Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Isifundo esitsha sivavanya ifuthe le-Roundup herbicide kwiinyosi zobusi

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Iqela labaphandi baseTshayina lifumene ubungqina bokuba iimveliso zeherbicide ezisekwe kwintengiso ye-glyphosate ziyingozi kwiinyosi zobusi okanye ngaphantsi kwezingqinisiso ezicetyiswayo.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwi Ijenali ye-intanethi Iingxelo zeSayensi, Abaphandi abazimanya ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kunye ne-Chinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathi bafumene uluhlu lweempembelelo ezingalunganga kwiinyosi zobusi xa beveza iinyosi kwi-Roundup - a glyphosateImveliso esekwe kuthengiswa ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Inkumbulo yeenyosi zeenyosi "yayonakele kakhulu emva kokuvezwa yiRoundup" iphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kweenyosi kumachiza okubulala ukhula "kunokuba nefuthe elibi ekufuneni nasekuqokeleleni izixhobo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwemisebenzi yokutya" ziinyosi, abaphandi bathi .

Kananjalo, "amandla okunyuka kweenyosi zeenyosi anciphile kakhulu emva konyango kunye noxinzelelo lweRoundup," bafumanisa abaphandi.

Abaphandi bathi sikhona isidingo “senkqubo yokutshiza isilumkiso sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwangethuba” kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni e-China kuba abagcini nyosi kulezo ndawo “bahlala bengaziswanga phambi kokuba kutshizwe iherbicides” kwaye “neziganeko zetyhefu rhoqo yeenyosi zobusi” zenzeka.

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo ezininzi ezibalulekileyo zokutya kuxhomekeke kwiinyosi zobusi kunye neenyosi zasendle ukuze kufuduswe umungu, kwaye kuphawulwe ukwehla kubemi beenyosi baphakamise iinkxalabo kwihlabathi liphela malunga nokhuseleko lokutya.

Iphepha eliphuma kwiYunivesithi yaseRutgers ipapashwe kwihlobo elidlulileyo ilumkise ngelithi "isivuno sama-apile, iitsheri kunye namaqunube kulo lonke elaseMelika sincitshiswa kukuswela kwezidlulisi."

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) liQela leLobby yeShishini lokuTya

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IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) ngumbutho ongajonganga nzuzo oxhaswa ngemali liqumrhu eliseWashington DC, elinamahluko ali-17 amanyeneyo kwihlabathi liphela. ILSI zichaza Njengeqela eliqhuba "isayensi ukulungiselela uluntu" kwaye "liphucula impilo yoluntu kunye nokuphila kunye nokukhusela okusingqongileyo." Nangona kunjalo, uphando olwenziwe ngabahlohli, intatheli kunye nabaphandi abanomdla kuluntu babonisa ukuba i-ILSI liqela elikhuselayo elikhusele iimfuno zeshishini lokutya, hayi impilo yoluntu.

Iindaba zamva nje:

  • ICoca-Cola iqhawule ubudlelwane bayo obude kunye ne-ILSI. Eli nyathelo "libuhlungu kumbutho wokutya onamandla owaziwa ngophando lwayo kunye neenkqubo zalo zeswekile," IBroomberg yabika ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • I-ILSI incede iNkampani yeCoca-Cola ukuba yenze umgaqo-nkqubo wokutyeba kakhulu e-China, ngokophando lukaSeptemba 2020 kwi Ijenali yezopolitiko, Umgaqo-nkqubo kunye noMthetho nguNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphantsi kwengxelo kawonke-wonke yesayensi engakhethi cala kwaye akukho mgaqo-nkqubo ubeka uluhlu lweenkampani ezifihliweyo ezisetyenziselwa ukuqhubela phambili iimfuno zabo. Ukusebenza ngala majelo, uCoca Cola uphembelele inzululwazi yase-China kunye nokwenziwa komgaqo-nkqubo kuwo onke amabakala enkqubo yomgaqo-nkqubo, ukusuka ekuyileni le miba kuyilo lomgaqo-nkqubo osemthethweni, ”ligqibe eli phepha.

  • Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know yongeza obunye ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili kushishino lokutya. Ngomhla we-Meyi 2020 kufunda kwiSondlo seMpilo kaRhulumente ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu kutyhila "ipateni yomsebenzi apho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukuthembeka kwezazinzulu kunye nezifundiswa ukomeleza izikhundla zeshishini kunye nokukhuthaza umxholo osekwe kwimizi-mveliso kwiintlanganiso zawo, ijenali, kunye neminye imisebenzi." Jonga ukogquma kwi-BMJ, Icandelo lokutya kunye nokusela lifuna ukuphembelela oososayensi kunye nabahlohli, ii-imeyile zibonisa  (5.22.20)

  • Uxanduva lweshishini Ingxelo ka-Epreli 2020 Ivavanya indlela amashishini okutya kunye neziselo athe anika ngayo i-ILSI ukungena kwiKomiti yeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US, kunye nenkqubela yokukhubazeka kumgaqo-nkqubo wezondlo kwihlabathi liphela. Jonga ingxelo kwi-BMJ, Ukutya kunye nomzi mveliso wesiselo esinxilisayo kunempembelelo enkulu kwizikhokelo zokutya zaseMelika, ingxelo ithi (4.24.20) 

