Amaphepha eMonsanto-Iimfihlo eziBulalayo, urhwaphilizo lwendibaniselwano, kunye nokuKhangelwa kweNdoda enye kuLuntu

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Incwadi entsha yoMlawuli woPhando wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam ikhutshiwe ngoku kwaye ifumana uphononongo oluqaqambileyo. Nantsi inkcazo emfutshane yencwadi evela kumpapashi Isiqithi seSiqithi:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupha alula. Eyona nto wayeyifuna yayingumsebenzi ozinzileyo kunye nekhaya elihle lenkosikazi nabantwana, into ebhetele kunobomi obunzima awayebazi bekhula. Khange ayicinge into yokuba angangumntu kumlo kaDavid-no-Goliyathi ngokuchasene nesinye sezigebenga ezinamandla zehlabathi. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yamshiya uLee efakwe kwimichiza enetyhefu kwaye ejongene nomhlaza obulalayo owabuguqula ubomi bakhe babuguqula. Kwi-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoko uLee ebethathelwe phambili kwelona dabi lomthetho lihle kwimbali yamva nje.

Amaphepha eMonsanto libali langaphakathi likaLee Johnson elimangalela uMonsanto. KuLee, ityala yayilugqatso ngokuchasene nexesha, oogqirha bexela kwangaphambili ukuba ngekhe aphile ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuba angathatha ubungqina. Kwicandelo le-eclectic labancinci, amagqwetha amele ukummela, ibingumbandela wokuzingca ngobungcali kunye nomngcipheko wobuntu, nezigidi zeedola zabo kunye negama labo elisebenze nzima emgceni.

Ngamandla okubalisa, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi emva komlo wedabi elinzima lezomthetho, ukubuyisa ikhethini kubuthathaka benkqubo yenkundla yaseMelika kunye nobude amagqwetha aya kuya kuwo ukulwa nokungalunganga kwezopolitiko kunye nokufumana ubulungisa kubathengi.

Bona ngakumbi malunga incwadi apha. Thenga incwadi nge AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqithi seSiqithi okanye abathengisi beencwadi abazimeleyo.

Reviews

"Ibali elinamandla, libaliswa kakuhle, kunye nomsebenzi ophawulekayo wobuntatheli bophando. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi enyanzelisayo ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya esiphelweni, malunga nelinye lawona madabi asemthethweni abalulekileyo kweli xesha lethu. ” -U-Lukas Reiter, umvelisi olawulayo we-TV kunye nombhali we "Uluhlu oluMnyama," "Ukuziqhelanisa," kunye ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto adibanisa inzululwazi nentlekele yabantu kwidrama yasenkundleni ngendlela kaJohn Grisham. Libali lokungaziphathi kakuhle kwezorhwebo kwinqanaba elikhulu-isityhilelo esothusayo sokubawa kwemveliso yamachiza, ukuzingca, kunye nokungakhathali kobomi babantu kunye nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kufuneka ifundwe. ” -U-Philip J. Landrigan, MD, uMlawuli, iNkqubo yezeMpilo yoLuntu yeHlabathi kunye nokuQhelekileyo kokuLungileyo, kwiKholeji yaseBoston

"Intatheli yamagqala ophando uCarey Gillam uxelela ibali likaJohnson kwincwadi yakhe yamva nje," Amaphepha eMonsanto, "ingxelo ekhawulezayo, ebandakanyekayo yendlela iMonsanto kunye neBayer ithamsanqa elitshintshe kakhulu ngexesha elifutshane. Ngaphandle komcimbi oxandileyo - inzululwazi kunye neenkqubo zomthetho- "Amaphepha eMonsanto" kukufundwa okubambekayo okunika inkcazo ekulula ukuyilandela yendlela esi simangalo esenzeka ngayo, indlela abagwebi abasifikelela ngayo isigwebo sabo nokuba kutheni iBayer ibonakala ngathi, , ngoku ndiphakamisa iflegi emhlophe. ” - ISt. Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha ityala elikholisayo lokuba iMonsanto yayinomdla wokukhusela igama lenkomo yayo kunokuthobela ubungqina benzululwazi beempawu zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeleni ngemiba entsonkothileyo yabantu abasemthethweni, nto leyo yongeza ubuntununtunu bebali likaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyazisiweyo kombutho ekubonakala ukuba awuyikhathalelanga impilo yoluntu. ” - Kirkus

“UGillam ubalisa ngomzuzu wokuthatha uxanduva kunye nequmrhu elikhulu elineemveliso ezithengiswa njengezikhuselekileyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970. Njengoluvavanyo lwezinto ezigwenxa kwezorhwebo kunye nokuziphatha okusemthethweni kwiimeko zamatyala, incwadi kaGillam ichaza isidingo sokhuseleko lwabathengi nokhuseleko. ” Uluhlu lweencwadi

“Kufundwe kakuhle, ukujika iphepha. Ndandixheleke ngenkohliso, ukugqwethwa, kunye nokuswela isimilo kwenkampani. ” -U-Linda S. Birnbaum, owayenguMlawuli, iZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi ngezeMpilo kunye neNkqubo yeSizwe yeToxicology, kunye noMfundi wase Residence, kwiDuke University.

Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto kunye nabanye ekungakhange kubanjwe ixesha elide kubo!
-UJohn Boyd Jr., uMseki kunye noMongameli, uMbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaMnyama

Malunga uMbhali

Intatheli yophando uCarey Gillam uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 enika ingxelo kwimanyano yaseMelika, kubandakanya neminyaka eli-17 esebenzela iarhente yeendaba zamanye amazwe. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iWhitewash: Ibali loMbulali wokhula, umhlaza, kunye noRhwaphilizo lwezeNzululwazi, uphumelele i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award kuMbutho Wezintatheli Zokusingqongileyo kwaye ubeyinxalenye yekharityhulamu kwizifundo zempilo zaseyunivesithi ezininzi. iinkqubo. UGillam kungoku nje nguMlawuli woPhando weqela labathengi elingenzi nzuzo e-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kwaye ubhala njengegalelo Guardian.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

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Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Abanye babamangali baseMelika basilele ekusayineni isivumelwano sokuhlala eBayer; I-160,000 yeedola zokuhlawula

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Abamangali kwi-US Roundup litigation baqala ukufunda iinkcukacha zento Bayer AG's $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawulwa kwamabango omhlaza okunene kuthetha kubo ngokwahlukeneyo, kwaye abanye abayithandi into abayibonayo.

Bayer yatsho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni Kuthethathethwane ngokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zabammangali kwisivumelwano esiza kuvala ngokufanelekileyo isambuku semali engaphezulu kwe-100,000 esalindelwe ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngo-2018. Ukuvezwa kukaMonsanto's Roundup kunye namanye amayeza okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali ebizwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate, kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko.

Ngelixa isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengeendaba ezimnandi kubamangali-abanye abanengxaki yokunyanga umhlaza kunye nabanye abammangalela abatshatileyo abaswelekileyo- uninzi lufumanisa ukuba lunokuphela lungenamali, kuxhomekeke kuluhlu izinto. Iifemu zamagqwetha, nangona kunjalo, zinokufaka ipokotho kumakhulu ezigidi zeedola.

“Yimpumelelo kumashishini ezomthetho kunye nempama ebusweni babantu abonzakeleyo” utshilo omnye ummangali, ongafunanga kuchazwa ngegama.

Abamangali baxelelwa ukuba kufuneka bathathe isigqibo kwezi veki zimbalwa zizayo ukuba bazokwamkela indawo yokuhlala, nangona bengazi ukuba bazakuhlawulwa malini kude kube kamva. Zonke iintengiselwano zentengiselwano ziyalela abamangali ukuba bangathethi esidlangalaleni malunga neenkcukacha, bebasongela ngesohlwayo ukuba baxoxa ngokuhlala kunye nabani na ngaphandle "kwamalungu osapho asondeleyo" okanye umcebisi wezezimali.

Oku kubacaphukisile abanye abathi bacinga ukwala iindawo zokuhlala ngenjongo yokufuna ezinye iinkampani zomthetho ukuba zijongane namabango abo. Le ntatheli iwajongisisile amaxwebhu athunyelwe kubamangali abaninzi.

Kwabo bavumayo, iintlawulo zinokwenziwa kwangoko ngoFebruwari, nangona inkqubo yokuhlawula bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuba yolule unyaka okanye nangaphezulu. Ezonxibelelwano ezithunyelwe zivela kumafemu ezomthetho ziye kubathengi bazo beRoundup zizo zombini inkqubo yomntu ngamnye ohlaselwe ngumhlaza kuya kufuneka ehambile ukuze afumane intlawulo yemali kunye nokuba ezo ntlawulo zinokufikelela phi. Imigaqo yeentengiselwano iyahluka kumzi-mveliso wamagqwetha, oko kuthetha ukuba abamangali abemi ngokufanayo banokuphelela kwiindawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala ngathi sisinye ekuxoxiswene ngaso Ifemi yeMiller, Kwaye ke kuyadanisa abanye babaxhasi benkampani. Ekunxibelelaneni nabathengi, inkampani yathi ikwazile ukuxoxa malunga ne-849 yezigidi zeedola ukusuka eBayer ukugubungela amabango abathengi abangaphezulu kwe-5,000 Roundup. Ifemi iqikelela ixabiso lokuhlawula umtyali ngamnye kumyinge wama- $ 160,000. Elo xabiso lipheleleyo liya kuncitshiswa ngokuncitshiswa kweefizi zamagqwetha kunye neendleko.

Nangona iifizi zamagqwetha zinokwahluka ngokuqina kunye nommangali, uninzi kwityala leRoundup lihlawulisa iipesenti ezingama-30-40 kwimirhumo engxamisekileyo.

Ukuze bakulungele ukuhlala, abamangali kufuneka babe neerekhodi zonyango ezixhasa ukuxilongwa kweentlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye bakwazi ukubonisa ukuba bavezwa ubuncinci unyaka ngaphambi kokuba bafumane isifo.

