Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

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Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo

Iingxilimbela zamachiza ezothusayo zifuna indlela yokuvalwa kwenkundla ngababulali babo bokhula

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Bacaphula “imeko yongxamiseko,” izigebenga zemichiza i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont bacele inkundla yomanyano ukuba ibavumele ukuba bangenelele kwimeko apho inkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga yayalela ukuba i-dicamba herbicides ivalwe kwangoko kunye nemveliso ye-dicamba eyenziwe ngumnini-Monsanto uBayer AG .

Intshukumo yeenkampani zemichiza ilandela a Isigwebo se-3 kaJuni yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba eyathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

I-EPA ukutyeshela loo myalelo, Nangona kunjalo, ukuxelela abalimi ukuba bangaqhubeka nokutshiza ngemichiza yokubulala ukhula ekuthethwa ngayo ukuphela kukaJulayi.

Umanyano lwamaqela asefama kunye nabathengi abathi ekuqaleni bafaka ityala ngokuchasene ne-EPA babuyele enkundleni kwiveki ephelileyo, ukucela umyalelo ongxamisekileyo ibambe i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla inike i-EPA kude kube sekupheleni kosuku Lwesibini, nge-16 kaJuni, ukuba iphendule.

Uqhushululu kwiLizwe laseFama

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zeenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kula masimi ngemithi ye-dicamba eyenziwe zezi zintathu. iinkampani.

"Inkqubo yesityalo se-dicamba" ibonelela amafama ukuba atyale amasimi abo ngezityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-dicamba, abanokuthi emva koko batshize "ngaphezulu-phezulu" ngombulali we-dicamba. Inkqubo ityebise iinkampani ezithengisa imbewu kunye neekhemikhali kwaye yanceda amafama ukuba akhule umqhaphu okhethekileyo wokunyamezela i-dicamba kunye ne-soy malunga nokhula olunenkani olunganyangekiyo kwimveliso ye-Roundup esekwe kwi-glyphosate.

Kodwa kwinani elikhulu lamafama angazityali izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza, ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-dicamba herbicides kuye kwathetha ukonakala kunye nelahleko yezityalo kuba i-dicamba ithambekele ekunyukeni nasekuhambeni kude apho inokubulala izityalo, imithi kunye namatyholo ayitshintshiswanga ngokwemfuza ukumelana nemichiza.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla yomanyano yaphawula kwisigqibo sayo.

Amafama amaninzi ekuqaleni abhiyozela isigwebo senkundla kwaye bakhululeka ekubeni iifama zabo kunye neigadi zabo zingasindiswa kweli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba abaye bahlangabezana nawo ehlotyeni elingaphambili. Kodwa uncedo lwaluhlala ixesha elifutshane xa i-EPA isithi ayizukunyanzela kwangoko ukuthintelwa kwenkundla.

Kwifayile eyenziwe ngolwesiHlanu, I-BASF iyicenge inkundla ukunganyanzelisi ukuvalwa kwangoko kwaye uxelele inkundla ukuba iyakudinga ukuvala indawo yokuvelisa eBeaumont, eTexas, okwangoku "esebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku phantse ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" ukuba ayikwazi ukuvelisa uphawu lwayo lwe-dicamba olubizwa ngokuba Engenia. I-BASF ichithe i-370 yezigidi zeedola kule minyaka idlulileyo ukuphucula isityalo kwaye iqeshe abantu abayi-170 apho, utshilo inkampani.

Iphawula "utyalo-mali olubalulekileyo" kwimveliso yayo, i-BASF ikwatshele nenkundla ukuba yanele imveliso yayo okwangoku kuyo yonke "ijelo labathengi" lokunyanga ii-26.7 zezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu. I-BASF inezigidi ezongezelelekileyo ze- $ 44 yezigidi zeemveliso ze-Engenia dicamba, eyaneleyo yokunyanga ii-6.6 yezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu, utshilo inkampani.

UDuPont / uCorteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, ukuxelela inkundla ekufayeleni kwayo ukuba ukuvalwa "kuyonakalisa ngokuthe ngqo" inkampani "kunye nabalimi abaninzi kulo lonke eli lizwe eliphakathi kwexesha lokukhula." Iya konakalisa "igama" lenkampani ukuba ukubulala iyeza kuvaliwe, inkampani ixelele inkundla.