  • Uphando lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs utyhila ukuba itrasti ye-ILSI exhaswa ngumzi-mveliso icebise urhulumente wase-Indiya ukuba aqhubeke neelebheli zokulumkisa ngokutya okungenampilo. Ixesha ichaze i-ILSI njenge "shishini leqela elinemveliso" kwaye "lelona qela linamandla lokutya ongazange uve ngalo." (9.16.19) AmaXesha akhankanya a Isifundo sikaJuni kuHlabathi lwehlabathi kunye neMpilo ibhalwe ngu-Gary Ruskin wase-US kwiLungelo lokuKwazi ukunika ingxelo yokuba i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokubambela abaxhasi bayo bokutya kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

  • The INew York Times ityhile ubudlelwane obungachazwanga be-ILSI bukaBradley C. Johnston, umbhali-mbhali wezifundo ezintlanu zamva nje ezithi inyama ebomvu neyenziweyo azibeki ngxaki zempilo. UJohnston wasebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo kwisifundo esixhaswa ngemali yi-ILSI ukubanga iswekile ayisiyongxaki. (10.4.19)

  • I-blog yezopolitiko zikaMarion Nestle, I-ILSI: imibala yokwenyani ityhiliwe (10.3.19)

Izibophelelo ze-ILSI kwiCoca-Cola 

I-ILSI yasekwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayesakuba ngusekela Mongameli kwiCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke ukusukela ngo-1969-2001. ICoca-Cola igcine ubudlelwane obusondeleyo ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-Voca yeCoca-Cola yemicimbi yezenzululwazi kunye nemicimbi yezolawulo ukusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI ukusukela ngo-2009-2011. In 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI yayinguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlala-phantsi emsebenzini wakhe njengegosa eliyintloko lezempilo kunye nesayensi likaCoca-Cola (kwaye ukusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 emva ENew York Times kwaye I-Press Associated uxele ukuba uCoke uxhase ngemali i-Global Energy Balance Network ukunceda ukutshintsha ityala lokutyeba kakhulu kude neziselo ezineswekile.  

Inkxaso mali yeziko 

ILSI ixhaswe ngemali yiyo amalungu eenkampani kunye nabaxhasi beenkampani, kubandakanya ukutya okukhokelayo kunye neenkampani zamachiza. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuba ifumana inkxaso-mali kumzi mveliso kodwa ayichazi esidlangalaleni ukuba ngubani onikelayo okanye unegalelo elingakanani. Uphando lwethu lutyhila:

  • Imirhumo yequmrhu kwi-ILSI Global efikelela kwi-2.4 yezigidi zeerandi ngo-2012. Oku kubandakanya i- $ 528,500 evela kwi-CropLife International, igalelo lama- $ 500,000 elivela eMonsanto nase- $ 163,500 lisuka eCoca-Cola.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-ILSI yowama-2013 ibonisa ukuba i-ILSI ifumene i- $ 337,000 evela kwiCoca-Cola nangaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 nganye eMonsanto, eSyngenta, eDow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience kunye ne-BASF.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-2016 ILSI eMntla Melika ibonisa igalelo le- $ 317,827 elivela kwaPepsiCo, igalelo elingaphezulu kweedola ezingama-200,000 ukusuka eMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, kunye negalelo elingaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 kwiGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Uniliver kunye neCampbell Soup.  

I-imeyile ibonisa indlela i-ILSI efuna ukuphembelela ngayo umgaqo-nkqubo ukukhuthaza izimvo zeshishini 

A Ngomhla we-Meyi ka-2020 kwizifundo zeMpilo kaRhulumente wongeza ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili lokutya. Uphononongo, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know ngokusebenzisa iirekhodi zikarhulumente izicelo, ityhila indlela i-ILSI ekhuthaza ngayo umdla wokutya kunye nemizi-mveliso yezolimo, kubandakanya nendima ye-ILSI ekukhuseleni izithako zokutya ezinempikiswano kunye nokucinezela izimvo ezingathandekiyo kushishino; ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeCoca-Cola zinokuthi zibeke igalelo kwi-ILSI kwiinkqubo ezithile; kwaye, indlela i-ILSI ebasebenzisa ngayo abafundi kwiziphathamandla zabo kodwa ivumela ishishini elifihliweyo kwimpapasho yabo.

Olu phononongo lukwaveza iinkcukacha ezintsha malunga nokuba zeziphi iinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI kunye namasebe ayo, kunye namakhulu amawaka eedola kwimirhumo ebhaliweyo evela ekukhokeleni ukutya okungenampilo, isoda kunye neenkampani zamachiza.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 kwi-Globalization kunye neMpilo ibonelela ngemizekelo eliqela yendlela i-ILSI eqhubela phambili ngayo kwimidla yeshishini lokutya, ngakumbi ngokukhuthaza isayensi enobungcali kumzi-mveliso kunye neengxoxo kubenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo. Olu phononongo lusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe lilungelo lase-US lokwazi ngemithetho yeerekhodi zikarhulumente.  

