Amaphepha eParaquat

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amatyala amaninzi alindelwe e-United States etyhola nge-parquat yeekhemikhali yokubulala ukhula ibangela isifo sika-Parkinson, kwaye ityala lokuqala ukuya enkundleni malunga nezityholo ezichasene ne-Syngenta ngaphezulu kweparaquat kunye ne-Parkinson ekuqaleni yayihlelelwe u-Epreli 12 kodwa yacwangciselwa umhla we-10 kuMeyi eSt.Clair Inkundla yeSekethe yeNqila e-Illinois. Ulingo kulindeleke ukuba lubambezeleke ngenxa yezilumkiso ezinxulumene nentsholongwane ye-Covid-19.

Ityala lase-Illinois - IHoffman V. Syngenta -Linye lamatyala ali-14 aphela ngokuchasene neSyngenta atyhola ukuba iimveliso zeparaquat yenkampani zibangela isifo sikaParkinson. Ityala likaHoffman likwabiza i-DRM Phillips Chemical Co kunye ne-Growmark Inc. njengabatyholwa. I-DRM isasazwa kwaye ithengise imveliso ye-Gramoxone paraquat e-United States kwisivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe nge-paraquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yayinelungelo lokwenza, ukusebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

Amagqwetha ajikeleze i-United States ayabhengeza kubamangali, efuna ukuzoba kumawakawaka abantu abaye bavezwa yiparaquat kwaye ngoku banengxaki kaParkinson.

Amanye amatyala asandula ukufakwa aziswa kwiinkundla zomdibaniso eCalifornia naseIllinois. Phakathi kwala matyala URakoczy V. Syngenta,  UDurbin V. Syngenta kunye I-Kearns V. Syngenta.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi zinxibelelanise iparaquat neParkinson's, kubandakanya Isifundo esikhulu sabalimi baseMelika ngokudibeneyo jongwa ziiarhente zikarhulumente ezininzi zase-US Amafama asebenzisa iparaquat kwimveliso yezityalo ezininzi, kubandakanya umbona, isoya kunye nomqhaphu. Uphononongo lwezeMpilo yezoLimo (AHS) luthi lufumanise ukuba “ukubhencwa kwizitshabalalisi zolimo kungonyusa umngcipheko wokuba nesifo sikaParkinson.” Ngo-2011, abaphandi be-AHS baxela ukuba “abathathi-nxaxheba abasebenzisa iparaquat okanye i-rotenone basengozini ephindwe kabini yokufumana isifo sika-Parkinson njengabantu abangayisebenzisanga le michiza.”

Okunye iphepha la kutshanje Ukusuka kubaphandi be-AHS bathi "Uncwadi oluninzi lubonisa umanyano phakathi kokusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye nesifo sikaParkinson (PD). Nangona kunjalo, ngaphandle kwemibandela embalwa, kuncinci okwaziwayo malunga nokudibana phakathi kwezibulali zinambuzane ezithile kunye nePD. ”

Isifo sikaParkinson sisifo esinganyangekiyo esihamba nenkqubo yovalo esinciphisa amandla omntu okulawula intshukumo, ebangela ukungcangcazela, ukuphulukana nokulingana kwaye ekugqibeleni uhlala eshiya amaxhoba ebhedini kunye / okanye ebotshelelwe kwisitulo esinamavili. Esi sifo asibulali kodwa siba buthathaka kakhulu.

Ugqirha wengqondo waseDatshi uBastiaan Bloem, ngubani osandula ukubhala incwadi malunga neParkinson's, etyhola ukubhencwa ngokubanzi kumayeza abulala ukhula anje ngeparquat, kunye nezinye iikhemikhali eziyityhefu ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo nakwimveliso, ekusasazeni isifo.

Ngokuqinisekileyo ityhefu 

Kunye noloyiko malunga nokunxibelelana phakathi kweparaquat kunye neParkinson's, iparaquat ikwayaziwa njengeyona khemikhali inetyhefu eyoyikisayo enokubulala ngokukhawuleza abantu abangena izixa ezincinci. EYurophu, ukuthengiswa kweparaquat kuyekisiwe ukusukela ngo-2007, kodwa e-United States iyeza lokubulala izinambuzane lithengiswa njenge- “Restricted Use Pesticide” ngenxa "Ityhefu ebukhali."

Njengenxalenye yokufumanisa isimangalo sikaParkinson, amagqwetha afumene iirekhodi zangaphakathi eSyngenta nakwimibutho eyandulelayo eyabakho kwiminyaka yoo-1960. Uninzi lwala maxwebhu litywinwe, kodwa amanye aqale ukuvela.

Amaxwebhu okufumanisa okungatywinwanga, aquka iikopi zeeleta, imizuzu yeentlanganiso, isishwankathelo sokufunda, kunye ne-imeyile, ziyafumaneka kweli phepha.

Uninzi lwamaxwebhu angatywinwanga ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ajongana neengxoxo ezihlangeneyo malunga nendlela yokugcina iparaquat herbicides kwintengiso ngaphandle kokubhubha kwayo, ngamanyathelo ayilelwe ukunciphisa iityhefu zengozi. Ngokukodwa, uninzi lwamaxwebhu aneenkcukacha zomzabalazo wangaphakathi wokudibanisa ukongeza i-emetic, iarhente yokuphembisa ukugabha, kwiimveliso zeparaquat. Namhlanje, zonke iimveliso ezineparaquat yaseSyngenta zibandakanya i-emetic ebizwa ngokuba yi "PP796." Ulwelo olune-paraquat equlathe iSyngenta ikwabandakanya iarhente enukayo yokuvelisa ivumba elibi, kunye nedayi eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ukwahlula i-herbicide enemibala emnyama kwiti okanye ikola okanye ezinye iziselo.

Uphengululo lwe-EPA 

IParaquat kungoku nje iqhubeka kwinkqubo yokuphononongwa kobhaliso lwe-EPA, kwaye nge-Okt. 23, 2020, iarhente ikhuphe Isigqibo sethutyana (PID) separaquat, ephakamisa amanyathelo okunciphisa ukunciphisa impilo yabantu kunye nemingcipheko yendalo echongiweyo kuyilo lwearhente yowama-2019 impilo yoluntu kwaye Umngcipheko wendalo iimvavanyo.

I-EPA ithe ngentsebenziswano kunye Inkqubo yeSizwe yetyhefu kwiZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi yezeMpilo, iarhente igqibe "uphononongo olunzulu" lwenzululwazi yolwazi malunga neparquat kunye nesifo sikaParkinson kwaye yagqiba ukuba ubunzima bobungqina abonelanga ukudibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson. Iarhente ipapashe le “Ukuphononongwa ngokuchanekileyo koNcwadi ukuVavanya ubudlelwane phakathi kweParaquat Dichloride Exhibition kunye nezifo zikaParkinson. "

I-USRTK iya kongeza amaxwebhu kweli phepha njengoko zifumaneka.

Hambisa ukudibanisa isimangalo se-paraquat yase-US njengoko amatyala enyuka ngokuchasene neSyngenta

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amagqwetha amangalela inkampani yemichiza yaseSwitzerland iSyngenta bacela iphaneli yezomthetho yase-US ukuba idibanise ngaphezulu kweshumi elinesihlanu lezimangalo ezifanayo phantsi kweliso lejaji yomanyano eCalifornia. Eli nyathelo luphawu oluchazayo lokwandiswa kwezimangalo ezibanga ukuba imveliso yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ibangela isifo sikaParkinson.