Ngaphaya koko, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukuvelisa "ingeniso ebalulekileyo" kwintengiso ye-dicamba herbicide, ebizwa ngokuba yiFeXapan kwaye iyakuphulukana naloo mali ukuba ukuvalwa kuyanyanzeliswa, utshilo inkampani.

IMonsanto yayisebenza kwimeko exhasa ukuvunywa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesigwebo, kodwa bobabini i-BASF kunye neDuPont baqinisekisa ngokungachanekanga ukuba ityala lenkundla lisebenza kuphela kwiimveliso zikaMonsanto hayi ezabo. Inkundla ikucacisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-EPA yamkele ngokungekho mthethweni iimveliso ezenziwe zezi nkampani zontathu.

Ikhokelwe liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ngokuchasene ne-EPA lwaziswa ngumbutho weSizwe weFama yoMbutho, iZiko lokwahluka kweBioloji, kunye neNethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Xa ibuza inkundla ukuba ifumane i-EPA ngokudelela, iqumrhu liye lalumkisa ngomonakalo wezityalo oza kubakho ukuba iimveliso ze-dicamba azithintelwa kwangoko.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukutshizwa kwezigidi ezili-16 zeepiccic ze-dicamba kunye nomonakalo kwizigidi zeehektare, kunye nomngcipheko obonakalayo kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini," utshilo umdibaniso. Enye into isemngciphekweni nayo: umthetho. Inkundla kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuthintela ukungabikho kobulungisa kwaye ixhase ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yokugweba. Ngenxa yokungahoywa ngokucacileyo kwe-EPA kwisigqibo seNkundla, abafaki-zikhalazo bayabongoza iNkundla ukuba iyidelele i-EPA. ”

Yintoni iBill Bill ayixeleli yona malunga neeGMOs

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ingxelo ehambelanayo yi-US ilungelo lokwazi:

Njengeenkampani ezinkulu zokutya bhengeza izicwangciso Ukulebhelisha ukutya okwenziwe ngemfuza e-US, sijonga ngakumbi iipro kunye neengxoxo malunga netekhnoloji yokutya enempikiswano. Iividiyo ezimbini zamva nje zikhanyisa ukwahlulahlula ii-GMO.

NgoJanuwari, uBill Gates wachaza inkxaso yakhe yobunjineli bemfuza kwi udliwano-ndlebe kunye neWall Street Journal kaRebecca Blumenstein:

“Oko kubizwa ngokuba zii-GMOs kwenziwa ngokutshintsha ii-genes zesityalo, kwaye yenziwa ngendlela apho kukho inkqubo yokhuseleko olucokisekileyo, kwaye iyamangalisa kuba iyalinciphisa inani lesibulali-zinambuzane osidingayo, inyusa imveliso (kwaye) inganceda ngokungondleki ngokufumana i-vitamin fortification. Kwaye ke ndiyacinga, kwiAfrika, oku kuzakwenza umahluko omkhulu, ngakumbi njengoko bejamelene notshintsho lwemozulu…

I-US, China, Brazil, ziyazisebenzisa ezi zinto kwaye ukuba ufuna amafama aseAfrika ukuba aphucule isondlo kwaye akhuphisane kwimakethi yehlabathi, uyazi, okoko nje izinto ezifanelekileyo zokhuseleko zenziwe, oko kuyinzuzo ngokwenene. Luhlobo lwesibini lomjikelo wotshintsho oluluhlaza. Kwaye ke amaAfrika ndicinga ukuba azakukhetha ukunika abantu babo ukutya okwaneleyo. ”

Ukuba iGates ilungile, ziindaba ezimnandi ezo. Oko kuthetha ukuba eyona nto iphambili ekusombululeni ingxaki yendlala kukunciphisa izithintelo kwiinkampani ukuze zikwazi ukumelana nemozulu, ziphucule izityalo ezenzelwe ufuzo ukuthengisa.

Ngaba uGates ulungile?