Abaphandi baqukumbele ngelithi: “ILSI ifuna ukuphembelela abantu, izikhundla, kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe aphesheya, kunye namalungu ayo asebenza njengesixhobo sokukhuthaza umdla wabo kwihlabathi liphela. Uhlalutyo lwethu lwe-ILSI lusebenza njengesilumkiso kwabo bathatha inxaxheba kulawulo lwempilo lwehlabathi ukuba balumke ngamaqela ophando azimeleyo, nokuzilolonga phambi kokuthembela kwizifundo zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kunye / okanye ukuzibandakanya kubudlelwane nala maqela. ”   

I-ILSI ijongele phantsi umlo wokutyeba e-China

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabini ngo UNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh ityhile impembelelo enamandla ye-ILSI kurhulumente wase-China kwimicimbi enxulumene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola kunye neminye imibutho esebenza ngayo kwisebe lase China le-ILSI ukuphembelela amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yaseTshayina kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya ezinje ngohlobo lweswekile 2 kunye noxinzelelo lwegazi. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kakuhle e-China kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwiziko likarhulumente loLawulo lweZifo noThintelo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaNjingalwazi Geenhalgh abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola nezinye izigebenga zaseNtshona zokutya neziselo “zanceda ekubumbeni amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yase-China kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukutyala amagosa aphambili eTshayina "kumzamo wokuthintela intshukumo ekhulayo yokulawulwa kokutya kunye neerhafu zesoda ebezitshayela entshona, ”ingxelo yeNew York Times.  

Uphando olongezelelweyo kwezemfundo oluvela e-US Right to Know malunga ne-ILSI 

Ugcino lwamaxwebhu oShishino lwecuba lwe-UCSF luphelile Amaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI.  

Isifundo seswekile ye-ILSI “kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba”

Iingcali zempilo yoluntu zigxeka inkxaso-mali ye-ILSI isifundo seswekile epapashwe kwiphephancwadi lezonyango elidumileyo ngo-2016 oko "kwakuyingozi yokuhlaselwa kweengcebiso zezempilo zehlabathi zokutya iswekile encinci," uxele uAnahad O'Connor kwiThe New York Times. Isifundo esixhaswe ngemali yi-ILSI sathi izilumkiso zokusika iswekile zisekwe kubungqina obubuthathaka kwaye azinakuthenjwa.  

Ibali leThe Times licaphule uMarion Nestle, uprofesa kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York ofunda ukungqubana komdla kuphando lwezondlo, kwisifundo se-ILSI: "Oku kuphuma kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba: yenza intandabuzo kwisayensi," utshilo uNestle. “Lo ngumzekelo weklasikhi wendlela inkxaso-mali yemizi-mveliso ekhetha ngayo izimvo. Iintloni. ” 

Iinkampani zecuba zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuthintela umgaqo-nkqubo 

Ingxelo kaJulayi 2000 yekomiti ezimeleyo yeWorld Health Organisation ichaze iindlela ezininzi apho ishishini lecuba lizame ukujongela phantsi iinzame zolawulo lwecuba ze-WHO, kubandakanya nokusebenzisa amaqela ezenzululwazi ukuphembelela ukwenziwa kwezigqibo ze-WHO kunye nokusebenzisa ingxoxo yenzululwazi malunga nemiphumela yezempilo. yecuba. I-ILSI idlale indima ephambili kwezi nzame, ngokokufunda kwimeko ye-ILSI ehamba nengxelo. "Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba i-ILSI yayisetyenziswa ziinkampani ezithile zecuba ukuthintela imigaqo-nkqubo yokulawula icuba. Abaphathi beofisi abaphezulu kwi-ILSI babandakanyeka ngokuthe ngqo kwezi zenzo, ”ngokophando lwetyala. Bona: 

Uvimba wamaXwebhu oShishino lweCuba lwe-UCSF une ngaphezulu kwamaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI

Iinkokeli ze-ILSI zincedile ukukhusela i-glyphosate njengezitulo zepaneli ephambili 

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2016, i-ILSI yaqwalaselwa emva kokutyhilwa ukuba usekela-mongameli we-ILSI Yurophu, uNjingalwazi Alan Boobis, wayekwangusihlalo wepaneli ye-UN eyafumana ikhemikhali kaMonsanto glyphosate Kwakungenakwenzeka ukuba ubeke umngcipheko womhlaza ngokutya. Usihlalo we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uNjingalwazi u-Angelo Moretto, wayelilungu lebhodi ye-ILSI ye-Health and Environment Services Institute. Akukho nasinye kwizitulo ze-JMPR ezichaze indima yabo yobunkokeli kwi-ILSI njengengxabano yomdla, ngaphandle kwe igalelo lemali elibalulekileyo elifunyenwe yi-ILSI ukusuka eMonsanto kunye neqela lezorhwebo ngezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwane obuluqilima be-ILSI kumaziko ase-US kuLawulo lweZifo noThintelo  

