IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) liQela leLobby yeShishini lokuTya

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IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) ngumbutho ongajonganga nzuzo oxhaswa ngemali liqumrhu eliseWashington DC, elinamahluko ali-17 amanyeneyo kwihlabathi liphela. ILSI zichaza Njengeqela eliqhuba "isayensi ukulungiselela uluntu" kwaye "liphucula impilo yoluntu kunye nokuphila kunye nokukhusela okusingqongileyo." Nangona kunjalo, uphando olwenziwe ngabahlohli, intatheli kunye nabaphandi abanomdla kuluntu babonisa ukuba i-ILSI liqela elikhuselayo elikhusele iimfuno zeshishini lokutya, hayi impilo yoluntu.

Iindaba zamva nje

  • ICoca-Cola iqhawule ubudlelwane bayo obude kunye ne-ILSI. Eli nyathelo "libuhlungu kumbutho wokutya onamandla owaziwa ngophando lwayo kunye neenkqubo zalo zeswekile," IBroomberg yabika ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • I-ILSI incede iNkampani yeCoca-Cola ukuba yenze umgaqo-nkqubo wokutyeba kakhulu e-China, ngokophando lukaSeptemba 2020 kwi Ijenali yezopolitiko, Umgaqo-nkqubo kunye noMthetho nguNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphantsi kwengxelo kawonke-wonke yesayensi engakhethi cala kwaye akukho mgaqo-nkqubo ubeka uluhlu lweenkampani ezifihliweyo ezisetyenziselwa ukuqhubela phambili iimfuno zabo. Ukusebenza ngala majelo, uCoca Cola uphembelele inzululwazi yase-China kunye nokwenziwa komgaqo-nkqubo kuwo onke amabakala enkqubo yomgaqo-nkqubo, ukusuka ekuyileni le miba kuyilo lomgaqo-nkqubo osemthethweni, ”ligqibe eli phepha.

  • Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know yongeza obunye ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili kushishino lokutya. Ngomhla we-Meyi 2020 kufunda kwiSondlo seMpilo kaRhulumente ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu kutyhila "ipateni yomsebenzi apho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukuthembeka kwezazinzulu kunye nezifundiswa ukomeleza izikhundla zeshishini kunye nokukhuthaza umxholo osekwe kwimizi-mveliso kwiintlanganiso zawo, ijenali, kunye neminye imisebenzi." Jonga ukogquma kwi-BMJ, Icandelo lokutya kunye nokusela lifuna ukuphembelela oososayensi kunye nabahlohli, ii-imeyile zibonisa  (5.22.20)

  • Uxanduva lweshishini Ingxelo ka-Epreli 2020 Ivavanya indlela amashishini okutya kunye neziselo athe anika ngayo i-ILSI ukungena kwiKomiti yeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US, kunye nenkqubela yokukhubazeka kumgaqo-nkqubo wezondlo kwihlabathi liphela. Jonga ingxelo kwi-BMJ, Ukutya kunye nomzi mveliso wesiselo esinxilisayo kunempembelelo enkulu kwizikhokelo zokutya zaseMelika, ingxelo ithi (4.24.20) 

  • Uphando lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs utyhila ukuba itrasti ye-ILSI exhaswa ngumzi-mveliso icebise urhulumente wase-Indiya ukuba aqhubeke neelebheli zokulumkisa ngokutya okungenampilo. Ixesha ichaze i-ILSI njenge "shishini leqela elinemveliso" kwaye "lelona qela linamandla lokutya ongazange uve ngalo." (9.16.19) AmaXesha akhankanya a Isifundo sikaJuni kuHlabathi lwehlabathi kunye neMpilo ibhalwe ngu-Gary Ruskin wase-US kwiLungelo lokuKwazi ukunika ingxelo yokuba i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokubambela abaxhasi bayo bokutya kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

  • The INew York Times ityhile ubudlelwane obungachazwanga be-ILSI bukaBradley C. Johnston, umbhali-mbhali wezifundo ezintlanu zamva nje ezithi inyama ebomvu neyenziweyo azibeki ngxaki zempilo. UJohnston wasebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo kwisifundo esixhaswa ngemali yi-ILSI ukubanga iswekile ayisiyongxaki. (10.4.19)

  • I-blog yezopolitiko zikaMarion Nestle, I-ILSI: imibala yokwenyani ityhiliwe (10.3.19)

Izibophelelo ze-ILSI kwiCoca-Cola 

I-ILSI yasekwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayesakuba ngusekela Mongameli kwiCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke ukusukela ngo-1969-2001. ICoca-Cola igcine ubudlelwane obusondeleyo ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-Voca yeCoca-Cola yemicimbi yezenzululwazi kunye nemicimbi yezolawulo ukusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI ukusukela ngo-2009-2011. In 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI yayinguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlala-phantsi emsebenzini wakhe njengegosa eliyintloko lezempilo kunye nesayensi likaCoca-Cola (kwaye ukusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 emva ENew York Times kwaye I-Press Associated uxele ukuba uCoke uxhase ngemali i-Global Energy Balance Network ukunceda ukutshintsha ityala lokutyeba kakhulu kude neziselo ezineswekile.  

Inkxaso mali yeziko 

ILSI ixhaswe ngemali yiyo amalungu eenkampani kunye nabaxhasi beenkampani, kubandakanya ukutya okukhokelayo kunye neenkampani zamachiza. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuba ifumana inkxaso-mali kumzi mveliso kodwa ayichazi esidlangalaleni ukuba ngubani onikelayo okanye unegalelo elingakanani. Uphando lwethu lutyhila:

  • Imirhumo yequmrhu kwi-ILSI Global efikelela kwi-2.4 yezigidi zeerandi ngo-2012. Oku kubandakanya i- $ 528,500 evela kwi-CropLife International, igalelo lama- $ 500,000 elivela eMonsanto nase- $ 163,500 lisuka eCoca-Cola.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-ILSI yowama-2013 ibonisa ukuba i-ILSI ifumene i- $ 337,000 evela kwiCoca-Cola nangaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 nganye eMonsanto, eSyngenta, eDow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience kunye ne-BASF.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-2016 ILSI eMntla Melika ibonisa igalelo le- $ 317,827 elivela kwaPepsiCo, igalelo elingaphezulu kweedola ezingama-200,000 ukusuka eMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, kunye negalelo elingaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 kwiGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Uniliver kunye neCampbell Soup.  

I-imeyile ibonisa indlela i-ILSI efuna ukuphembelela ngayo umgaqo-nkqubo ukukhuthaza izimvo zeshishini 

A Ngomhla we-Meyi ka-2020 kwizifundo zeMpilo kaRhulumente wongeza ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili lokutya. Uphononongo, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know ngokusebenzisa iirekhodi zikarhulumente izicelo, ityhila indlela i-ILSI ekhuthaza ngayo umdla wokutya kunye nemizi-mveliso yezolimo, kubandakanya nendima ye-ILSI ekukhuseleni izithako zokutya ezinempikiswano kunye nokucinezela izimvo ezingathandekiyo kushishino; ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeCoca-Cola zinokuthi zibeke igalelo kwi-ILSI kwiinkqubo ezithile; kwaye, indlela i-ILSI ebasebenzisa ngayo abafundi kwiziphathamandla zabo kodwa ivumela ishishini elifihliweyo kwimpapasho yabo.

Olu phononongo lukwaveza iinkcukacha ezintsha malunga nokuba zeziphi iinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI kunye namasebe ayo, kunye namakhulu amawaka eedola kwimirhumo ebhaliweyo evela ekukhokeleni ukutya okungenampilo, isoda kunye neenkampani zamachiza.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 kwi-Globalization kunye neMpilo ibonelela ngemizekelo eliqela yendlela i-ILSI eqhubela phambili ngayo kwimidla yeshishini lokutya, ngakumbi ngokukhuthaza isayensi enobungcali kumzi-mveliso kunye neengxoxo kubenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo. Olu phononongo lusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe lilungelo lase-US lokwazi ngemithetho yeerekhodi zikarhulumente.  

Abaphandi baqukumbele ngelithi: “ILSI ifuna ukuphembelela abantu, izikhundla, kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe aphesheya, kunye namalungu ayo asebenza njengesixhobo sokukhuthaza umdla wabo kwihlabathi liphela. Uhlalutyo lwethu lwe-ILSI lusebenza njengesilumkiso kwabo bathatha inxaxheba kulawulo lwempilo lwehlabathi ukuba balumke ngamaqela ophando azimeleyo, nokuzilolonga phambi kokuthembela kwizifundo zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kunye / okanye ukuzibandakanya kubudlelwane nala maqela. ”   

I-ILSI ijongele phantsi umlo wokutyeba e-China

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabini ngo UNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh ityhile impembelelo enamandla ye-ILSI kurhulumente wase-China kwimicimbi enxulumene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola kunye neminye imibutho esebenza ngayo kwisebe lase China le-ILSI ukuphembelela amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yaseTshayina kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya ezinje ngohlobo lweswekile 2 kunye noxinzelelo lwegazi. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kakuhle e-China kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwiziko likarhulumente loLawulo lweZifo noThintelo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaNjingalwazi Geenhalgh abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola nezinye izigebenga zaseNtshona zokutya neziselo “zanceda ekubumbeni amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yase-China kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukutyala amagosa aphambili eTshayina "kumzamo wokuthintela intshukumo ekhulayo yokulawulwa kokutya kunye neerhafu zesoda ebezitshayela entshona, ”ingxelo yeNew York Times.  

Uphando olongezelelweyo kwezemfundo oluvela e-US Right to Know malunga ne-ILSI 

Ugcino lwamaxwebhu oShishino lwecuba lwe-UCSF luphelile Amaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI.  

Isifundo seswekile ye-ILSI “kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba”

Iingcali zempilo yoluntu zigxeka inkxaso-mali ye-ILSI isifundo seswekile epapashwe kwiphephancwadi lezonyango elidumileyo ngo-2016 oko "kwakuyingozi yokuhlaselwa kweengcebiso zezempilo zehlabathi zokutya iswekile encinci," uxele uAnahad O'Connor kwiThe New York Times. Isifundo esixhaswe ngemali yi-ILSI sathi izilumkiso zokusika iswekile zisekwe kubungqina obubuthathaka kwaye azinakuthenjwa.  

