Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Isifundo esitsha sifumana utshintsho olunxulumene ne-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome

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Isifundo esitsha sezilwanyana liqela labaphandi baseYurophu lifumanise ukuba amanqanaba asezantsi okubulala ukhula kwimichiza ye-glyphosate kunye nemveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwi-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Lephepha, ipapashwe ngoLwesithathu kwijenali Imiba yezeMpilo, ibhalwe ngabaphandi abali-13, kuqukwa nophando lukaGqirha Michael Antoniou, intloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group kwiSebe lezoNyango kunye neMolekyuli yemfuza eKing's College eLondon, kunye noGqirha Robin Mesnage, iqabane lophando kwezobuchwephesha kwezobuchwephetsha ngaphakathi. iqela elinye. Oososayensi abavela kwiZiko iRamazzini e-Bologna, e-Itali, bathathe inxaxheba kolu phando njengoko besenza oososayensi baseFrance nase Netherlands.

Iziphumo ze-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome zifunyenwe zibangelwa yindlela efanayo yokusebenza ethi glyphosate ibulale ukhula kunye nezinye izityalo, abaphandi bathi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi echaphazela ukusebenza kwamajoni omzimba kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo, kunye nokuphazamiseka kwale nkqubo kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo, abaphandi bathi.

"Zombini i-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup ziye zanefuthe kubume bebacterial bacterium," uAntoniou uthethwe ngodliwano-ndlebe. Siyazi ukuba amathumbu ethu ahlala kumawaka eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeebhaktiriya kunye nokuma kwazo, kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kwazo, kubalulekile kwimpilo yethu. Ke nantoni na ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kakubi, i-gut microbiome… inokubangela impilo enkenenkene kuba sisuka ekusebenzeni ngokulungeleleneyo okulungeleyo impilo ukuya ekusebenzeni okungalinganiyo okunokukhokelela kwizifo ezahlukeneyo. ”

Jonga udliwanondlebe noCarey Gillam uGqirha Michael Antonoiu kunye noGqr.Robin Mesnage malunga nesifundo sabo esitsha sokujonga ifuthe le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi bazimisele ukuba, ngokuchaseneyo nezinye izimvo ngabagxeki bokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge -antibiotic, ibulala iintsholongwane eziyimfuneko emathunjini.

Endaweni yoko, bathi-okokuqala, bathi-ukuba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi laphazamisa ngendlela enokubangela inkxalabo ye-biochemical pathway ye-gut gut bacteria yezilwanyana ezisetyenziswe kulingo. Olo phazamiso lwabonakaliswa lutshintsho kwizinto ezithile emathunjini. Uhlalutyo lwamathumbu kunye ne-biochemistry yegazi luveze ubungqina bokuba izilwanyana ziphantsi koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, imeko ehambelana nomonakalo we-DNA kunye nomhlaza.

Abaphandi bathi akucaci ukuba ukuphazamiseka ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi kwe-microbiome kuthinte uxinzelelo lwe-metabolic.

Ukubonakaliswa koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwabonakala ngakumbi kuvavanyo kusetyenziswa i-glyphosate-based herbicide ebizwa ngokuba yiRoundup BioFlow, imveliso yomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, izazinzulu zatsho.

Ababhali bokufunda bathi baqhuba izifundo ezininzi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuba uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative abalubonayo luyonakalisa ne-DNA, eya kuphakamisa umngcipheko womhlaza.

Ababhali bathi uphando oluthe kratya luyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokwenyani imeko yezempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ebukekayo kunye nolunye uphazamiseko kwimetro microbiome nasegazini kodwa iziphumo zokuqala zinokusetyenziswa kuphuhliso lweempawu ze-bio zophando lwezifo kunye nokuqonda ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokuba neziphumo zebhayiloji ebantwini.