NgoJuni 2016, Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi ingxelo ukuba uGqirha Barbara Bowman, umlawuli wecandelo le-CDC eligwetyelwe ukuthintela isifo sentliziyo kunye ne-stroke, wazama ukunceda umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nefuthe kumagosa oMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi ukurhoxa kwimigaqo-nkqubo yokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweswekile. U-Bowman ucebise abantu kunye namaqela eMalaspina ukuba athethe nawo, kwaye wacela izimvo zakhe kwizishwankathelo zeengxelo ze-CDC, ii-imeyile zibonisa. (UBowman wehla emva kokuba inqaku lethu lokuqala lipapashiwe linika ingxelo ngezi zibophelelo.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 Isifundo kwikota yeMilbank ichaza ii-imeyile eziphambili zeMalaspina ngokudibanisa noGqirha Bowman. Ukufumana ingxelo engaphezulu ngesi sihloko, bona: 

Impembelelo ye-ILSI kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo zokuTya eMelika

Ingxelo yeqela elingenzi nzuzo Ukuphendula ngoxanduva uxwebhu lokuba i-ILSI inefuthe elinjani kwizikhokelo zokutya zase-US ngokungena kwayo kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US. Ingxelo ivavanya ukuphazamiseka kwezopolitiko okuxhaphakileyo kokutya kunye neziselo ezinje ngeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, kunye nePepsiCo, kunye nendlela le mibutho eyenze ngayo i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inkqubela phambili kumgaqo-nkqubo wesondlo kwihlabathi liphela.

Impembelelo ye-ILSI eIndiya 

I-New York Times inike ingxelo ngempembelelo ye-ILSI e-India kwinqaku layo elinesihloko esithi, “IQela leShishini eliLuhlaza lenza iMilo yomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya kwihlabathi liphela. "

I-ILSI inonxibelelwano olusondeleyo namanye amagosa aseburhulumenteni eIndiya kwaye, njengase China, i-nonprofit ityhale imiyalezo efanayo kunye nezindululo zomgaqo-nkqubo njenge-Coca-Cola -ukudlala indima yeswekile kunye nokutya njengesizathu sokutyeba kakhulu, kunye nokukhuthaza ukwanda kwemisebenzi yomzimba njengesisombululo , ngokweZiko leZibonelelo zaseIndiya. 

Amalungu ebhodi ye-ILSI yase-India ibandakanya umphathi we-Coca-Cola wase-India kwimicimbi yezolawulo kunye nabameli abavela eNestlé nase-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyongeza ukutya, kunye namagosa aseburhulumenteni asebenza kwiiphaneli zesayensi ezinikwe uxanduva lokuthatha isigqibo malunga nemicimbi yokhuseleko lokutya.  

Ukuxhalaba okude malunga ne-ILSI 

I-ILSI inyanzelisa ukuba ayilo qela lokungenelela kushishino, kodwa inkxalabo kunye nezikhalazo zihlala ixesha elide malunga neqela elixhasa ushishino kunye nokungqubana komdla phakathi kweenkokheli zombutho. Jonga, umzekelo:

Ukuphelisa iimpembelelo zeshishini lokutya, Amayeza endalo (2019)

Iarhente yokutya iyalikhaba ibango lembambano. Kodwa izityholo zeshishini lokuthengisa zinokungcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophuIndalo (2010)

Ukutya Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Umlo wokugqibela woMnqamlezo, Gcina ukuLungela iMilo, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukutya okwenene xa kuvavanywa, NguGqirha Tim Noakes kunye noMarika Sboros (uColumbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukutshutshiswa nokutshutshiswa okungazange kubonwe nguNjingalwazi uTim Noakes, isazinzulu esaziwayo nogqirha, kwityala leerandi elingaphaya kweminyaka emine. Yonke itweet enye inika uluvo malunga nesondlo. ”

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina bokuba ukhula olubulala ukhula luyaphazamisa iihormoni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina obukhathazayo kwinkxalabo yokuba ukubulala ukhula kusetyenziswa kakhulu imichiza glyphosate inokubanakho ukuphazamisa iihomoni zabantu.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwijenali Imichiza zibizwa IGlyphosate kunye neempawu eziphambili zokuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine: Uphengululo, Isithathu senzululwazi sagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate ibonakala ineempawu ezisibhozo kwezilishumi eziphambili ezinxulunyaniswa i-endocrine ephazamisa iikhemikhali . Ababhali balumkisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba izifundo eziza kudibana ziyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokucacileyo iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwinkqubo ye-endocrine yomntu.

Ababhali, uJuan Munoz, uTammy Bleak noGloria Calaf, elowo nalowo unxulumene neYunivesithi yaseTarapacá eChile, bathi iphepha labo luphononongo lokuqala lokudibanisa ubungqina boomatshini kwi-glyphosate njenge-endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC).

Obunye bobungqina bucacisa ukuba iRoundup, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate-based herbicide, inokutshintsha i-biosynthesis yehomoni zesondo, ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ii-EDCs zinokulingisa okanye ziphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye zinxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Eli phepha litsha lilandela ukupapashwa ebutsheni balo nyaka Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ebonakalise ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuchaphazela amalungu okuzala kwaye isoyikisa ukuzala.

IGlyphosate sesona sifo sisetyenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, esithengiswa kumazwe ali-140. Yaziswa ngentengiso ngo-1974 nguMonsanto Co, imichiza sisithako esisebenzayo kwiimveliso ezithandwayo ezinje ngeRoundup kunye namakhulu abanye babulali bokhula abasetyenziswa ngabathengi, oomasipala, izixhobo, amafama, abaqhubi begalufa kunye nabanye kwihlabathi liphela.