I-Firm yaseMiller ibiphambili kwityala leRoundup ukusukela ekuqaleni, ifumana uninzi lwamaxwebhu agwenxa angaphakathi eMonsanto ancede aphumelela kuzo zontathu izilingo zeRoundup ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. IMiller Firm iphathe ezibini kwezo zilingo, isizisa amagqwetha avela kwinkampani yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman ukunceda kwityala  UDewayne "Lee" Johnson emva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller enzakaliswe kabuhlungu kwingozi kanye phambi kwetyala. Ezi femu zimbini zisebenze kunye ekuphumeleleni ityala labamangali bendoda nomfazi, Alva kunye neAlberta Pilliod. UJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola kwaye ii-Pilliods zanikwa ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba amabhaso.

Kwangoko kulenyanga, inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isigwebo sikaJohnson, elawula ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba iimveliso zeRoundup zibangele umhlaza kaJohnson kodwa zinciphisa ibhaso likaJohnson ukuya kwizigidi ezingama- $ 20.5. Izibheno zisalindelwe kwezinye izigwebo ezibini ezichasene neMonsanto.

Ukufumana amanqaku kwabamangali

Ukufumanisa ukuba ngakanani na ummangali ngamnye afumana ukusuka ekuhlaleni kunye neBayer, umlawuli weqela lesithathu uya kunika amanqaku umntu ngamnye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kummangali ngamnye ophuhlileyo; ubudala bommangali ekuchongeni isifo; ubuzaza bomhlaza womntu kunye nobungakanani bonyango abalunyamezeleyo; ezinye izinto ezinobungozi; kunye nenani lokuvezwa kwabo kwiMonsanto herbicides.

Inye into yokuhlaliswa kwabantu ebambe uninzi lwabamangali bengafundanga yayikukufunda ukuba abo ekugqibeleni bafumana imali eBayer kuya kufuneka basebenzise imali yabo ukubuyisa inxenye yeendleko zonyango lwabo lomhlaza olwalugutyungelwe yiMedicare okanye i-inshurensi yabucala. Ngonyango oluthile lomhlaza oluya kumakhulu amawaka kunye nakwizigidi zeedola, oko kunokucima ngokukhawuleza intlawulo yommangali. Iifemu zomthetho zidwelise iikontraka zomntu wesithathu eziza kuthetha-thethana nabanikezeli ngeinshurensi ukuba bafune imbuyekezo ngezaphulelo, baxelelwa. Ngokwesiqhelo kolu hlobo lokumangalelwa ngobuninzi, loo malungelo onyango angancitshiswa kakhulu, utshilo iifemu zomthetho.

Kwicala elinye lesivumelwano esamkelweyo ngummangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziya kwakhiwa ukunqanda uxanduva lwerhafu, ngokolwazi olunikwe ababamangali.

Umngcipheko wokungahlali

Iifemu zamagqwetha kufuneka zifumane uninzi lwabamangali ukuba bavumelane nemimiselo yeendawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwengcaciso enikezelwe kubamangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa ngoku ngenxa yenani lomngcipheko onxulumene nokuqhubeka nokulandela izilingo ezongezelelweyo. Phakathi kwemingcipheko echongiweyo:

  • I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile njengongenamali, kwaye ukuba inkampani iyithathile loo ndlela, ukusombulula amabango e-Roundup kuya kuthatha ixesha elide kwaye ekugqibeleni kungakhokelela kwimali encinci yabamangali.
  • I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) wakhupha incwadi ku-Agasti ophelileyo uxelele uMonsanto ukuba iarhente ayizukuvumela isilumkiso somhlaza kwiRoundup. Oko kunceda ikamva likaMonsanto lokuphumelela enkundleni.
  • Ulibaziseko lwenkundla enxulumene no-Covid kuthetha ukuba izilingo ezongezelelweyo ze-Roundup akunakulindeleka ukuba zonyaka okanye nangaphezulu.

Ayisiyonto ingaqhelekanga ukuba abamangali abachophele amatyala amakhulu bahambe bedanile nangona bezibonakala ngathi zinkulu iindawo ekuxoxiswene ngazo kumatyala abo. Incwadi ye2019 "IiNtsebenzo zoThutho oluNinzi: Ukuxoxisana kwigumbi elingasemva kwi-Multidistrict Litigation”NguElizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo wezoMthetho u-Fuller E. Callaway kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorgia, wenza imeko yokuba ukunqongophala kweetsheki kunye nemali ezilinganayo kwizityholo zolwaphulo-mthetho zinika phantse wonke umntu obandakanyekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ucaphula njengomzekelo wokumangalela i-asidi-reflux yeyeza iPropulsid, wathi ufumanise ukuba kwabamangali abangama-6,012 abangena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula, ngama-37 kuphela afumana imali. Abanye abafumani ntlawulo kodwa sele bevumile ukuwachasa amatyala abo njengemeko yokungena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula. Abamangali abangama-37 ngokudibeneyo bafumene ngaphezulu kweedola eziyi-6.5 yezigidi (phantse i-175,000 yeedola nganye kwi-avareji), ngelixa iifemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo zabamangali zifumene i-27 yezigidi zeedola, ngokweBurch,