Kwisifundo, iigundane zabasetyhini zanikwa i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso yeRoundup. Iidosi zisiwe ngamanzi okusela anikezelwa kwizilwanyana kwaye zanikwa kumanqanaba abonisa ukufakwa okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo ngabalawuli baseYurophu naseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe iziphumo zophando zakha kolunye uphando olwenza ukuba kucace ukuba abalawuli baxhomekeke kwiindlela eziphelelwe lixesha xa kusenziwa isigqibo ngamanqanaba "akhuselekileyo" e-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ekutyeni nasemanzini. Iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo zihlala zifumaneka kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa rhoqo.

"Abalawuli kufuneka bangene kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini ananye, bayeke ukurhuqa iinyawo zabo ... kwaye bamkele iintlobo zohlalutyo esele sizenzile kolu phando," utshilo u-Antoniou. Uthe ukuprofeta kwemolekyuli, yinxalenye yesebe lezesayensi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "OMICS," Uguqula isiseko solwazi malunga nefuthe lokuchazwa kwemichiza kwezempilo.

Uphononongo lweerat kodwa lolutshanje kuthotho lwezilingo zesayensi ezijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ngaba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides- kubandakanya iRoundup- inokuba yingozi ebantwini, nakumanqanaba abalawuli bokubhengeza bathi bakhuselekile.

Izifundo ezininzi ezinjalo zifumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo, kubandakanya epapashwe ngoNovemba  ngabaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland abathi babenakho ukufumanisa, "kuqikelelo olulondolozayo," ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto ezisembindini wegciwane lomntu emathunjini "zinokuthamba" kwi-glyphosate.

Njengabaphandi baya besanda jonga ukuqonda i-microbiome yomntu kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwimpilo yethu, imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome khange ibe yingxoxo nje kuphela kwizangqa zesayensi, kodwa nakwizimangalo.

Kunyaka ophelileyo, iBayer uvumile ukuhlawula i-39.5 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa amabango athi iMonsanto yaqhuba intengiso elahlekisayo ibanga ukuba i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme kwizityalo kwaye ayinakuba nefuthe kwizilwanyana nakwabantu. Abamangali kwimeko etyholwa ukuba i-glyphosate ijolise kwi-enzyme efumaneka ebantwini nakwizilwanyana ezomeleza amajoni omzimba, ukwetyisa kunye nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukusukela ngelo xesha, iBayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka umhlaza wabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye iBayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

Isifundo esitsha sivavanya ifuthe le-Roundup herbicide kwiinyosi zobusi

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Iqela labaphandi baseTshayina lifumene ubungqina bokuba iimveliso zeherbicide ezisekwe kwintengiso ye-glyphosate ziyingozi kwiinyosi zobusi okanye ngaphantsi kwezingqinisiso ezicetyiswayo.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwi Ijenali ye-intanethi Iingxelo zeSayensi, Abaphandi abazimanya ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kunye ne-Chinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathi bafumene uluhlu lweempembelelo ezingalunganga kwiinyosi zobusi xa beveza iinyosi kwi-Roundup - a glyphosateImveliso esekwe kuthengiswa ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Inkumbulo yeenyosi zeenyosi "yayonakele kakhulu emva kokuvezwa yiRoundup" iphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kweenyosi kumachiza okubulala ukhula "kunokuba nefuthe elibi ekufuneni nasekuqokeleleni izixhobo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwemisebenzi yokutya" ziinyosi, abaphandi bathi .

Kananjalo, "amandla okunyuka kweenyosi zeenyosi anciphile kakhulu emva konyango kunye noxinzelelo lweRoundup," bafumanisa abaphandi.

Abaphandi bathi sikhona isidingo “senkqubo yokutshiza isilumkiso sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwangethuba” kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni e-China kuba abagcini nyosi kulezo ndawo “bahlala bengaziswanga phambi kokuba kutshizwe iherbicides” kwaye “neziganeko zetyhefu rhoqo yeenyosi zobusi” zenzeka.