Enye ividiyo ekhutshwe kule veki inye Udliwanondlebe lwe-WSJ lweGates lubonelela ngendlela eyahlukileyo.

The Ifilimu emfutshane liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya lichaza indlela ilizwe laseHawaii, eligcina amasimi avulekileyo kwizityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli kunalo naliphi na elinye ilizwe, lingcoliswe zizibulali zinambuzane eziyityhefu.

Ifilimu kunye umbiko Chaza ukuba iinkampani ezintlanu zezolimo zamazwe aphesheya ziqhuba iipesenti ezingama-97 zeemvavanyo zentsimi ye-GE eHawaii, kwaye uninzi lwezityalo zilungisiwe ukuze zisinde kwiyeza. Ngokwividiyo:

“Ngenxa yovavanyo oluninzi lwentsimi ye-GE kwimeko encinci kangako, abantu abaninzi eHawaii bahlala, basebenze kwaye baye esikolweni kufutshane neziza zovavanyo ezitshiziweyo. Amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ahlala ekhukhula kungoko kungamangalisi ukuba abantwana kunye nesikolo kunye noluntu luphela luyagula. Ukwenza izinto zibe mandundu ngakumbi, kwiimeko ezininzi, ezi nkampani ziye zingafuneki nokuba zichaze into eziyitshizayo. ”

Ukuba iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya lilungile, yingxaki enkulu leyo. Omabini la mabali awanakulunga ngaxeshanye, andibi kunjalo?

Iinyani emhlabeni

Ukulandela umsonto wengxelo yeGates, umntu unokulindela ukuba amasimi ezolimo aseHawaii-indawo ekhokelayo yovavanyo kwizityalo ezenziwe ngobuchwephesha e-US-ukuba zixakeke yipilisi yokubulala izinambuzane ephantsi, ekwaziyo ukumelana nemozulu, kunye nezityalo eziphuculweyo.

Endaweni yokuba uninzi lwezityalo ze-GMO zikhuliswa eHawaii nase eU.S. Zizityalo ezinyamezelayo ezibulala ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, esona sithako siphambili kwi-Roundup yeMonsanto kunye nemichiza ye-World Health Organisation Iingcali zomhlaza zihlela njengo "mhlawumbi umhlaza kubantu."

Kwiminyaka engama-20 okoko iMonsanto yazisa “ngeRoundup Ready” ingqolowa ye-GMO kunye nesoya, ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuye ukwanda okungama-15 kwaye ngoku "yeyona khemikhali yezolimo esetyenziswa kakhulu kwimbali yehlabathi", uxele uDouglas Main kwiNewsweek.

Ukusetyenziswa okunzima kokubulala ukhula sele kukhawulezile ukumelana nokhula kwizigidi zeehektare zomhlaba wefama. Ukujongana nale ngxaki, iMonsanto yiyo kuphuma iimbotyi zesoya ezintsha eziyilelwe ukuba zisinde kumdibaniso weekhemikhali zokubulala ukhula, i-glyphosate kunye nedicamba. I-EPA inayo okwangoku ukuvuma Umxube omtsha weyeza.

Kodwa iDow Chemical ifumene ukukhanya okuluhlaza ukusuka kwijaji yomdibaniso I-combo yayo entsha yokubulala ukhula ye-2,4D kunye ne-glyphosate, ebizwa ngokuba yi-Enlist Duo, eyilelwe imbewu ye-Dow's Enlist GMO. I-EPA yaphosa ecaleni idatha yayo yokhuseleko ukuze ivume i-Enlist Duo, uxele uPatricia Callahan kwiChicago Tribune.

I-arhente emva koko yaguqula ikhosi kwaye yacela inkundla ukuba phuma kulwamkelo - isicelo ijaji sisikhanyele ngaphandle kwesizathu.

Konke oku kuphakamisa imibuzo malunga namabango uBill Gates enziwe kudliwanondlebe lwakhe eWall Street Journal malunga neenkqubo zokhuselo ezicokisekileyo kunye nokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane.