Ukubeka bucala ukuba ngawaphi na abamangali abanokuthi okanye abangayi kuhamba nawo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho kufutshane nesimangalo seRoundup bathi kulunge ngakumbi ukufezekiswa kokungalunganga komanyano nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobungqina obuye bavela ngenxa yesimangalo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto abonisa ukuba inkampani yenze uxwebhu lokupapashwa kwamaphepha enzululwazi abonakala ngobuxoki ukuba enziwe kuphela zizazinzulu ezizimeleyo; Inkxaso mali, kunye nokusebenzisana, amaqela angaphambili abesetyenziselwa ukuzama ukunyelisa izazinzulu ezixela ukwenzakala ngamayeza okubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; kunye nokusebenzisana namagosa athile ngaphakathi kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhusela kunye nokukhuthaza isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuba iimveliso zayo azibanga ngumhlaza.

Amazwe aliqela kwihlabathi liphela, kunye noorhulumente basekhaya kunye nezithili zesikolo, baye bafudukela ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kunye / okanye ezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ngenxa yokutyhilwa kwetyala leRoundup.

(Ibali laqala ukuvela Iindaba zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo.)

I-Bayer ibuya kude nesicwangciso sokuqulatha amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uyarhoxa kwisicwangciso sokuqulatha amabango omhlaza weRoundup kwikamva emva kokuba ijaji yomanyano icacise ukuba ayizukusivuma esi sikimu, esinokulibazisa izilingo ezintsha kunye nokunciphisa izigqibo zokugweba.

Isicwangciso senziwe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha lafakwa kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia njengenxalenye yeenzame zikaBayer zokuphelisa ukutshutshiswa kwezimangalo esele zikhokelele kwilahleko kathathu kumatyala amatyala amathathu, okumangalisa ukohlwaywa komonakalo kunye nokungoneliseki kwabanini zabelo. Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukubonakaliswa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye ukuba iMonsanto kudala yazi malunga nokugubungela umngcipheko womhlaza.

NgoMvulo uJaji Vince Chhabria ikhuphe iodolo ukuseta ukumanyelwa kwetyala ngoJulayi 24 kwaye ayicacise ayizukuvuma isicwangciso sokuhlawula. "Wayengathandabuzi malunga nokuchaneka kunye nokuchaneka kwale ndawo icetywayo," u-Chhabria wabhala ngokulandelelana.

Phambi komyalelo wejaji, amaqela amaninzi afaka izaziso zokuphikisana nesicwangciso seBayer; ecaphula "ukuphambuka okukhulu kuqheliselo oluqhelekileyo" kumenyiwe kule ndawo yokuhlala icetywayo.

Ukuphendula, ngolwe-Lwesithathu iqela lamagqwetha elalicwangcise isivumelwano neBayer wafaka isaziso sokurhoxa yesicwangciso sabo.

Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa esindululweyo samatyala ezenzo zodidi lwexesha elizayo sahlukile kwisivumelwano sokuhlawula iBayer esenziwe namagqwetha kubamangali abasele bagcwalise amatyala kwaye ayilelwe ukunceda iBayer ukuba igcine kwaye ilawule uxanduva lwexa elizayo. Ngaphantsi kolwakhiwo oludityaniswe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha abamangaleli ukuhlawulwa kwamanyathelo eklasi bekuya kusebenza kuye nakubani na ovezwe kwi-Roundup ongakhange afake isimangalo okanye agcine igqwetha ngoJuni 24, 2020, nokuba uyayenza okanye hayi Umntu sele efunyaniswe enomhlaza bakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup.

Esi sicwangciso besinokulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha kangangeminyaka emine, kwaye sifuna ukuba kusekwe amalungu amahlanu "ephaneli yesayensi" eya kuthi ithathe naziphi na iziphumo eziza kubakho kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji. Endaweni yoko, "iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi" inokumiselwa ukumisela ukuba ngaba iRoundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, kweliphi inqanaba lokuvezwa. I-Bayer iya kuthi inyule amalungu amabini kwiphaneli ezintlanu. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kumabango anjalo.

Ujaji Chhabria uthathe umba ngalo lonke uluvo lwephaneli yesayensi. Ngokomyalelo wakhe, ijaji yabhala:

"Kwindawo apho inzululwazi inokuthi iguquke khona, kufanelekile njani ukuba sitshixe kwisigqibo esivela kwiphaneli yesayensi kuwo onke amatyala exesha elizayo? Ukuvavanya, cinga ukuba iphaneli ithathe isigqibo kwi-2023 ukuba i-Roundup ayinakho ukubangela umhlaza. Emva koko khawufane ucinge ukuba isifundo esitsha esithembekileyo sipapashiwe ngo-2028 esisingela phantsi kakhulu isigqibo sepaneli. Ukuba umsebenzisi we-Roundup ufunyaniswe ene-NHL ngo-2030, kufanelekile ukubaxelela ukuba babotshiwe sisigqibo sango-2023 sephaneli kuba bengakhange baphume kwisivumelwano ngo-2020? ”