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo ezininzi ezibalulekileyo zokutya kuxhomekeke kwiinyosi zobusi kunye neenyosi zasendle ukuze kufuduswe umungu, kwaye kuphawulwe ukwehla kubemi beenyosi baphakamise iinkxalabo kwihlabathi liphela malunga nokhuseleko lokutya.

Iphepha eliphuma kwiYunivesithi yaseRutgers ipapashwe kwihlobo elidlulileyo ilumkise ngelithi "isivuno sama-apile, iitsheri kunye namaqunube kulo lonke elaseMelika sincitshiswa kukuswela kwezidlulisi."

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka  

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

IGates Foundation iphindwe kabini kwiphulo lolwazi olungelulo eCornell njengoko iinkokheli zaseAfrika zifuna i-agroecology 

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ingxelo ehambelanayo: Isiseko sokutshintsha kweGates Foundation e-Afrika (7.29.20)

IBhili kunye neMilinda Gates Foundation unikwe enye i- $ 10 yezigidi Kwiveki ephelileyo kwiCornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi, a Iphulo lonxibelelwano eligcinwe eCornell oololiwe abafo eAfrika nakwezinye iindawo ukukhuthaza nokukhusela ukutya okunobugcisa bemfuza, izityalo kunye nezolimo. Isibonelelo esitsha sizisa izibonelelo zeBMGF kwiqela ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-22 zeedola.

Utyalo-mali lwe-PR luza ngexesha apho iGates Foundation iphantsi komlilo yokuchitha iibhiliyoni zeedola kwizikimu zophuhliso lwezolimo e-Afrika abathi abagxeki bazinzisa iindlela zokulima ezixhamla iinkampani ngaphezulu kwabantu. 

Iinkokeli zonqulo zibhenela kwiGates Foundation 

Nge-10 kaSeptemba, iinkokeli zonqulo eAfrika zathumela ingxelo Ileta evulekileyo eya kwiGates Foundation ukuyicela ukuba iphinde ihlole izicwangciso zayo zokwenza izibonelelo eAfrika. 

“Ngelixa sinombulelo kwiBill kunye neMelinda Gates Foundation ngokuzimisela kwayo ekoyiseni ukungabikho kokhuseleko lokutya, kwaye sivuma noncedo lolwakhiwo nolwakhiwo olunikwa oorhulumente belizwekazi lethu, sibhala ngenkxalabo enkulu ukuba inkxaso yeGates Foundation yokwandisa ushishino olunzulu lwezolimo luyenza nzulu ingxaki yoluntu, ”itsho ileta ebhalisiweyo neququzelelwa ngu IZiko lokusiNgqongileyo laseMazantsi eAfrika (SAFCEI).  

Le leta ikhankanya umanyano olukhokelwa ziiGates zoHlaziyo oluHlumayo (i-AGRA) ngenkxaso yayo "enengxaki kakhulu" yeenkqubo zembewu zorhwebo ezilawulwa ziinkampani ezinkulu, inkxaso yayo kwimithetho yokuhlengahlengisa imbewu ukukhusela imbewu eqinisekisiweyo kunye nokwenza imbewu engagunyaziswanga ukuba ibe semthethweni. Inkxaso yabathengisi bembewu abanikezela ngengcebiso emxinwa malunga neemveliso zeshishini kwiinkonzo zolwandiso ezifuneka kakhulu kwicandelo likarhulumente. 

Elona phephandaba likhulu lemihla ngemihla laseUganda linike ingxelo ngeprojekthi yokusilela kwe-AGRA

"Sibongoza iGates Foundation kunye ne-AGRA ukuba bayeke ukukhuthaza ubuchwephesha obungaphumelelanga kunye neendlela zokuphelelwa lixesha kwaye baqale ukumamela amafama aphuhlisa izisombululo ezifanelekileyo kwimeko yawo," zatsho iinkokheli zenkolo.