Ibali leThe Times licaphule uMarion Nestle, uprofesa kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York ofunda ukungqubana komdla kuphando lwezondlo, kwisifundo se-ILSI: "Oku kuphuma kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba: yenza intandabuzo kwisayensi," utshilo uNestle. “Lo ngumzekelo weklasikhi wendlela inkxaso-mali yemizi-mveliso ekhetha ngayo izimvo. Iintloni. ” 

Iinkampani zecuba zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuthintela umgaqo-nkqubo 

Ingxelo kaJulayi 2000 yekomiti ezimeleyo yeWorld Health Organisation ichaze iindlela ezininzi apho ishishini lecuba lizame ukujongela phantsi iinzame zolawulo lwecuba ze-WHO, kubandakanya nokusebenzisa amaqela ezenzululwazi ukuphembelela ukwenziwa kwezigqibo ze-WHO kunye nokusebenzisa ingxoxo yenzululwazi malunga nemiphumela yezempilo. yecuba. I-ILSI idlale indima ephambili kwezi nzame, ngokokufunda kwimeko ye-ILSI ehamba nengxelo. "Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba i-ILSI yayisetyenziswa ziinkampani ezithile zecuba ukuthintela imigaqo-nkqubo yokulawula icuba. Abaphathi beofisi abaphezulu kwi-ILSI babandakanyeka ngokuthe ngqo kwezi zenzo, ”ngokophando lwetyala. Bona: 

Uvimba wamaXwebhu oShishino lweCuba lwe-UCSF une ngaphezulu kwamaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI

Iinkokeli ze-ILSI zincedile ukukhusela i-glyphosate njengezitulo zepaneli ephambili 

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2016, i-ILSI yaqwalaselwa emva kokutyhilwa ukuba usekela-mongameli we-ILSI Yurophu, uNjingalwazi Alan Boobis, wayekwangusihlalo wepaneli ye-UN eyafumana ikhemikhali kaMonsanto glyphosate Kwakungenakwenzeka ukuba ubeke umngcipheko womhlaza ngokutya. Usihlalo we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uNjingalwazi u-Angelo Moretto, wayelilungu lebhodi ye-ILSI ye-Health and Environment Services Institute. Akukho nasinye kwizitulo ze-JMPR ezichaze indima yabo yobunkokeli kwi-ILSI njengengxabano yomdla, ngaphandle kwe igalelo lemali elibalulekileyo elifunyenwe yi-ILSI ukusuka eMonsanto kunye neqela lezorhwebo ngezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwane obuluqilima be-ILSI kumaziko ase-US kuLawulo lweZifo noThintelo  

NgoJuni 2016, Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi ingxelo ukuba uGqirha Barbara Bowman, umlawuli wecandelo le-CDC eligwetyelwe ukuthintela isifo sentliziyo kunye ne-stroke, wazama ukunceda umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nefuthe kumagosa oMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi ukurhoxa kwimigaqo-nkqubo yokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweswekile. U-Bowman ucebise abantu kunye namaqela eMalaspina ukuba athethe nawo, kwaye wacela izimvo zakhe kwizishwankathelo zeengxelo ze-CDC, ii-imeyile zibonisa. (UBowman wehla emva kokuba inqaku lethu lokuqala lipapashiwe linika ingxelo ngezi zibophelelo.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 Isifundo kwikota yeMilbank ichaza ii-imeyile eziphambili zeMalaspina ngokudibanisa noGqirha Bowman. Ukufumana ingxelo engaphezulu ngesi sihloko, bona: 

Impembelelo ye-ILSI kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo zokuTya eMelika

Ingxelo yeqela elingenzi nzuzo Ukuphendula ngoxanduva uxwebhu lokuba i-ILSI inefuthe elinjani kwizikhokelo zokutya zase-US ngokungena kwayo kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US. Ingxelo ivavanya ukuphazamiseka kwezopolitiko okuxhaphakileyo kokutya kunye neziselo ezinje ngeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, kunye nePepsiCo, kunye nendlela le mibutho eyenze ngayo i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inkqubela phambili kumgaqo-nkqubo wesondlo kwihlabathi liphela.

Impembelelo ye-ILSI eIndiya 

I-New York Times inike ingxelo ngempembelelo ye-ILSI e-India kwinqaku layo elinesihloko esithi, “IQela leShishini eliLuhlaza lenza iMilo yomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya kwihlabathi liphela. "

I-ILSI inonxibelelwano olusondeleyo namanye amagosa aseburhulumenteni eIndiya kwaye, njengase China, i-nonprofit ityhale imiyalezo efanayo kunye nezindululo zomgaqo-nkqubo njenge-Coca-Cola -ukudlala indima yeswekile kunye nokutya njengesizathu sokutyeba kakhulu, kunye nokukhuthaza ukwanda kwemisebenzi yomzimba njengesisombululo , ngokweZiko leZibonelelo zaseIndiya. 

Amalungu ebhodi ye-ILSI yase-India ibandakanya umphathi we-Coca-Cola wase-India kwimicimbi yezolawulo kunye nabameli abavela eNestlé nase-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyongeza ukutya, kunye namagosa aseburhulumenteni asebenza kwiiphaneli zesayensi ezinikwe uxanduva lokuthatha isigqibo malunga nemicimbi yokhuseleko lokutya.  

Ukuxhalaba okude malunga ne-ILSI 

I-ILSI inyanzelisa ukuba ayilo qela lokungenelela kushishino, kodwa inkxalabo kunye nezikhalazo zihlala ixesha elide malunga neqela elixhasa ushishino kunye nokungqubana komdla phakathi kweenkokheli zombutho. Jonga, umzekelo:

Ukuphelisa iimpembelelo zeshishini lokutya, Amayeza endalo (2019)

Iarhente yokutya iyalikhaba ibango lembambano. Kodwa izityholo zeshishini lokuthengisa zinokungcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophuIndalo (2010)

Ukutya Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Umlo wokugqibela woMnqamlezo, Gcina ukuLungela iMilo, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukutya okwenene xa kuvavanywa, NguGqirha Tim Noakes kunye noMarika Sboros (uColumbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukutshutshiswa nokutshutshiswa okungazange kubonwe nguNjingalwazi uTim Noakes, isazinzulu esaziwayo nogqirha, kwityala leerandi elingaphaya kweminyaka emine. Yonke itweet enye inika uluvo malunga nesondlo. ”

I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

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NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

Ezona zinambuzane zisetyenziswa kakhulu

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Uboshwe ekufeni kweenyosi

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.

IiFirmer zeBayer Shady PR: uFleishmanHillard, uKetchum, uFing Consulting

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Kuthunyelwe kwasekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; Ukuhlaziywa ngoNovemba 2020

Kule posi, i-US Right to Know ilanda umkhondo wenkohliso kawonke-wonke obandakanya iifemu ze-PR ezikhulu zezoLimo iBayer AG neMonsanto abathembele kuzo kwimikhankaso yabo yokukhusela imveliso: Ukubonisana ne-FTI, uKetchum PR kunye noFleishmanHillard. Ezi femu baneembali ezinde zokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza ii-ajenda zopolitiko zabaxhasi babo, kubandakanya neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, icuba kunye nemikhankaso yokukhusela icandelo leoyile.

Ihlazo lakutsha nje

I-NYT ibhengeza ubuchule bokubonisana be-FTI ngokuqinileyo kwishishini leoyile: Kwi Ngomhla kaNovemba 11, 2020 inqaku leNew York Times, U-Hiroko Tabuchi utyhila indlela i-FTI Consulting "eye yanceda ngayo uyilo, abasebenzi kunye nemibutho kunye newebhusayithi ezixhaswa ngemali ziinkampani zamandla ezinokubonakala ngathi zimele inkxaso yamalinge e-fossil-fuel." Ngokusekwe kudliwanondlebe nabalishumi elinababini ababesebenza kwi-FTI kunye namakhulu amaxwebhu angaphakathi, u-Tabuchi unika ingxelo ngendlela i-FTI ebeka iliso ngayo kubaphembeleli bendalo, eqhuba amaphulo ezopolitiko e-astroturf, enabasebenzi beendaba ezimbini kunye neendawo zolwazi kwaye wabhala amanqaku e-pro-shishini malunga ne-fracking, amatyala emozulu kunye nokunye okushushu Imiba yeqhosha kwicala lase-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kunye neefemu zayo ze-PR zenze iinzame zeGOP ukoyikisa abaphandi bomhlaza: U-Lee Fang uxele i-The Intercept Kwi-2019 kumaxwebhu aphakamisa ukuba abalawuli abachasene neMonsanto kunye noxinzelelo lokufaka uxinzelelo kuphando lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Ibali libika ngeendlela zobuqhetseba ze-PR, kubandakanya nendlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo ileta malunga nesayensi ye-glyphosate etyikitywe yi-congressman ephezulu ye-GOP.

Amaxwebhu eMonsanto atyhila ubuchule bokujongela phantsi uphando lomdla woluntu: Amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto akhutshwe ngesimangalo ngo-Agasti 2019 abonisa uluhlu lweendlela zenkampani kunye neefemu zayo ze-PR ezisetyenziselwa ukujolisa kwiintatheli nakwabanye abachaphazeli abaphakamise inkxalabo malunga nezibulala-zinambuzane kunye nee-GMO, kwaye bazama ukuphikisa uphando kwimisebenzi yabo yi-US Ilungelo Lokwazi.

Jonga amaphepha e-USRTK, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe kuphando lwethu, ukunika ingxelo ngabantu besithathu ababandakanyeka kukhuseleko kumzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi: Ukulandelela iNethiwekhi yePropaganda yoShishino lweePilisi.

Nge-Meyi ka-2019, saxela kwizikrelemnqa ezininzi ezibandakanya iifemu ze-Bayer PR:

'Ifayile yeMonsanto' ihlazo

Iintatheli kwi U-Le Monde uxele ngoMeyi 9 ukuba bafumene "Ifayile yeMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yonxibelelwano noluntu uFleishmanHillard edwelisa "ulwazi oluninzi" malunga ne-200 yeentatheli, abezopolitiko, izazinzulu kunye nabanye ababonwa ngathi banokuba nefuthe kwingxoxo ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde wafaka isikhalazo Iofisi yomtshutshisi waseParis etyhola ukuba uxwebhu olo lubandakanya ukuqokelelwa ngokungekho mthethweni kunye nokulungiswa kwedatha, kukhuthaza iofisi yomtshutshisi ukuba vula inkqubo yolwaphulo-mthetho. Oku kubaluleke kakhulu kuba kubonisa ukuba kukho iindlela ezithile zokuvala amazwi anamandla. Ndiyabona ukuba bebezama ukundihlula, ” Owayengumphathiswa Wezendalo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okuluhlu, uxelele iFrance 24 TV.

"Le yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kuba ibonisa ukuba kukho iindlela ezizizo zokuvala ilizwi elinamandla."

UFrancois Veillerette, osingqongileyo naye kuluhlu, uxelele iFrance 24 ukuba iqulethe iinkcukacha zonxibelelwano, izimvo kunye nenqanaba lokuzibandakanya ngokunxulumene neMonsanto. "Esi sisothuko esikhulu eFrance," utshilo. "Sicinga ukuba yinto eqhelekileyo le." U-Bayer uvumile ukuba uFleishmanHillard uzobe “'Uluhlu lokubukela 'lwamanani e-pro- okanye anti-pesticides”Kumazwe asixhenxe aseYurophu, ingxelo ye-AFP. Uluhlu luneenkcukacha malunga neentatheli, abezopolitiko kunye namanye amaqela anomdla. I-AFP ithe ifake isikhalazo kwi-arhente yolawulo yaseFrance kuba ezinye zeentatheli zayo bezikuluhlu olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa kwaye watsho bunqumamisa ubudlelwane bayo kunye namafemu abandakanyekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kunye nabacebisi bakaPublicis, ngelixa kuqhubeka uphando. Eyona nto iphambili kuthi kukudala izinto elubala, Utshilo uBayer. "Asikunyamezeli ukungaziphathi kakuhle kwinkampani yethu." (Iifemu zacocwa kamva kukungaziphathi kakuhle ngumthetho oqeshwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli kwiilingo zomhlaza weMonsanto

Ukongeza kwiingxaki zeBayer PR, i-AFP yanika ingxelo ngoMeyi 18 ukuba umqeshwa wenye into "yolawulo lwentlekele" uqine ukuba isebenza neBayer neMonsanto Ukubonisana ne-FTI- kwabanjwa ukuzenza njengentatheli ezizimeleyo Kwilingo laseburhulumenteni eSan Francisco eliphele ngo Isigwebo se- $ 80 yezigidi ngokuchasene neBayer ngaphezulu kwengxaki yomhlaza we-glyphosate.