U-Bayer uthe uzakubeka bucala i-1.25 yezigidigidi kulungiselelo. Imali yayiza kusetyenziselwa ukubuyekeza amalungu eklasi afunyaniswe ene-NHL "ngeziphumo zokulibaziseka" kwizimangalo, kunye nokuxhasa ngezimali uphando malunga nokufunyaniswa nokunyangwa kwe-NHL, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Amagqwetha abamangali ababeka isicwangciso kunye neBayer bema ukwenza ngaphezulu kwe- $ 150 yezigidi kwimirhumo ehlawulwa yiBayer. Ayizizo iifemu zomthetho ezifanayo ezikhokelele isimangalo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Eli qela leefemu zomthetho libandakanya uLieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein; Uphicotho-zincwadi kunye namaqabane; Ifemi yoMthetho eDugan; kunye negqwetha uSamuel Issacharoff, uNjingalwazi kaReiss woMthetho woMgaqo-siseko kwiSikolo soMthetho kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele izilingo ezintathu zomhlaza weRoundup ayasichasa isicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi, esithi iya kuhlutha amalungelo abamangali ngeli xesha ityebisa amanye amagqwetha angazange abekho ngaphambili kwityala leRoundup.

Akucaci ukuba ukurhoxiswa kwesi sicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi kunokuchaphazela njani ukuhlawulwa okukhulu kwamabango akhoyo. Bayer kwinyanga edlulileyo izakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula iipesenti ezingama-75 zamabango akhoyo ngoku kwaye iya kuqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa ezinye. Oko kuhlawulwa akufuneki kuvunywe yinkundla.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo ngolwe-Lwesithathu esithi uhlala "ezimisele kakhulu kwisisombululo esijongana nesimangalo sangoku ngendlela efanelekileyo kunye nesisombululo esisebenzayo sokulawula nokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo."

Inkundla iyakhwankqisa isigqibo seBayer esicetywayo sokulungisa isenzo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ijaji yomanyano ngoMvulo ibinamagama arhabaxa ngesicwangciso sikaBayer AG sokulibazisa amatyala omhlaza eRoundup anokubakho kunye nokuthintela uvavanyo lwejury, egxeka isindululo esingaqhelekanga esenziwe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha njengabangenakho ukungangqinelani nomgaqo-siseko.

“Inkundla iyathandabuza ukufaneleka nokulunga kwesi sindululo sicetywayo, kwaye inomdla wokungasamkeli isindululo,” ufunda umyalelo wokuqala owakhutshwa nguMgwebi uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US yesithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Isikhundla sejaji sibonakala siyinto ebukhali kwiBayer nakwinzame zenkampani ukusombulula ilifa lesimangalo esixhonywe eMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwiminyaka emibini edlulileyo.

Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukubhengezwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye ukuba iMonsanto kudala yazi malunga nokugubungela umngcipheko womhlaza.

Izilingo ezintathu zamajaji ziye zabanjwa kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo kwaye iMonsanto yaphulukana nazo zontathu iijuri zinikezela ngaphezulu kwe-2 yezigidigidi kumonakalo. Onke la matyala ngoku afakwe kwisibheno kwaye iBayer ibisenza amatile ukuthintela ukulingwa kwejaji elizayo.

Kwinyanga ephelileyo uBayer uthe wayenayo kufikelelwe kwizivumelwano ukusombulula uninzi lwamatyala afakiweyo ngoku kwaye ayila isicwangciso sokusingatha amatyala anokuthi afakwe kwixa elizayo. Ukujongana nesimangalo sangoku uBayer uthe uzakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula malunga neepesenti ezingama-75 zamabango akhoyo kwaye uya kuqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa ezinye.

Kwisicwangciso sokusingatha iimeko ezinokubakho zexesha elizayo, U-Bayer uthe bekusebenza neqela elincinci lamagqwetha amangileyo abaza kwenza ngaphezulu kwe-150 yezigidi zeerandi kwimali yokuvuma ukuvuma "ukuma" kweminyaka emine kumatyala okugcwalisa. Esi sicwangciso siza kusebenza kubantu abanokuthi bafunyaniswe kwikamva nge-NHL abakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup. Ngokuchasene nokuhlaliswa kweMonsanto yamatyala asalindelwe ngokuchasene nayo, ukuhlawulwa kwale nyathelo "lekamva" elitsha kufuna inkundla yamkelwe.

Ukongeza kulibaziseko lwezilingo ezingaphezulu, isivumelwano sifuna ukuba kusekwe amalungu "ezenzululwazi" amalungu amahlanu anokuthatha naziphi na iziphumo eziza kubakho kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji. Endaweni yoko, "iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeeklasi" iya kumiselwa ukumisela ukuba ngaba iRoundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, kweliphi inqanaba lokuvezwa. I-Bayer iya kuthi inyule amalungu amabini kwiphaneli ezintlanu. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele izilingo ezintathu zomhlaza weRoundup ayasichasa isicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi, esithi iya kuhlutha amalungelo abamangali ngeli xesha ityebisa abambalwa bamagqwetha abangazange babephambili kwityala leRoundup.