Ngokutsho kwisindululo, ifayilishwe umhla we-7 ku-Epreli yi-Texas-based Fears Nachawati firm firm kunye ne-US Judicial Panel kwi-Multidistrict Litigation, kungoku nje kukho ubuncinci amatyala ali-14 afakwe ziifemi ezisibhozo zomthetho kwiinkundla zomdibaniso ezahlukeneyo ezintandathu kwilizwe liphela. Amacala onke afakwe egameni labamangali abafunyaniswe benesifo se-neurodegenerative, kwaye batyhola ukubhencwa kwababulali bokhula baseSyngenta abenziwe ngemichiza ebizwa ngokuba yiparaquat yesifo. Amanye amatyala aliqela enza izityholo ezifanayo zilindelwe kwiinkundla zamazwe.

"La matyala ngawona magqwetha alungeleleneyo kwityala elingaphambi kokuthethwa kwetyala kuba avela kwityhefu enye enetyhefu edala isifo esikhubazekayo esibangelwa kukungaziphathi kakuhle kwabamangalelwa abathathu," uloyiko uNachawati ngokufutshane ukuxhasa yokuhamba kwayo ithi. "UMovant ulindele ukuba inani lamatyala afanayo afakwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente kunye nelizwe liphela lizakwanda ngokukhawuleza."

Isindululo sifuna ukugqithiselwa ngokukodwa kwiJaji u-Edward Chen kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

UMajed Nachawati, iqabane lenkampani eyoyikayo iNachawati, uthe inkampani isaphanda ubungakanani nobubanzi besimangalo sisonke kodwa ikholelwa kwelokuba ukumiswa kweparaquat ngokuchasene neSyngenta “kuzakubaluleka kwaye kubaluleke kwindalo…”

"Kungekudala, kuzakubakho isimangalo kwiinkundla zomanyano kwilizwe liphela," utshilo uNachawati.

Amagqwetha abamangali bazakufuna amaxwebhu angaphakathi enkampani kunye nokufakwa kwamagosa eenkampani ahambelana "nokuvavanywa, ukuyilwa, ukufakwa iileyibhile, ukuthengiswa, kunye nokukhuselwa kweeparaquat herbicides," kunye nophando oluhlangeneyo kunye nokuvavanywa kobutyhefu kunye nokukhuseleka kweparaquat yayo. iimveliso.

IMiller Firm yaseVirginia, encedise ukukhokelela kwisimangalo seRoundup ngokuchasene neMonsanto esikhokelele kwisigqibo se- $ 11 lezigidi kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, uphakathi kweefemu zomthetho ezijoyina isimangalo separaquat. Inkampani yaseMiller ixhasa iinzame zokudibanisa iintshukumo zomdibaniso eCarlifonia, apho amawaka amatyala eRoundup adityanisiwe kwenkqubo yamatyala, ngokwegqwetha elikhokelayo lenkampani uMike Miller.

"Siqinisekile ukuba inzululwazi iyaluxhasa ngamandla unxibelelwano phakathi kwe-paraquat kunye nokutshatyalaliswa kwesifo sika-Parkinson," utshilo uMiller ngesindululo. "ISithili saseMantla saseCalifornia sinezixhobo ezifanelekileyo zokujongana nala matyala."

Amatyala ngokuchasene neSyngenta ukwabiza i-DRM Phillips Chemical Co njengommangalelwa. I-DRM isasazwa kwaye ithengise iimveliso ze-Gramoxone paraquat e-United States ngokuqala ngesivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe yiparaquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yayinelungelo lokwenza, ukusebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

USyngenta noChevron bayaziphika izityholo.

USyngenta uthi iimveliso zayo zeparaquat zivunyiwe njenge “zikhuselekile kwaye zisebenza” ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kwaye “iya kuzikhusela” ngamandla. ISyngenta yeyabanini beChina National Chemical Corporation, eyaziwa ngokuba yiChemChina.

Izifundo zesayensi

Isifo sikaParkinson sisifo esinganyangekiyo esiqhubela phambili esichaphazela iiseli zemithambo-luvo kwingqondo, sikhokelela kumatyala aphambili kukudodobala komzimba kakhulu kwaye kuhlala kuluphazamiseko engqondweni. Iingcali ezininzi zika-Parkinson zithi esi sifo sinokubangelwa luluhlu lwezinto, kubandakanya ukubhencwa kwizibulali zinambuzane ezinje nge paraquat, kunye nezinye iikhemikhali.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi ziye idityaniswe neparaquat kwiParkinson's, kubandakanya isifundo esikhulu samafama ase-US ngokudibeneyo abekwa esweni ziiarhente zikarhulumente zase-US ezininzi. Oko Uphando ngo-2011 uxele ukuba abantu abasebenzisa i-paraquat baphindwe kabini amathuba okuphuhlisa isifo sika-Parkinson njengabantu abangasisebenzisanga.

"Izifundo ezininzi zesifo esihambelana nezifo kunye nezilwanyana ziye zadibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson," utshilo uRay Dorsey, unjingalwazi weeurology kunye nomlawuli weZiko loNyango loNyango loLuntu kwiYunivesithi yaseRochester eNew York. UDorsey ukwangumbhali we incwadi malunga nokuthintela kunye nokunyanga isifo sikaParkinson.

"Ubungqina obudibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson yeyona nto yomeleleyo kuyo nayiphi na into yokubulala izinambuzane esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo," utshilo.

Olunye uphononongo alufumananga unxibelelwano olucacileyo phakathi kweparaquat kunye neParkinson kunye neSyngenta iqinisekisa ukuba olona phando lwamva nje nolunegunya alubonisi nxibelelwano.

Ewe kunjalo, isifundo papashwe kwi2020 ifumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwezinye izitshabalalisi kunye neParkinson's, kodwa abukho ubungqina obomeleleyo obubonisa iparaquat ebangela esi sifo.

Uvavanyo oluzayo

Ityala elinye elifakwe kwinkundla yelizwe licwangciselwe ukuba lixoxwe kwinyanga ezayo. IHoffman V. Syngenta icwangciselwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngoMeyi 10 eSt. Inkomfa yobume icwangciselwe ukuphela kwale nyanga.

Igqwetha laseMissouri uSteve Tillery, omele abamangali kwityala lika-Hoffman kunye nabanye abamangalelwa kwamanye amaphepha-mthetho, uthe nangona uSyngenta eqinisekile, uqokelele ubungqina obuquka iirekhodi zenkampani zangaphakathi ezibonisa ukuba iSyngenta yazi amashumi eminyaka ukuba Imveliso ibangela isifo sikaParkinson.

“Akufanelekanga ukuba bayayithengisa le mveliso, utshilo uTillery. "Le khemikhali kufuneka ingabikho kwimarike."

Isicwangciso sokusombulula iklasi sikaBayer sitsala ingqumbo, inkcaso

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(Ukuhlaziywa ngo-Matshi 10 ukubandakanya i-odolo yejaji yokulibaziseka ukuva kude kube ngoMeyi 12)

Ngaphezulu kweefemu zamagqwetha angama-90 nangaphezulu kwamagqwetha angama-160 azise ijaji yenkundla yomanyano ejongene ne-US Roundup litigation ukuba bayaphikisana nomnini-Monsanto Bayer AG's $ 2 billion icebo lokuhlawula amabango exesha elizayo inkampani elindele ukuziswa ngabantu abafunyaniswe benomhlaza abatyhola ngokusetyenziswa Iimveliso zeMonsanto zokutshabalalisa ukhula.