Umsebenzi we-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonwe encokola neentatheli malunga nemibono yamabali kwityala. Ubanga ukuba usebenzela i-BBC kwaye akazange achaze ukuba wayesebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

I-Ketchum kunye neFleishmanHillard baleka i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, ishishini lezolimo lacofa uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabini bangabanini bakaOmnicom, PR ekhubekisayo ukulungisa umfanekiso ye-GMO kunye nemveliso yokubulala izitshabalalisi. Kukhethwe iMonsanto I-FleishmanHillard ukuba "yenze ngokutsha" igama layo phakathi "kwenkcaso ekrakra" kukutya okuguqulweyo, ngokweNgxelo yeHolmes. Ngexesha elifanayo, uFleishmanHillard naye waba ngu Iarhente ye-PR yerekhodi yeBayer, kunye neBhunga loLwazi lweBiotechnology (i-CBI) -iqela lezorhwebo kuxhaswa ngemali Bayer (Monsanto), Corteva (DowDuPont), Syngenta kunye ne-BASF-baqesha inkampani yezobudlelwane noluntu yaseKetchum ukuze iphumeze umkhankaso wentengiso obizwa ngokuba ziiGMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujikeleza aqeshwe zezi femu kubandakanya "wooing mama blogger"Kunye nokusebenzisa amazwi ekuthiwa" azimeleyo "kwiingcali"susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Malunga nee-GMO. Nangona kunjalo, ubungqina buvele ukuba iifemu ze-PR zihlele kwaye zabhala ezinye zeengcali "ezizimeleyo". Umzekelo, amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa oko Kubhalwe uKetchum Izithuba zeGMO Iimpendulo ezazisayinwe ngu Unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseFlorida Ozibanga ezimeleyo njengoko wayesebenza emfihlekweni neMonsanto kwiiprojekthi ze-PR. Usekela-mongameli omkhulu kwiFleishmanHillard ihlelwe intetho a UC Davis uprofesa kwaye wamqeqesha indlela "yokuphumelela abantu egumbini" e Ingxoxo ye-IQ2 yokukholisa uluntu ukwamkela ii-GMOs. UKetchum naye wanika unjingalwazi amanqaku okuthetha Udliwanondlebe lonomathotholo malunga nophando lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa bezizezona zibalulekileyo kubathunywa kwimizamo yokuphembelela ukuchaswa kwelebheli ye-GMO INew York Times ngo-2015. "Oonjingalwazi / abaphandi / izazinzulu banomnqwazi omkhulu omhlophe kule mpikiswano kunye nenkxaso kumazwe abo, ukusuka kwezopolitiko ukuya kubavelisi," uBill Mashek, usekela-mongameli e-Ketchum, ubhalele unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseFlorida. "Qhubeka!" Iqela lezorhwebo le-CBI lichithe ngaphezulu kweedola ezili-11 yezigidi kwiiMpendulo zeGMO zikaKetchum ukusukela nge2013, ngokweerekhodi zerhafu.

Impendulo kulawulo lweengxaki zeempendulo ze-GMO

Njengomqondiso omnye wempumelelo njengesixhobo se-PR spin, Iimpendulo zeGMO zazinjalo Uluhlu olufutshane kuluhlu lweentengiso zeCIO ngo-2014 kudidi “lweCrisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uqhayisa malunga nokuphindaphinda kabini ukujongwa kweendaba ze-GMO kunye "nokulinganisa i-80% yokunxibelelana" kwi-Twitter. Uninzi lwala manxibelelwano kwi-Intanethi avela kwiiakhawunti ezibonakala zizimele kwaye azichazi unxibelelwano lwabo kumkhankaso we-PR womzi mveliso.

Nangona ividiyo kaKetchum ibanga ukuba iimpendulo zeGMO ziya "kuchaza ukuqaqamba" ngolwazi oluvela kwiingcali "ezingenanto ihluziweyo okanye engacaciswanga, kwaye kungekho mazwi athulisiweyo," isicwangciso seMonsanto PR sicebisa ukuba inkampani ibalwe kwiimpendulo zeGMO ukunceda ukujikeleza iimveliso zayo ngendlela elungileyo. Inkqubo ye- uxwebhu ukusukela ngo-2015 Uluhlu lweempendulo zeGMO phakathi "kwamaqabane oshishino" oko kunokunceda ukukhusela i-Roundup kumbandela womhlaza; Kwicandelo "lezixhobo" kwiphepha le-4, isicwangciso sidwelise amakhonkco kwiGMO Answers ecaleni kwamaxwebhu eMonsanto anokunxibelelana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyiyo i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kwiwebhusayithi ye-CLIO kwaye yasuswa emva kokuba siyibizile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Iimbali zobuqhetseba: I-FleishmanHillard, uKetchum

Kutheni nayiphi na inkampani ibeka uFleishmanHillard okanye uKetchum, bobabini bangabanini be-PR conglomerate u-Omnicom, phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukuthembana kunzima ukuyiqonda. Zombini ezi nkampani zineembali ezinde zenkohliso ebhaliweyo. Umzekelo:

Kude kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayenguye PR eqinileyo yeRussia kunye neVladimir Putin. Ngoku ka amaxwebhu afunyenwe yiProPublica, U-Ketchum wabanjwa ebeka i-pro-Putin op-eds phantsi kwamagama "abaqeqeshi ababonakala bezimeleyo" kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zeendaba. Ngo-2015, i Ukubandakanya urhulumente waseHonduran waqesha uKetchum ukuzama ukubuyisela kwisimo sayo emva kwesikrelemnqa sorhwaphilizo esigidi sezigidi.

Amaxwebhu avuza uMama uJones bonisa ukuba uKetchum wasebenza nenkampani yabucala yezokhuselo "eyayihlola iGreenpeace kunye neminye imibutho yezendalo ukusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1990 ukuya kuthi ga ngo-2000, bephanga amaxwebhu asuka kwimigqomo yenkunkuma, bezama ukutyala abasebenzi abasebenza ngokufihlakeleyo phakathi kwamaqela, ukufaka iiofisi, ukuqokelela iirekhodi zeefowuni zabaphembeleli, nokungena kwiintlanganiso eziyimfihlo. ” UHillard wabanjwa esebenzisa iindlela zokuziphatha ezingekho semthethweni ngokuchasene nempilo yoluntu kunye nabameli bolawulo lwecuba egameni lenkampani yecuba uRJ Reynolds, ngokophando olwenziwe nguRuth Malone kwi Ijenali yaseMelika yezeMpilo yoLuntu. Ifemu ye-PR yade yabhala ngokufihlakeleyo iintlanganiso zolawulo lwecuba kunye neenkomfa.

UHillard wayenjalo inkampani yobudlelwane noluntu kwiZiko leCuba, umbutho wecuba wokucenga umbutho, kangangeminyaka esixhenxe. Kwinqaku leWashington Post lango-1996, uMorton Mintz wabalisa ibali malunga nendlela uFleishmanHillard kunye neZiko lecuba abaliguqule ngayo iZiko leZempilo elisempilweni laba liqela eliphambili kwishishini lecuba kwimizamo yalo yokuphelisa inkxalabo yoluntu ngobungozi bokutshaya. Ketchum ikwasebenzele nomzi mveliso wecuba.

Zombini ezi femu ziye zasebenza ngamanye amaxesha omcimbi. UHillard ubenjalo kuqeshwe amaphulo okulwa ukutshaya. Ngo-2017, uKetchum wasungula i spin-off firm ebizwa Hlakulela ukwenza imali kwimarike yokutya ekhulayo, nangona i-GMO Answers zikaKetchum zikuhlazisile ukutya okuphilayo, zibanga ukuba abathengi bahlawula "ipremiyamu ephezulu" yokutya okungangcono kunokutya okulinywa ngokwesiqhelo.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana ne-FTI: ukukhohliswa kwemozulu, amaqhina ecuba

Ukubonisana ne-FTI, "ulawulo lweengxaki" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer nomsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli Kwilingo lakutsha nje lomhlaza we-Roundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuninzi kunye noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kubandakanya nokusetyenziswa kweendlela zokufihla, ukungabikho kokucaca kunye nembali yokusebenza nomzi mveliso wecuba.

Ifemi yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili kwimizamo ye-ExxonMobil yokuphepha uxanduva lokutshintsha kwemozulu. Njengo-Elana Schor noAndrew Restuccia ixelwe kwi-Politico ngo-2016:

Ngaphandle kwe [Exxon] uqobo lwayo, eyona nto iphikisayo kwimifuno ivela kwi-FTI Consulting, inkampani egcwaliswe ngabantu ababesakuba ngabancedisi beRiphabhlikhi abathe banceda ukumanyanisa i-GOP ekukhuseleni i-fuels. Ngaphantsi kwesibhengezo saMandla kwiNzulu, iprojekhthi eyenzela i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI iye yaxuba iintatheli ngee-imeyile ezithi "ukusebenzisana" phakathi kwamatshantliziyo aluhlaza kunye nee-AGs zikarhulumente, kwaye iphakamise imibuzo malunga nezibonelelo ze-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. "

Abasebenzi be-FTI Consulting babekhe babanjwa bezenza iintatheli ngaphambili. UKaren Savage uxele NgoJanuwari 2019 kwiiNdaba zoTyala ngemozulu, "Abacwangcisi bobudlelwane boluntu ababini abamele i-Exxon kutsha nje bazenze njengeentatheli kwilinge lodliwanondlebe elimele uluntu lwaseColorado olumangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo onxulumene notshintsho lwemozulu. Abacwangcisi bobuchule — uMichael Sandoval kunye noMatt Dempsey — baqeshwe yi-FTI Consulting, inkampani ekudala inxulumene nomzi mveliso weoyile negesi. ” Ngokweendaba zeTyala leMozulu, la madoda mabini adweliswa njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi eqhutywa yiminqweno yeoyile kwaye inabasebenzi beengcali ezivela kwi-FTI Consulting, ekwabonelela abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ipetroli yamandla ombane “uphando, imfundo kunye iphulo lokufikelela eluntwini. ”

Amandla Obunzulu aziveza njengo "mama kunye nevenkile ye pop" emele ababoneleli bamandla amancinci kodwa yadalwa ziinkampani ezinkulu zeoyile kunye negesi ukuphembelela ukupheliswa, I-DeSmog blog ibikwe kwi-2011. Iqela leGreenpeace lityhile i Iimemo zeshishini zika-2009 ezichazayo Amandla Ezobunzulu “njengephulo elitsha kushishino ngokubanzi… ukulwa nemigaqo emitsha yokusingqongileyo, ingakumbi ngokubhekisele kuqhekeko lombane oluhamba ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi” “obungenakwenzeka ngaphandle kokuzibophelela kwezezimali kwangethuba” kwiminqweno ephambili yeoyile negesi kubandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (ngoku eye-ExxonMobil).