Isicwangciso sifuna ukuvunywa nguJaji Chhabria, kodwa umyalelo okhutshwe ngoMvulo ubonakalisile ukuba akacwangcisi kunika imvume.

"Kwindawo apho isayensi inokuthi iguquke khona, kufanelekile njani ukuba utshixe
isigqibo seqela lezazinzulu kuwo onke amatyala exesha elizayo? ” ijaji ibuze ngolandelelwano lwayo.

Ijaji ithe izakubamba isimangalo ngoJulayi 24 ngesindululo sokuqala semvume yetyala. Wabhala wathi: “Ngenxa yokungaqiniseki kwale Nkundla, kungangqubana nomdla wakhe wonke umntu ukulibazisa ukumanyelwa kwetyala,” ubhale watsho.

Apha ngezantsi kukho isicatshulwa somyalelo wejaji:

I-Bayer ibeka i-US Roundup, i-dicamba kunye ne-PCB yezimangalo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kucoceko olubizayo lweMonsanto yezimangalo, u-Bayer AG uthe ngolwesiThathu uya kuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango e-US aziswe ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa ye-Roundup herbicide, kunye ne- $ 400 yezigidi ukusombulula amatyala ngaphezulu kweMonsanto I-dicamba herbicide kunye ne- $ 650 yezigidi ze-PCB zamabango ongcoliseko.

Izigqibo kuza kwiminyaka emibini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto nge $ 63 yezigidigidi kwaye phantse kwangoko yabona amaxabiso ezabelo ehla ngenxa yetyala leRoundup.

U-Bayer ubhengeze ukuba uza kuhlawula i-10.1 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-10.9 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula iipesenti ezingama-75 zamabango ngabantu abaqikelelwa kwi-125,000 abathi batyholwa ngababulali bokhula baseMonsanto's Roundup kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Esi sivumelwano sibandakanya abamangali abagcinayo amagqwetha ngenjongo yokufaka isimangalo kodwa amatyala abo engekafakwa, utshilo uBayer. Ngaphakathi kuloo mali iyonke, ukuhlawulwa kwe- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi kuya kusombulula isimangalo sangoku kwaye i-1.25 yezigidigidi ibekelwe bucala ukuxhasa isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo, utshilo inkampani.

Abamangali ababandakanyiwe ekuhlawuleni abo batyikitywa kunye neefemu zomthetho ebezikhokele i-Roundup federal multi-district litigation (MDL) kwaye zibandakanya iMiller Firm yaseVirginia, Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles kunye neAndrus Wagstaff firm waseDenver, eColorado.

"Emva kweminyaka yokulwa nzima kunye nonyaka wokulamla okunzulu ndiyavuya ukubona abaxumi bethu ngoku beza kubuyekezwa," utshilo uMike Miller, wefemu yezomthetho yaseMiller.

Inkampani yakwaMiller kunye neBaum Hedlund basebenze kunye ukuphumelela ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni, elalimi wase-California uDewayne “Lee” Johnson. U-Andrus Wagstaff uphumelele ityala lesibini kwaye iMiller Firm yaphumelela ityala lesithathu lokuya enkundleni. Lilonke, la matyala mathathu akhokelela kwizigwebo ze-jury ezingaphezulu kwe- $ 2.3 yezigidigidi, nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba izigwebo.

Amajaji kuzo zontathu izilingo afumanisa ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, yabangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko kwaye yahluleka ukulumkisa abasebenzisi.

Isigwebo ngasinye kwezi zithathu sihamba kwinkqubo yokubhena ngoku kwaye uBayer uthe abamangali kula matyala abafakwanga kulungiso.

U-Bayer uthe amabango e-Roundup exesha elizayo aya kuba yinxalenye yesivumelwano seklasi ngokuxhomekeke ekuvunyweni nguJaji Vince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia, oyalele inkqubo yolamlo yonyaka wonke ekhokelele kulungiso.

Isivumelwano siza kuthatha nakuphi na ukufunyanwa kwexesha elizayo kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji, utshilo uBayer. Endaweni yoko, kuya kubakho ukuyilwa kwe "Class Science Panel" ezimeleyo. IPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi iya kugqiba ukuba ngaba i-Roundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, ngawaphi amanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa. Bobabini abamangali kwizenzo zeklasi kunye neBayer baya kubotshelelwa kukuzimisela kweCandelo lezeNzululwazi. Ukuba iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi igqiba ukuba akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa ekubangeleni ngenye indlela nakweyiphi na imbambano nxamnye neBayer.

U-Bayer uthe ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel kulindeleke ukuba kuthathe iminyaka eliqela kwaye amalungu eklasi awayi kuvunyelwa ukuba aqhubeke namabango e-Roundup ngaphambi kokuzimisela. Kananjalo abanakho ukufuna ukohlwaywa, utshilo uBayer.

"Izivumelwano zeRoundup ™ ziyilelwe njengesisombululo esakhayo nesifanelekileyo kwisimangalo esingaqhelekanga, utshilo uKenneth R. Feinberg, umlamli owonyulwe yinkundla kwezi ntetho zokuhlala.