Kwiintsuku zamva nje, izichaso ezisithoba ezahlukileyo malunga nesi sicwangciso kunye namaxwebhu amane e-amicus afakiwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia, esazisa iJaji uVince Chhabria ubungakanani benkcaso kwindawo yokuhlala ecetywayo. I-Chhabria ijonge amawaka e-Roundup kumatyala asemthethweni omhlaza kwinto ebizwa ngokuba yi 'multidistrict litigation' (MDL).

NgoMvulo, i-National Trial Lawyers (NTL) bajoyina inkcaso egameni lamalungu ayo ayi-14,000. Eli qela lithe xa lifaka inkundla ukuba liyavumelana neqela eliphikisayo ukuba “esi sivumelwano sicetywayo sibeka emngciphekweni ufikelelo kubulungisa kwizigidi zabantu ezikwiklasi ecetywayo, siya kuthintela amaxhoba eMonsanto ekubeni ayiphendulise, kwaye aya kuwuvuza uMonsanto ngeendlela ezininzi. . ”

Eli qela laphindaphinda ukugcwalisa uloyiko lokuba ukuba isindululo sikaBayer sivunyiwe, siyakubeka umzekelo oyingozi kubamangali kwixesha elizayo, amatyala angadibananga: “Kuyakubonzakalisa amalungu ecandelo acetywayo, hayi ukubanceda. Olu hlobo lokuhlala luza kunika itemplate engenakuthenjwa nakwabanye abo babaphatha gadalala ukuze baphephe uxanduva olufanelekileyo kunye neziphumo zokuziphatha kwabo… indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayisiyiyo 'inkqubo yezobulungisa' kwaye ngenxa yoko ulungiso olo alunakuze lwamkelwe. ”

I-2 yezigidigidi zeedola ecetywayo ijolise kumatyala exesha elizayo kwaye yahlukile kwi-11 yezigidigidi zeBayer ephawulelwe ukuhlawula amabango akhoyo aziswe ngabantu bethi bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) ngenxa yokuvezwa ngababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto. Abantu abachaphazeleke sisindululo sokuhlaliswa kweklasi ngabantu abaye babhencwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kwaye sele benayo iNHL okanye banokuphuhlisa i-NHL kwixesha elizayo, kodwa abangekathathi manyathelo okufaka isimangalo.

Akukho monakalo wohlwayo

Enye yeengxaki eziphambili ngesicwangciso seBayer, ngokutsho kwabagxeki, kukuba wonke umntu e-United States ohlangabezana neekhrayitheriya njengommangali onokwenzeka uya kuthi ngokuzenzekelayo abe yinxalenye yeklasi kwaye axhomekeke kumalungiselelo ayo ukuba akaphumeleli iklasi ngaphakathi kweentsuku ezili-150 emva kokuba iBayer ikhuphe izaziso zokwenziwa kweklasi. Isaziso esicetywayo asonelanga, abagxeki bathi. Ngaphaya koko, icebo ke liyabahlutha abo bantu-abanokungakhethi nokuba babe yinxalenye yeklasi- ukusuka ekunene ukufuna ukohlwaywa xa befaka isimangalo.

Olunye ulungiselelo lokugxeka ukugweba yiminyaka emine "yokuma" ixesha lokuvimba ukufayilwa kwamatyala amatsha.

Abagxeki bayaphikisana nokwenziwa kwephaneli yesayensi eya kuthi isebenze "njengesikhokelo" sokwandisa ukhetho lwembuyekezo kwixesha elizayo "kunye nokubonelela ngobungqina malunga ne-carcinogenicity - okanye hayi - yeyeza likaBayer.

Ixesha lokuqala lokuhlawula liza kuqhuba ubuncinci iminyaka emine kwaye linokwandiswa emva kwelo xesha. Ukuba iBayer inyula ukungayiqhubeli ingxowa mali yembuyekezo emva kwexesha lokuhlawula kuqala, iyakuhlawula i $ 200 yezigidi eyongezelelweyo njenge "ntlawulo yokugqibela" kwingxowa mali yembuyekezo, isishwankathelo sokuhlawula sithi.

Ukuzabalazela isisombululo

I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.

Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kwezi zilingo zintathu akafumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides Njenge-Roundup ibangela umhlaza, kodwa nokuba iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Iqela elincinci lamagqwetha abeka esi sicwangciso kunye neBayer athi "izakusindisa ubomi" kwaye iya kubonelela "ngezibonelelo ezinkulu" kubantu abakholelwa ukuba baphuhlise umhlaza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimveliso yenkampani yokutshabalalisa ukhula.

Kodwa elo qela lamagqwetha limele ukufumana i-170 yezigidi zeerandi ngomsebenzi wabo neBayer ukuphumeza isicwangciso esicetywayo, abagxeki bokwenyani bathi bangcolisa ukubandakanyeka kwabo kunye nenjongo yabo. Akukho namnye wamagqwetha abandakanyekayo ekubekeni isicwangciso sokwenza iklasi kunye neBayer emele nabaphi na abamangali kwityala elibanzi leRoundup ngaphambi kweli nqanaba, abagxeki bathi.

Kwenye yeefayile zenkcaso, amagqwetha afuna ukwaliwa kwesi sivumelwano sicetywayo ubhale oku:

"Esi sisombululo sicetywayo sichaswa ngabo baqheleneyo nokumangalelwa kwamatyala abandakanya iimveliso eziyingozi ezinje ngeRoundup kuba bayaqonda ukuba esi sicelo siza kunceda iMonsanto kunye negqiza labacebisi ngenkcitho yezigidi zabantu abatyhilelwe iRoundup.

"Nangona le Roundup MDL iqhubeke ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine, kwaye amanye amatyala eRoundup sele enetyala kwiinkundla zikarhulumente, inkuthazo yoku kulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi ayiveli kumagqwetha abephethe amatyala eRoundup kwaye bakholelwa ukuba enye indlela ukuzisombulula kubalulekile. Endaweni yoko, amagqwetha asemva kwesi sihlaliso- kwaye ngamagqwetha hayi amaxhoba eRoundup- ngamagqwetha asebenzisanayo afuna ukunyanzelisa izimvo zabo kubo bonke abaye babhencwa kwiRoundup, ngokutshintshiselwa intlawulo enkulu kakhulu.

“Kodwa oyena mntu uphumeleleyo apha uza kuba nguMonsanto, oza kufumana iminyaka emine yokumangalelwa ngamalungu eklasi, abaza kuphulukana nelungelo labo lokufuna ukohlwaywa kwaye babotshelelwe ziziphumo zeqela lenzululwazi elikhulelwe kakubi. Ukutshintshiselana, amalungu eklasi aya kugxothwa kwenye inkqubo yembuyekezo ebonisa iintlawulo ezincinci, ukwanda kobunzima, kunye nemiqobo ephezulu ukuze bafaneleke. ”

Ukulibaziseka kwafuna

Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa kukaBayer safakwa kwinkundla ngoFebruwari 3, kwaye kufuneka samkelwe nguJaji Chhabria ukuze sisebenze. Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa kwangaphambili esangeniswa kunyaka ophelileyo sasikhona ugculelwe nguChabria emva koko warhoxa.

Ukumanyelwa kwetyala kulungiselelwe uMatshi 31 kodwa amagqwetha abeka isicwangciso kunye neBayer acele iJaji uChhabria ukulibazisa ukumanyelwa kude kube ngoMeyi 13, becaphula ububanzi benkcaso ekufuneka bejongile nayo. Ujaji waphendula umyalelo ukuseta kwakhona ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngoMeyi 12.