Ngaphandle kweebhiliyoni zeedola ezichithwe kunye neminyaka eli-14 yezithembiso, i-AGRA iye yasilela ekufezekiseni iinjongo zayo zokunciphisa intlupheko kunye nokunyusa ingeniso kumafama amancinci, ngokwe NgoJulayi kuxelwa izithembiso ezingezizo. Olu phando lwenziwe ngumdibaniso wamaqela aseAfrika nawaseJamani kwaye kubandakanya idatha evela kwi iphepha elimhlophe lakutshanje epapashwe yiTufts Global Development kunye neZiko lezeNdalo. 

IGates Foundation ayikaphenduli kwizicelo zokufaka izimvo ngeli nqaku kodwa kwi-imeyile yangaphambili, "Siyayixhasa imibutho efana ne-AGRA kuba iyasebenzisana namazwe ukuwanceda ekuphumezeni izinto eziphambili ngokubaluleka kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo equlethwe kwizicwangciso zophuhliso lwezolimo kuzwelonke."

Ukunyamalala kwezithembiso zotshintsho oluhlaza 

Isungulwe ngo-2006 yiGates kunye neRockefeller Foundations, i-AGRA kudala ithembisa ngokuphinda-phinda isivuno kunye nemivuzo yamakhaya angama-30 ezigidi ezilima eAfrika ngo-2020. Kodwa iqela lazisusa ezo njongo kwiwebhusayithi yalo ngamanye amaxesha kunyaka ophelileyo. U-Chief of Staff we-AGRA u-Andrew Cox uthe nge-imeyile ukuba eli qela alilinciphisanga iinjongo zakhe kodwa licokisa iindlela zalo kunye nokucinga kwalo malunga ne-metric. Uthe i-AGRA izakwenza uvavanyo olupheleleyo kwiziphumo zayo kunyaka olandelayo. 

I-AGRA yenqabile ukubonelela ngedatha okanye ukuphendula imibuzo ebalulekileyo evela kubaphandi bengxelo yeZithembiso eziNgamanga, ababhali bayo bathi. Abameli abavela eBIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia naseHOMEF eNigeria bathumele a ileta eya ku-Cox Sept. 7 becela impendulo kwiziphumo zophando lwabo. Cox waphendula uSeptemba 15 Oko omnye umphengululi wakuchaza “njengamaphepha amathathu ePR.” (Jonga ngokupheleleyo imbalelwano apha kubandakanya impendulo yeBIBA yango-Okthobha 7.)

“Amafama ase-Afrika afanele ukuphendulwa ngu-AGRA,” yatsho ileta isiya ku-Cox ivela ku-Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima no-Ngimmo Bassay.  “Ngokunjalo nabanikeli becandelo likarhulumente be-AGRA, abanokubonakala befumana imbuyekezo embi kakhulu kutyalo-mali lwabo. Oorhulumente base-Afrika nabo kufuneka banike ingxelo ecacileyo ngeempembelelo zohlahlo-lwabiwo mali lwabo oluxhasa iinkqubo zeGreen Revolution. ”

Oorhulumente base-Afrika bachitha malunga ne- $ 1 yezigidigidi ngonyaka kwinkxaso-mali ukuxhasa imbewu yorhwebo kunye nezolimo. Ngaphandle kotyalo-mali olukhulu kwimveliso yezolimo, indlala inyuke ngamashumi amathathu eepesenti ngexesha le-AGRA, ngokwengxelo yeZithembiso Zobuxoki.

Utyalomali lweGates Foundation lunefuthe elibonakalayo kwindlela iinkqubo zokutya ezakhiwe ngayo e-Afrika, ngokwe-Juni Ingxelo evela kwiQela lamaZwe ngamaZwe kwiiNkqubo zokutya eziZinzileyo (IPES). Eli qela linike ingxelo yokuba iibhiliyoni zeedola kwizibonelelo zeGates Foundation zikhuthaze ulimo lwamashishini eAfrika kwaye zabuyisa utyalo-mali kwiinkqubo zokutya ezizinzileyo, ezilinganayo.  