Ixhala liyakhula eHawaii, Argentina, Iowa

Esikhundleni sokuxhamla kunye neentlobo ezintsha ezithembisayo zokulungelelanisa izityalo ze-GMO, iHawaii iyaxhamla kunye neenzame zokuzama khusela uluntu Ukusuka kwi-pesticide drift, kufuna ukuba iinkampani zeekhemikhali ziye xela izibulala-zinambuzane bayasebenzisa, kwaye thintela ukukhula kwe-GMO kwiindawo ezikufutshane nezikolo nakumakhaya abantu abalupheleyo.

Izikolo ezikufutshane neefama eKauai zikhutshiwe ngenxa yokuqotywa kwezibulali zinambuzane, kwaye oogqirha baseHawaii bathi bajonge ukwanda kweziphene zokuzalwa kunye nezinye izigulo abacinga ukuba zinxulumene nezibulala-zinambuzane, uxele uChristopher Pala kuMgcini kwaye Ingcali ye-Ekoloji.

Ngokutsho American Academy of iPediatrics, ukubonakaliswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane zaphambi kokubeleka kunye nobomi bokuqala kunxulunyaniswa nomhlaza womntwana, kunciphisa ukusebenza kwengqondo, iingxaki zokuziphatha kunye neziphene zokuzalwa.

EArgentina - umvelisi wesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni wezityalo ze-GMO - oogqirha bakwaphakamisa inkxalabo malunga neqondo eliphakamileyo kunomyinge womhlaza kunye neziphene zokuzalwa abakrokrela ukuba zinxulumene neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, uxele uMichael Warren I-Associated Press.

Ibali likaWarren elivela kwi-2013 licaphule ubungqina "bokusetyenziswa okungalawulwayo kwezinambuzane":

I-Associated Press ibhale phantsi amatyala amaninzi kwilizwe liphela apho iityhefu zisetyenziswa ngendlela engalindelwanga sisayensi elawulayo okanye ngokuthe ngqo ivalwe ngumthetho okhoyo. Ukutshiza kuye kwangena ezikolweni nasemakhaya kwaye kwahlala imithombo yamanzi; abasebenzi basezifama baxuba ityhefu ngaphandle kwezixhobo zokuzikhusela; abantu balapha bagcina amanzi kwizikhongozeli zetyhefu ekufanele ukuba zatshatyalaliswa. ”

Kwi ibali elilandelayo, I-Monsanto ikhusele i-glyphosate njengekhuselekileyo yaza yacela ulawulo ngakumbi ukuyeka ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kweekhemikhali zezolimo, kwaye uWarren uxele:

“Oogqirha baseArgentina ekwenziwe udliwanondlebe nabo yi-AP bathi imirhumo yabo - hayi amalinge elebhu- ibonisa ulungelelwaniso olubonakalayo phakathi kokufika kwezolimo olunamandla kwimizi-mveliso kunye nokunyuka kwamazinga omhlaza kunye neziphene zokuzalwa kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni, kwaye bafuna izifundo ezibanzi, zexesha elide ukuthintela ukungabikho sesichengeni njengonobangela wezi zifo nezinye. ”

Isithethi seMonsanto uThomas Helscher uphendule wathi, “ukungabikho kwedatha ethembekileyo kwenza kube nzima kakhulu ukuseka imeko yeziganeko kwaye kunzima nangakumbi ukuseka ubudlelwane bezizathu. Kulwazi lwethu akukho buhlobo buzinzisiweyo. ”

Ukungabikho kwedatha ethembekileyo kuhlanganiswe yinto yokuba uninzi lweekhemikhali luvavanyelwa ukhuseleko lomntu ngamnye, kodwa ukubonakaliswa kubonakala kubandakanya indibaniselwano yemichiza.

'Siyaphefumla, siyatya, kwaye siyasela amayeza e-agrochemicals'

Kutshanje Ufundo lwe-UCLA bafumanise ukuba abalawuli baseCalifornia bayasilela ukuvavanya umngcipheko wezempilo wemixube yezibulala-zinambuzane, nangona uluntu lwasezifama- kubandakanya iindawo ezikufutshane nezikolo, amaziko okhathalelo lweentsuku kunye neepaki - zichaphazeleka kwizibulali zinambuzane ezininzi, ezinokuba nefuthe elikhulu kunoko kulindelweyo kwezempilo.

