Amaphepha eMonsanto-Iimfihlo eziBulalayo, urhwaphilizo lwendibaniselwano, kunye nokuKhangelwa kweNdoda enye kuLuntu

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Incwadi entsha yoMlawuli woPhando wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam ikhutshiwe ngoku kwaye ifumana uphononongo oluqaqambileyo. Nantsi inkcazo emfutshane yencwadi evela kumpapashi Isiqithi seSiqithi:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupha alula. Eyona nto wayeyifuna yayingumsebenzi ozinzileyo kunye nekhaya elihle lenkosikazi nabantwana, into ebhetele kunobomi obunzima awayebazi bekhula. Khange ayicinge into yokuba angangumntu kumlo kaDavid-no-Goliyathi ngokuchasene nesinye sezigebenga ezinamandla zehlabathi. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yamshiya uLee efakwe kwimichiza enetyhefu kwaye ejongene nomhlaza obulalayo owabuguqula ubomi bakhe babuguqula. Kwi-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoko uLee ebethathelwe phambili kwelona dabi lomthetho lihle kwimbali yamva nje.

Amaphepha eMonsanto libali langaphakathi likaLee Johnson elimangalela uMonsanto. KuLee, ityala yayilugqatso ngokuchasene nexesha, oogqirha bexela kwangaphambili ukuba ngekhe aphile ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuba angathatha ubungqina. Kwicandelo le-eclectic labancinci, amagqwetha amele ukummela, ibingumbandela wokuzingca ngobungcali kunye nomngcipheko wobuntu, nezigidi zeedola zabo kunye negama labo elisebenze nzima emgceni.

Ngamandla okubalisa, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi emva komlo wedabi elinzima lezomthetho, ukubuyisa ikhethini kubuthathaka benkqubo yenkundla yaseMelika kunye nobude amagqwetha aya kuya kuwo ukulwa nokungalunganga kwezopolitiko kunye nokufumana ubulungisa kubathengi.

Bona ngakumbi malunga incwadi apha. Thenga incwadi nge AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqithi seSiqithi okanye abathengisi beencwadi abazimeleyo.

Reviews

"Ibali elinamandla, libaliswa kakuhle, kunye nomsebenzi ophawulekayo wobuntatheli bophando. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi enyanzelisayo ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya esiphelweni, malunga nelinye lawona madabi asemthethweni abalulekileyo kweli xesha lethu. ” -U-Lukas Reiter, umvelisi olawulayo we-TV kunye nombhali we "Uluhlu oluMnyama," "Ukuziqhelanisa," kunye ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto adibanisa inzululwazi nentlekele yabantu kwidrama yasenkundleni ngendlela kaJohn Grisham. Libali lokungaziphathi kakuhle kwezorhwebo kwinqanaba elikhulu-isityhilelo esothusayo sokubawa kwemveliso yamachiza, ukuzingca, kunye nokungakhathali kobomi babantu kunye nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kufuneka ifundwe. ” -U-Philip J. Landrigan, MD, uMlawuli, iNkqubo yezeMpilo yoLuntu yeHlabathi kunye nokuQhelekileyo kokuLungileyo, kwiKholeji yaseBoston

“Veteran investigative journalist Carey Gillam tells Johnson’s story in her latest book, “The Monsanto Papers,” a fast-paced, engaging account of how Monsanto and Bayer’s fortunes changed dramatically in such a short span of time. Despite the subject matter — complicated science and legal proceedings — “The Monsanto Papers” is a gripping read that provides an easy-to-follow explanation of how this litigation unfolded, how the jurors reached their verdict and why Bayer appears to be, in effect, throwing up a white flag now.”  — ISt. Louis Post-Dispatch

“The author builds a convincing case that Monsanto was more interested in protecting the reputation of its cash cow than heeding scientific evidence of its dangerous properties. Gillam is especially good at rendering the complex dynamics of the legal personalities, which adds a further humanizing dimension to Johnson’s story…An authoritative takedown of a corporation that evidently cares little for public health.”  ― Kirkus

“UGillam ubalisa ngomzuzu wokuthatha uxanduva kunye nequmrhu elikhulu elineemveliso ezithengiswa njengezikhuselekileyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970. Njengoluvavanyo lwezinto ezigwenxa kwezorhwebo kunye nokuziphatha okusemthethweni kwiimeko zamatyala, incwadi kaGillam ichaza isidingo sokhuseleko lwabathengi nokhuseleko. ” Uluhlu lweencwadi

“Kufundwe kakuhle, ukujika iphepha. Ndandixheleke ngenkohliso, ukugqwethwa, kunye nokuswela isimilo kwenkampani. ” -U-Linda S. Birnbaum, owayenguMlawuli, iZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi ngezeMpilo kunye neNkqubo yeSizwe yeToxicology, kunye noMfundi wase Residence, kwiDuke University.

Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto kunye nabanye ekungakhange kubanjwe ixesha elide kubo!
-UJohn Boyd Jr., uMseki kunye noMongameli, uMbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaMnyama

Malunga uMbhali

Intatheli yophando uCarey Gillam uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 enika ingxelo kwimanyano yaseMelika, kubandakanya neminyaka eli-17 esebenzela iarhente yeendaba zamanye amazwe. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iWhitewash: Ibali loMbulali wokhula, umhlaza, kunye noRhwaphilizo lwezeNzululwazi, uphumelele i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award kuMbutho Wezintatheli Zokusingqongileyo kwaye ubeyinxalenye yekharityhulamu kwizifundo zempilo zaseyunivesithi ezininzi. iinkqubo. UGillam kungoku nje nguMlawuli woPhando weqela labathengi elingenzi nzuzo e-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kwaye ubhala njengegalelo Guardian.

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

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Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Uphononongo lwase-US lubonisa ukutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kunokukhawuleza kucace ukubulala izitshabalalisi kwimizimba yethu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Isifundo esitsha epapashwe ngoLwesibini ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokuwanciphisa amanqanaba esibulali-zinambuzane esihambelana nomhlaza ofunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwama-70 epesenti.

Abaphandi baqokelela iisampulu zomchamo ezili-158 eziphuma kwiintsapho ezine –abadala abasixhenxe nabantwana abasithoba - kwaye bavavanya iisampulu zobukho bokubulala ukhula glyphosate, nesisithako esisebenzayo kwiRoundup kunye neminye imichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula ethandwayo. Abathathi-nxaxheba bachitha iintsuku ezintlanu kukutya okungekho organic ngokupheleleyo kunye neentsuku ezintlanu kukutya okune-organic ngokupheleleyo.

"Olu phononongo lubonisa ukuba ukutshintshela kwindlela yokutya eyi-organic yindlela efanelekileyo yokunciphisa umthwalo we-glyphosate… Olu phando longeza kumzimba okhulayo woncwadi obonisa ukuba ukutya okunezinto eziphilayo kunokunciphisa ukubekeka kwizibulali zinambuzane kubantwana nakubantu abadala," utshilo. isifundo, esapapashwa kwijenali UPhando lwezeNdalo.

Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya. Amanqanaba okuchama e-urinary glyphosate kuzo zonke izifundo ehle ngepesenti ye-70.93.

Ngaphandle kobukhulu bayo obuncinci, olu phononongo lubalulekile kuba lubonisa ukuba abantu banokunciphisa ukubhengeza kwabo ukubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni nangaphandle komthetho, utshilo uBruce Lanphear, uNjingalwazi weSayensi yezeMpilo kwiYunivesithi yaseSimon Fraser.

U-Lanphear uqaphele ukuba isifundo sibonisa ukuba abantwana babonakala bevezwe kakhulu kunabantu abadala, nangona isizathu singacacanga. "Ukuba ukutya kungcoliswe zizibulali zinambuzane, baya kuba nomthwalo ophezulu emzimbeni," utshilo uLanphear.

I-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate herbicides zihlala zitshizwa ngqo ngaphezulu kwamasimi okulima umbona, iimbotyi zesoya, isweet beet, icanola, ingqolowa, ihabile kunye nezinye izityalo ezininzi ezisetyenziselwa ukwenza ukutya, kushiya umkhondo kwimveliso yokutya egqityiweyo etyiwe ngabantu nezilwanyana.

Ulawulo lokutya kunye neziyobisi lufumene i-glyphosate nkqu kwi-oatmeal  kwaye sithandwa, phakathi kwezinye iimveliso. Kwaye amaqela abathengi anamaxwebhu ashiyekileyo e-glyphosate kuluhlu lwamashwamshwam kunye nokutya okuziinkozo.

Kodwa i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides enje ngeRoundup inxulunyaniswe nomhlaza kunye nokunye ukugula kunye nezifo kwizifundo ezininzi kule minyaka kunye nokwanda kolwazi lophando kukhokelele ekukhuleni koloyiko malunga nokuchazwa kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi ngokutya.