UDana Barr, Unjingalwazi kwiYunivesithi yaseEmory iRollins School of Health Public, wathi obu bungqina “buye bubonakalise ngendlela engathethekiyo ukuba i-glyphosate ine-endocrine ephazamisa iipropathi.”

“Ayisiyonto ingalindelekanga kuba i-glyphosate inezakhiwo ezifanayo nezinye i-endocrine ephazamisa ukubulala izinambuzane; Nangona kunjalo, ingakumbi kuba ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kudlula kude ezinye izibulali zinambuzane, ”utshilo u-Barr, olawula inkqubo ngaphakathi kwiziko le-National Institutes of Health elixhaswa ngezempilo. "IGlyphosate isetyenziswa kwizityalo ezininzi nakwizicelo ezininzi zokuhlala ezinokubangela ukubonwa kwabantu ngokubanzi."

Phil Landrigan, umlawuli we-Global Observatory on Pollution and Health, kunye nonjingalwazi webhayoloji
KwiKholeji yaseBoston, uthe uphononongo ludibanise "ubungqina obuqinileyo" bokuthi i-glyphosate ngumphazamisi we-endocrine.

"Ingxelo iyahambelana nomzimba omkhulu woncwadi obonisa ukuba i-glyphosate inoluhlu olubanzi lweziphumo ezibi kwezempilo - iziphumo eziguqula imeko ende kaMonsanto ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate njengekhemikhali enobungozi engenazimpembelelo zimbi kwimpilo yabantu, ”utshilo uLandrigan.

Ii-EDC bezingumbandela oxhalabisayo ukusukela nge-1990s emva kothotho lopapasho olucebisayo ukuba ezinye iikhemikhali zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwizibulali zinambuzane, izinyibilikisi zorhwebo, iiplastikhi, iisepha, kunye nezinye izinto zinokubanakho ukuphazamisa unxibelelwano phakathi kwamahomoni kunye nezamkeli.

Izazinzulu ngokubanzi ziye zamkela iipropathi ezilishumi ezisebenzayo zearhente eziguqula isenzo sehomoni, zibhekisa kwezi "njengeempawu eziphambili" ezilishumi ze-endocrine-disorors. Iimpawu ezilishumi zezi zilandelayo:

Ii-EDC's zinako:

  • Ukutshintsha kwehomoni ukuhanjiswa kwamanqanaba okujikeleza kwehomoni
  • Yenza utshintsho kwi-hormone metabolism okanye kugqitywe
  • Guqula ikamva lokuvelisa iincindi zamadlala okanye iiseli eziphendula iihomoni
  • I-Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Ukuchasene ne-hormone receptors
  • Nxibelelana okanye wenze ii-hormone receptors
  • Ukutshintshwa kwesiginali yokutshintsha kwiiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Yenza uhlengahlengiso lwe-epigenetic kwimveliso evelisa iihomoni okanye iiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Utshintsho lwehormoni yokuhambisa kwiimbrane zeseli

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi uphononongo lwedatha yoomatshini lubonise ukuba i-glyphosate idibene nazo zonke iimpawu eziphambili ngaphandle kwezi zimbini: "Ngokubhekiselele kwi-glyphosate, abukho ubungqina obunxulunyaniswa namandla okuchasana nabamkeli behomoni," batsho. Kananjalo, "abukho ubungqina bempembelelo yayo kwimetabolism ye-hormonal okanye kugqitywe," ngokutsho kwababhali.

Uphando kule minyaka ingamashumi idlulileyo lujolise ikakhulu kumakhonkco afunyanwa phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza, ngakumbi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza. I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Bangaphezu kwe-100,000 abantu Ndimangalele uMonsanto e-United States etyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate esekwe kwinkampani kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL.

Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu kwaye umnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG uchithe unyaka ophelileyo enesiqingatha ukuzama ukuhlala Ukumangalelwa ngaphandle kwenkundla.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baqaphela indalo ekuyo yonke indawo ye-glyphosate, besithi "ukusetyenziswa okukhulu" kwale khemikhali "kukhokelele ekusasazekeni kwendalo," kubandakanya nokuvela okuchaphazelayo okuboshwe kukusetyenziswa kwabantu kombulali wokhula ngokutya.

Abaphandi bathi nangona abalawuli bathi amanqanaba entsalela ye-glyphosate efumaneka ekutyeni iphantsi ngokwaneleyo ukuba ikhuseleke, "abanakuyilawula" ingozi "enokubakho ebantwini abatya ukutya okungcoliswe yimichiza, ngakumbi iinkozo kunye nezinye izityalo- ukutya okusekwe, okuhlala kunamanqanaba aphezulu kunobisi, inyama okanye iimveliso zentlanzi.

Amaxwebhu aseburhulumenteni ase-US abonisa ukuba iintsalela ze-glyphosate zifunyenwe kuluhlu lokutya, kubandakanya ubusi bendalo, yaye igranola kunye nabaqhekezi.

Abaphandi bakarhulumente waseCanada bakwachaze intsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni. Ingxelo enye ekhutshwe ngo-2019 ngoososayensi abavela kwiiLabhoratri zeAgri-Food eCanada e-Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry bafumana i-glyphosate kwi-197 ye-200 yeesampulu zobusi abazihlolisayo.