Enye into efana nayo yonke le mveliso ziimveliso zecuba. I-FTI Consulting "inembali ende yokusebenza nomzi mveliso wecuba," ngokuka Amacandelo oTuba.org. Ukukhangela kwithala leencwadi lamaXwebhu e-UCSF izisa amaxwebhu angaphezu kwama-2,400 XNUMX ngokunxulumene nokubonisana ne-FTI.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ingxelo engaphezulu kwizikrelemnqa zikaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFrentshi

Ukufunda ngesiNgesi

ICornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi liPhulo le-PR kwishishini lezolimo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngaphandle kwegama layo lokuvakala kwezemfundo kunye nokunxulumana neziko le-Ivy League, ICornell Alliance yeNzululwazi (CAS) liphulo lobudlelwane noluntu elixhaswa ngemali yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation eqeqesha abanye abantu kwihlabathi liphela ukukhuthaza nokukhusela izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli kunye nezolimo kumazwe abo. Izifundiswa ezininzi, iingcali zomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya, amaqela okutya kunye nawokulima ziye zakhwaza umyalezo ongachanekanga kunye namaqhinga akhohlisayo amaqabane e-CAS athe azama ukuzama ukunyelisa inkxalabo malunga nezinye iindlela kwezolimo lweshishini.

NgoSeptemba, CAS umemezele Izigidi ezili-10 zeedola kwinkxaso mali entsha evela kwiGates Foundation, izisa iiGates zizonke inkxaso-mali kwi-22 yezigidi zeedola ukusukela ngo-2014. Inkxaso mali entsha iza ngokuba yiGates Foundation ejongene nokubuya emva kulimo lwaseAfrika, ukutya kunye namaqela enkolo Ukuchitha iibhiliyoni zeedola kwizikim zophuhliso lwezolimo eAfrika oko ubungqina bubonisa ukusilela ukuthomalalisa indlala okanye ukuphakamisa amafama amancinci, njengoko beqinisa iindlela zokulima ezixhamla amashishini ngaphezulu kwabantu. 

Eli phepha libhala imizekelo emininzi yolwazi olungelulo oluvela kwi-CAS kunye nabantu abanxulumene neqela. Imizekelo echazwe apha inika ubungqina bokuba i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, isidima kunye negunya lokuqhubela phambili i-PR kunye ne-ajenda yezopolitiko yeyona mibutho mikhulu yemichiza kunye nembewu.

Umsebenzi olungelelaniswe nomzi mveliso kunye nemiyalezo

I-CAS yaphehlelelwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates se- $ 5.6 yezigidi kwaye ithembisa “batshabalalise ”ingxoxo malunga nee-GMO. Iqela itsho injongo yayo Kukukhuthaza ukufikelela kwizityalo kunye nokutya ngokuqeqesha “amahlakani ezenzululwazi” kwihlabathi liphela ukuze afundise abahlali ngezibonelelo zebhayoloji yezolimo.

Icandelo leshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi likhuthaza iCAS 

Inxalenye ephambili yesicwangciso-qhinga se-CAS kukugaya nokuqeqesha IiNkokheli zeNkokheli zeHlabathi kunxibelelwano nakumaqhinga okukhuthaza, kugxilwe kwimimandla apho kukho inkcaso yoluntu kushishino lwebiotech, ngakumbi amazwe aseAfrika athe amelana nezityalo zeGMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngokumangalisayo iBhunga loLwazi lweBiotechnology (I-CBI), ishishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi elixhasa ngemali inyathelo lobudlelwane noluntu Isebenzisana neCAS. Iqela loshishino lisebenzele ukwakha ubudlelwane ngaphaya kwetyathanga lokutya kunye qeqesha abantu besithathu, ngakumbi izifundiswa kunye namafama, ukucenga uluntu ukuba lwamkele ii-GMOs.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS iyangqinelana ngokusondeleyo nomzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi i-PR: kugxilwe kwi-myopic ekufumaneni izibonelelo ezinokubakho zexesha elizayo zokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza ngelixa kudlalwa, ukungahoyi okanye ukwala umngcipheko kunye neengxaki. Njengemizamo ye-PR yomzi-mveliso, i-CAS ikwajolise kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukuhlazisa abagxeki bemveliso yezolimo, kubandakanya oososayensi kunye neentatheli eziphakamisa impilo okanye imeko yendalo.

Ukugxekwa ngokubanzi

I-CAS kunye nababhali bayo bathathe ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, amafama, abafundi, amaqela oluntu kunye neentshukumo zolawulo lokutya abathi eli qela likhuthaza imiyalezo engachanekanga nelahlekisayo kwaye lisebenzisa amaqhinga angafanelekanga. Jonga umzekelo:

Imizekelo yemiyalezo elahlekisayo

Iingcali kubunjineli bemfuza, ibhayoloji, i-agroecology kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya babhale imizekelo emininzi yamabango angachanekanga enziwe nguMark Lynas, umntu owayetyelele eCornell obhale inqwaba yamanqaku ekhusela iimveliso zezolimo egameni le-CAS; Jonga umzekelo wakhe amanqaku amaninzi akhuthazwe yiProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala, iqela PR ukuba isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi ka-Lynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amkele ii-GMO, kwaye anike isahluko ekukhuseleni iMonsanto.

Amabango achanekileyo malunga nee-GMOs

Izazinzulu ezininzi zigxeke uLynas ngokwenza iingxelo zobuxoki, “Ayinasayensi, ayikho ngqiqweni kwaye ayinangqondo”Iingxoxo, ukukhuthaza imfundiso ngaphezulu kwedatha kunye nophando kwii-GMO, Ukuhlaziya icandelo lokuthetha ngamashishini, nokwenza amabango angachanekanga malunga nezibulali zinambuzanebonisa ulwazi olunzulu lwenzululwazi, okanye iinzame ezenziwayo zokuvelisa amathandabuzo. ”

Uluhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezinto uMark Lynas aphosakeleyo malunga nazo zombini ii-GMO kunye nesayensi lubanzi, kwaye luye lwangqinwa ngenqaku ngamanye ngamanye e-agroecologists kunye nezazi zebhayoloji, " kubhale uEric Holt-Giménez, Umlawuli olawulayo weFood First, ngo-Epreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomntu owayetyelele kamva kulo nyaka).  

"Uyangqina kwaye akananyani"

Amaqela asekwe e-Afrika aye agxeka uLynas ixesha elide. Umanyano lobukhosi bokutya e-Afrika, umanyano lwamaqela okutya kunye namafama angaphezu kwama-40 kwiAfrika iphela uchaze uLynas njenge "ingcungcu" ethi "ukudelela abantu baseAfrika, isiko kunye nesiko lakhe ngokungathandabuzekiyo." Isigidi se-Belay, umlawuli we-AFSA, kuchazwe uLynas "njengohlanga olucacisa ukuba ezolimo kuphela ezinokusindisa iAfrika."

Kwiphepha lokushicilela lika-2018, iZiko lase-Afrika lase-Afrika elise-Biodiversity lichaze amaqhinga angekho mthethweni uLynas awasebenzisileyo ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby e-Tanzania. "Kukho umba ngokuqinisekileyo malunga noxanduva lokuphendula kunye [nesidingo] sokulawula i-Cornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi kuyo, ngenxa yolwazi olungeyonyani kunye nendlela abangathembeki ngayo nabangeyonyani," utshilo uMariam Mayet, umlawuli olawulayo weZiko lase-Afrika lezinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo, utshilo. kwi Nge-Julayi 2020 kwiwebhu.

Ngolwazi oluneenkcukacha zomsebenzi kaLynas, jonga amanqaku ekupheleni kwale post kunye neyethu Uxwebhu lwenyani lukaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Umzekelo wakutshanje wemiyalezo engachanekanga linqaku elibekwe ngokubanzi kwi-CAS website nguLynas ebanga ukuba, "i-agro-ecology isemngciphekweni wokonzakalisa amahlwempu." ?? Izifundo zichaze eli nqaku njenge “idemagogic kunye nengcaciso engeyiyo eyenzululwazi yokutolika iphepha lesayensi, ""ngokungathandabuzekiyo, ""ideology emsulwa ”kunye“ neentloni umntu ofuna ukubanga ukuba uyinzululwazi, "a"uhlalutyo oluneziphene ngokwenene“?? lonto yenza “ukwenziwa ngokubanzi“?? kwayeizigqibo zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki bizelwa a Ukurhoxiswa.

Inqaku le-2019 ngoogxa be-CAS uNassib Mugwanya ubonelela ngomnye umzekelo womxholo olahlekisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. Inqaku elithi, “Kutheni iindlela zemveli yezolimo zingenakho ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika,” libonisa indlela yokuthunyelwa kwemiyalezo kwizixhobo ze-CAS: ukubonisa izityalo ze-GMO njenge “pro-science” ngelixa kupeyintwa “ezinye iindlela zophuhliso lwezolimo njenge-anti-science, 'engenamhlaba kwaye ayenzakalisi,' ” ngokokuhlalutya ngoMbutho woLuntu wase-Seattle woBulungisa beLizwe.

"Eyona nto iqaphelekayo kwinqaku kukusetyenziswa okukuko kwezikweko (umzekelo, i-agroecology efaniswa nozibophelelo), ukwenziwa kwezinto ngokubanzi, ukushiywa kolwazi kunye nenani lezinto ezingachanekanga," latsho iqela.

Sebenzisa incwadi yokudlala yeMonsanto ukukhusela amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi

Omnye umzekelo wokulahleka kwemiyalezo ye-CAS ehambelana nomzi mveliso unokufunyanwa kukhuseleko lweqela kwi-Rounduposate esekwe kwi-glyphosate. Amayeza okubulala ukhula yeyona nto iphambili kwizityalo zeGMO I-90% yengqolowa kunye ne-soy zikhulile e-United States yemfuza yenzelwe ukunyamezela iRoundup. Kwi-2015, emva kokuba iphaneli yophando yomhlaza ye-World Health Organisation yathi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu, i-Monsanto iququzelele amahlakani ayo ukuba "acule isikhalazo" ngokuchasene neqela lenzululwazi elizimeleyo "ukukhusela igama" le-Roundup, ngokwe Amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto.

Incwadi yokudlala ye-Monsanto: ukuhlasela iingcali zomhlaza 'njengabaphembeleli'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i Iqonga CAS ukwandisa umyalezo weMonsanto, echaza ingxelo yomhlaza njenge "ukuzingelwa kwamagqwirha" okwenziwe "ngabaphembeleli be-anti-Monsanto" "abasebenzisa kakubi isayensi" kwaye benze "ukugqwethwa okucacileyo kwesayensi kunye nobulungisa bendalo" ngokunika ingxelo yomngcipheko womhlaza we-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo iimpikiswano eziphosakeleyo kunye nemithombo yoshishino njengeBhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo, a iqela eliphambili iMonsanto lihlawulwe ukunceda ukujikeleza ingxelo yomhlaza.

Ngelixa ebanga ukuba usecaleni lenzululwazi, uLynas akabunanzanga ubungqina obaneleyo obuvela kumaxwebhu eMonsanto, ingxelo ngokubanzi kumajelo eendaba, ukuba IMonsanto yaphazamisa kunye uphando lwezenzululwazi, iiarhente zolawulo ezilawulwayo kwaye ndisebenzise enye amaqhinga anzima ukwenza inkqubo yenzululwazi ukukhusela iRoundup. Kwi-2018, ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto "Usebenze ngolunya, ingcinezelo okanye ubuqhetseba”Ekugubungeleni umngcipheko womhlaza we-Roundup.