"Ezi filing zizonke zingaphezulu kwamaphepha angama-300, ukongeza ngaphezulu kwamaphepha angama-400 ezivakaliso kunye nemiboniso," abameli bathi isicelo sabo sexesha elingaphezulu. “Izichaso kunye namaxwebhu e-amicus aphakamisa imiba emininzi, kubandakanya, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ubulungisa bendawo yokuhlala, uhlaselo lomgaqo-siseko oluninzi malunga nokuhlala kunye negqiza lezesayensi elicetyiswayo, imiceli mngeni kwezobuchwephesha kwinkqubo yezaziso, uhlaselo lobulungisa ingxowa-mali yembuyekezo, kunye nemiceli mngeni kwimbalasane, ukongama, kunye nokwanela kweengcebiso zeklasi (kunye nenkqubo engaphantsi).

Amagqwetha afake esi sicwangciso sicetywayo athi angasebenzisa ixesha elongeziweyo ngaphambi kwetyala "ukudibana nabachasi" "ukunciphisa okanye ukunciphisa imiba ekufuneka iphikisiwe kwingxoxo."

Ukufa kuyaqhubeka

Phakathi kweengxoxo malunga nokuhlala kukaBayer okucetywayo, abamangali bayaqhubeka nokufa. Kwinto ekubhekiswa kuyo njenge "Ingcebiso yokufa," amagqwetha ommangali uCarolina Garces afake isaziso kwinkundla yomanyano ngoMatshi 8 ukuba umthengi wabo ubhubhile.

Abamangali abaliqela abanengxaki ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma bafe okoko kwaqala isimangalo ngo-2015.

Amaphepha eMonsanto-Iimfihlo eziBulalayo, urhwaphilizo lwendibaniselwano, kunye nokuKhangelwa kweNdoda enye kuLuntu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Incwadi entsha yoMlawuli woPhando wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam ikhutshiwe ngoku kwaye ifumana uphononongo oluqaqambileyo. Nantsi inkcazo emfutshane yencwadi evela kumpapashi Isiqithi seSiqithi:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupha alula. Eyona nto wayeyifuna yayingumsebenzi ozinzileyo kunye nekhaya elihle lenkosikazi nabantwana, into ebhetele kunobomi obunzima awayebazi bekhula. Khange ayicinge into yokuba angangumntu kumlo kaDavid-no-Goliyathi ngokuchasene nesinye sezigebenga ezinamandla zehlabathi. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yamshiya uLee efakwe kwimichiza enetyhefu kwaye ejongene nomhlaza obulalayo owabuguqula ubomi bakhe babuguqula. Kwi-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoko uLee ebethathelwe phambili kwelona dabi lomthetho lihle kwimbali yamva nje.

Amaphepha eMonsanto libali langaphakathi likaLee Johnson elimangalela uMonsanto. KuLee, ityala yayilugqatso ngokuchasene nexesha, oogqirha bexela kwangaphambili ukuba ngekhe aphile ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuba angathatha ubungqina. Kwicandelo le-eclectic labancinci, amagqwetha amele ukummela, ibingumbandela wokuzingca ngobungcali kunye nomngcipheko wobuntu, nezigidi zeedola zabo kunye negama labo elisebenze nzima emgceni.

Ngamandla okubalisa, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi emva komlo wedabi elinzima lezomthetho, ukubuyisa ikhethini kubuthathaka benkqubo yenkundla yaseMelika kunye nobude amagqwetha aya kuya kuwo ukulwa nokungalunganga kwezopolitiko kunye nokufumana ubulungisa kubathengi.

Bona ngakumbi malunga incwadi apha. Thenga incwadi nge AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqithi seSiqithi okanye abathengisi beencwadi abazimeleyo.

Reviews

"Ibali elinamandla, libaliswa kakuhle, kunye nomsebenzi ophawulekayo wobuntatheli bophando. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi enyanzelisayo ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya esiphelweni, malunga nelinye lawona madabi asemthethweni abalulekileyo kweli xesha lethu. ” -U-Lukas Reiter, umvelisi olawulayo we-TV kunye nombhali we "Uluhlu oluMnyama," "Ukuziqhelanisa," kunye ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto adibanisa inzululwazi nentlekele yabantu kwidrama yasenkundleni ngendlela kaJohn Grisham. Libali lokungaziphathi kakuhle kwezorhwebo kwinqanaba elikhulu-isityhilelo esothusayo sokubawa kwemveliso yamachiza, ukuzingca, kunye nokungakhathali kobomi babantu kunye nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kufuneka ifundwe. ” -U-Philip J. Landrigan, MD, uMlawuli, iNkqubo yezeMpilo yoLuntu yeHlabathi kunye nokuQhelekileyo kokuLungileyo, kwiKholeji yaseBoston

"Intatheli yamagqala ophando uCarey Gillam uxelela ibali likaJohnson kwincwadi yakhe yamva nje," Amaphepha eMonsanto, "ingxelo ekhawulezayo, ebandakanyekayo yendlela iMonsanto kunye neBayer ithamsanqa elitshintshe kakhulu ngexesha elifutshane. Ngaphandle komcimbi oxandileyo - inzululwazi kunye neenkqubo zomthetho- "Amaphepha eMonsanto" kukufundwa okubambekayo okunika inkcazo ekulula ukuyilandela yendlela esi simangalo esenzeka ngayo, indlela abagwebi abasifikelela ngayo isigwebo sabo nokuba kutheni iBayer ibonakala ngathi, , ngoku ndiphakamisa iflegi emhlophe. ” - ISt. Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha ityala elikholisayo lokuba iMonsanto yayinomdla wokukhusela igama lenkomo yayo kunokuthobela ubungqina benzululwazi beempawu zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeleni ngemiba entsonkothileyo yabantu abasemthethweni, nto leyo yongeza ubuntununtunu bebali likaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyazisiweyo kombutho ekubonakala ukuba awuyikhathalelanga impilo yoluntu. ” - Kirkus

“UGillam ubalisa ngomzuzu wokuthatha uxanduva kunye nequmrhu elikhulu elineemveliso ezithengiswa njengezikhuselekileyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970. Njengoluvavanyo lwezinto ezigwenxa kwezorhwebo kunye nokuziphatha okusemthethweni kwiimeko zamatyala, incwadi kaGillam ichaza isidingo sokhuseleko lwabathengi nokhuseleko. ” Uluhlu lweencwadi

“Kufundwe kakuhle, ukujika iphepha. Ndandixheleke ngenkohliso, ukugqwethwa, kunye nokuswela isimilo kwenkampani. ” -U-Linda S. Birnbaum, owayenguMlawuli, iZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi ngezeMpilo kunye neNkqubo yeSizwe yeToxicology, kunye noMfundi wase Residence, kwiDuke University.

Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto kunye nabanye ekungakhange kubanjwe ixesha elide kubo!
-UJohn Boyd Jr., uMseki kunye noMongameli, uMbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaMnyama

Malunga uMbhali

Intatheli yophando uCarey Gillam uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 enika ingxelo kwimanyano yaseMelika, kubandakanya neminyaka eli-17 esebenzela iarhente yeendaba zamanye amazwe. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iWhitewash: Ibali loMbulali wokhula, umhlaza, kunye noRhwaphilizo lwezeNzululwazi, uphumelele i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award kuMbutho Wezintatheli Zokusingqongileyo kwaye ubeyinxalenye yekharityhulamu kwizifundo zempilo zaseyunivesithi ezininzi. iinkqubo. UGillam kungoku nje nguMlawuli woPhando weqela labathengi elingenzi nzuzo e-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kwaye ubhala njengegalelo Guardian.

Isicwangciso sikaBayer sokuzinzisa amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva sijamelene nenkcaso ebanzi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uninzi lweefemu zomthetho zaseMelika zenze umanyano ukuze zilwe new $ 2 billion Isindululo sokuhlala ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG ojolise ekuqulathe uxanduva oluqhubekayo lwenkampani olunxulumene namabango athi iRoundup herbicides ibangela uhlobo lomhlaza owaziwa ngokuba yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Indawo yokuhlala yenzelwe ukubuyekeza abantu abaye bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kwaye sele benayo iNHL okanye banokuphuhlisa i-NHL kwixa elizayo, kodwa abangekathathi manyathelo okufaka isimangalo.

Iqela elincinci lamagqwetha abeka esi sicwangciso kunye neBayer athi "izakusindisa ubomi" kwaye ibonelele ngezibonelelo ezibonakalayo kubantu abakholelwa ukuba baphuhlise umhlaza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimveliso yenkampani yokubulala ukhula.

Kodwa amagqwetha amaninzi agxeka esi sicwangciso athi ukuba samkelwe sizakubeka umzekelo oyingozi kwezinye iintlobo zamatyala ezibandakanya inani elikhulu labantu abonzakele ziimveliso okanye iinkqubo zemibutho enamandla.

“Ayilulo ulwalathiso esifuna ukuba luhambe inkqubo yezomthetho,” latsho igqwetha uGerald Singleton, inkampani yakhe ethe yazibandakanya namanye amafemu angaphezulu kwama-60 aphikisana nesicwangciso sikaBayer. "Akukho meko apho oku kufanelekileyo kubamangali."

Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa kukaBayer safakwa kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia ngoFebruwari 3, kwaye kufuneka samkelwe yiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuze isebenze. Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa kwangaphambili esangeniswa kunyaka ophelileyo sasikhona ugculelwe nguChabria emva koko warhoxa. Ijaji ibijongile isimangalo esimalunga ne-multidistrict Roundup yezimangalo ezibandakanya amawaka abenzi bamacala abavela eUnited States.

Iimpendulo kwisicwangciso sokuhlawula zilindeleke nge-3 ka-Matshi kwaye ukumanyelwa kwetyala kulungiselelwe uMatshi 31.

Eyona nkxalabo iphambili kukuba abasebenzisi beRoundup bangoku abanokuba nomhlaza kwaye bafuna ukumangalela kwixa elizayo baya kuba phantsi kwemiqathango yokuhlaliswa kweklasi ngaphandle kokuba baphume ngokusesikweni kwithuba elithile. Elinye lamagatya abaza kuxhomekeka kuwo liya kubathintela ekufuneni ukonakaliswa kwesohlwayo nakuliphi na ityala elizayo.

La magama kunye neminye ebekiweyo ayilunganga kwaphela kubasebenzi basezifama nakwabanye ekulindeleke ukuba baphuhlise umhlaza kwixesha elizayo ukusuka ekuvezweni yimveliso yenkampani yokubulala ukhula, ngokwe-Singleton. Isicwangciso siyanceda iBayer kwaye ibonelela "ngemali yegazi" kumashishini amane omthetho asebenze neBayer ukuyila esi sicwangciso, utshilo.

Ezi femu zisebenza neBayer ukuyila kunye nokulawula isicwangciso ziya kufumana isindululo se- $ 170 yezigidi ukuba isicwangciso siqala ukusebenza.

U-Elizabeth Cabraser, elinye lamagqwetha aqulunqa indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo, uthe ukugxeka akuyiyo inkcazo efanelekileyo yendawo yokuhlala. Ngokwenyani, uthe, esi sicwangciso “sinika ukufikelela okubaluleke nangxamisekileyo okufunekayo, imfundo, ukufikelela kukhathalelo lwempilo, kunye neenzuzo zembuyekezo” kubantu abaye bavezwa kukutshabalalisa ukhula lweMoldanto's Roundup kodwa bengekaphuhlisi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

"Sifuna ukuvunywa kule ndawo yokuhlala kuba izakusindisa ubomi kwaye inyuse umgangatho wobomi ngokufumanisa isifo kwangoko, incede abantu… ibazise kwaye yonyuse ulwazi loluntu malunga nonxibelelwano phakathi kweRoundup neNHL… utshilo.

Isithethi seBayer asiphendulanga kwisicelo sokuphawula.

Indawo entsha ecetywayo ijolise kumatyala exesha elizayo kwaye yahlukile kwi-11 yezigidigidi zeedola iBayer ibekelwe ukuhlawula amabango omhlaza asekhona e-US. Abantu abachaphazeleke sisindululo sokuhlaliswa kweklasi ngabantu ababonakalisiweyo kwiRoundup kodwa abakabikho kwisimangalo kwaye abathathanga manyathelo.

I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.

Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Nangona esi sivumelwano sicetywayo sithi "sijongana nezinto ezine ezixoxwe yiNkundla malunga nesivumelwano sangaphambili, kurhoxisiwe," u-Singleton kunye namanye amagqwetha abandakanyekayo kwiqela eliphikisayo bathi esi sicelo sitsha sisibi njengokuqala.

Ukongeza kwinkxalabo yokuba amalungu eklasi ngekhe abe nelungelo lokufuna amabango omonakalo owohlwayayo, abagxeki bayaphikisana neminyaka emine "yokuma" yokuthintela ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha. Abagxeki bathi isicwangciso sokwazisa abantu ngendawo yokuhlala asonelanga. Abantu bangaba neentsuku ezili-150 belandela isaziso sokuba “baphume” eklasini. Ukuba abakhethi, ngokuzenzekelayo baya eklasini.

Abagxeki bayaphikisana nokwenziwa kwephaneli yesayensi eya kuthi isebenze njenge "isikhokelo" sokwandisa ukhetho lwembuyekezo kwixesha elizayo "kunye nokubonelela ngobungqina malunga ne-carcinogenicity - okanye hayi - ye Bayer yeherbicides. Ngokunikwa imbali ebhaliweyo kaMonsanto yokuxhaphaza iziphumo zophando lwenzululwazi, umsebenzi wepaneli yesayensi uza kuba kurhanelwa, utshilo uSingleton.

Ixesha lokuqala lokuhlawula liza kuqhuba ubuncinci iminyaka emine kwaye linokwandiswa emva kwelo xesha. Ukuba iBayer inyula ukungayiqhubeli ingxowa mali yembuyekezo emva kwexesha lokuhlawula kuqala, iyakuhlawula i $ 200 yezigidi eyongezelelweyo njenge "ntlawulo yokugqibela" kwingxowa mali yembuyekezo, isishwankathelo sokuhlawula sithi.

“Imbuyekezo enkulu” inikezelwe

Iifemu zomthetho ezayila isivumelwano kunye neBayer bathetha ngokufaka kwabo enkundleni ukuba indawo yokuhlala yenzelwe ukubonelela abo bangabamangali kwixesha elizayo "ngezona zinto zibanceda kakhulu," kubandakanya ukhetho lwembuyekezo enkulu ukuba baphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. .

Isicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali yembuyekezo yokwenza amabhaso aphakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000 kwilungu ngalinye leklasi. "Amabhaso okuHlawula aKhawulezileyo" ama- $ 5,000 ayakufumaneka ngesantya esikhawulezileyo, efuna nje ukuboniswa kokubhengeza kunye nokuqonda isifo.

Abo bantu baqala ukuvezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup ubuncinci iinyanga ezili-12 ngaphambi kokuchongwa kwabo baya kufaneleka ukufumana amabhaso. Amabhaso angaphezu kwe- $ 200,000 anokwenziwa "ngeemeko ezingaqhelekanga." Amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo afunyaniswe ene-NHL ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2015, ngekhe afumane amabhaso ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10,000, ngokwesicwangciso. 

Esi sivumelwano siza kubonelela ngengcebiso yasimahla kwezomthetho kwaye sinikezele "ngenkxaso ukunceda amalungu eklasi ekuhambeni, ekubhaliseni nasekufakeni izicelo zenzuzo yokuHlaliswa."

Ukongeza, isindululo sichaza ukuba indawo yokuhlala iya kuxhasa ngemali uphando kunye nonyango lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-NHL.

Ngokuqaphelekayo, esi sicwangciso sithi akukho mntu uzakuphulukana nelungelo lakhe lokumangalela ngaphandle kokuba ukhetha ukwamkela imbuyekezo kwingxowa-mali yembuyekezo, kwaye akukho mntu kufuneka enze olo khetho de elo lungu ngalinye leklasi lifumaneke ukuba line-NHL. Abayi kuba nakho ukufuna isohlwayo somonakalo kodwa banokufuna enye imbuyekezo.

“Nawaphi na amalungu eklasi angafaki ibango kwaye amkela imbuyekezo yomntu ngamnye agcina ilungelo lakhe lokumangalela iMonsanto ngenjongo yokuhlawula ngomonakalo owenzekileyo kuyo nayiphi na ithiyori yezomthetho, kubandakanya ukwenzakala komntu, ubuqhetseba, ukumela into engeyiyo, ukungakhathali, ukufihla ubuqhetseba, ukumela kakubi, ukophula iwaranti, intengiso engeyonyani , kunye nokwaphulwa kwalo naluphi na ukhuseleko lwabathengi okanye izenzo ezingalunganga nezikhohlisayo okanye umthetho, ”esi sicwangciso sithi.

Ukwazisa abantu ngendawo yokuhlala eklasini, izaziso ziya kuthunyelwa ngeposi / nge-imeyile kwiifama ezingama-266,000, amashishini kunye nemibutho kunye namaqumrhu aseburhulumenteni apho iyeza lenkampani inokusetyenziswa kunye nabantu abangama-41,000 abangenayo iHodgkin lymphoma kwaye bacelwe ukuba bafumane ulwazi malunga nesifo sabo. Ukongeza iiposta ziya kuthunyelwa ngeposi kwiivenkile ezingama-2,700 zibacele ukuba bathumele izaziso malunga nokuhlala kwabantu eklasini.

Njengenxalenye yolu hlulo lucetywayo, uBayer uthe uza kufuna imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiileyibhile zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwiglassifate ezifana neRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga neglyphosate ukhuseleko. Kodwa abagxeki bathi ukubonelela ngewebhusayithi amakhonkco akonelanga kwaye iBayer kufuneka ibeke isilumkiso esingqalileyo somngcipheko womhlaza kwiimveliso zokubulala ukhula.

Isindululo sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi sisoyikiso ekuchaphazeleni “amakhulu amawaka okanye kwanezigidi” zabantu abaye bachaphazeleka kwiRoundup kwaye "baphakamisa 'imibuzo eyodwa' kunye nenzulu" phantsi koMgaqo-siseko wase-US, ngokwe ukugcwaliswa kwenkundla ngokuchasene nesicwangciso seBayer esenziwe ligqwetha labamangali u-Elizabeth Graham.

U-Graham uxelele inkundla ukuba ukuba esi sicwangciso samkelwe sinokuba "nefuthe elimangalisayo kungekuphela kwesi simangalo, kodwa nakwikamva lesityholo setyala."

Amafama amnyama

 Umbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaNnyama (NBFA) ulinganise umba ngoLwesithathu, ungenisa ukufayilwa ixesha elide kunye nenkundla ka Chhabria ethi "inani elininzi" lamalungu ayo angaphezu kwe-100,000 "aye achaphazeleka kwaye angonzakaliswa yi-Roundup, kunye nesithako sayo esisebenzayo i-glyphosate."

Uninzi lwamafama sele ephuhlisile i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma abayibek 'ityala ekusetyenzisweni kweRoundup, kwaye "uninzi loloyiko lokuba kungekudala baya kuba neempawu," i-NBFA filing ithi.

I-NBFA ifuna ukubona iimveliso zeRoundup zisuswa kurhwebo okanye kolunye utshintsho olwenziwe ukukhusela amafama, i-filing ithi.

Iinkxalabo ze-NBFA kufuneka ziqwalaselwe yinkundla, ngakumbi njengoko iBayer ijonge "ukulungisa isenzo seklasi kunye neqela lamagqwetha athi amele umdla wabo bonke abalimi abachanabeke kwi-Roundup kodwa okwangoku ibangela umhlaza. ”

Amacala omthetho e-Australia

Njengoko iBayer isebenza ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa eRoundup eMelika, inkampani ikwajongana namabango afanayo ngabalimi nakwabanye eOstreliya. Isenzo esenziwe kwiklasi ngokuchasene neMonsanto siyaqhubeka, kwaye ummangali okhokelayo uJohn Fenton, owafaka isicelo seRoundup njengenxalenye yomsebenzi wefama. UFenton wafunyaniswa ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2008.

Uthotho lwemihla ephambili sele isekiwe: IMonsanto ine-1 kaMatshi ukubonelela ngamaxwebhu okufumanisa kubameli babamangali kwaye ngoJuni 4 ngumhla obekiweyo wokutshintshiselana ubungqina bobuchwephesha. Amaqela kufuneka angene kulamlo ngoJulayi 30 kwaye ukuba akukho nto isonjululwe ityala liza kuxoxwa ngo-Matshi 2022.

UFenton uthe ngelixesha "angathanda eli thuba" lokuya kulingo aze abalise ibali lakhe, unethemba lokuba ulamlo luza kuwusombulula lo mba. "Ndicinga ukuba isivumelwano siyaqala ukutshintsha ukubulela kwinto eyenzekayo eMelika. Abalimi banolwazi kwaye ndiyakholelwa ukuba bathatha amanyathelo okhuseleko kunangaphambili.

UFenton uthe uyathemba ukuba iBayer ekugqibeleni izakubeka ilebhile yesilumkiso kwiMonsanto's glyphosate herbicides.

"Ubuncinane ngesilumkiso umsebenzisi angazenzela eyakhe ingqondo malunga ne-PPE (izixhobo zokuzikhusela) akhetha ukuyinxiba."

Uvavanyo lwe-EPA lweekhemikhali lutsala ukugxeka kwizazinzulu zalo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uninzi lwezazinzulu zase-US ezisebenzela i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) zithi azizithembi iinkokheli eziphezulu ze-arhente ukuba ziyokunyaniseka kwaye bayoyika ukuziphindezela xa bezokuxela ukwaphulwa komthetho, ngokophando lwabasebenzi olwenziwe ngo-2020.