Ukuboniswa kwakhona kwenzeka ngeendlela ezininzi. Ukunika ingxelo ngeengxaki zempilo kunye neenkxalabo zoluntu e-Avia Teria, idolophu esemaphandleni eArgentina ejikelezwe ngamasimi eembotyi zesoya, u-Elizabeth Grossman wabhala kwi-National Geographic:

“Ngenxa yokuba zininzi kakhulu izibulali-zinambuzane ezisetyenziswa kwiidolophu zaseArgentina ezifama, imiceli mngeni yokuqonda ukuba yintoni enokubangela iingxaki zempilo iyabonakala, utshilo uNicolas Loyacono, iYunivesithi yaseBuenos Aires osisazinzulu kwezonyango nokusingqongileyo. Kwezi ndawo, uLoyacono uthi, "siyaphefumla, siyatya, kwaye siyasela."

E-Iowa, ekhulisa umbona ongene kwimfuza kunalo naliphi na elinye ilizwe e-US, ubonelelo lwamanzi luye lwangcoliswa yimichiza ebaleke kumbona nakwiifama zezilwanyana, uxele uRichard Manning kwiphephancwadi likaFebruwari. Imagazini kaHarper:

“Oososayensi abavela kwisebe lezolimo likarhulumente nakwiYunivesithi yase-Iowa State baye babhala ipensile kwaye bavavanya inkqubo yezisombululo ezinobuchwepheshe obuphantsi. Ukuba ama-40% omhlaba wezityalo obangwa ngumbona ubutyalwe nezinye izityalo kunye namadlelo asisigxina, yonke le ngxaki yeengxaki ezibangelwe limo yezemizi-mveliso - ngokuqinisekileyo ungcoliseko lwe-nitrate lwamanzi okusela-luza kuqala lunyamalale. ”

La mava kwiindawo ezintathu ezikhokelela kwihlabathi kwimveliso yesivuno se-GMO ngokucacileyo ayabaluleka kumbuzo wokuba ngaba iAfrika kufuneka yamkele ii-GMOs njengesona sisombululo sisiso sokhuseleko lokutya kwixesha elizayo. Ke kutheni le nto uBill Gates engathethi ngale micimbi?

Ukubukela iipropaganda

Abaxhasi be-GMO bathanda ukugxila ekusetyenzisweni kwetekhnoloji yobunjineli yemfuza, ngelixa badlala, bengahoyi okanye bephika umngcipheko. Bahlala bezama ukujongela phantsi abagxeki abaphakamisa iinkxalabo njengabangenalwazi okanye abachasene nesayensi; okanye, njengoko kwenza uGates, bacebisa ukhetho olungelulo lokuba amazwe kufuneka amkele ii-GMOs ukuba bafuna "ukuvumela abantu babo ukuba batye ngokwaneleyo."

Le logic iyaxhuma kwinto yokuba, emva kwamashumi eminyaka ophuhliso, uninzi lwezityalo ze-GMO zisacwangciswa ukuze zikwazi ukumelana ne-herbicides okanye zivelise i-insecticide (okanye zombini) ngelixa kunzima kakhulu (kunye neempawu ezininzi), ezinje nge-vitamin-enhancement, ziye zasilela ukuphuma umhlaba.

UTom Philpott uxele ukuba, "njengebhodi yokubhabhayisa yeFill to the future franchise, irayisi yimbono yakudala ebonakala ingaphaya kokuqonda." kuMama uJones.

Okwangoku, iinkampani zezolimo zamazwe aphesheya ezikwabanenxalenye enkulu ye ishishini lembewu bayazuza kuzo zombini iimbewu ezinganyangekiyo ngamayeza okutshabalalisa ukhula kunye nemichiza yokubulala ukhula eziyilelwe ukuyichasa, kwaye uninzi lwezicelo ezitsha ze-GMO kwipayipi zilandela lo mthambo.