Amaqela amaninzi abhale ubukho be-glyphosate kumchamo womntu kule minyaka idlulileyo. Kodwa bekukho izifundo ezimbalwa ngokuthelekisa amanqanaba e-glyphosate kubantu abatya ukutya okuqhelekileyo xa kuthelekiswa nokutya okwenziwe kuphela kukutya okulinywe ngokwendalo, ngaphandle kokusebenzisa izitshabalalisi ezifana ne-glyphosate.

"Iziphumo zolu phando ziqinisekisa uphando lwangaphambili apho izidlo eziphilayo zinokunciphisa ukungena kwe-agrochemicals, njenge-glyphosate," utshilo uChensheng Lu, unjingalwazi odibeneyo weSikolo seYunivesithi yaseWashington seMpilo kaRhulumente kunye noprofesa wokuhlonipha, kwiYunivesithi yase Mzantsi-ntshona, eChongqing China .

Ngokoluvo lwam, umyalezo osisiseko weli phepha kukukhuthaza ukuvelisa ukutya okuninzi okungafunekiyo kwabantu abafuna ukuzikhusela ekuvezweni ziiagrochemicals. Eli phepha liyingqinile kwakhona le ndlela ichanekileyo yokuthintela kunye nokukhusela, ”utshilo uLu.

Isifundo yabhalwa nguJohn Fagan noLarry Bohlen, bobabini iZiko loPhando ngezeMpilo e-Iowa, kunye no-Sharyle Patton, umlawuli we-Commonweal Biomonitoring Resource Centre eCalifornia no-Kendra Klein, isazinzulu sabasebenzi kwi-Friends of the Earth, iqela elikhuthaza abathengi.

The Iintsapho ezithatha inxaxheba Kwisifundo bahlala e-Oakland, California, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Baltimore, Maryland nase-Atlanta, Georgia.

Isifundo sesibini seprojekthi enamacandelo amabini ophando. Eyokuqala, amanqanaba e-14 yezibulali zinambuzane ezahlukileyo alinganiswa kumchamo wabathathi-nxaxheba.

IGlyphosate yeyona nto ixhalabisayo kuba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kwaye sitshizwa kwizityalo ezininzi zokutya. I-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza, eyinxalenye ye-World Health Organisation, ithe ngo-2015 olo phando lubonakalise i-glyphosate to unokuba ngumhlaza womntu onokwenzeka.

Amashumi amawaka abantu baye bamangalela iMonsanto besithi ukuboniswa kwi-Roundup kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kutshanje ziye zathintela okanye zathintela i-glyphosate herbicides okanye bacinga ukwenza njalo.

I-Bayer, eyathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, yiyo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezu kwama-100,000 amabango anjalo aziswa eMelika. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.

Umgwebi waseSt. Louis uyala uMonsanto ukuba acothise elinye ixesha lokuvavanywa komhlaza

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnqweno kaMonsanto wokumisa olunye uvavanyo oluzayo lomhlaza kwi-Roundup eSt. Louis aluphumelelanga- ubuncinci okwangoku- njengejaji uyalele ukuba ityala elisetelwe u-Okthobha liza kuqhubeka.

Emva kokuva impikiswano kaMonsanto kwiveki ephelileyo efuna ukuqhubeka kwityala likaWalter Winston v. Monsanto, iJaji yeNkundla yeSekethe iSt. Louis uMichael Mullen wasikhaba isicelo sikaMonsanto wathi ityala liza kuqala ngo-Okthobha 15. UMgwebi uMullen uthe ukufakwa kunye nokufunyanwa kwelityala kufuneka iqhubeke kude kube ngu-Septemba 16 ngenkqubo yokukhetha ijaji ukuqala ngo-Okthobha u-10.

Ityala, ukuba liyenzeka, iya kuba lixesha lesine uMonsanto kuye kwafuneka ajongane nezigulana ezinomhlaza kwinkundla yokuphendula izityholo zokuba iimveliso zayo zokubulala ukhula ziRoundup zibangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye inkampani iye yafuna ukufihla ulwazi malunga nomngcipheko. IMonsanto waphulukana nezilingo ezintathu zokuqala kwaye abagwebi banikezela ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi kumonakalo, nangona amabhaso amathathu ejaji ancitshisiwe ngabagwebi bamatyala.

Ityala likaWinston liza kuba lityala lokuqala ukwenzeka kwidolophu yakudala yaseMonsanto yaseSt. Ngaphambi kokuthengisa kwinkampani yaseJamani iBayer AG kunyaka ophelileyo, iMonsanto yayingomnye wabaqeshi abakhulu baseSt.