Ukudibanisa amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nee-GMO

Nangona eyona ndawo kugxilwe kuyo yi-Afrika, i-CAS ikwanceda kwimizamo yecandelo lokubulala izitshabalalisi ukukhusela izibulala-zinambuzane kunye nokujongela phantsi abameli bempilo yoluntu eHawaii. Iziqithi zeHawaii zibalulekile kwindawo yokuvavanya izityalo ze-GMO kunye nommandla obika phezulu ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi kwaye inkxalabo malunga neengxaki zempilo ezinxulumene nezifo, kubandakanya iziphene zokuzalwa, umhlaza kunye nesifuba. Ezi ngxaki zikhokelele abahlali ukuba baququzelele umlo othabatha iminyaka Ukupasisa imimiselo eyomeleleyo ukunciphisa ukubhencwa kwezinambuzane kunye nokuphucula ukubhengezwa kweekhemikhali ezisetyenziswa kumhlaba wezolimo.

"Uqalise uhlaselo olukhohlakeleyo"

Njengokuba ezi nzame zifumana ukubambeka, i-CAS ibandakanyeke kwiphulo "lokunxibelelana noluntu malunga nokuchaphazela inkxalabo yoluntu" malunga nemingcipheko yempilo yezibulali zinambuzane, ngokukaFern Anuenue Holland, umququzeleli woluntu kwiHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. KwiCornell yemihla ngemihla, IHolland ichaze indlela “ehlawulwe ngayo iCornell Alliance yaBafundi bezeNzululwazi- phantsi kwesitayile sobungcali kwezenzululwazi- baqalise ngohlaselo olukhohlakeleyo. Basebenzise imithombo yeendaba kwezentlalo kwaye babhala inqwaba yeebhlog zabo begxeka abahlali abanempembelelo kunye nezinye iinkokheli ezazinesibindi sokuthetha. ”

U-Holland uthe yena namanye amalungu ombutho wakhe babephantsi "kokubulawa kwabalinganiswa, ukumelwa gwenxa kunye nokuhlaselwa ukuthembeka komntu kunye nobungcali" ngabanxulumene ne-CAS. Ubhale wathi: "Ndizibonele ngokwam iintsapho kunye nobuhlobo obungapheliyo."

Ukuchasa ilungelo loluntu lokwazi     

UMlawuli weCAS USarah Evanega, PhD, u utshilo iqela lakhe elizimeleyo kushishino: “Asibhalelanga kushishino, kwaye asikhuthazi okanye sikhuthaze iimveliso ezizezeshishini. Njengoko iwebhusayithi yethu ichaza ngokucacileyo nangokucacileyo, asifumani zibonelelo zorhwebo. ” Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwee-imeyile ezifunyenwe yi-US Right to Know, ngoku ezithunyelwe kwi- I-UCSF yemizi-mveliso yamathala eencwadi, bonisa i-CAS kunye ne-Evanega ngokulungelelanisa ngokusondeleyo nomzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi kunye namaqela aphambili kumanyathelo obudlelwane noluntu. Imizekelo ibandakanya:

Eminye imizekelo yentsebenziswano ye-CAS namaqela oshishino ichazwe ezantsi kweli xwebhu.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqela angaphambili, abathunywa abangathembekanga

Kwimizamo yayo yokukhuthaza ii-GMOs njengesisombululo “esisekwe kwinzululwazi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi inikezele ngeqonga layo kumaqela aphambili kwezorhwebo kwanakwisayensi yemozulu eyaziwayo.

UTrevor Butterworth kunye neSense malunga neSayensi / STATS: Amaqabane e-CAS ngeSense malunga neSayensi / ii-STATS ukubonelela "ukubonisana kweenkcukacha-manani kwiintatheli”Kwaye wanika ubudlelwane kumlawuli weqela uTrevor Butterworth, owakhe umsebenzi wakhe wokukhusela iimveliso ezibalulekileyo kwi Amachiza, iqhekeza, ukutya okungenamsoco kwaye amashishini iziyobisi. UGcuwa ngumlawuli osungula iSense About Science USA, awayidibanisa neqonga lakhe langaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Iintatheli zichaze ii-STATs kunye neButterworth njengabadlali abaphambili kwimikhankaso yokukhusela imveliso yemveliso yamachiza (jonga Iindaba zesimo, Ijenali yeMilwaukee Sentinel, Ukuthintela kwaye IAtlantic). Amaxwebhu eMonsanto achonga Ingqondo malunga neNzululwazi phakathi "kweqabane loshishino" yayixhomekeke ekubeni ikhusele i-Roundup ngokuchasene neenkxalabo zomhlaza.

Imozulu yesayensi ye-Climate Owen Paterson: Kwi-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, ipolitiki yase-Bhritane ye-Conservative Party kwaye eyaziwayo Imozulu yesayensi yemozulu Ngubani kunciphise inkxaso-mali kwiinzame zokunciphisa ubushushu behlabathi Ngexesha lokuhlala kwakhe njengo-Mphathiswa Wezendalo e-UK. UPaterson usebenzise inqanaba leCornell ukubanga ukuba amaqela okusingqongileyo aphakamisa inkxalabo malunga neeGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqela eshishini lezibulali zinambuzane ayesebenzisa imiyalezo efanayo kwiminyaka engama-50 eyadlulayo ukuzama Ukuhlazisa uRachel Carson yokuphakamisa iinkxalabo malunga ne-DDT.

Lynas kunye Ingqondo malunga neNzululwazi: I-Lynas ye-CAS ikwadityaniswa neSense Malunga neSayensi njengelungu lebhodi yeengcebiso yexesha elide. Ngo-2015, uLynas wadibana nesayensi yemozulu u-Owen Paterson Paterson naye wayeziva malunga noMlawuli weSayensi uTracey Brown qalisa oko wakubiza "intshukumo ye-ecomodernism," indibaniselwano yomanyano, uxinzelelo oluchasene nommiselo "yokusingqongileyo."

Ukhuseleko kumzi mveliso eHawaii

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yaphehlelela iqela elidibeneyo elibizwa ngokuba yi-Hawaii Alliance for Science, eyathi injongo yayo “kukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezigqibo ezisekwe kubungqina kunye nokuyilwa kwezolimo kwezi ziqithi.” Abathunywa bayo baquka:

USarah Thompson, a owayesakuba ngumqeshwa weDow AgroSciences, walungelelanisa Umdibaniso weHawaii weSayensi, eyayizichaza “njengombutho osisiseko sothungelwano ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo onxulumene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kodwa iqela ligcina ifayile ye- page Facebook.)

Amajelo eendaba ezentlalo avela kwiHawaii Alliance yezeNzululwazi kunye nomququzeleli wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki beshishini lezolimo njenge abantu abanekratshi nabangazi nto, ibhiyozelwe umbona kunye nesoy mono-izityalo kwaye ikhusela i-neonicotinoid pesticides leyo ezininzi izifundo kwaye ziyatsho njalo inzululwazi ziyingozi kwiinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukulawula uMhleli we-CAS, ubhala amanqaku ngaye kwiwebhsayithi, nganye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhlog kunye neqela eliphambili loshishino IProjekthi yokuFunda ngokuBhala uzama ukungcolisa igama bezempilo, amaqela asekuhlaleni kwaye Abezopolitiko eHawaii oxhasa ukukhuselwa kwamayeza okubulala izinambuzane, kunye neentatheli ababhala malunga neenkxalabo zezibulali zinambuzane. IConrow inayo utyhola amaqela okusingqongileyo yokubaleka ukuhlawula irhafu kunye xa kuthelekiswa neqela lokhuseleko lokutya kwiKKK.

UConrow akasoloko echaza ubudlelwane bakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii le-Civil Beat lamgxeka uConrow ngenxa yakhe ukungabikho kokungafihli nto kwaye wamkhankanya ngo-2016 njengomzekelo wokuba kutheni iphepha lalitshintsha imigaqo-nkqubo yokubeka izimvo. UConrow "wayehlala ephikisana nembono ye-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokucacileyo umsebenzi wakhe njenge-GMO sympathist," kubhala unjingalwazi wobuntatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow uphulukene nenkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (kunye nokuthembeka) ukunika ingxelo ngokufanelekileyo malunga nemicimbi ye-GMO, ngenxa yethoni yomsebenzi wakhe kule micimbi."

UJoni Kamiya, 2015 CAS UbuNkokeli beHlabathi uphikisana nemigaqo yokubulala izitshabalalisi kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Intombi yomfama waseHawaii, kwi eendaba kunye neqela eliphambili loshishino IProjekthi yokuFunda ngokuBhala. Unguye “Ingcali yonozakuzaku” kwishishini lezolimo elixhaswe ngemali intengiso kwiwebhusayithi yeempendulo zeGMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya ubanga ukubonakaliswa kwe-pesticides eHawaii ayongxaki, yaye izama ukunyelisa amagosa anyuliweyo kwaye "Abagabadeli bendalo esingqongileyo" abafuna ukulawula amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi.

Abasebenzi, abacebisi

I-CAS ichaza "njengenyathelo elisekwe kwiYunivesithi yaseConell, iziko elingenzi nzuzo." Iqela alichazi uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali, inkcitho okanye imivuzo yabasebenzi, kwaye iYunivesithi yaseCornell ayichazi naluphi na ulwazi malunga ne-CAS kwiifayile zayo zerhafu.

Uluhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be20, kubandakanya noMlawuli USarah Evanega, PhD, kunye nokuLawula uMhleli UJoan Conrow (ayidwelisi uMark Lynas okanye abanye abantu abanokufumana imbuyekezo). Abanye abasebenzi abadumileyo abadweliswe kwiwebhusayithi babandakanya:

Ibhodi yeengcebiso ye-CAS ibandakanya izifundiswa ezihlala zincedisa ishishini lezolimo kwimizamo yabo ye-PR.

Iingqinisiso zeSiseko seGates  

Ukusukela nge2016, iGates Foundation ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 4 yezigidigidi kwizicwangciso zophuhliso lwezolimo, uninzi lwazo lujolise e-Afrika. Izicwangciso zophuhliso lwezolimo zesiseko zazikhona ekhokelwa nguRob Horsch (osandula ukuthatha umhlala-phantsi), a Igqala leMonsanto engama-25. Izicwangciso-qhinga zithathe ukugxekwa ekukhuthazeni ii-GMO kunye nezolimo e-Afrika inkcaso yamaqela ase-Afrika kunye nokuhamba kwezentlalo, kwaye ngaphandle kwenkxalabo kunye namathandabuzo malunga nezityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli kwiAfrika iphela.