Nangona babhengeza ukuhlala, amagosa aseBayer aqhubeka nokukhanyela i-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides ebangela umhlaza.

"Inzululwazi enkulu ibonisa ukuba iRoundup ayibangeli mhlaza, kwaye ke, ayinaxanduva lezigulo ekutyholwa ngazo," utshilo umphathi weBayer uWerner Baumann kwingxelo.

Isivumelwano seDicamba

U-Bayer ukwabhengeze isivumelwano se-tort tortoge, esichaphazela amabango amafama asebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides ephuhliswe yi-Monsanto kunye ne-BASF ukuba itshizwe kwizityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yi-Monsanto zibangele ukulahleka kwesityalo nokwenzakala.

Kwilingo elingasekuqaleni konyaka, iMonsanto kwathiwa makahlawule I-265 yezigidi zeedola kumlimi wepesika waseMissouri ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift kwigadi yakhe yeziqhamo.

Ngaphezu kwe-100 amanye amafama enze amabango afanayo asemthethweni. U-Bayer uthe uzakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-400 yezigidi zeedola ukusombulula isimangalo se-dicamba esimi kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwi-Mpuma yeSithili sase-Missouri, kunye namabango eminyaka yezityalo ka-2015-2020. Abenzi bamabango baya kucelwa ukuba babonelele ubungqina bomonakalo kwizivuno zezityalo kunye nobungqina bokuba bekudalwe yicicamba ukuze kuqokelelwe. Inkampani ilindele igalelo kulowo ubambisene naye, i-BASF, kule ndawo yokuhlala.

Indawo yokuhlala iza kubonelela "ngezixhobo ezifuneka kakhulu kumafama" athe afumana ilahleko yezityalo ngenxa yokubaleka kwemichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane, utshilo igqwetha uJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yamagqwetha yasePeiffer Wolf, emele amafama amabango e-dicamba.

"Ukuhlala kubhengezwe namhlanje linyathelo elibalulekileyo lokwenza izinto zilunge kumafama afuna nje ukwazi ukubeka ukutya etafileni yaseMelika kunye nehlabathi," utshilo uPeiffer.

Kwangoko kulenyanga a Inkundla yomanyano igwebe ukuba i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho xa isamkela i-dicamba herbicides eyenziwe nguMonsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience. Inkundla ifumanise ukuba i-EPA ayihoyanga umngcipheko womonakalo wedicamba.

Indawo yokuhlala yongcoliseko lwePCB

I-Bayer ikwabhengeze uthotho lwezivumelwano ezisombulula amatyala enkampani athi zimele ukubhencwa kwabo kumatyala abandakanya ukungcoliswa kwamanzi yi-PCBs, eyathi yenziwa yiMonsanto kwada kwangowe-1977. IiPCB. U-Bayer uthe uza kuhlawula i-650 yezigidi zeerandi kwiklasi, eya kuthi ixhomekeke kwinkundla.

Ukongeza, uBayer uthe ungene kwizivumelwano ezahlukileyo neeGqwetha Jikelele laseNew Mexico, Washington, kunye neSithili seColumbia ukusombulula amabango e-PCB. Kule mvumelwano, eyahluliweyo eklasini, iBayer iya kwenza intlawulo ngokupheleleyo malunga ne- $ 170 yezigidi.

U-Bayer uthe ukuphuma kwemali okuza kubakho akuyi kudlula i-5 yezigidigidi zeedola ngo-2020 kunye ne-5 yeebhiliyoni zeerandi ngo-2021 ngemali eseleyo eza kuhlawulwa ngo-2022 okanye kamva.

Igqwetha lomhlaza i-Roundup liyalivuma ityala lokuzama ukuphanga

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Igqwetha laseVirginia elalinceda ukumela ummangali wokuqala womhlaza we-Roundup ukuba athathe ityala likaMonsanto alivume ityala ngolwe-Sihlanu ukuzama ukuthoba i-200 yezigidi zeedola kumthengisi wemichiza eya eMonsanto.

UTimothy Litzenburg, 38, wavuma kwisikimu apho yena nelinye igqwetha babesoyikisa ngokulimaza imali kunye nodumo kumthengisi ngaphandle kokuba inkampani ihlawule amagqwetha amabini ezigidi zeedola ezifihliwe "njengesivumelwano sokubonisana."

Ngokutsho kwiSebe lezoBulungisa lase-US, U-Litzenburg uxelele inkampani ukuba xa behlawule le mali, wayekulungele "ukuthatha indawo" ngexesha lokufaka imali, ngenjongo yokujongela phantsi amatyala abamangali bexesha elizayo ukuzama ukumangalela.

I-Litzenburg yahlawuliswa ngenani elinye lokuzama ukuphanga, iyelenqe kunye nokuhanjiswa konxibelelwano lwangaphakathi ngenjongo yokuphanga. Yena wavuma ityala kwinani elinye lokudlulisa unxibelelwano lwangaphakathi ngenjongo yokuphanga.