"I-BMGF ijonge imbuyekezo ekhawulezayo, ebonakalayo kutyalo-mali, kwaye ngenxa yoko ithatha ingqalelo kwizisombululo zeteknoloji," yatsho i-IPES.

Abavelisi bendawo kunye nokutya okufutshane 

Inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwezolimo kwiGates Foundation yokwakha iimarike ezinkulu, izibonelelo zorhwebo eziphezulu kuyibeka ngokuchasene nokucinga okuvelayo malunga nendlela yokujongana neemeko ezingazinzanga ezibangelwe ngamawele eenguqu zemozulu kunye nobhubhane weCovid-19.

NgoSeptemba, i Ukutya neZolimo Umbutho we-UN utshilo kubalulekile ukwakha iindlela zokutya ezomeleleyo njengoko ubhubhane "ubeke iinkqubo zokutya zasekuhlaleni emngciphekweni wokuphazamiseka kulo lonke ukutya." Ingxelo ibhala ngemiceli mngeni enxulumene nobhubhane kunye nezifundo ezivela kuvavanyo lwehlabathi olwenziwe ngo-Epreli nangoMeyi olwafumana iimpendulo ezingama-860. 

“Umyalezo ocacileyo ngowokuba, ukuze kujongwane nezothuso ezinje nge-COVID-19, izixeko ezineemeko ezifanelekileyo kwezentlalo nezoqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kufuneka zamkele imigaqo-nkqubo kunye neenkqubo zokuxhobisa abavelisi balapha ekulimeni ukutya, kwaye bakhuthaze ukutya okufutshane ukwenza ukuba abemi basezidolophini ukufikelela kwiimveliso zokutya, ”iqukumbele ngelitshoyo ingxelo. "Izixeko kufuneka zisebenzise ukutya kunye nemithombo yazo, zisomeleza iindawo apho kufanelekileyo, kodwa ngaphandle kokuvala ubonelelo lukazwelonke nolwehlabathi."

Njengokuba ubhubhane usongela uluntu lwasezifama esele lusokoliswa kukutshintsha kwemozulu, i-Afrika isendleleni, wabhala uMillion Belay, umququzeleli woMbutho woLawulo lokutya e-Afrika, noTimothy Wise, umphandi ophambili wohlalutyo lweTufts lwe-AGRA, kwi NgoSeptemba 23 op-ed. “Ngaba abantu noorhulumente babo bazakuqhubeka nokuzama ukuphinda-phinda imifuziselo yezolimo ezikhuthazwa ngamazwe aphuhlileyo? Okanye ngaba baya kuhamba ngenkalipho baye kwikamva elingaqinisekanga, besamkela ulimo lwendalo? ”

U-Belay no-Wise bachaze iindaba ezimnandi ezivela kuphando lwakutsha nje; "Amazwe amabini e-AGRA anciphise inani kunye nesabelo sabantu abangondlekanga- iTiyopiya neMali - bakwenzile oko ngenxa yemigaqo-nkqubo exhasa ezolimo."

Elona bali likhulu lempumelelo, iMali, labona indlala yehla ukusuka kwi-14% ukuya kwi-5% ukusukela ngo-2006 Iingxelo zezithembiso ezingeyonyani, "Inkqubela-phambili ayizanga ngenxa ye-AGRA kodwa ngenxa yokuba urhulumente kunye nemibutho yamafama bekuchasile ukuphunyezwa kwayo," uBelay noWise babhala, bekhomba kwimithetho yomhlaba kunye nembewu eqinisekisa amalungelo amafama okuzikhethela izityalo kunye neendlela zokulima, kunye neenkqubo zikarhulumente Ungakhuthazi nje umbona kodwa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo zokutya.