Ityala elalilindeleke ukuba liqale eSt.

Emva kokuqhubeka kwetyala kubhengezwe kwiveki ephelileyo, imithombo ithi inkampani kunye namagqwetha abamangali baya kwiingxoxo ezinzulu malunga Ulungelelwaniso olunokubakho lwehlabathi. Okwangoku, ngaphezulu kwe-18,000 yabantu bayamangalela iMonsanto, bonke betyhola ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup kwaye iMonsanto yagquma ubungqina bengozi. Umntu othile udadile ngobuxoki isibonelelo sokuhlawula esinokubakho se- $ 8 yezigidigidi, sibangela ukuba izabelo zeBayer zinyuke ngokukhawuleza.

I-Bayer ijongene nexabiso lesabelo elinoxinzelelo kunye nabatyali mali abonileyo ukusukela nge-10 ka-Agasti, isigqibo sejaji se-2018 kwilingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup. Ijaji yanikezela umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia UDewayne "Lee" Johnson $ 289 yezigidi kwaye yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yasebenza ngolunya ekucinezeleni ulwazi malunga nemingcipheko yeherbicides yayo.

IMonsanto babhena isigwebo kwiiNkundla zezibheno zaseCalifornia, kwaye uJohnson wenze isibheno ngokunqamleza efuna ukubuyisela ibhaso lakhe lama- $ 289 ezigidi kwibhaso elincitshisiweyo le- $ 78 yezigidi ebekwe ngumgwebi wetyala. Eso sibheno Iyaqhubeka kunye neengxoxo zomlomo kulindeleke ngoSeptemba okanye ngo-Okthobha.

Ngokubhekisele kwimeko yaseSt. Louis, ityala likaWinston lisengaphoswa. Ityala linabamangali abaninzi, kubandakanya nabanye abavela ngaphandle kwendawo, kwaye loo nto inokubeka ityala kwizinwele ezinqamlezileyo zoluvo olukhutshwe kwangoko kulo nyaka yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseMissouri, enokubopha ityala likaWinston ngokungapheliyo, ngokutsho kwababukeli bezomthetho .

I-EPA yeTrump ine "Monsanto's Back"

Kwiindaba ezahlukeneyo, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) kwiveki ephelileyo ikhuphe upapasho ndaba zekhampani ukwazisa ukuba ayizukuvuma iilebhile zokulumkisa ngomhlaza ezifunwa ngurhulumente waseCalifornia malunga neemveliso ezithile zeherbicide ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate. I-EPA ithe ilebheli ethi i-glyphosate "yaziwa ngokubangela umhlaza," ayiyonyani kwaye ayikho semthethweni, kwaye ayizukuvunyelwa ngaphandle kolawulo lwaseCalifornia oluyalela ukuba kufakwe iilebheli.

“Kukungakhathali ukufuna iilebheli kwiimveliso ezingachanekanga xa i-EPA isazi ukuba imveliso ayibeki mngcipheko womhlaza. Asizukuyivumela inkqubo yaseCalifornia enesiphene ukuba inyanzelise imigaqo-nkqubo yomanyano, utshilo uMlawuli we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler.

Uluhlu lwaseCalifornia lwe-glyphosate njengesixhobo esaziwa ngokubangela umhlaza safika emva kwe-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo kwiHlabathi yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) yabeka i-glyphosate ngo-2015 njenge- “mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini.”

Inyani yokuba i-EPA ithatha le meko, kwaye yafumanisa kunyanzelekile ukuba ikhuphe ingxelo, kubonakala ngathi iqinisekisa amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto afunyenwe ngokufumanisa isimangalo esibonisa ukuba i-EPA yayikholelwa ukuba "ndinomqolo kaMonsanto”Xa kuthethwa ngeglyphosate.

Kwi umbiko iqhotyoshelwe kwi-imeyile kaJulayi ka-2018 kwisicwangciso-qhinga sehlabathi seMonsanto esisemthethweni uTodd Rands, icandelo lezobuntlola lobuchule kunye nenkampani yeengcebiso Hakluyt  uxele kuMonsanto oku kulandelayo:

"Umcebisi womgaqo-nkqubo wasekhaya kwi-White House wathi, umzekelo: 'Sinomqolo kaMonsanto kummiselo wezibulali zinambuzane. Sikulungele ukuya ku-toe-to-toe nakweyiphi na imbambano abanokuba nayo, umzekelo, i-EU. IMonsanto akufuneki yoyike nawuphi na umgaqo owongezelelweyo kolu lawulo. ”