Ngaphandle kwenkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya nokuvezwa kokutya, abalawuli base-US bakhusele ngokuqinileyo ukhuseleko lweekhemikhali. Inkqubo ye- I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo igcina ayifumanekanga "nayiphi na impilo yomntu ngenxa yokuchanabeka kwi-glyphosate. ”

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Iphepha leNqaku leGlyphosate: Umhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zeMpilo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Glyphosate, into eyenziwayo yokubulala ukhula enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wayo ngo-1974 yiNkampani iMonsanto kwaye ngoku yenziwe yaza yathengiswa ziinkampani ezininzi kumakhulu eemveliso, inxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa njengeyona nto iphambili kwi-Roundup-branded herbicides, kunye ne-herbicide esetyenziswa kwi "Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulweyo (GMOs).

Ukunyamezelana nokubulala intsholongwane lolona hlobo lwe GMO luxhaphakileyo olwenziweyo kwizityalo zokutya, malunga ne-90% yengqolowa kunye ne-94% yeembotyi zesoya e-US ezilungiselelwe ukunyamezela i-herbicides, ngokweedatha ze-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ukufumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwabantu baseMelika kwi-glyphosate kunyuke malunga 500 ekhulwini okoko i-Roundup Ready GMO izityalo zaziswa e-US ngo-1996. Nazi ezinye iinyani eziphambili malunga neglyphosate:

Uninzi lweePesticide ezisetyenziswa kakhulu

Ngokutsho NgoFebruwari 2016 isifundo, Iglyphosate yi esetyenziswa kakhulu isibulali zinambuzane: E-US, akukho sibulali zinambuzane sisondeleyo kule ndawo isetyenziswa kakhulu. ” Iziphumo zibandakanya:

  • Abantu baseMelika basebenzise i-1.8 yezigidi zeetoni ze-glyphosate okoko yaqaliswa ngo-1974.
  • Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni zekhemikhali ziye zafafazwa kumasimi-anele ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sepawundi yeRoundup kuyo yonke iakile yomhlaba elinywayo.
  • Ehlabathini jikelele, ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuye kwanda phantse kangangezihlandlo ezili-15 okoko kwaziswa izityalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Iingxelo ezivela kwizazinzulu nakubanikezeli bezempilo 

Iingxaki zomhlaza

Uncwadi lwezenzululwazi kunye nezigqibo zolawulo ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides zibonisa ukuxubana kweziphumo, okwenza ukhuseleko lwe-herbicide lube sisifundo esixoxwa kakhulu. 

Kwi-2015, i I-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Iiarhente zase-US: Ngexesha lokuhlelwa kwe-IARC, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yayiqhuba uphononongo lobhaliso. IKomiti yokuHlola uMhlaza ye-EPA (CARC) ikhuphe ingxelo ngoSeptemba 2016 Ukuqukumbela ukuba i-glyphosate "ayinakulindeleka ukuba ibe ngumhlaza ebantwini" ngeedosi ezifanelekileyo kwimpilo yabantu. NgeyoMnga yowama-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigqeba esiCebisayo ngezeNzululwazi ukuze siqwalasele ingxelo; amalungu ebekhona yahlulwe kuvavanyo lomsebenzi we-EPA, ngokufumanisa ukuba i-EPA yenze impazamo kwindlela eluvavanye ngayo uphando oluthile. Ukongeza, iOfisi ye-EPA yoPhando noPhuhliso igqibe ekubeni iOfisi yeNkqubo ye-Pesticide ye-EPA ayilandelwa iiprothokholi ezifanelekileyo kuvavanyo lwayo lwe-glyphosate, wathi ubungqina bungathathwa njengexhasa ubungqina “obunokubakho” be-carcinogenic okanye obucebisayo “bokuhlelwa kwe-carcinogenicity. Nangona kunjalo i-EPA ikhuphe ingxelo eyilwayo kwi-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuba imichiza ayinakuba ngumhlaza. Ngo-Epreli 2019, i-EPA iphinde yaqinisekisa ukuma kwayo loo glyphosate ayibeki mngcipheko kwimpilo yoluntu. Kodwa kwangoko kwakuloo nyanga, i-Arhente yase-US yeZinto ezinobungozi kunye neRegistry yeZifo (i-ATSDR) ixele ukuba kukho amakhonkco phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza. Ngokwe- Idrafti yengxelo evela kwi-ATSDR, "Uphononongo oluninzi luchaze umngcipheko omkhulu kunomnye kwimibutho phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nomngcipheko we-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma okanye i-myeloma emininzi." 

I-EPA ikhuphe i Isigqibo sokuHlola okwethutyana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi oluhlaziyiweyo malunga nokuma kwayo kwi-glyphosate. 