Igqwetha uDaniel Kincheloe, 41, wavuma ityala Kwityala elifanayo lokuthatha inxaxheba kule nkqubo. Amadoda acwangciselwe ukugwetywa nge-18 kaSeptemba kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwi-Western District yaseVirginia.

"Le yimeko apho amagqwetha amabini aphephela ngaphaya komgaqo wobundlobongela kwaye awelele ngaphakathi kummandla wokuphanga ngokungekho mthethweni, kwilinge elingenalusini lokuzityebisa ngokufumana izigidi zeedola kwinkampani yamazwe aphesheya," uMncedisi weGqwetha Jikelele uBrian A. UBenczkowski uthe kwingxelo. Uthe esi sicelo sibonisa ukuba "xa ulwaphulo-mthetho lwenziwe, amalungu e-bar, njengabo bonke abantu, bazakubekwa ityala ngezenzo zabo."

ILitzenburg yenye yegqwetha likaDewayne “Lee” Johnson elakhokelela kwityala likaJohnson ngo-2018 nxamnye neMonsanto, nto leyo eyakhokelela ekubeni $ 289 yezigidi zeerandi ngokuthanda kukaJohnson. (Ijaji kwelo tyala yasithoba isigwebo kwaye eli tyala ngoku liphantsi kwesibheno.)

Ityala lolokuqala kwezintathu ezenzekileyo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa yezityholo zokuba i-glyphosate-based herbicides efana neRoundup ibanga i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IMonsanto, kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG, baphulukene nazo zontathu izilingo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kodwa babhengeza isigwebo.

Nangona i-Litzenburg yayincede ukulungiselela uJohnson ukuba axoxwe, akazange avunyelwe ukuthatha inxaxheba ngexesha lomcimbi ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuziphatha kwakhe okwakubanjwe yi-Miller Firm, eyayingumqeshi wakhe ngelo xesha.

Ifemi yeMiller emva koko wagxothwa ILitzenburg kwaye wafaka isimangalo ekuqaleni kuka-2019 etyhola uLitzenburg ngokuzibandakanya, kunye "nokunganyaniseki nokungaziphathi kakuhle." ILitzenburg iphendule ngo counter-ibango. Amaqela athethathethane ngesivumelwano esiyimfihlo.

Isikhalazo solwaphulo-mthetho esichasene neLitzenburg asiyichazanga inkampani i-Litzenburg ukuba izame ukuxhaphaza, kodwa wathi waqhagamshelana nenkampani ngoSeptemba ka-2019 unyaka esithi ulungiselela ityala eliza kuthi inkampani ibonelele ngezixhobo zemichiza ezisetyenziswe nguMonsanto ukwenza iRoundup kwaye Inkampani ibisazi ukuba izithako zibangele i-carcinogenic kodwa yehlulekile ukulumkisa uluntu.

Ngokwentlawulo yomdibaniso, u-Litzenburg uxelele igqwetha lale nkampani ukuba ibizama ukuqhatha ukuba inkampani kufuneka ingene "kulungiselelo lokubonisana" kunye naye ukuze yakhe ukungqubana komdla okuya kumthintela ekufakeni isimangalo esisongelwayo.

U-Litzenburg wabhala nge-imeyile ukuba i-200 yezigidi zeedola zesivumelwano sakhe kunye nomlingane "lixabiso elifanelekileyo," ngokwesikhalazo solwaphulo-mthetho.

Abaphandi baseburhulumenteni babhala umnxeba kunye neLitzenburg bexoxa nge-200 yezigidi zeedola awayezifuna, sitsho isikhalazo. ILitzenburg kuthiwa yarekhodwa isithi: “Indlela endicinga ukuba niyakucinga ngayo kwaye besicinga ngayo kukonga icala lenu. Andiqondi ukuba le nto ifayilishwe kwaye ijike ibe yintsokolo enkulu, nokuba niyaphumelela amatyala kwaye niqhubele phambili ixabiso… andicingi ukuba ikhona indlela eninokuphuma ngayo ngaphantsi kweebhiliyoni zeerandi. Kwaye, niyazi, kum, eh, eli lixabiso lokuthengisa umlilo ekufuneka nilithathele ingqalelo… ”

ILitzenburg ibanga ukuba imele abathengi abamalunga ne-1,000 abamangalela uMonsanto malunga nezityholo zomhlaza we-Roundup ngexesha lokubanjwa kwakhe kunyaka ophelileyo.

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

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Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

Federal Action

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

imvelaphi

Dicamba has been used by farmers since the 1960s but with limits that took into account the chemical’s propensity to drift and volatilize- moving far from where it was sprayed. When Monsanto’s popular glyphosate weed killing products, such as Roundup, started losing effectiveness due to widespread weed resistance, Monsanto decided to launch a dicamba cropping system similar to its popular Roundup Ready system, which paired glyphosate-tolerant seeds with glyphosate herbicides. Farmers buying the new genetically engineered dicamba-tolerant seeds could more easily treat stubborn weeds by spraying  entire fields with dicamba, even during warm growing months, without harming their crops. Monsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

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Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo