Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Isifundo esitsha sivavanya ifuthe le-Roundup herbicide kwiinyosi zobusi

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Iqela labaphandi baseTshayina lifumene ubungqina bokuba iimveliso zeherbicide ezisekwe kwintengiso ye-glyphosate ziyingozi kwiinyosi zobusi okanye ngaphantsi kwezingqinisiso ezicetyiswayo.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwi Ijenali ye-intanethi Iingxelo zeSayensi, Abaphandi abazimanya ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kunye ne-Chinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathi bafumene uluhlu lweempembelelo ezingalunganga kwiinyosi zobusi xa beveza iinyosi kwi-Roundup - a glyphosateImveliso esekwe kuthengiswa ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Inkumbulo yeenyosi zeenyosi "yayonakele kakhulu emva kokuvezwa yiRoundup" iphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kweenyosi kumachiza okubulala ukhula "kunokuba nefuthe elibi ekufuneni nasekuqokeleleni izixhobo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwemisebenzi yokutya" ziinyosi, abaphandi bathi .

Kananjalo, "amandla okunyuka kweenyosi zeenyosi anciphile kakhulu emva konyango kunye noxinzelelo lweRoundup," bafumanisa abaphandi.

Abaphandi bathi sikhona isidingo “senkqubo yokutshiza isilumkiso sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwangethuba” kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni e-China kuba abagcini nyosi kulezo ndawo “bahlala bengaziswanga phambi kokuba kutshizwe iherbicides” kwaye “neziganeko zetyhefu rhoqo yeenyosi zobusi” zenzeka.

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo ezininzi ezibalulekileyo zokutya kuxhomekeke kwiinyosi zobusi kunye neenyosi zasendle ukuze kufuduswe umungu, kwaye kuphawulwe ukwehla kubemi beenyosi baphakamise iinkxalabo kwihlabathi liphela malunga nokhuseleko lokutya.

Iphepha eliphuma kwiYunivesithi yaseRutgers ipapashwe kwihlobo elidlulileyo ilumkise ngelithi "isivuno sama-apile, iitsheri kunye namaqunube kulo lonke elaseMelika sincitshiswa kukuswela kwezidlulisi."

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

I-inki ze-Bayer zijongana neenkampani ezintathu zomthetho we-Roundup zomthetho njengoko kuhlala kuqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

I-Bayer AG ifikelele kwimigqaliselo yokugqibela kunye neefemu ezintathu zomthetho ezimele amawaka abamangali abathi babhencwa kwimichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglosfosate esekwe eMonsanto yabangela ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izivumelwano ezintsha zenziwe ngokusekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law waseKentucky. Iifemu nganye nganye ifake isaziso malunga nezivumelwano kunye neNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili esiseMantla eCalifornia ngoMvulo.

Izivumelwano ziza emva kwezityholo zeefemu zamagqwetha amathathu zokuba iBayer ibuyela umva ngokweemvumelwano esele zenziwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo. Amafemu axelele inkundla ngoMvulo ukuba ngoku umntu ngamnye "unesivumelwano esenziwe ngokupheleleyo nesibophelelayo sokuHanjiswa kweMasteranto neMonsanto."

Ngokukodwa, ukujongana kuphawula inyathelo elibalulekileyo ekuziseni ukuvalwa kwesigwebo seminyaka emihlanu ubudala ngoku esiba ngaphezulu kwama-100,000 amabango aziswe ngabantu abavela e-United States abasebenzisa i-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate-based herbicides ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kokuba waba nomhlaza.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka i-bankruptcy ukuba akukho kufikelelwa kwilizwe lonke, ngokonxibelelwano oluvela kwiifemu zabamangali ukuya kubaxhasi bazo.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha zimbini kuphela iifemu ezinkulu zomthetho kwityala elitshabalalisayo elinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe kunye neBayer - iMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg, ngokutsho kwemithombo ekufutshane nengxoxo. Inkampani yaseBaum, iAndrus Wagstaff kunye neyase Moore zazineememorandam zokuqonda kodwa ingezizo izivumelwano zokugqibela, itsho imithombo.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani. I-Bayer izamile ukufumana imvume yenkundla ngesicwangciso esiya kulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha omhlaza we-Roundup iminyaka emine, kwaye ngesekwe ngamalungu amahlanu "ipaneli yesayensi" yokufumanisa ukuba ngaba i-Roundup ingadala non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo , kweliphi inqanaba elisezantsi lokuvezwa. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria walikhaba icebo,  ukuthumela iBayer emva kwibhodi yokudweba.

Bayer wayenayo utshilo uLwesine ukuba ibisenza inkqubela phambili kuphuhliso lwesicwangciso "esihlaziyiweyo" sokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho seRoundup kwixa elizayo. Iinkcukacha zesicwangciso seklasi esihlaziyiweyo ziya kugqitywa kwezi veki zizayo, ngokukaBayer.

Abamangali abaliqela abakhange bonwabe yile ndawo yokuhlala, besithi abazukufumana mali ininzi ngaphandle kweminyaka yokunyanga umhlaza obiza kakhulu kunye neentlungu eziqhubekayo kunye nokubandezeleka. Ewe, uninzi lwabamangali sele lusweleke ngelixa lilinde isisombululo.

NgoSeptemba 9, amagqwetha kaMarie Bernice Dinner kunye nomyeni wakhe uBruce Dinner bafaka inkundla ukuba uMarie oneminyaka engama-73 ubudala wasweleka ngoJuni 2 kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yena nomyeni wakhe batyholwa ukuba babangelwa kukuvezwa kwakhe ngababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto .

Amagqwetha kaBruce Dinner acele inkundla ukuba iwavumele ukuba enze izilungiso kwisikhalazo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ukongeza ibango lokufa ngokungekho mthethweni. Esi sibini sitshatile sineminyaka engama-53 kwaye sinabantwana ababini nabazukulwana abane.

“UMarie Bernice wayengumntu ongaqhelekanga. Ukusweleka kwakhe bekufanele ukuba kuthintelwe, ”litshilo igqwetha uBeth Klein, omele usapho.

Izifundo ezitsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa inkxalabo kwimpilo yokuzala

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Njengoko iBayer AG ifuna ukuphungula inkxalabo yokuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides ibangela umhlaza, izifundo ezininzi ezitsha ziphakamisa imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho lwekhemikhali kwimpilo yokuzala.

Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ezikhutshiweyo ehlotyeni zibonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeza ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Kwi iphepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo in I-Endocrinology yeMelecular and Cellular, Abaphandi abane baseArgentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yokuba i-glyphosate ikhuselekile.

Uphando olutsha luza njengoko iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezulu kwamabango e-100,000 aziswe e-United States ngabantu abathi batyhileka kwi-Roundup yeMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso ze-glyphosate-based based herbicide ezibangele ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

I-Bayer izuze njengelifa ityala le-Roundup xa wathenga iMonsanto Ngo-2018, kungekudala phambi kokuphumelela kwamatyala amathathu kwabamangali.

Izifundo ziye zeza njengamaqela abathengi esebenzela ukuqonda ngcono indlela yokunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwabo kwi-glyphosate ngokutya. Isifundo ipapashwe nge-11 ka-Agasti ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokusika amanqanaba e-glyphosate afunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwepesenti ze-70. Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya.

IGlyphosate, eyona nto isebenzayo kwiRoundup, sesona sibulali sokhula sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. IMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinyamezelayo nge-glyphosate kwii-1990s ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba afafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuwo onke amasimi ezityalo, abulale ukhula kodwa hayi izityalo eziguqulweyo. Ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngamafama kunye nabanini bamakhaya, izixhobo kunye nezinto zikarhulumente, kuye kwatsala inkxalabo ekhulayo kule minyaka ngenxa yokuxhaphaka kwayo kunye noloyiko malunga nokuba inokwenza ntoni na kwimpilo yabantu kunye nokusingqongileyo. Imichiza ngoku ifunyanwa ngokutya nakumanzi kunye nomchamo womntu.

Ngokwenzululwazi yaseArgentina, ezinye zeempembelelo zeglyphosate ezibonwe kwizifundo ezitsha zezilwanyana zibangelwa kukuvezwa kweedosi eziphezulu; kodwa kukho ubungqina obutsha obubonisa ukuba nokuba sesichengeni sokweedosi esezantsi kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwendlela yokuzala kwabasetyhini, neziphumo ekuchumeni. Xa izilwanyana zichanekile kwi-glyphosate ngaphambi kokufikisa, utshintsho lubonakala kuphuhliso kunye nokwahlulahlula ii-ovari follicles kunye nesibeleko, zitsho izazinzulu. Ukongeza, ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe ngeglyphosate ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwembewu. Konke kudibanisa ukubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ziziphazamiso ze-endocrine, baphetha abaphandi.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osuka kwiYunivesithi yasePurdue, uthe uphando olutsha lwandisa ulwazi malunga nobungakanani bomonakalo onxulunyaniswa ne-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides kwaye inikezela "ukuqonda okungcono kobuzaza bokubhengeza okuxhaphakileyo inkcubeko ngoku. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka ukuba iMonsanto's Roundup inokuba negalelo kwiingxaki zokuzala kwimfuyo.

inye isifundo esibalulekileyo yapapashwa kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi kwiphephancwadi Ukutya kunye neTyxicology, ezimisele ukuba i-glyphosate okanye i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "i-hormonal ebalulekileyo kunye neethagethi zesibeleko seemolekyuli" kwiigundane ezikhulelweyo.

Isifundo esahlukileyo kutshanje papashwe kwincwadi I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yase-Iowa State bajonge ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kwiimpuku. Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kwinqanaba eliphantsi kwi-glyphosate "kuguqula iproteome ye-ovari" (iseti yeeprotein ezivakalisiweyo kuhlobo oluthile lweseli okanye komzimba) kwaye "inokuba nefuthe ekusebenzeni kwe-ovari. Kwiphepha elinxulumene nelaba baphandi babini baseIowa State kunye nombhali omnye owongezelelweyo, papashwa ngo Inzala yetyhefu, Abaphandi bathi abafumananga ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine kwiimpuku ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate, nangona kunjalo.  

Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseGeorgia kuchazwe kwiphephancwadi Inzululwazi yezilwanyana kunye neNzululwazi yezilwanyana Ukusetyenziswa kwemfuyo yengqolowa edityaniswe nentsalela ye-glyphosate kubonakala ngathi inokwenzakalisa izilwanyana, ngokujonga izifundo kwesihloko. Ngokusekwe kuphononongo loncwadi, i-glyphosate-based herbicides ibonakala ngathi "yityhefu yokuzala, ineziphumo ezahlukeneyo kwiinkqubo zokuzala zamadoda nabasetyhini," utshilo umphandi.

Iziphumo ezothusayo zazikhona ikwabonwa nasezimvini. Uphando lupapashwe kwiphephancwadi Ungcoliseko lwendalo kujonge iimpembelelo zokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuphuhliso lwesibeleko kwiimvana zabasetyhini. Bafumene utshintsho abathi lunokuchaphazela impilo yokuzala kwabasetyhini yeegusha kwaye babonise i-glyphosate-based herbicides esebenza njengophazamisayo kwi-endocrine.

Ikwapapashwe kwakhona kwi Ungcoliseko lwendalo, izazinzulu ezivela eFinland naseSpain zithe kwi iphepha elitsha Ukuba benze uvavanyo lokuqala lwexesha elide lweziphumo ze- "sub-toxic" glyphosate exposure kwiinkukhu. Bazama ukuvavanya izagwityi zabasetyhini nezamadoda kwii-glyphosate-based herbicides ukusuka kwiintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kwiiveki ezingama-52.

Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate herbicides "inokuguqula iindlela eziphambili zomzimba, inqanaba le-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kunye ne-microbiome" kodwa khange bafumane ziphumo zokuzala. Bathe iimpembelelo zeglyphosate azinakuhlala zibonwa “ngokwesiko, ngakumbi ixesha elifutshane, uvavanyo lwetyhefu, kwaye olo vavanyo alunakho ukububeka ngokupheleleyo ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate kunye neNeonicotinoids

Enye ye ezona zifundo zintsha Ukujonga iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwimpilo kwapapashwa kule nyanga kwi Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu.  Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-insectides ye-thiacloprid kunye ne-imidacloprid, zazinokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine.

Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane ayinxalenye yekhemikhali ye-neonicotinoid kwaye aphakathi kwezona zisetyenziselwa ukubulala izinambuzane ehlabathini.

Abaphandi bathi babeke iliso kwimpembelelo ye-glyphosate kunye neonicotinoids ezimbini kwiithagethi ezibalulekileyo zenkqubo ye-endocrine: I-Aromatase, i-enzyme ejongene ne-estrogen biosynthesis, kunye ne-estrogen receptor alpha, eyona proteni iphambili ekhuthaza umqondiso we-estrogen.

Iziphumo zabo zaxutywa. Abaphandi bathi ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uthintele umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa isithintelo "besingabalulekanga kwaye sibuthathaka." Ngokubalulekileyo abaphandi bathi i-glyphosate ayikhange ibangele misebenzi ye-estrogenic. Iziphumo "bezingqinelani" nenkqubo yovavanyo eqhutywa yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US, egqibe kwelokuba "abukho ubungqina obukholisayo bokunxibelelana okunokubakho kwindlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate," batsho.

Abaphandi bawubonile umsebenzi we-estrogenic kunye ne-imidacloprid kunye ne-thiacloprid, kodwa kugxininiso oluphezulu kunamanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi alinganiswe kwiisampulu zebhayiloji yomntu. Abaphandi bagqibe kwelokuba “amayeza aphantsi ezi zinambuzane akufuneki athathwe njengangenabungozi,” kodwa, kuba ezi zinambuzane, kunye nezinye ezonakalisa imichiza ye-endocrine, “zinokubangela iziphumo ze-estrogenic.”

Iziphumo ezahluka-hlukeneyo ziza njengoko amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kuvavanya ukuba okanye akunciphisi okanye kuthintelwe ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.

I-Bayer icela inkundla yezibheno ukuba iphinde isike umvuzo we-Roundup onetyala kumgcini wezizathu wase-California onomhlaza

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

U-Bayer ucela inkundla yezibheno yase-California ukuba inciphise i-4 yezigidi zeedola kwimali eyityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukuba aphile umhlaza owafunyanwa yinkundla yetyala ibangelwa kukuvezwa kwale ndoda kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Kwi "uxwebhu lwesikhalazo”Bafaka ngoMvulo kwiNkundla yezibheno kwiSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia, amagqwetha eMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG bacele inkundla ukuba isike kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iye kwi-16.5 yezigidi zeerandi ngomonakalo owanikwa uDewayne“ Lee ”Johnson.

Inkundla yezibheno "yafikelela kwisigqibo esingalunganga esisekwe kwimpazamo yomthetho," ngokufayilwa nguMonsanto. Umcimbi ujika ekubeni kulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elingakanani uJohnson. Kuba ubungqina kwityala ufumene ukuba uJohnson wayekulindelwe ukuba aphile "kungadluli kwiminyaka emibini," akufuneki afumane imali yeentlungu ezizayo kunye nokubandezeleka okwabiweyo ixesha elingaphezulu kweminyaka emibini- ngaphandle kwento yokuba uyaqhubeka nokuphila uqikelelo, inkampani iyaphikisana.

Ngaphantsi kokubala okucelwe nguMonsanto, inkundla kufuneka isike kwi-4 yezigidi ukuya kwi-2 yezigidi isixa-mali esi-odolwe kumonakalo ongekho kwezoqoqosho, (iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka.) Oko kuya kunciphisa ukonakala kwembuyekezo (eyadlulayo neyexesha elizayo) ukuya kwi- $ 8,253,209. Ngelixa isanyanzelisa ukuba akufuneki ukuba ibenetyala lokohlwaywa, ukuba ngaba isohlwayo somonakalo sihlawulisiwe kufuneka sibekwe ngaphezulu kwe-1-to-1 ratio ngokuchasene nembuyekezo, ukuzisa itotali kwi-16,506,418 yeedola, uMonsanto uxoxa ngokugcwalisa kwayo.

Ekuqaleni uJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola nge-Agasti ka-Agasti 2018, emenza ukuba abe ngummangali wokuqala ukuba aphumelele kwinqanaba lokuvavanywa kwamabango okuba ukubhencwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela ukuba kungabikho iHodgkin lymphoma kwaye iMonsanto ifihle umngcipheko. Ijaji yetyala lehlise ibhaso laya kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola. IMonsanto ibhenele ukufuna ityala elitsha okanye ibhaso elincitshisiweyo. UJohnson wenza isibheno efuna ukubuyiselwa kumvuzo wakhe opheleleyo.

Inkundla yezibheno Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson. Kwaye inkundla yafumanisa ukuba "bekukho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson ubandezelekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Kodwa inkundla ithe umonakalo kufuneka wehliswe ufike kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola ngenxa yemeko yobomi obufutshane bukaJohnson.

Kunye nemfuno yayo yokuncitshiswa komonakalo, iMonsanto icela inkundla yezibheno ukuba inike isimangalo sokulungisa "uhlalutyo lwayo" kwaye "isijike isigwebo ngemiyalelo yokungena kwisigwebo.
IMonsanto okanye, ubuncinci, phuma kuwongwa ngembuyekezo yokohlwaya. ”

Ityala likaJohnson laligqunywe ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka iliso kwimizamo kaMonsanto yokusebenzisa irekhodi lesayensi kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup kunye neenzame zayo zokuthula abagxeki kunye nefuthe labalawuli. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

Izenzo zikaBayer zokunciphisa amabhaso omonakalo ngenxa yokulahleka kwetyala likaMonsanto liza njengoko inkampani ifuna ukuhlala kufutshane ne-100,000 Roundup amabango omhlaza asalinde i-United States kwiinkundla ezahlukeneyo. Abanye abamangali abonwabanga ngokuhlala ngokwemiqathango, kwaye besoyikisela ukungavumi kwintengiselwano.

Intshukumo kwisibheno sePilliod 

Kwisenzo esahlukileyo sesibheno esimalunga nokumangalelwa ngeRoundup, kwiveki ephelileyo amagqwetha eAlva naseAlberta Pilliod wafaka ingxelo emfutshane ucela inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ukuba iyalele umonakalo kumabhaso atshatileyo efikelela kwi-575 yezigidi zeedola. Esi sibini sikhulileyo- bobabini babethwa ngumhlaza odakisayo ababekek 'ityala ekuvezeni iRoundup- baphumelela ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi xa kuvavanywa ityala, kodwa ijaji yetyala emva koko wehlisa ibhaso lejaji ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-87 zeedola.

Ukuchithwa kwebhaso lomonakalo kwakugqithisile, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha amele esi sibini, kwaye akamohlwayi ngokwaneleyo uMonsanto ngesenzo sakhe esingalunganga.

"Amajaji amathathu aseCalifornia, iijaji zetyala ezine, kunye neejaji ezintathu zezibheno eziye zajonga ukungaziphathi kakuhle kukaMonsanto bavumile ngamxhelo-mnye ukuba" kukho ubungqina obubambekayo bokuba uMonsanto wenza ngokungakhathali ngabom nangolwazelelelo ngokhuseleko lwabanye, "Isishwankathelo sePilliod sithi. "Ibango likaMonsanto lokuba lixhoba" lokungabikho kokusesikweni "kule meko liya lisiba lilize ngenxa yezi ngxelo zifunyenwe ngamxhelomnye."

Amagqwetha acela inkundla ukuba inikezele nge-10-to-1 ratio yomonakalo owohlwaywayo kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo.

"Amaxhoba okwenyani kokungabikho kokusesikweni kule meko ziiPilliods, eziye zanesifo esibuhlungu nesenzakalisayo ngenxa yesifo seMonsanto," lishwankathela. "Ijaji, ekumiseleni ukuba abemi abahloniphekileyo akufuneki bayinyamezele isimilo esibi sikaMonsanto, bagqiba kwelokuba ngumonakalo omkhulu kuphela onokumohlwaya kwaye uthintele iMonsanto."

Abanye babamangali baseMelika basilele ekusayineni isivumelwano sokuhlala eBayer; I-160,000 yeedola zokuhlawula

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Abamangali kwi-US Roundup litigation baqala ukufunda iinkcukacha zento Bayer AG's $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawulwa kwamabango omhlaza okunene kuthetha kubo ngokwahlukeneyo, kwaye abanye abayithandi into abayibonayo.

Bayer yatsho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni Kuthethathethwane ngokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zabammangali kwisivumelwano esiza kuvala ngokufanelekileyo isambuku semali engaphezulu kwe-100,000 esalindelwe ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngo-2018. Ukuvezwa kukaMonsanto's Roundup kunye namanye amayeza okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali ebizwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate, kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko.

Ngelixa isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengeendaba ezimnandi kubamangali-abanye abanengxaki yokunyanga umhlaza kunye nabanye abammangalela abatshatileyo abaswelekileyo- uninzi lufumanisa ukuba lunokuphela lungenamali, kuxhomekeke kuluhlu izinto. Iifemu zamagqwetha, nangona kunjalo, zinokufaka ipokotho kumakhulu ezigidi zeedola.

“Yimpumelelo kumashishini ezomthetho kunye nempama ebusweni babantu abonzakeleyo” utshilo omnye ummangali, ongafunanga kuchazwa ngegama.

Abamangali baxelelwa ukuba kufuneka bathathe isigqibo kwezi veki zimbalwa zizayo ukuba bazokwamkela indawo yokuhlala, nangona bengazi ukuba bazakuhlawulwa malini kude kube kamva. Zonke iintengiselwano zentengiselwano ziyalela abamangali ukuba bangathethi esidlangalaleni malunga neenkcukacha, bebasongela ngesohlwayo ukuba baxoxa ngokuhlala kunye nabani na ngaphandle "kwamalungu osapho asondeleyo" okanye umcebisi wezezimali.

Oku kubacaphukisile abanye abathi bacinga ukwala iindawo zokuhlala ngenjongo yokufuna ezinye iinkampani zomthetho ukuba zijongane namabango abo. Le ntatheli iwajongisisile amaxwebhu athunyelwe kubamangali abaninzi.

Kwabo bavumayo, iintlawulo zinokwenziwa kwangoko ngoFebruwari, nangona inkqubo yokuhlawula bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuba yolule unyaka okanye nangaphezulu. Ezonxibelelwano ezithunyelwe zivela kumafemu ezomthetho ziye kubathengi bazo beRoundup zizo zombini inkqubo yomntu ngamnye ohlaselwe ngumhlaza kuya kufuneka ehambile ukuze afumane intlawulo yemali kunye nokuba ezo ntlawulo zinokufikelela phi. Imigaqo yeentengiselwano iyahluka kumzi-mveliso wamagqwetha, oko kuthetha ukuba abamangali abemi ngokufanayo banokuphelela kwiindawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala ngathi sisinye ekuxoxiswene ngaso Ifemi yeMiller, Kwaye ke kuyadanisa abanye babaxhasi benkampani. Ekunxibelelaneni nabathengi, inkampani yathi ikwazile ukuxoxa malunga ne-849 yezigidi zeedola ukusuka eBayer ukugubungela amabango abathengi abangaphezulu kwe-5,000 Roundup. Ifemi iqikelela ixabiso lokuhlawula umtyali ngamnye kumyinge wama- $ 160,000. Elo xabiso lipheleleyo liya kuncitshiswa ngokuncitshiswa kweefizi zamagqwetha kunye neendleko.

Nangona iifizi zamagqwetha zinokwahluka ngokuqina kunye nommangali, uninzi kwityala leRoundup lihlawulisa iipesenti ezingama-30-40 kwimirhumo engxamisekileyo.

Ukuze bakulungele ukuhlala, abamangali kufuneka babe neerekhodi zonyango ezixhasa ukuxilongwa kweentlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye bakwazi ukubonisa ukuba bavezwa ubuncinci unyaka ngaphambi kokuba bafumane isifo.

I-Firm yaseMiller ibiphambili kwityala leRoundup ukusukela ekuqaleni, ifumana uninzi lwamaxwebhu agwenxa angaphakathi eMonsanto ancede aphumelela kuzo zontathu izilingo zeRoundup ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. IMiller Firm iphathe ezibini kwezo zilingo, isizisa amagqwetha avela kwinkampani yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman ukunceda kwityala  UDewayne "Lee" Johnson emva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller enzakaliswe kabuhlungu kwingozi kanye phambi kwetyala. Ezi femu zimbini zisebenze kunye ekuphumeleleni ityala labamangali bendoda nomfazi, Alva kunye neAlberta Pilliod. UJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola kwaye ii-Pilliods zanikwa ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba amabhaso.

Kwangoko kulenyanga, inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isigwebo sikaJohnson, elawula ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba iimveliso zeRoundup zibangele umhlaza kaJohnson kodwa zinciphisa ibhaso likaJohnson ukuya kwizigidi ezingama- $ 20.5. Izibheno zisalindelwe kwezinye izigwebo ezibini ezichasene neMonsanto.

Ukufumana amanqaku kwabamangali

Ukufumanisa ukuba ngakanani na ummangali ngamnye afumana ukusuka ekuhlaleni kunye neBayer, umlawuli weqela lesithathu uya kunika amanqaku umntu ngamnye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kummangali ngamnye ophuhlileyo; ubudala bommangali ekuchongeni isifo; ubuzaza bomhlaza womntu kunye nobungakanani bonyango abalunyamezeleyo; ezinye izinto ezinobungozi; kunye nenani lokuvezwa kwabo kwiMonsanto herbicides.

Inye into yokuhlaliswa kwabantu ebambe uninzi lwabamangali bengafundanga yayikukufunda ukuba abo ekugqibeleni bafumana imali eBayer kuya kufuneka basebenzise imali yabo ukubuyisa inxenye yeendleko zonyango lwabo lomhlaza olwalugutyungelwe yiMedicare okanye i-inshurensi yabucala. Ngonyango oluthile lomhlaza oluya kumakhulu amawaka kunye nakwizigidi zeedola, oko kunokucima ngokukhawuleza intlawulo yommangali. Iifemu zomthetho zidwelise iikontraka zomntu wesithathu eziza kuthetha-thethana nabanikezeli ngeinshurensi ukuba bafune imbuyekezo ngezaphulelo, baxelelwa. Ngokwesiqhelo kolu hlobo lokumangalelwa ngobuninzi, loo malungelo onyango angancitshiswa kakhulu, utshilo iifemu zomthetho.