Udibano lwaseyurophu: The IGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu kwaye i I-arhente yeekhemikhali yaseYurophu bathe i-glyphosate ayinakubangelwa yi-carcinogenic ebantwini. A Ingxelo kaMatshi 2017 ngamaqela okusingqongileyo kunye nabathengi bathi abalawuli baxhomekeke ngokungafanelekanga kuphando olwalujolise kwaye lwenziwa ngumzi mveliso weekhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ifumanise ukuba i-Federal Institute yaseJamani yoVavanyo loMngcipheko kwi-glyphosate, engafumananga mngcipheko womhlaza, ibandakanya amacandelo okubhaliweyo echazwe kwizifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebruwari 2020, kwavela iingxelo zokuba izifundo ezingama-24 ezingeniswe kubalawuli baseJamani ukungqina ukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate zavela kwilabhoratri enkulu yaseJamani utyholwa ngobuqhetseba nokunye okungalunganga.

Intlanganiso edibeneyo ye-WHO / FAO kwiiNtsalela zeziBulala-zinambuzane misele Kwi-2016 ukuba i-glyphosate yayingenakulindeleka ukuba ibangele umngcipheko we-carcinogenic ebantwini ekuvezweni kukutya, kodwa oku kufunyaniswa kwaphazanyiswa ukugqubana kwemidla inkxalabo emva kokuvela ukuba usihlalo kunye nosihlalo weqela bakwizikhundla zobunkokheli kunye IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi, iqela elixhaswe ngemali yinxalenye yeMonsanto kunye nenye yemibutho yokucela inkxaso.

California OEHHA: Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesibhozo ku-Matshi ngo-28, iOfisi yeArhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo eCalifornia yoVavanyo lweNgozi yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo yaqinisekisa ukuba iya kuba njalo yongeza i-glyphosate Isindululo saseCalifornia uluhlu lwama-65 lweekhemikhali ezaziwa ngokubangela umhlaza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba isenzo kodwa ityala lachithwa. Kwityala elahlukileyo, inkundla yafumanisa ukuba iCalifornia ayinakufuna izilumkiso zomhlaza kwiimveliso eziqukethe i-glyphosate. Nge-12 kaJuni ka-2018, iNkundla yeSithili sase-US yasikhaba isicelo se-Attorney General sase-California sokuba inkundla iphinde isijonge isigqibo. Inkundla yafumanisa ukuba iCalifornia inokufuna kuphela intetho yentengiso echaze "ulwazi oluyinyani nolungenakuphikiswa," kwaye inzululwazi ejikeleze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayiboniswanga.

Isifundo seMpilo yezoLimo: Isifundo sexesha elide esixhaswa ngurhulumente wase-US esineqela elixhasayo ngeentsapho zasezifama e-Iowa nase-North Carolina khange lifumane nxu lumano phakathi kokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abaphandi baxela ukuba "phakathi kwezicelo ezikwindawo ephezulu yokuvezwa, bekukho umngcipheko okhulayo we-myeloid leukemia (AML) xa kuthelekiswa nabantu abangazange basebenzise… ”Olona hlaziyo lupapashiweyo kutsha nje kuphando yenziwa esidlangalaleni ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zamva nje zokudibanisa i-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazamiseka kwe-Endocrine, ukuchuma kunye neenkxalabo zokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Uphononongo lwango-2017 olunxulumene nokuchasana okungapheliyo, kwinqanaba eliphantsi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingatyebanga kwiigundane. Ngokutsho kwabaphandi, iziphumo "zithetha ukuba ukusetyenziswa okungapheliyo kwamanqanaba asezantsi kakhulu e-GBH formulation (Roundup), kwindawo eyamkelekileyo yokulingana kwe-glyphosate, zinxulunyaniswa notshintsho oluphawuliweyo lweproteome yesibindi kunye nemetabolome," ii-biomarkers ze-NAFLD.

Ukuphazamiseka kweMicrobiome 

  • Novemba 2020 iphepha kwiJenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi uxela ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo kwi-gut gut microbiome "ezinokuthi zivelele" kwi-glyphosate. Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeebhaktiriya ezisemathunjini ezinokuthi zichaphazeleke kwi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo. 
  • 2020 uphononongo loncwadi lweziphumo zeglyphosate kwi-gut microbiome Uqukumbela ngelithi, "intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni inokubangela i-dysbiosis, ngenxa yokuba ii-pathogen ezinamathuba amelana ne-glyphosate xa kuthelekiswa ne-bacteria." Eli phepha liqhuba lithi, “IGlyphosate ingangunobangela obalulekileyo kwindalo esingqongileyo kwizifo ezininzi ezinxulunyaniswa nesifo se-dysbiosis, kubandakanya isifo se-celiac, isifo sokukrala kwamathumbu kunye nesifo samathumbu. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate kunokuba nemiphumo kwimpilo yengqondo, kubandakanya uxinzelelo kunye noxinzelelo, ngokutshintsha kwegciwane le-microbiome. ”
  • Uphononongo lwe-2018 lweerat oluqhutywa yiRamazzini Institute luxele ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweedosi ezisezantsi kwiRoundup kumanqanaba athathwa njengokukhuselekileyo utshintshe i-gut microbiota kwezinye iinjana zeempuku.
  • Olunye uphononongo lwe-2018 luxele ukuba amanqanaba aphezulu e-glyphosate alawulwa kwiimpuku aphazamisa i-gut microbiota kunye kubangele uxinzelelo kunye nokuziphatha okufana nokudakumba.

Iimpembelelo ezinobungozi iinyosi kunye namabhabhathane e monarch.