Ngokutsho Uphando lweProjenti yokujonga abasebenzi ngo-2020, olwaqhutywa yiOfisi yoLawulo lwaBasebenzi e-US, iipesenti ezingama-75 zabasebenzi be-EPA kwiCandelo leSizwe leeNkqubo zeMichiza abaphendule kolu phando babonisa ukuba babengacingi ukuba iinkokeli eziphezulu ze-arhente zigcina “imigangatho ephezulu yokunyaniseka nokuthembeka.” Amashumi amathandathu anesihlanu eepesenti abasebenzi abaphendula kwiCandelo loVavanyo loMngcipheko baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Eyothusayo, iipesenti ezingama-53 zabaphenduli kwiCandelo loVavanyo loMngcipheko lwe-EPA bathi abanakukuchaza ukophulwa komthetho okanye ummiselo ngaphandle koloyiko lokuphindezela. Amashumi amane anesithathu eepesenti abasebenzi be-EPA abaphendulayo kwiOfisi yoThintelo loNgcoliseko kunye neToxics (OPPT) baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Uluvo olubi olubonakaliswe kwiziphumo zophando zihambelana neengxelo ezandayo zokungalunganga ngaphakathi kwiinkqubo zovavanyo lweekhemikhali ze-EPA, ngokutsho kwabasebenzi bakaRhulumente boXanduva lwezeNdalo (PEER).

"Kufanele ukuba kuxhalabise ukuba ngaphezulu kwesiqingatha seekhemikhali ze-EPA kunye nezinye iingcali ezisebenza ngokubaluleka kwezempilo zikarhulumente aziziva zikhululekile ukuxela iingxaki okanye ukophulwa kweflegi," utshilo uMlawuli oyiNtloko we-PEER uTim Whitehouse, owayengummeli we-EPA. ingxelo.

Kwangoko kule nyanga, iiZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi, ubuNjineli, kunye noNyango yatsho i-EPAIindlela zokuvavanya ubungozi ngaphakathi kwesakhelo soMthetho wokuLawulwa kweziTyhefu "bezikumgangatho ophantsi kakhulu."

Ubunkokheli obutsha be-EPA buza kuzalisa izandla zabo kule nqanawa itshonayo, utshilo uWhitehouse.

Emva kokuthatha i-ofisi ngoJanuwari, uMongameli uJoe Biden wakhupha umthetho olawulayo ephawula ukuba i-EPA phantsi kweBiden inokuphambuka kwisikhundla sayo kwiikhemikhali ezininzi kwizigqibo ezenziwe yiarhente phantsi komongameli wangaphambili uDonald Trump.

In lelana yomhla kaJan. 21, iOfisi ye-EPA ye-Counsellar yathi oku kulandelayo:

"Ngokuhambelana noMyalelo kaMongameli uBiden wokuKhusela iMpilo yoLuntu kunye nokusiNgqongileyo kunye nokuBuyiselwa kwezeNzululwazi ukuJongana neNgxaki yeMozulu ekhutshwe nge-20 kaJanuwari, 2021, (yezeMpilo kunye ne-EO), oku kuyakuqinisekisa isicelo sam egameni le-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US ( EPA) ukuba iSebe lezoBulungisa lase-US (i-DOJ) lifune kwaye lifumane ama-abeyance okanye ukuhlala kwenkqubo kulindelwe isimangalo sokufuna ukuphononongwa kwezomthetho kwawo nawuphi na umgaqo we-EPA obhengezwe phakathi kukaJanuwari 20, 2017, noJanuwari 20, 2021, okanye efuna ukumisela umhla wokugqibela we-EPA ukubhengeza ummiselo onxulumene nesihloko sayo nayiphi na into enjalo

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

Isityalo esingcolisayo se-Pesticide sivaliwe; Jonga amaxwebhu olawulo e-Nebraska ngokubhekisele kwiingxaki ze-AltEn neonicotinoid

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(~ # ~) Hlaziya (~ # ~) -Kwinyanga kaFebruwari, malunga nenyanga emva kokunika ingxelo kutyhile ubungozi besityalo se-AltEn sokusebenzisa imbewu ephathwa ngesibulali zinambuzane, abalawuli belizwe laseNebraska iyalele ukuba kuvalwe isityalo.  

khangela eli bali likaJanuwari 10 kwi-Guardian, eyayiyeyokuqala ukuveza amanqanaba ayingozi ezitshabalalisi zonakalise indawo encinci eNebraska kunye nokungasebenzi ngokuhambelana nabalawuli.

Iinkxalabo zijolise kwi-AltEn, isityalo se-ethanol eMead, eNebraska umthombo wezikhalazo zasekuhlaleni ngaphezulu kokusetyenziswa kwembewu egalelwe isibulali zinambuzane ukuze isetyenziswe kwimveliso yayo ye-biofuel kunye nemveliso yenkunkuma ebangelwe, ebonakalise ukuba inamanqanaba ezinto ezinobungozi ze-neonicotinoids kunye nezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ezingaphezulu kwamanqanaba ngokubanzi kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo.

Iinkxalabo eMead kodwa ngumzekelo wakutshanje wokukhula koloyiko lwehlabathi malunga neempembelelo ze-neonicotinoids.

Bona apha amanye amaxwebhu olawulo ahambelana nembambano kunye ezinye izinto zangasemva:

Uhlalutyo lweenkozo ze-wetcake distillers

Uhlalutyo lwamanzi amdaka 

Epreli 2018 isikhalazo sabemi

Impendulo kaRhulumente kwizikhalazo zika-Epreli 2018

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2018 impendulo yelizwe kwizikhalazo

I-AltEn Yeka ukusebenzisa kunye nokuthengisa ileta ngoJuni 2019

Ileta kaRhulumente iyala iimvume kwaye ixoxa ngeengxaki

Uluhlu luka-Meyi 2018 lwamafama apho basasaza khona inkunkuma

NgoJulayi 2018 ingxoxo yenyangi ephathwe ngembewu emanzi

NgoSeptemba 2020 ileta iphinde ichitheke ngeefoto

Ngo-Okthobha u-2020 ileta yokungathobeli

Iifoto zasemoyeni zesayithi ethathwe ngurhulumente

I-Neonicotinoids ingazibulala njani iinyosi

Iindlela ezenzeka kwi-neonicotinoid pesticide residues ekutyeni nakumanzi eUnited States, 1999-2015

Ileta evela kwiingcali zezempilo isilumkiso se-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids

Ileta evela kuMbutho we-Endocrine eya kwi-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids 

I-Neonicotinoid pesticides inokuhlala kwintengiso yase-US, i-EPA ithi

Isikhalazo eCalifornia sokulawula imbewu ephathwe nge-neonic

Ukulahleka kweenyosi: iNzululwazi, ezepolitiko kunye neMpilo yobusi (I-Rutgers University Press, 2017)

Isifundo esitsha sifumana utshintsho olunxulumene ne-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Isifundo esitsha sezilwanyana liqela labaphandi baseYurophu lifumanise ukuba amanqanaba asezantsi okubulala ukhula kwimichiza ye-glyphosate kunye nemveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwi-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Lephepha, ipapashwe ngoLwesithathu kwijenali Imiba yezeMpilo, ibhalwe ngabaphandi abali-13, kuqukwa nophando lukaGqirha Michael Antoniou, intloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group kwiSebe lezoNyango kunye neMolekyuli yemfuza eKing's College eLondon, kunye noGqirha Robin Mesnage, iqabane lophando kwezobuchwephesha kwezobuchwephetsha ngaphakathi. iqela elinye. Oososayensi abavela kwiZiko iRamazzini e-Bologna, e-Itali, bathathe inxaxheba kolu phando njengoko besenza oososayensi baseFrance nase Netherlands.