"Lixesha lokuba oorhulumente base-Afrika babuye umva kwi-Green Revolution engaphumeleliyo kwaye bathathe inkqubo entsha yokutya ehlonipha amasiko kunye noluntu ngokwazisa ngendleko eziphantsi, nezolimo olunengeniso ephantsi," babhala. 

Ukuphinda kabini phantsi iphulo le-PR eligcinwe eCornell 

Ngokuchasene nale meko ingemva, iGates Foundation iphinda phindwe kabini kutyalo-mali lwayo kwiCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), umkhankaso wobudlelwane noluntu ophehlelelwe ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates kwaye uthembisa "ukuyiphelisa ingxoxo" malunga neeGMOs. Ngezigidi ezili-10 zeedola, Izicwangciso ze-CAS zokwandisa ukugxila kwayo "Ukulwa iingcamango zelenqe kunye nemikhankaso yokuchazwa kwegama ethintela inkqubela phambili kutshintsho lwemozulu, i-biology eyenziweyo, ezolimo ezintsha." 

Kodwa umanyano lweCornell Alliance lwezeNzululwazi luye lwangumbutho ophembelelayo kunye nomthombo wolwazi olungeyonyani njengoko luqeqesha abanye abantu kwihlabathi liphela ukukhuthaza nokugaya izityalo ezingene kwimfuza kumazwe abo, uninzi lwabo luseAfrika. 

Uninzi lwezifundiswa, amaqela okutya kunye neengcali zomgaqo-nkqubo ziye zabiza iqela Imiyalezo engachanekanga nelahlekisayo. Amaqela oluntu asebenzela ukulawula izitshabalalisi kunye ne-biosafety ityhola i-CAS usebenzisa amaqhinga okuxhaphaza eHawaii kwaye ukuxhaphaza abalimi eAfrika kwimikhankaso yayo yokukhuthaza kunye nokuphembelela.  

A Julayi 30 Ngu-Mark Lynas, umntu o tyelele uCornell osebenzela i-CAS, ukhanyisa impikiswano malunga nemiyalezo yeqela. Ukucaphula kutshanje uhlalutyo lweemeta kwezolimo lolondolozo, utshilo uLynas,  "I-agro-ecology isemngciphekweni wokonzakalisa amahlwempu kunye nokwanda kokulingana ngokwesini e-Afrika." Uhlalutyo lwakhe lwalugcinwe ngokubanzi ziingcali kwicandelo.

UMarc Corbeels, i-agronomist eyabhala uhlalutyo lweemeta, lithe inqaku lenze "ukwenziwa ngokubanzi. ” Abanye abafundi baye bachaza inqaku likaLynas njengo “inesiphene ngokwenene, ""ngokungathandabuzekiyo, ""idemagogic kunye non-science, ”Impixano ephosakeleyo etsibela kwi"izigqibo zasendle, ”Kunye “Ihlazo umntu ofuna ukubanga ukuba uyinzululwazi. ”

I nqaku kufuneka irhoxiswe, utshilo uMarci Branski, owayesakuba yingcali kutshintsho lwemozulu eUSDA kwaye UMarcus Taylor, ingcali yezendalo kwezopolitiko kwiYunivesithi yaseQueen.

Ingxoxo mpikiswano agroecology kushushu

Impikiswano iphinde yavela kule veki ngaphezulu kwewebhu ye-CAS ibamba NgoLwesine u-Okthobha u-1 ngesihloko se-agroecology. Ukucacisa inkxalabo yokuba iqela elisekwe eCornell "alikho nzulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba bangabandakanyeka kwingxoxo evulekileyo, engakhethi cala", iingcali zenkqubo yokutya ezimbini zarhoxa kwi-webinar ekuqaleni kwale veki.

