisi abakhulu baqalise ukurhoxa kwimveliso ye-glyphosate. I-Harrell's, i-turf esekwe eFlorida, indawo yegalufa kunye nomthengisi wemveliso yezolimo, wayeka ukunikela ngeglyphosate iimveliso ukusukela ngoMatshi 1.

Umphathi we-Harrel u-Jack Harrell Jr. uthe umboneleli we-inshurensi yenkampani ebengasakulungelanga ukubonelela ngamabango ahambelana ne-glyphosate, kwaye inkampani ayinakho ukufumana ukhuseleko olwaneleyo kwezinye iinshurensi.

I-Costco iyekile ukuthengisa i-Roundup-osisithethi seshishini uthi bayisusile imveliso kwi-inventri ka-2019. Abathengisi kwiivenkile ezahlukeneyo abanxibelelana nabo baqinisekisile ukuba abasaziniki iimveliso.

Kwaye inkampani enkulu ezimeleyo yegadi yeziko iPike Nurseries eGeorgia ithe ekuqaleni kwale nyanga ayibuyiseli ukubuyiselwa kweRoundup ngenxa yokuhla kwentengiso.

Ekulingweni

Ukupheliswa kweemveliso zikaMonsanto khange kuncedwe lupapasho lwehlabathi olujikeleze izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zomhlaza we-Roundup, eziye zabeka ii-imeyile zangaphakathi zeMonsanto kunye neengxelo zokucwangciswa ngobuchule kuluntu ngokubanzi kunye nobungqina obucetywayo malunga nokuphathwa kwenkampani kwezona zinto zixhalabisayo zesayensi malunga neengozi zayo. amayeza okubulala ukhula.

Kwilingo eliqhubekayo ngoku, ityala elilethwe yindoda nomfazi bobabini bane-non-Hodgkin lymphoma abatyhola ekusebenziseni kwabo iRoundup, ubungqina baziswa kwiveki ephelileyo malunga nokukhululeka apho umbulali wokhula anokufunxa kulusu lomntu.

Kwabekwa ubungqina obubonisa ukuba iMonsanto isebenze ngokusondeleyo ne-Arhente yoKhuselo lweNdalo vimba ukuphononongwa kwetyhefu yeglyphosate yiarhente karhulumente eyahlukileyo.

Ityala langoku, kunye nezilingo ezimbini ezidlulileyo, zonke zibandakanyile ubungqina bokuba iMonsanto ibandakanyeka ekubhaleni ngokuchanekileyo amaphepha athile enzululwazi agqibe iimveliso ze-glyphosate zikhuselekile; kwaye iMonsanto wachitha izigidi zeerandi kwiiprojekthi ezijolise ekuchaseni izigqibo zoososayensi bomhlaza bamazwe aphesheya ababeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen enokwenzeka.

Intlanganiso ka-Bayer yabanini zabelo yonyaka imiselwe u-Epreli 26 kwaye abatyali mali abanomsindo bafuna iimpendulo ezivela kwi-CEO yeBayer uWerner Baumann oqhube ukufunyanwa kweMonsanto, ukuvala isivumelwano se- $ 63 yezigidigidi ngaphambi nje kokuba uvavanyo lokuqala lomhlaza lwe-Roundup luqale ngoJuni ophelileyo.

The inkampani igcina I-glyphosate herbicides ayiyiyo i-carcinogenic kwaye iya kuphumelela ekugqibeleni.

Kodwa umhlalutyi weQela lezeMali laseSusquehanna uTom Claps ulumkise abanini zabelo ukuba balungiselele ulungiso lwehlabathi oluphakathi kwe- $ 2.5 yezigidigidi kunye ne- $ 4.5 yezigidigidi. "Ayisiyongxaki yokuba 'ukuba' iBayer izakufikelela kwisivumelwano sehlabathi seRoundup, yinto yokuba 'nini,' utshilo uClaps kubatyali zimali kwingxelo yakutshanje.

UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria Uyalele iBayer ukungena kulamlo, ukuxoxa malunga nokuhlala kwimeko ye-Roundup.