Iziphumo ze-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome zifunyenwe zibangelwa yindlela efanayo yokusebenza ethi glyphosate ibulale ukhula kunye nezinye izityalo, abaphandi bathi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi echaphazela ukusebenza kwamajoni omzimba kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo, kunye nokuphazamiseka kwale nkqubo kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo, abaphandi bathi.

"Zombini i-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup ziye zanefuthe kubume bebacterial bacterium," uAntoniou uthethwe ngodliwano-ndlebe. Siyazi ukuba amathumbu ethu ahlala kumawaka eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeebhaktiriya kunye nokuma kwazo, kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kwazo, kubalulekile kwimpilo yethu. Ke nantoni na ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kakubi, i-gut microbiome… inokubangela impilo enkenenkene kuba sisuka ekusebenzeni ngokulungeleleneyo okulungeleyo impilo ukuya ekusebenzeni okungalinganiyo okunokukhokelela kwizifo ezahlukeneyo. ”

Jonga udliwanondlebe noCarey Gillam uGqirha Michael Antonoiu kunye noGqr.Robin Mesnage malunga nesifundo sabo esitsha sokujonga ifuthe le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi bazimisele ukuba, ngokuchaseneyo nezinye izimvo ngabagxeki bokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge -antibiotic, ibulala iintsholongwane eziyimfuneko emathunjini.

Endaweni yoko, bathi-okokuqala, bathi-ukuba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi laphazamisa ngendlela enokubangela inkxalabo ye-biochemical pathway ye-gut gut bacteria yezilwanyana ezisetyenziswe kulingo. Olo phazamiso lwabonakaliswa lutshintsho kwizinto ezithile emathunjini. Uhlalutyo lwamathumbu kunye ne-biochemistry yegazi luveze ubungqina bokuba izilwanyana ziphantsi koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, imeko ehambelana nomonakalo we-DNA kunye nomhlaza.

Abaphandi bathi akucaci ukuba ukuphazamiseka ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi kwe-microbiome kuthinte uxinzelelo lwe-metabolic.

Ukubonakaliswa koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwabonakala ngakumbi kuvavanyo kusetyenziswa i-glyphosate-based herbicide ebizwa ngokuba yiRoundup BioFlow, imveliso yomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, izazinzulu zatsho.

Ababhali bokufunda bathi baqhuba izifundo ezininzi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuba uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative abalubonayo luyonakalisa ne-DNA, eya kuphakamisa umngcipheko womhlaza.

Ababhali bathi uphando oluthe kratya luyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokwenyani imeko yezempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ebukekayo kunye nolunye uphazamiseko kwimetro microbiome nasegazini kodwa iziphumo zokuqala zinokusetyenziswa kuphuhliso lweempawu ze-bio zophando lwezifo kunye nokuqonda ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokuba neziphumo zebhayiloji ebantwini.

Kwisifundo, iigundane zabasetyhini zanikwa i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso yeRoundup. Iidosi zisiwe ngamanzi okusela anikezelwa kwizilwanyana kwaye zanikwa kumanqanaba abonisa ukufakwa okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo ngabalawuli baseYurophu naseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe iziphumo zophando zakha kolunye uphando olwenza ukuba kucace ukuba abalawuli baxhomekeke kwiindlela eziphelelwe lixesha xa kusenziwa isigqibo ngamanqanaba "akhuselekileyo" e-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ekutyeni nasemanzini. Iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo zihlala zifumaneka kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa rhoqo.

"Abalawuli kufuneka bangene kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini ananye, bayeke ukurhuqa iinyawo zabo ... kwaye bamkele iintlobo zohlalutyo esele sizenzile kolu phando," utshilo u-Antoniou. Uthe ukuprofeta kwemolekyuli, yinxalenye yesebe lezesayensi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "OMICS," Uguqula isiseko solwazi malunga nefuthe lokuchazwa kwemichiza kwezempilo.

Uphononongo lweerat kodwa lolutshanje kuthotho lwezilingo zesayensi ezijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ngaba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides- kubandakanya iRoundup- inokuba yingozi ebantwini, nakumanqanaba abalawuli bokubhengeza bathi bakhuselekile.

Izifundo ezininzi ezinjalo zifumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo, kubandakanya epapashwe ngoNovemba  ngabaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland abathi babenakho ukufumanisa, "kuqikelelo olulondolozayo," ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto ezisembindini wegciwane lomntu emathunjini "zinokuthamba" kwi-glyphosate.

Njengabaphandi baya besanda jonga ukuqonda i-microbiome yomntu kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwimpilo yethu, imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome khange ibe yingxoxo nje kuphela kwizangqa zesayensi, kodwa nakwizimangalo.

Kunyaka ophelileyo, iBayer uvumile ukuhlawula i-39.5 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa amabango athi iMonsanto yaqhuba intengiso elahlekisayo ibanga ukuba i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme kwizityalo kwaye ayinakuba nefuthe kwizilwanyana nakwabantu. Abamangali kwimeko etyholwa ukuba i-glyphosate ijolise kwi-enzyme efumaneka ebantwini nakwizilwanyana ezomeleza amajoni omzimba, ukwetyisa kunye nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukusukela ngelo xesha, iBayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka umhlaza wabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye iBayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

Isifundo esitsha sivavanya ifuthe le-Roundup herbicide kwiinyosi zobusi

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Iqela labaphandi baseTshayina lifumene ubungqina bokuba iimveliso zeherbicide ezisekwe kwintengiso ye-glyphosate ziyingozi kwiinyosi zobusi okanye ngaphantsi kwezingqinisiso ezicetyiswayo.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwi Ijenali ye-intanethi Iingxelo zeSayensi, Abaphandi abazimanya ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kunye ne-Chinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathi bafumene uluhlu lweempembelelo ezingalunganga kwiinyosi zobusi xa beveza iinyosi kwi-Roundup - a glyphosateImveliso esekwe kuthengiswa ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Inkumbulo yeenyosi zeenyosi "yayonakele kakhulu emva kokuvezwa yiRoundup" iphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kweenyosi kumachiza okubulala ukhula "kunokuba nefuthe elibi ekufuneni nasekuqokeleleni izixhobo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwemisebenzi yokutya" ziinyosi, abaphandi bathi .

Kananjalo, "amandla okunyuka kweenyosi zeenyosi anciphile kakhulu emva konyango kunye noxinzelelo lweRoundup," bafumanisa abaphandi.

Abaphandi bathi sikhona isidingo “senkqubo yokutshiza isilumkiso sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwangethuba” kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni e-China kuba abagcini nyosi kulezo ndawo “bahlala bengaziswanga phambi kokuba kutshizwe iherbicides” kwaye “neziganeko zetyhefu rhoqo yeenyosi zobusi” zenzeka.

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo ezininzi ezibalulekileyo zokutya kuxhomekeke kwiinyosi zobusi kunye neenyosi zasendle ukuze kufuduswe umungu, kwaye kuphawulwe ukwehla kubemi beenyosi baphakamise iinkxalabo kwihlabathi liphela malunga nokhuseleko lokutya.

Iphepha eliphuma kwiYunivesithi yaseRutgers ipapashwe kwihlobo elidlulileyo ilumkise ngelithi "isivuno sama-apile, iitsheri kunye namaqunube kulo lonke elaseMelika sincitshiswa kukuswela kwezidlulisi."