Iingqinisiso zendlela yeGates Foundation kuphuhliso lwezolimo kunye nenkxaso mali zibandakanya:

Olunye usebenziswano lweshishini lweCAS 

Uninzi lwee-imeyile ezifunyenwe nge-FOIA yi-US Ilungelo Lokwazi, kwaye ngoku iposwe kwi I-UCSF yemizi-mveliso yamathala eencwadi, bonisa i-CAS ilungelelanisa ngokusondeleyo nomzi mveliso wezolimo kunye namaqela ayo onxibelelwano noluntu ukulungelelanisa iminyhadala kunye nemiyalezo:

Iingcaphephe ezingakumbi zikaMark Lynas 

Iimpendulo ze-GMO liPhulo lokuThengisa kunye ne-PR kwiinkampani zezibulala-zinambuzane

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uhlaziyo:

ketchum gmo iimpendulo

Iimpendulo zeGMO ihlawulwa njengeqonga apho abathengi banokufumana iimpendulo ezichanekileyo kwiingcali ezizimeleyo malunga nokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza, kwaye ezinye intatheli ziyithatha ngokungathí sina njengomthombo ongakhethi cala. Kodwa iwebhusayithi sisixhobo sokuthengisa esichanekileyo sokujikeleza ii-GMO ngokukhanya okuhle.

Ubungqina bokuba iimpendulo ze-GMO sisixhobo esilawula imeko yokusasazeka esingathembekanga.

Iimpendulo zeGMO zenziwa njengemoto yokuhambisa uluvo loluntu ngokuxhasa ii-GMOs. Kungekudala emva kweMonsanto kunye namahlakani ayo babetha inyathelo lokuvota lika-2012 ukubiza ii-GMO eCalifornia, eMonsanto zi cwangciso ukumilisela iphulo elitsha lobudlelwane noluntu ukwenza ngokutsha isidima se-GMOs. Baqesha inkampani yezonxibelelwano noluntu iFleishmanHillard (ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) iphulo lamanani asixhenxe.

Njengenxalenye yomzamo, inkampani ye-PR i-Ketchum (ekwangumnini we-Omnicom) yaqeshwa liBhunga loLwazi lwe-Biotechnology- ixhaswe ngemali nguMonsanto, iBASF, iBayer, iDow, iDupont kunye neSyngenta -Ukudala i-GMOAnswers.com. Isiza sithembisile susa ukudideka kwaye uphelise ukungathembani malunga nee-GMO zisebenzisa amazwi angahlelwanga abizwa ngokuba "ziingcali ezizimeleyo."

Kodwa bazimele kangakanani ezo ngcali?

Iwebhusayithi iyabhala amanqaku athetha ngononophelo athetha ibali elincomekayo malunga nee-GMOs ngelixa udlala phantsi okanye ungawuthobeli umngcipheko wezempilo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Umzekelo, xa ubuzwa ukuba ii-GMO ziqhubela phambili ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane, indawo inikezela nge-convoluted no, ngaphandle kwedatha evavanywe ngoontanga ebonisa ukuba, ewe, enyanisweni, kunjalo.

"Roundup Ready" izityalo ze-GMO zikhulise ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, a umhlaza womntu onokwenzeka, by amakhulu ezigidi zeeponti. Inkqubo entsha ye-GMO / ye-pesticide ebandakanya i-dicamba ikhokelele ekutshatyalalisweni kwe Izityalo zesoya phesheya kweMelika, kunye ne-FDA ibracing kulo nyaka ukusetyenziswa kathathu ye-2,4-D, i-herbicide endala enetyhefu, ngenxa yezityalo ezitsha ze-GMO eziyilelwe ukuyichasa. Konke oku akukho nto inokukhathazeka ngayo, ngokweempendulo zeGMO.

Imibuzo malunga nokhuselo iyaphendulwa ngeengxelo ezingezizo ezifana "nayo yonke imibutho yezempilo ekhokelayo emhlabeni isemva kokhuseleko lwe-GMOs." Asifumananga kukhankanywa ingxelo esayinwe ngoososayensi abangama-300, oogqirha kunye nabahlohli abathi kukhoakukho mvumelwano yesayensi kukhuseleko lwe-GMO,”Kwaye asifumananga mpendulo kwimibuzo esiyithumele ngale ngxelo.

Imizekelo sele iyifumene I-Ketchum PR ibhale ezinye zeempendulo ze-GMO ezisayinwe “ziingcali ezizimeleyo.”

Uluhlu olufutshane kulawulo lweengxaki PR ibhaso

Njengobunye ubungqina bokuba isiza sisithuthi esijikelezayo: Ngo-2014, iimpendulo zeGMO zazikho Uluhlu olufutshane kuluhlu lweentengiso zeCIO kudidi "Lonxibelelwano noLuntu: uLawulo lweNtlekele kunye noLawulo lweMicimbi."

Kwaye inkampani ye-PR eyenze iimpendulo ze-GMO yaqhayisa ngempembelelo yayo kwiintatheli. Kwividiyo ethunyelwe kwiwebhusayithi ye-CLIO, uKetchum waqhayisa esithi iimpendulo zeGMO “ziphantse zaphindeka kabini kumajelo eendaba e-GMO.” Ividiyo isuswe emva kokuba i-US Right to Know itsalele ingqalelo kuyo, kodwa thina ndiyigcine apha.

Kutheni iintatheli zingathemba isithuthi sentengiso esenziwe nguKetchum njengomthombo othembekileyo kunzima ukusiqonda. Ketchum, de kwaba ngu-2016 PR ngokuqinileyo eRashiya, kuye kwachaphazeleka kwi Iinzame zobuntlola ngokuchasene nokungenzi nzuzo ochaphazelekayo malunga nee-GMO. Ayisiyo ncam imbali ebolekisa ukungathembani.

Ngenxa yokuba iimpendulo ze-GMO sisixhobo sokuthengisa esidalwe saze saxhaswa ngemali ziinkampani ezithengisa ii-GMOs, sicinga ukuba ngumdlalo ofanelekileyo ukubuza: Ngaba “ziingcali ezizimeleyo” ezibolekisa ukuthembeka kwiwebhusayithi- uninzi lwazo lusebenzela iiyunivesithi zikarhulumente kwaye zihlawulwa ngabarhafi. - uzimele ngokwenene kwaye usebenza kuluntu? Okanye bayasebenza kwiligi kunye neenkampani kunye neefemu zonxibelelwano noluntu ukunceda ukuthengisa uluntu ibali elijikelezayo?

Ukukhangela ezi mpendulo, i-US Ilungelo lokwazi zingenise izicelo zoMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi befuna imbalelwano yoonjingalwazi abaxhaswa ngurhulumente ababhalela iGMOAnswers.com okanye basebenze kwezinye iinzame zokuphucula i-GMO. Ii-FOIA zizicelo ezimxinwa ezingafakwanga lwazi lomntu okanye ulwazi, kodwa endaweni yoko bafuna ukuqonda unxibelelwano phakathi koonjingalwazi, iinkampani zezolimo ezithengisa ii-GMOs, imibutho yazo yezorhwebo kunye ne-PR kunye neenkampani zokuphembelela eziqeshiweyo ukukhuthaza ii-GMO kunye nokulwa neelebheli. ke sigcinwa ebumnyameni ngento esiyityayo.

Landela iziphumo Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi uphando apha.

Bona yethu Umzi mveliso wePropaganda Tracker ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nabadlala phambili kwimichiza yobudlelwane noluntu.

Unganceda ukwandisa uphando lweLungelo lokwazi ngokuthi ukwenza umnikelo otsalelwa irhafu namhlanje

I-Bayer ibeka i-US Roundup, i-dicamba kunye ne-PCB yezimangalo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kucoceko olubizayo lweMonsanto yezimangalo, u-Bayer AG uthe ngolwesiThathu uya kuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango e-US aziswe ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa ye-Roundup herbicide, kunye ne- $ 400 yezigidi ukusombulula amatyala ngaphezulu kweMonsanto I-dicamba herbicide kunye ne- $ 650 yezigidi ze-PCB zamabango ongcoliseko.

Izigqibo kuza kwiminyaka emibini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto nge $ 63 yezigidigidi kwaye phantse kwangoko yabona amaxabiso ezabelo ehla ngenxa yetyala leRoundup.

U-Bayer ubhengeze ukuba uza kuhlawula i-10.1 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-10.9 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula iipesenti ezingama-75 zamabango ngabantu abaqikelelwa kwi-125,000 abathi batyholwa ngababulali bokhula baseMonsanto's Roundup kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Esi sivumelwano sibandakanya abamangali abagcinayo amagqwetha ngenjongo yokufaka isimangalo kodwa amatyala abo engekafakwa, utshilo uBayer. Ngaphakathi kuloo mali iyonke, ukuhlawulwa kwe- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi kuya kusombulula isimangalo sangoku kwaye i-1.25 yezigidigidi ibekelwe bucala ukuxhasa isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo, utshilo inkampani.

Abamangali ababandakanyiwe ekuhlawuleni abo batyikitywa kunye neefemu zomthetho ebezikhokele i-Roundup federal multi-district litigation (MDL) kwaye zibandakanya iMiller Firm yaseVirginia, Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles kunye neAndrus Wagstaff firm waseDenver, eColorado.

"Emva kweminyaka yokulwa nzima kunye nonyaka wokulamla okunzulu ndiyavuya ukubona abaxumi bethu ngoku beza kubuyekezwa," utshilo uMike Miller, wefemu yezomthetho yaseMiller.

Inkampani yakwaMiller kunye neBaum Hedlund basebenze kunye ukuphumelela ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni, elalimi wase-California uDewayne “Lee” Johnson. U-Andrus Wagstaff uphumelele ityala lesibini kwaye iMiller Firm yaphumelela ityala lesithathu lokuya enkundleni. Lilonke, la matyala mathathu akhokelela kwizigwebo ze-jury ezingaphezulu kwe- $ 2.3 yezigidigidi, nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba izigwebo.

Amajaji kuzo zontathu izilingo afumanisa ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, yabangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko kwaye yahluleka ukulumkisa abasebenzisi.

Isigwebo ngasinye kwezi zithathu sihamba kwinkqubo yokubhena ngoku kwaye uBayer uthe abamangali kula matyala abafakwanga kulungiso.

U-Bayer uthe amabango e-Roundup exesha elizayo aya kuba yinxalenye yesivumelwano seklasi ngokuxhomekeke ekuvunyweni nguJaji Vince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia, oyalele inkqubo yolamlo yonyaka wonke ekhokelele kulungiso.

Isivumelwano siza kuthatha nakuphi na ukufunyanwa kwexesha elizayo kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji, utshilo uBayer. Endaweni yoko, kuya kubakho ukuyilwa kwe "Class Science Panel" ezimeleyo. IPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi iya kugqiba ukuba ngaba i-Roundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, ngawaphi amanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa. Bobabini abamangali kwizenzo zeklasi kunye neBayer baya kubotshelelwa kukuzimisela kweCandelo lezeNzululwazi. Ukuba iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi igqiba ukuba akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa ekubangeleni ngenye indlela nakweyiphi na imbambano nxamnye neBayer.

U-Bayer uthe ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel kulindeleke ukuba kuthathe iminyaka eliqela kwaye amalungu eklasi awayi kuvunyelwa ukuba aqhubeke namabango e-Roundup ngaphambi kokuzimisela. Kananjalo abanakho ukufuna ukohlwaywa, utshilo uBayer.

"Izivumelwano zeRoundup ™ ziyilelwe njengesisombululo esakhayo nesifanelekileyo kwisimangalo esingaqhelekanga, utshilo uKenneth R. Feinberg, umlamli owonyulwe yinkundla kwezi ntetho zokuhlala.

Nangona babhengeza ukuhlala, amagosa aseBayer aqhubeka nokukhanyela i-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides ebangela umhlaza.