Amacala omhlaza

Ngaphezulu kwabantu abangama-42,000 abafake isimangalo ngokuchasene neNkampani iMonsanto (ngoku eyiBayer) betyhola ukuba ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye iMonsanto yagquma ubungozi. Njengengxenye yenkqubo yokufumanisa, iMonsanto kuye kwafuneka iguqulwe kwizigidi zamaphepha eerekhodi zangaphakathi. Singo ukuthumela la maPhepha eMonsanto njengoko ezifumaneka. Ukufumana iindaba kunye neengcebiso malunga nomthetho oqhubekayo, jonga uCarey Gillam's Umjongi weTrial Rounder. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaye zaphelela kumabhaso amakhulu kubamangali ngenxa yoxanduva kunye nomonakalo, ngamajaji agweba ukuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba negalelo elibangela ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL. I-Bayer ibhengeza isigwebo. 

Impembelelo yeMonsanto kuphando: Ngo-Matshi 2017, ijaji yenkundla yomanyano yavula amanye amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto iphakamise imibuzo emitsha malunga nefuthe likaMonsanto kwinkqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bophando abathembele kuyo. Amaxwebhu abonisa ukuba amabango akudala kaMonsanto malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ungaxhomekeki kwisayensi elungileyo njengoko inkampani iqinisekisa, kodwa ivulwe iinzame zokusebenzisa inzululwazi

Olunye ulwazi malunga nokuphazamiseka kwesayensi:

Izazinzulu zaseSri Lankan zinike ibhaso lenkululeko le-AAAS kuphando lwesifo sezintso

I-AAAS inikezele ngoososayensi ababini baseSri Lankan, uGqr. UChanna Jayasumana kunye noSarath Gunatilake, Imbasa ye-2019 yeNkululeko yeSayensi kunye noXanduva Umsebenzi wabo "wokuphanda unxibelelwano olunokubakho phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nesifo sezintso ezingapheliyo phantsi kweemeko ezinzima." Oososayensi baxele ukuba i-glyphosate idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuthutheni isinyithi esinzulu kwizintso zalabo basela amanzi angcolileyo, ekhokelela kwizinga eliphezulu lesifo sezintso ezingapheliyo kuluntu lwasezifama. Jonga amaphepha kwi  I-SpringerPlus (2015) IBMC yeNephrology (2015) LeMpilo yeNdalo (2015) Ijenali yehlabathi yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu (2014). Ibhaso le-AAAS belikhona kumiswa phakathi kwephulo eliphikisayo eliphikisayo ngamanyano eshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi ukujongela phantsi umsebenzi woososayensi. Emva koqwalaselo, iAAAS ubuyisele ibhaso

Ukuchithwa: omnye umthombo wokuvezwa kokutya 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate kwizityalo ezingezo-GMO ezifana nengqolowa, irhasi, i-oats, kunye neelentile ukomisa isityalo ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kukhawuleziswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-desiccation, inokuba ngumthombo obalulekileyo wokuvezwa kokutya kwi-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekutyeni: I-US irhuqa iinyawo zayo kuvavanyo

I-USDA ithe cwaka yalahla isicwangciso sokuqala ukuvavanya ukutya kwentsalela ye-glyphosate ngo-2017. Amaxwebhu e-arhente angaphakathi afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa ukuba i-arhente icwangcise ukuqala ukuvavanya ngaphezulu kweesampulu ezingama-300 zesiraphu yengqolowa ye-glyphosate ngo-Epreli ka-2017. Iarhente ibulale iprojekthi ngaphambi kokuba iqale. I-US Food and Drug Administration yaqala inkqubo yovavanyo encinci ngo-2016, kodwa iinzame zazigcwele impikiswano kunye nobunzima bangaphakathi kwaye inkqubo yayi kumiswa ngoSeptemba 2016. Zombini ezi arhente zineenkqubo ezivavanya ukutya rhoqo ngonyaka kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kodwa zombini ziye zayeka ukuvavanywa kwe-glyphosate.

Phambi kokumiswa, kwafunyanwa ikhemesti enye ye-FDA Amanqanaba othusayo e-glyphosate Kwiisampulu ezininzi zobusi baseMelika, amanqanaba awayengekho semthethweni ngenxa yokuba kungakhange kubekho manqanaba avumelekileyo enzelwe ubusi yi-EPA. Nalu uphinda lweendaba malunga ne-glyphosate efumaneka kukutya:

Amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni kwethu: Iphi idatha yokhuseleko?

Idatha ye-USDA ukusuka ngo-2016 ibonisa amanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi kwi-85% yokutya okungaphezulu kwe-10,000 kwisampuli, yonke into isuka kumakhowa ukuya kwiidiliya ukuya kwiimbotyi eziluhlaza. Urhulumente uthi akukho nto inokubeka impilo emngciphekweni, kodwa ezinye izazinzulu zithi akukho lwazi luninzi lokuxhasa eli bango. Jonga "Iikhemikhali ekutyeni kwethu: Xa "kukhuselekile" kusenokungakhuseleki ngokwenyani: Uvavanyo lwezenzululwazi lwentsalela yezinambuzane ekutyeni iyakhula; ukhuseleko lolawulo lubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

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