Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

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Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Ijaji laseMelika lifuna iMonsanto kunye neBayer ukuba iqale iiNtetho zoHlaliso kwi-Roundup Cancer Litigation

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UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ucela uMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo omtsha uBayer AG ukuba baqale ukulamla namagqwetha amaxhoba omhlaza athe amangalela uMonsanto etyhola i-Roundup yayo kunye nezinye i-glyphosate-based herbicides ebangela ukuba ingeyo-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Intshukumo kaChhabria iza emva kokunikezelwa ngetyala leedola ezingama-80 ezigidi kummangali uEdwin Hardeman kwinyanga ephelileyo kwindlu yakhe yenkundla. Kwaye ummangali ophelileyo wasehlotyeni uDewayne "Lee" Johnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola yijaji kwinkundla yelizwe, nangona ijaji kwelo tyala yehlisa lo monakalo ukuya kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola.

U-Chhabria wayelumkisile ukuba angathatha inyathelo elinje, kodwa wabonisa ukuba uyakulinda de kube kugqitywe amatyala amathathu ngaphambi kokunyanzeliswa. Uvavanyo lwesithathu lomhlaza we-Roundup lusanda kuqhubeka, nangona kunjalo.

Njengokuba etyhala amaqela ukuba azinzise, ​​uChabbria uwushiyile umhla wetyala ngoMeyi 20 owawumiselwe ityala elilandelayo lomdibaniso. Ityala elo, UStevick v. Monsanto  yafakwa ngo-Epreli ka-2016 ngu-Elaine Stevick, ongenayo i-Hodgkin lymphoma, kunye nomyeni wakhe uChristopher Stevick. Esi sibini saya kwinxalenye yetyala likaHardeman.

Ama-11,000 abamangali baye bamangalela iMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngehlobo elidlulileyo. Ngaphezulu kwama-800 ala matyala abekwa esweni yiChhabria njengemanyano yezopolitiko. Amawaka aliqela ngaphezulu asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente kwilizwe liphela.

Abaqwalaseli bacinge ukuba indawo yokuhlala iyonke inokuhamba phakathi kwe- $ 3 yezigidigidi kunye ne-5 yezigidigidi.

I-Bayer iye yaphakamisa isikhundla esime ixesha elide seMonsanto sokuba i-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate-based herbicides ngaphakathi kwipotifoliyo yomdibaniso zikhuselekile kwaye azibangeli mhlaza. Kodwa abatyali mali eBayer bebesenza isitokhwe senkampani kwaye egxeka iBayer CEO uWerner Baumann  Ukuhlawula i-63 yezigidigidi zeedola kwiMonsanto kuphela ukuze ube noxanduva lobutyala. Abanye babongoza ivoti yokungamthembi uBaumann kwintlanganiso yonyaka yenkampani ecwangciselwe umhla wama-26 ku-Epreli. Izabelo zenkampani zilahlekelwe malunga neepesenti ezingama-40 ngexabiso- phantse i-39 yezigidigidi zeedola-ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson ehlobo.

Okwangoku, bekukho iintlantsi zakuqala ezibhabhayo kwityala le-Roundup lomhlaza eliqhubekayo ngoku kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-Alameda County. Kwimeko apho, isibini esitshatileyo saseAlva kunye neAlberta Pilliod bobabini bane-non-Hodgkin lymphoma abathi bayabangelwa kukusetyenziswa kwabo rhoqo kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto.

Igqwetha labamangali uMike Miller libuze iJaji uWinifred Smith ukuba khupha iodolo yokuthintela ixeshana ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngentengiso enzima inkampani ibisenza ukukhusela ukhuseleko lwayo, kubandakanya nentengiso epheleleyo kwiphepha leWall Street Journal ngo-Matshi 25, usuku olwalulungele ukhetho lwejaji kwityala likaPilliod.

IMonsanto iphikisiwe ngokuchaza ukuba amagqwetha abamangali aqhuba uninzi lwezaziso zabo befuna abathengi abatsha kwisimangalo seRoundup. Isindululo siya kuthi sifane nomgaqo-siseko "womyalelo we-gag" kwaye "uvuza uhanahaniso," amagqwetha kaMonsanto aphikisa.

Kwimpikiswano ngokuchasene nomyalelo, amagqwetha kaMonsanto axelele ijaji ukuba iMiller Firm, emele iiPilliods kunye nabanye abamangali abaninzi, baqhuba isibhengezo kwiSan Francisco Chronicle besithi "ukuphindaphindeka okanye ukuphindeka kathathu" komngcipheko we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ukuvezwa kweRoundup kwiintsuku nje ezisixhenxe ngaphambi kokuba ityala likaPilliod liqale. UMonsanto uthe kubekho "i-2,187 ye-anti-Roundup yeentengiso zikamabonwakude nonomathotholo ukusukela nge-1 Disemba 2018 ukuya nge-Matshi 21, 2019" kwimakethi yeendaba yaseSan Francisco.

Ujaji Smith wafumanisa ukuba ingxoxo kaMonsanto iyacenga kwaye usikhabe isicelo sabamangali umda kwintengiso.

Izihlangu ezingaphezulu zeMonsanto (amaXwebhu) Cwangcisa ukuDrop

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Ifemu yezomthetho yeBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman, eyadibana ne-The Miller Firm ekubhaleni uloyiso lwembali lommangali u-Dewayne Lee Johnson ngaphezulu kwe-Monsanto ngo-Agasti, ifuna ukutyunjwa kwamaphepha angamakhulu aliqela eerekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto ezafunyanwa ngokufumanisa kodwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kugqityiwe ukutywinwa.

U-Baum Hedlund kunyaka ophelileyo wakhupha amakhulu ezinye iirekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto ezibandakanya ii-imeyile, ii-memos, imiyalezo ebhaliweyo kunye nolunye unxibelelwano olunempembelelo kwisigwebo samacala afanayo sokufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yasebenza "ngolunya" ngokungalumkisi abathengi malunga neenkxalabo zesayensi malunga ne-glyphosate-based herbicides . Imithombo yeJury ithi ezo rekhodi zangaphakathi zazinefuthe kakhulu kwimbasa yabo yokulimala ngezigidigidi ezingama-250 zeedola ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathi ijaji kwimeko yanciphisa yaya kuthi ga kwi-39 yezigidi zeedola kwiibhiliyoni ezingama-78 zeedola.

Amagqwetha abamangali kwizilingo ezimbini ezizayo athi iirekhodi zeMonsanto ezingakhange zibonwe esidlangalaleni ngaphambili ziya kuba yinxalenye yobungqina obutsha abaceba ukubazisa kwizilingo.

Namhlanje ikwangumhla wokugqibela wabamangali wokuphendula kwisindululo sikaMonsanto sokuba "sibuyise umva" ityala likaFebruwari 25 elimiselwe iNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. (jonga u-Disemba 11 ukungena ngezantsi ngeenkcukacha)