Oososayensi ababini bathi bavumile ukuthatha inxaxheba kwi-webinar emva kokubona amagama omnye komnye phakathi kweepaneli; "Oko kwakwanele kuthi sobabini ukuba sithembe nombutho emva komsitho," ubhale watsho UPablo Tittonell, PhD, iNzululwazi ePhambili yeNzululwazi kwiBhunga leSayensi neThekhinoloji laseArgentina (i-CONICET) kunye Sieglinde Snapp, PhD, uNjingalwazi woMhlaba kunye neNkqubo yokuCandwa kweNdalo kwiYunivesithi yaseMichigan State, kwimodareyitha yephaneli uJoan Conrow, umhleli weCAS. 

“Kodwa ndifunda ezinye zeebhloko kunye nezimvo ezikhutshwe yi-Alliance, iimpapasho zabanye abaphathi bephaneli, ukufunda ngamabango acalucalulo nongaziyo ngokuchasene ne-agroecology. IConrow.

"Ke ngoko siyarhoxa kule mpikiswano." IConrow ayiphendulanga kwizicelo zokubeka izimvo.

 Iwebhu iya kuhamba phambili Nassib Mugwanya, 2015 wobunkokeli behlabathi be-CAS kunye nomfundi ogqirha kwiYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina State, naye otyholwa ngokwenza uhlaselo olungenabulungisa kwi-agroecology. Kwi Inqaku le-2019 Kwiziko laseBreakthrough Institute, uMugwanya wathi, "iinkqubo zesintu zezolimo azinakho ukuguqula ezolimo eAfrika." 

Inqaku libonisa imiyalezo yemizi-mveliso ye-biotech: ukuveza izityalo ze-GMO njenge “pro-science” ngeli xesha kupeyintwa “ezinye iindlela zophuhliso lwezolimo njenge 'anti-science,' engenamhlaba kwaye iyingozi,” ngokokuhlalutya ngoMbutho woLuntu wase-Seattle woBulungisa beLizwe.

Eli qela lathi, “Eyona nto ibalulekileyo kweli nqaku zizinto ezisebenzisa izikweko (umz.

UTittonell noSnapp bakhuphe uluhlu lwewebhu ngoLwesine, uMugwanya uzokuzimanya noPamela Ronald, unjingalwazi wezifo zezityalo kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis. ubudlelwane kumaqonga eshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi, yaye UFrédéric Baudron, Isazinzulu esiphezulu kwiZiko loPhuculo loMbona noNgqolowa kwiZiko (i-CIMMYT), iGates Iqela elixhaswa ngemali sisiseko. 

Ukucela 'umlo olungileyo'

UMariam Mayet, umlawuli olawulayo weZiko laseAfrika leZinto Ezahlukeneyo Zezinto, ubona amaphulo e-PR axineneyo "njengobungqina bokungazithembi" ukuba "abanakulifumana kwilizwekazi." 

Iqela lakhe linayo iminyaka ibhala “Iinzame zokusasaza i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, kunye neziphelo eziya kuthi zikhokelele: ekunciphiseni impilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwendalo yezolimo, ukuphulukana nolawulo lwabalimi, kunye nokutshixwa kwamafama aseAfrika kwinkqubo engayenzelwanga inzuzo yabo , kodwa ngenxa yenzuzo yamashishini amakhulu aseMntla. ”

Umbutho weCornell Alliance weSayensi kufuneka ulawulwe, utshilo uMayet kwi-webinar ka-Agasti malunga nefuthe leGates Foundation e-Afrika, "ngenxa yolwazi olungelulo (kunye) nendlela abangathembeki ngayo nabangeyonyani." Ubuze, "Kutheni ungalwi nathi?"

UStacy Malkan ungumseki-ntatheli kunye nentatheli ye-US Right to Know, iqela lophando elingenzi nzuzo elijolise kwimicimbi yezempilo yoluntu. Ungumbhali wencwadi ka-2007 ethi, “Hayi Ubuso nje obuhle: Icala elibi leShishini loBuhle.” Mlandele kwi-Twitter @StacyMalkan 

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