La maqumrhu nawo asebenzise imali amakhulu ezigidi zeerandi kwimizamo yobudlelwane noluntu ukukhuthaza ubungakanani bemizi-mveliso, ukusebenzisa iikhemikhali ngamandla, kwezolimo njengempendulo kwindlala yehlabathi - kusetyenziswa iindawo ezifanayo zokuthetha ezenziwa nguGates kudliwanondlebe lweWall Street Journal, kwaye namaqela axhaswa ngemali yiGates nawo ayangqinelana.

Kwinqaku lakutshanje kwi Ingcali ye-Ekoloji, Ndihlalutye umyalezo weCornell Alliance for Science, inkqubo yonxibelelwano ye-pro-GMO eyasungulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sezigidi eziyi-5.6 zezigidi kwiGates Foundation.

Uhlalutyo lwam lufumanise ukuba iqela libonelela ngolwazi oluncinci malunga nemingcipheko enokubakho okanye ukwehla kwe-GMOs, kwaye endaweni yoko kukhulisa imveliso yezolimo kwi-PR mantra yokuba inzululwazi izinziswe kukhuseleko kunye nemfuneko yee-GMO.

Umzekelo, i-FAQ yeqela ithi,

Usengozini yokubethwa nge-asteroid kunokuba wenzakaliswe kukutya kwe-GE- kwaye ayisiyibaxi leyo.

Oku kuyaphikisana noMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi, ithi, "Akunakwenzeka ukuba wenze ingxelo ngokubanzi ngokhuseleko lwazo zonke iintlobo zokutya okuvela kwi-GM." Ngaphezulu kwama-300 ososayensi, ii-MDs kunye nezifundiswa utshilo "akukho mvumelwano yenzululwazi ngokhuseleko lwe-GMO."

The xhalaba izazinzulu ziyakhulisa malunga ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ehamba ne-GMOs nayo ikwanomdla kwingxoxo yezokhuseleko.

Kodwa endaweni yokuphakamisa le micimbi njengenxalenye yengxoxo eyomeleleyo yesayensi, i-Cornell Alliance for Science igxotha abanye abantu kunye nabo iinkxalabo ezingezantsi malunga nemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi eHawaii kunye ukuhlasela iintatheli abafaka ingxelo ngezi zinto zixhalabisayo.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuba ezi ntlobo ze-shenanigans zinceda njani ukusombulula indlala e-Afrika.

Inzululwazi yoluntu iyathengiswa

I-Cornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi ngumzekelo wakutshanje wepateni enkulu yokuxhalabisa kwiiyunivesithi kunye nabahlohli abakhonza iimfuno zomdibaniso wesayensi.

Amanyundululu akutshanje ngokunxulumene nalo mkhwa kubandakanya oonjingalwazi beCoca-Cola abafumana inkxaso-mali yehlise ikhonkco phakathi kokutya kunye nokutyeba kakhulu, unjingalwazi othanda imozulu ochaze amaphepha akhe enzululwazi njengoukunikezelwa”Kubaxhasi benkampani, kunye namaxwebhu afunyenwe liqela lam lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi elityhila oonjingalwazi abasebenza ngokusondeleyo neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ii-GMO ngaphandle kokutyhila amaqhina abo eMonsanto.

Ngendlebe nodliwano - ndlebe kunye Inkcazo yeMfundo ePhakamileyo, UMarc Edwards, uprofesa waseVirginia Tech owanceda ukuveza ingxaki yamanzi eFlint, waxwayisa ukuba inzululwazi yoluntu isengozini enkulu.

“Ndixhalabile yinkcubeko yezemfundo kweli kunye nezikhuthazo ezigqwethekileyo ezinikwa iFakhalthi yolutsha. Uxinzelelo lokufumana inkxaso-mali lungaqhelekanga. Sonke sikule nkqubo yokunyathela ye-hedonistic-ukulandela inkxaso-mali, ukulandela udumo, ukulandela isalathiso se-h - kunye nembono yenzululwazi njengoluntu iyalahleka… Abantu abafuni kuyiva le nto. Kodwa kufuneka siyilungisile, kwaye siyilungise ngokukhawuleza, kungenjalo siza kuphulukana nobudlelwane bethu noluntu. Bayayeka ukusixhasa. ”

Njengesiseko esityebileyo sehlabathi kwaye njengabaxhasi abakhulu bophando lwezifundo, ngakumbi kwicandelo lezolimo, iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ikwindawo yokuxhasa isayensi kuluntu.