"Inzululwazi enkulu ibonisa ukuba iRoundup ayibangeli mhlaza, kwaye ke, ayinaxanduva lezigulo ekutyholwa ngazo," utshilo umphathi weBayer uWerner Baumann kwingxelo.

Isivumelwano seDicamba

U-Bayer ukwabhengeze isivumelwano se-tort tortoge, esichaphazela amabango amafama asebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides ephuhliswe yi-Monsanto kunye ne-BASF ukuba itshizwe kwizityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yi-Monsanto zibangele ukulahleka kwesityalo nokwenzakala.

Kwilingo elingasekuqaleni konyaka, iMonsanto kwathiwa makahlawule I-265 yezigidi zeedola kumlimi wepesika waseMissouri ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift kwigadi yakhe yeziqhamo.

Ngaphezu kwe-100 amanye amafama enze amabango afanayo asemthethweni. U-Bayer uthe uzakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-400 yezigidi zeedola ukusombulula isimangalo se-dicamba esimi kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwi-Mpuma yeSithili sase-Missouri, kunye namabango eminyaka yezityalo ka-2015-2020. Abenzi bamabango baya kucelwa ukuba babonelele ubungqina bomonakalo kwizivuno zezityalo kunye nobungqina bokuba bekudalwe yicicamba ukuze kuqokelelwe. Inkampani ilindele igalelo kulowo ubambisene naye, i-BASF, kule ndawo yokuhlala.

Indawo yokuhlala iza kubonelela "ngezixhobo ezifuneka kakhulu kumafama" athe afumana ilahleko yezityalo ngenxa yokubaleka kwemichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane, utshilo igqwetha uJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yamagqwetha yasePeiffer Wolf, emele amafama amabango e-dicamba.

"Ukuhlala kubhengezwe namhlanje linyathelo elibalulekileyo lokwenza izinto zilunge kumafama afuna nje ukwazi ukubeka ukutya etafileni yaseMelika kunye nehlabathi," utshilo uPeiffer.

Kwangoko kulenyanga a Inkundla yomanyano igwebe ukuba i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho xa isamkela i-dicamba herbicides eyenziwe nguMonsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience. Inkundla ifumanise ukuba i-EPA ayihoyanga umngcipheko womonakalo wedicamba.

Indawo yokuhlala yongcoliseko lwePCB

I-Bayer ikwabhengeze uthotho lwezivumelwano ezisombulula amatyala enkampani athi zimele ukubhencwa kwabo kumatyala abandakanya ukungcoliswa kwamanzi yi-PCBs, eyathi yenziwa yiMonsanto kwada kwangowe-1977. IiPCB. U-Bayer uthe uza kuhlawula i-650 yezigidi zeerandi kwiklasi, eya kuthi ixhomekeke kwinkundla.

Ukongeza, uBayer uthe ungene kwizivumelwano ezahlukileyo neeGqwetha Jikelele laseNew Mexico, Washington, kunye neSithili seColumbia ukusombulula amabango e-PCB. Kule mvumelwano, eyahluliweyo eklasini, iBayer iya kwenza intlawulo ngokupheleleyo malunga ne- $ 170 yezigidi.

U-Bayer uthe ukuphuma kwemali okuza kubakho akuyi kudlula i-5 yezigidigidi zeedola ngo-2020 kunye ne-5 yeebhiliyoni zeerandi ngo-2021 ngemali eseleyo eza kuhlawulwa ngo-2022 okanye kamva.

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

Intshukumo yaseburhulumenteni

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

imvelaphi

I-Dicamba ibisoloko isetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngee-1960s kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukhumala kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude ukusuka apho wafafazwa khona. Xa iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithandwayo zeMonsanto, ezinje ngeRoundup, ziqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ngeglyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo

Iingxilimbela zamachiza ezothusayo zifuna indlela yokuvalwa kwenkundla ngababulali babo bokhula

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Bacaphula “imeko yongxamiseko,” izigebenga zemichiza i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont bacele inkundla yomanyano ukuba ibavumele ukuba bangenelele kwimeko apho inkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga yayalela ukuba i-dicamba herbicides ivalwe kwangoko kunye nemveliso ye-dicamba eyenziwe ngumnini-Monsanto uBayer AG .

Intshukumo yeenkampani zemichiza ilandela a Isigwebo se-3 kaJuni yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba eyathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

I-EPA ukutyeshela loo myalelo, Nangona kunjalo, ukuxelela abalimi ukuba bangaqhubeka nokutshiza ngemichiza yokubulala ukhula ekuthethwa ngayo ukuphela kukaJulayi.

Umanyano lwamaqela asefama kunye nabathengi abathi ekuqaleni bafaka ityala ngokuchasene ne-EPA babuyele enkundleni kwiveki ephelileyo, ukucela umyalelo ongxamisekileyo ibambe i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla inike i-EPA kude kube sekupheleni kosuku Lwesibini, nge-16 kaJuni, ukuba iphendule.

Uqhushululu kwiLizwe laseFama

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zeenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kula masimi ngemithi ye-dicamba eyenziwe zezi zintathu. iinkampani.

"Inkqubo yesityalo se-dicamba" ibonelela amafama ukuba atyale amasimi abo ngezityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-dicamba, abanokuthi emva koko batshize "ngaphezulu-phezulu" ngombulali we-dicamba. Inkqubo ityebise iinkampani ezithengisa imbewu kunye neekhemikhali kwaye yanceda amafama ukuba akhule umqhaphu okhethekileyo wokunyamezela i-dicamba kunye ne-soy malunga nokhula olunenkani olunganyangekiyo kwimveliso ye-Roundup esekwe kwi-glyphosate.

Kodwa kwinani elikhulu lamafama angazityali izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza, ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-dicamba herbicides kuye kwathetha ukonakala kunye nelahleko yezityalo kuba i-dicamba ithambekele ekunyukeni nasekuhambeni kude apho inokubulala izityalo, imithi kunye namatyholo ayitshintshiswanga ngokwemfuza ukumelana nemichiza.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla yomanyano yaphawula kwisigqibo sayo.

Amafama amaninzi ekuqaleni abhiyozela isigwebo senkundla kwaye bakhululeka ekubeni iifama zabo kunye neigadi zabo zingasindiswa kweli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba abaye bahlangabezana nawo ehlotyeni elingaphambili. Kodwa uncedo lwaluhlala ixesha elifutshane xa i-EPA isithi ayizukunyanzela kwangoko ukuthintelwa kwenkundla.

Kwifayile eyenziwe ngolwesiHlanu, I-BASF iyicenge inkundla ukunganyanzelisi ukuvalwa kwangoko kwaye uxelele inkundla ukuba iyakudinga ukuvala indawo yokuvelisa eBeaumont, eTexas, okwangoku "esebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku phantse ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" ukuba ayikwazi ukuvelisa uphawu lwayo lwe-dicamba olubizwa ngokuba Engenia. I-BASF ichithe i-370 yezigidi zeedola kule minyaka idlulileyo ukuphucula isityalo kwaye iqeshe abantu abayi-170 apho, utshilo inkampani.

Iphawula "utyalo-mali olubalulekileyo" kwimveliso yayo, i-BASF ikwatshele nenkundla ukuba yanele imveliso yayo okwangoku kuyo yonke "ijelo labathengi" lokunyanga ii-26.7 zezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu. I-BASF inezigidi ezongezelelekileyo ze- $ 44 yezigidi zeemveliso ze-Engenia dicamba, eyaneleyo yokunyanga ii-6.6 yezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu, utshilo inkampani.

UDuPont / uCorteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, ukuxelela inkundla ekufayeleni kwayo ukuba ukuvalwa "kuyonakalisa ngokuthe ngqo" inkampani "kunye nabalimi abaninzi kulo lonke eli lizwe eliphakathi kwexesha lokukhula." Iya konakalisa "igama" lenkampani ukuba ukubulala iyeza kuvaliwe, inkampani ixelele inkundla.

Ngaphaya koko, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukuvelisa "ingeniso ebalulekileyo" kwintengiso ye-dicamba herbicide, ebizwa ngokuba yiFeXapan kwaye iyakuphulukana naloo mali ukuba ukuvalwa kuyanyanzeliswa, utshilo inkampani.

IMonsanto yayisebenza kwimeko exhasa ukuvunywa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesigwebo, kodwa bobabini i-BASF kunye neDuPont baqinisekisa ngokungachanekanga ukuba ityala lenkundla lisebenza kuphela kwiimveliso zikaMonsanto hayi ezabo. Inkundla ikucacisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-EPA yamkele ngokungekho mthethweni iimveliso ezenziwe zezi nkampani zontathu.

Ikhokelwe liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ngokuchasene ne-EPA lwaziswa ngumbutho weSizwe weFama yoMbutho, iZiko lokwahluka kweBioloji, kunye neNethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Xa ibuza inkundla ukuba ifumane i-EPA ngokudelela, iqumrhu liye lalumkisa ngomonakalo wezityalo oza kubakho ukuba iimveliso ze-dicamba azithintelwa kwangoko.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukutshizwa kwezigidi ezili-16 zeepiccic ze-dicamba kunye nomonakalo kwizigidi zeehektare, kunye nomngcipheko obonakalayo kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini," utshilo umdibaniso. Enye into isemngciphekweni nayo: umthetho. Inkundla kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuthintela ukungabikho kobulungisa kwaye ixhase ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yokugweba. Ngenxa yokungahoywa ngokucacileyo kwe-EPA kwisigqibo seNkundla, abafaki-zikhalazo bayabongoza iNkundla ukuba iyidelele i-EPA. ”

Iphepha lokwenyani leDicamba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iindaba zamva: I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaseMelika ubhengeze u-Okthobha 27 izakuvumela amafama ase-US ukuba aqhubeke nokutshiza izityalo nge-Bayer AG's weedkiller esetyenziswa kwi-dicamba-resistant GMO soybeans and cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla othintela ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkundla yezibheno yakugweba oko I-EPA “ibeka umngcipheko omkhulu” kubabulali bokhula lwe-dicamba. Amashumi amafama ajikeleze i-US amangalela iBayer (eyayisakuba yiMonsanto) kunye ne-BASF kumzamo wokubamba iinkampani ukuba ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wesityalo amafama athi zibangelwa kukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba. Sithumela amaxwebhu okufumanisa kunye nohlalutyo lwezilingo kuthi Iphepha leDicamba Papers.

isishwankathelo

Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) lubanzi olubanzi utywala okokuqala kubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-Dicamba ikwabhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa okungezizo ezolimo kwiindawo zokuhlala nakwezinye iindawo, ezinje ngegalufa apho isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamagqabi abanzi anje ngeedandelions, ichickweed, i-clover kunye ne-ivy yomhlaba.

Ngaphezulu kweemveliso ezili-1,000 XNUMX ezithengiswa e-United States ezibandakanya i-dicamba, ngokwe-National Pesticide Information Centre Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-aginist ye-auxin: ivelisa ukukhula okungalawulekiyo okukhokelela kukufa kwezityalo.