Kwicala elinye lesivumelwano esamkelweyo ngummangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziya kwakhiwa ukunqanda uxanduva lwerhafu, ngokolwazi olunikwe ababamangali.

Umngcipheko wokungahlali  

Iifemu zamagqwetha kufuneka zifumane uninzi lwabamangali ukuba bavumelane nemimiselo yeendawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwengcaciso enikezelwe kubamangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa ngoku ngenxa yenani lomngcipheko onxulumene nokuqhubeka nokulandela izilingo ezongezelelweyo. Phakathi kwemingcipheko echongiweyo:

  • I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile njengongenamali, kwaye ukuba inkampani iyithathile loo ndlela, ukusombulula amabango e-Roundup kuya kuthatha ixesha elide kwaye ekugqibeleni kungakhokelela kwimali encinci yabamangali.
  • I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) wakhupha incwadi ku-Agasti ophelileyo uxelele uMonsanto ukuba iarhente ayizukuvumela isilumkiso somhlaza kwiRoundup. Oko kunceda ikamva likaMonsanto lokuphumelela enkundleni.
  • Ulibaziseko lwenkundla enxulumene no-Covid kuthetha ukuba izilingo ezongezelelweyo ze-Roundup akunakulindeleka ukuba zonyaka okanye nangaphezulu.

Ayisiyonto ingaqhelekanga ukuba abamangali abachophele amatyala amakhulu bahambe bedanile nangona bezibonakala ngathi zinkulu iindawo ekuxoxiswene ngazo kumatyala abo. Incwadi ye2019 "IiNtsebenzo zoThutho oluNinzi: Ukuxoxisana kwigumbi elingasemva kwi-Multidistrict Litigation”NguElizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo wezoMthetho u-Fuller E. Callaway kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorgia, wenza imeko yokuba ukunqongophala kweetsheki kunye nemali ezilinganayo kwizityholo zolwaphulo-mthetho zinika phantse wonke umntu obandakanyekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ucaphula njengomzekelo wokumangalela i-asidi-reflux yeyeza iPropulsid, wathi ufumanise ukuba kwabamangali abangama-6,012 abangena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula, ngama-37 kuphela afumana imali. Abanye abafumani ntlawulo kodwa sele bevumile ukuwachasa amatyala abo njengemeko yokungena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula. Abamangali abangama-37 ngokudibeneyo bafumene ngaphezulu kweedola eziyi-6.5 yezigidi (phantse i-175,000 yeedola nganye kwi-avareji), ngelixa iifemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo zabamangali zifumene i-27 yezigidi zeedola, ngokweBurch,

Ukubeka bucala ukuba ngawaphi na abamangali abanokuthi okanye abangayi kuhamba nawo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho kufutshane nesimangalo seRoundup bathi kulunge ngakumbi ukufezekiswa kokungalunganga komanyano nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobungqina obuye bavela ngenxa yesimangalo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto abonisa ukuba inkampani yenze uxwebhu lokupapashwa kwamaphepha enzululwazi abonakala ngobuxoki ukuba enziwe kuphela zizazinzulu ezizimeleyo; Inkxaso mali, kunye nokusebenzisana, amaqela angaphambili abesetyenziselwa ukuzama ukunyelisa izazinzulu ezixela ukwenzakala ngamayeza okubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; kunye nokusebenzisana namagosa athile ngaphakathi kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhusela kunye nokukhuthaza isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuba iimveliso zayo azibanga ngumhlaza.

Amazwe aliqela kwihlabathi liphela, kunye noorhulumente basekhaya kunye nezithili zesikolo, baye bafudukela ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kunye / okanye ezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ngenxa yokutyhilwa kwetyala leRoundup.

(Ibali laqala ukuvela Iindaba zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo.)

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