Isicwangciso seGates seSiseko, nangona kunjalo, sihlala sihambelana nomdla wokudibana. A Uhlalutyo luka-2014 liqela lophando elise-Barcelona iGrain yafumanisa ukuba malunga ne-90% yeebhiliyoni zeerandi i-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ichithe ukunceda abantu abalambileyo kumazwe ahlwempuzekileyo emhlabeni waya kumazwe afumileyo, ikakhulu kuphando lobugcisa obuphezulu.

A Ingxelo kaJanuwari 2016 liqela elikhuthazayo lase-UK i-Global Justice ngoku ithi inkcitho yeGates Foundation, ngakumbi kwiiprojekthi zezolimo, ikhulisa ukungalingani kunye nokuzinzisa amandla enkampani jikelele.

"Mhlawumbi eyona nto ibalulekileyo malunga neBill & Melinda Gates Foundation kukuba ngaphandle kwesicwangciso sayo sobundlongondlongo kunye nefuthe elingaqhelekanga kubo bonke oorhulumente, izifundiswa kunye noonondaba, akukho lizwi libalulekileyo," latsho iqela.

Kodwa amazwi enkampani asondele. Intloko yeqela lezophando lwezolimo kunye neqela lophuhliso nguRob Horsch, ochithe amashumi eminyaka yakhe ikhondo lomsebenzi eMonsanto.

Ityala lengxoxo ethembekileyo

Endaweni yokwenza imeko yepropaganda ye-GMOs, iBill Gates kunye namaqela axhaswe ngemali yiGates angadlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuphakamiseni ukuthembeka kwezenzululwazi kwingxoxo mpikiswano ye-GMO, kunye nokuqinisekisa ukuba itekhnoloji entsha yokutya iyalunceda uluntu.

Itekhnoloji ayilunganga ngokwendalo okanye imbi; konke kuxhomekeke kumxholo. Njengoko uGates ebeka, "okoko nje izinto ezifanelekileyo zokhuseleko zenziwe." Kodwa ezo zinto zokhuseleko azenziwa.

Ukukhusela abantwana kukuchazwa kwetyhefu yokubulala izitshabalalisi eHawaii naseArgentina kunye nokucoca amanzi eIowa akufuneki kuthintele ubunjineli bemfuza ukuba buqhubele phambili. Kodwa loo micimbi ibalaselisa isidingo sokuthatha amanyathelo okhuseleko kunye nee-GMO kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

Oko kuyakufuna uvavanyo olomeleleyo noluzimeleyo lwempembelelo yezendalo kunye nokusingqongileyo, kunye nokhuselo lwabasebenzi basezifama kunye noluntu.

Oko kuya kufuna ukungafihli, kubandakanya ukubeka iilebheli ukutya kwe-GMO kunye nokufikelela okuvulekileyo kwidatha yesayensi, ukwaziswa koluntu ngokutshiza ngezibulala-zinambuzane, kunye nokuchazwa ngokupheleleyo kwempembelelo kumzi mveliso kwimibutho yezemfundo nakwinzululwazi.

Kuya kufuna ukuba kubekho incoko ethembekileyo ngakumbi malunga nee-GMO kunye namayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ukuze zonke izizwe zikwazi ukusebenzisa ulwazi olupheleleyo lwenzululwazi njengoko zijonga ukuba zisebenzise okanye zingamkeli ubuchwephesha bezolimo kwezolimo ekuboneleleni ngokutya kwazo.

UStacy Malkan ungumququzeleli kunye nomlawuli-kunye weqela labathengi Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi. Bhalisela eyethu Incwadana yeendaba apha. UStacy ngumbhali wencwadi ethi, 'Hayi Ubuso nje obuhle: Icala elibi leShishini loBuhle,' (Ukupapashwa koMbutho oMtsha, 2007) kwaye waseka iphulo lokuSebenza ngeeCosmetics ezikhuselekileyo. Landela uStacy I-Twitter: @stacymalkan.