Iingxaki zokusiNgqongileyo 

Iinguqu ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ukuba zihamba kude nalapho zisetyenziswe khona, kwaye zazingasetyenziswanga ngokubanzi ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo xa benokubulala izityalo okanye imithi.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkele ukubhaliswa kweefomula ezintsha ze-dicamba ngo-2016, nangona kunjalo, ivumela ukusetyenziswa ngokutsha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ekukhuleni kwezityalo zekotoni nezinyamezelayo zedicamba. Izazinzulu zilumkise ukuba ukusetyenziswa okutsha kuya kukhokelela kumonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuphuhliswa kokuchasana nokhula ngokubanzi kwi-glyphosate-based herbicides, kubandakanya uphawu oludumileyo lweRoundup, olwaziswa nguMonsanto kwii-1970s. Ngama-1990, iMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-glyphosate, yaze yakhuthaza abantu abadumileyo ukuba basebenzise iinkqubo zokulima “iRoundup Ready”. Abalimi banokutyala iMonsanto yemfuza eyinyamezelayo yemfuza eyinyamezelo lweglyphosate, umbona, umqhaphu kunye nezinye izityalo, emva koko bafafaze i-glyphosate herbicides efana neRoundup ngokuthe ngqo ngaphezulu kwezityalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Inkqubo yenza ukhula lula kubalimi njengoko benokutshiza imichiza ngqo kumasimi abo onke ngexesha lokukhula, kususa ukhula olwalukhuphisana nezityalo ukufuma kunye nezondlo zomhlaba.

Ukuthandwa kwenkqubo yeRoundup Ready kukhokelele kukonyuka kokhula, nangona kunjalo, kushiya amafama ngamasimi okhula oluqinileyo olungasayi kuphinda lufe xa lufafazwe ngeglyphosate.

Kwi-2011 iMonsanto yabhengeza ukuba i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Bethembele kwixesha elide kakhulu” kwaye wathi icwangcise ukusebenzisana ne-BASF kwaye iphuhlise inkqubo yokulima izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezinokunyamezela ukutshizwa nge-dicamba. Yathi iyakwazisa uhlobo olutsha lwe-dicamba herbicide engayi kuhamba kude namasimi apho yafafazwa khona.

Ukusukela oko kwaziswa le nkqubo intsha, izikhalazo malunga nomonakalo we-dicamba ukwanda kwiindawo ezininzi zasezifama, kubandakanya nezikhulu zezikhalazo ezivela e-Illinois, e-Indiana, e-Iowa, eMissouri nase-Arkansas.

Kwingxelo yomhla ka-Novemba. 1, 2017, i-EPA yathi ifumene uphando malunga nokwenzakala kwezityalo ezingama-2,708 ezisemthethweni ezinxulumene nesicamba (njengoko kuchaziwe ngamasebe karhulumente wezolimo). Iarhente ithe zingaphezulu kwe-3.6 yezigidi iihektare zesoya ezichaphazelekileyo ngelo xesha. Ezinye izityalo ezichaphazelekileyo yayiziitumato, ivatala, icantaloupe, izidiliya, amathanga, imifuno, icuba, izitiya zokuhlala, imithi kunye namatyholo.

NgoJulayi 2017, iSebe lezoLimo laseMissouri lakhupha okwexeshana "ukuThengisa ukuThengisa, ukuSebenzisa okanye ukuSusa uMyalelo," kuzo zonke iimveliso ze-dicamba eMissouri. Urhulumente waphakamisa iodolo ngoSeptemba 2017.

Ezi ziimveliso zedicamba:

Nge-Okthobha 31, 2018, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US (i-EPA) yabhengeza ukongezwa kwe-Engenia, i-XtendiMax kunye ne-FeXapan yobhaliso nge-2020 yokusetyenziswa "ngaphezulu" kokusebenzisa indawo yecicamba enganyamezeliyo yomqhaphu kunye neembotyi zesoya. I-EPA ithe iphucule iilebheli zangaphambili kwaye yabeka ukhuselo olongezelelweyo kumzamo wokunyusa impumelelo kunye nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo kwemveliso ebaleni.

Ubhaliso lweminyaka emibini lusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA ichaze la magatya alandelayo:

  • Abafaki zicelo abaqinisekisiweyo kuphela abanokufaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (abo basebenza phantsi kweliso lomenzi wesicelo oqinisekisiweyo abanakuphinda benze izicelo)
  • Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kwiintsuku ezingama-45 emva kokutyala okanye ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokukhula le-R1 (intyatyambo yokuqala), nokuba yeyiphi eza kuqala
  • Thintela ngaphezulu kwesicelo se-dicamba kwi-cotton kwiintsuku ezingama-60 emva kokutyala
  • Kwikotoni, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu ukusuka kwezine ukuya kwezimbini
  • Kwiimbotyi zesoya, inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu lihlala kwisibini
  • Izicelo ziya kuvunyelwa kuphela ukusuka kwiyure enye emva kokuphuma kwelanga ukuya kwiiyure ezimbini phambi kokutshona kwelanga
  • Kwiindawo apho iintlobo zezilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni zinokubakho, i-downwind buffer iya kuhlala kwi-110 yeenyawo kwaye kuyakubakho i-buffer entsha yeenyawo ezingama-57 ezijikeleze amanye amacala endle (i-110-foot-downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izicelo, hayi kwiibalo kuphela apho Izilwanyana ezisengozini yokubakho)
  • Ukuphuculwa kwemiyalelo yetanki yokucoca yonke inkqubo
  • Ukuphuculwa kwelebheli yokuphucula ulwazi lokufaka isicelo kwifuthe le-pH esezantsi kwimeko yokungazinzi kwe-dicamba
  • Ukucocwa kwelebheli kunye nokungaguquguquki ukuphucula ukuthotyelwa nokunyanzeliswa

Inkundla yezibheno yase-US Isigqibo se-9 seSekethe 

Nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences. Inkundla ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo ukufuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokujongela phantsi i-EPA.

Iinkcukacha ezithe kratya zinokuba njalo ifunyenwe apha.

Intsalela yokutya 

Njengokuba izicelo ze-glyphosate kwimihlaba yeefama ziye zafunyanwa zishiya intsalela ye-glyphosate kunye nasekutyeni okugqityiweyo, njenge-oatmeal, isonka, iisiriyeli, njl., Iintsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuba zishiye intsalela ekutyeni. Amafama emveliso yawo ibingcoliswe ziintsalela ze-dicamba ngokusebenzisa i-drift bavakalise inkxalabo yokuba iimveliso zabo zinokukhatywa okanye zonzakaliswe ngorhwebo ngenxa yomcimbi wentsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amanqanaba okunyamezelana nedicamba ziinkozo ezininzi kunye nenyama yemfuyo etya iinkozo, kodwa hayi iziqhamo kunye nemifuno. Ukunyamezelana kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kusetwe kwiindawo ezili-10 kwisigidi, umzekelo, eUnited States, kunye neenxalenye ezi-2 kwisigidi sengqolowa. Ukunyamezeleka kunako zibonwe apha. 

I-EPA ikhuphe le nkcazo malunga nentsalela yedicamba ekutyeni: “I-EPA yenze uhlalutyo olufunwa ngumthetho iFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) kwaye yafumanisa ukuba intsalela ekutyeni“ ikhuselekile ”- okuthetha ukuba kukho isiqiniseko esifanelekileyo sokungabinabungozi ebantwini, kubandakanya konke izinto ezinokuchongwa ngokufanelekileyo, kubandakanya iintsana nabantwana, ekutyeni nakwezinye izinto ezingasebenziyo kwi-dicamba. ”

Umhlaza kunye neHypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba ngumhlaza, kodwa ezinye izifundo zifumene umngcipheko okhulayo womhlaza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Jonga ezi zifundo ngokubhekisele kwimpilo yoluntu yedicamba:

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Dicamba kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo: uhlalutyo oluhlaziyiweyo Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe ye-Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Xa kuthelekiswa nabafaki zicelo abangachazanga ukusebenzisa i-dicamba, abo bakwi-quartile ephezulu yokuvezwa benomngcipheko ophakamileyo wesifo somhlaza wesibindi kunye ne-intrahepatic bile duct kunye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheliyo kunye nokwehla komngcipheko we-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye neHyodys Hypothyroidism kubaFaki beziNtsholongwane kwizifundo zeMpilo yezoLimo. Iimpembelelo zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo (9.26.18)
"Kweli qela likhulu labalimi ababesemngciphekweni wokubulala izitshabalalisi, safumanisa ukuba kusoloko kusetyenziswa ii-organochlorine zinambuzane (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ii-inseophosphate zinambuzane ezine (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, kunye ne-malathion), kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, kunye ne-2,4-D) ayanyaniswa nomngcipheko okhulayo we-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezibulali-zinambuzane phakathi kwamadoda afaka isicelo sokubulala izitshabalalisi kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo. Ijenali yezeMpilo yokuSebenza ngokusiNgqongileyo (10.1.14)
"Imichiza yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, kunye neoyile yepetroleum zonke zinxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwe-hypothyroidism"

Ukuphononongwa kokuvezwa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwiqela lezempilo lezolimo. Ukujongwa kweMpilo yeNdalo esingqongileyo (8.1.10)
“Sihlolisise izifundo ezingama-28; uninzi lweziyobisi zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezingama-32 ezazivavanyiwe zazingadibani kakhulu neziganeko zomhlaza kwizicelo zokubulala izinambuzane. Ukonyusa umyinge (okanye ukungalingani) kunye neepateni zokuphendula ezichazayo zichazwe kwizibulali zinambuzane ezili-12 ezibhaliswe ngoku eCanada kunye / okanye eUnited States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- idipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isifo seCancer phakathi kwabaFaki beziNtsholongwane ezichazwe kwiDicamba kwiMpilo yezoLimo Isifundo. Imiba yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo (7.13.06)
Ukuchazwa kwakungadibananga neziganeko zomhlaza ngokubanzi kwaye kwakungekho mibutho yomeleleyo kunye naluphi na uhlobo lomhlaza. Xa iqela lesalathiso lalinabafaki-zicelo abatyhilekileyo abasezantsi, sabona imeko elungileyo emngciphekweni phakathi kweentsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye nomhlaza wemiphunga (p = 0.02), kodwa akukho nanye kuqikelelo lwenqaku lomntu oluphakanyisiweyo. Siye sabona imeko eyandayo yomngcipheko womhlaza wekolon kuzo zombini iintsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye neentsuku zokuphila ezinobunzima, nangona ezi ziphumo zibangelwe ngumngcipheko ophakamileyo kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuvezwa.

I-Lymphoma ye-non-Hodgkin kunye nokuchazwa kwe-Pesticide ekhethekileyo kuMadoda: I-Cross-Canada Study of Pesticides kunye neMpilo. Umhlaza we-Epidemiology, Biomarkers kunye noThintelo (11.01)
“Phakathi kweekhompawundi ezizodwa, kuhlalutyo lwe-multivariate, umngcipheko we-NHL wanyuswa ngokweenkcukacha-manani ngokuvezwa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OKANYE, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye iimodeli ezongezayo, ezibandakanya ukubonwa kwezinye iikhemikhali eziphambili okanye iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, umhlaza wesibeleko, imbali yomhlaza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, kunye nokuvezwa kwimixube equkethe i-dicamba (OKANYE, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40- 2.75)… babengabacingeli abazimeleyo ababalulekileyo abonisa umngcipheko owandisiweyo weNHL ”

Ityala 

Inkxalabo yomonakalo we-dicamba ikhuthaze ukumangalelwa ngamafama kumazwe amaninzi ase-US. Iinkcukacha kwisimangalo ku funyanwa apha.