Isifundo esitsha sifumana utshintsho olunxulumene ne-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome

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Isifundo esitsha sezilwanyana liqela labaphandi baseYurophu lifumanise ukuba amanqanaba asezantsi okubulala ukhula kwimichiza ye-glyphosate kunye nemveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwi-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Lephepha, ipapashwe ngoLwesithathu kwijenali Imiba yezeMpilo, ibhalwe ngabaphandi abali-13, kuqukwa nophando lukaGqirha Michael Antoniou, intloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group kwiSebe lezoNyango kunye neMolekyuli yemfuza eKing's College eLondon, kunye noGqirha Robin Mesnage, iqabane lophando kwezobuchwephesha kwezobuchwephetsha ngaphakathi. iqela elinye. Oososayensi abavela kwiZiko iRamazzini e-Bologna, e-Itali, bathathe inxaxheba kolu phando njengoko besenza oososayensi baseFrance nase Netherlands.

Iziphumo ze-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome zifunyenwe zibangelwa yindlela efanayo yokusebenza ethi glyphosate ibulale ukhula kunye nezinye izityalo, abaphandi bathi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi echaphazela ukusebenza kwamajoni omzimba kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo, kunye nokuphazamiseka kwale nkqubo kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo, abaphandi bathi.

"Zombini i-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup ziye zanefuthe kubume bebacterial bacterium," uAntoniou uthethwe ngodliwano-ndlebe. Siyazi ukuba amathumbu ethu ahlala kumawaka eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeebhaktiriya kunye nokuma kwazo, kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kwazo, kubalulekile kwimpilo yethu. Ke nantoni na ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kakubi, i-gut microbiome… inokubangela impilo enkenenkene kuba sisuka ekusebenzeni ngokulungeleleneyo okulungeleyo impilo ukuya ekusebenzeni okungalinganiyo okunokukhokelela kwizifo ezahlukeneyo. ”

Jonga udliwanondlebe noCarey Gillam uGqirha Michael Antonoiu kunye noGqr.Robin Mesnage malunga nesifundo sabo esitsha sokujonga ifuthe le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi bazimisele ukuba, ngokuchaseneyo nezinye izimvo ngabagxeki bokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge -antibiotic, ibulala iintsholongwane eziyimfuneko emathunjini.

Endaweni yoko, bathi-okokuqala, bathi-ukuba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi laphazamisa ngendlela enokubangela inkxalabo ye-biochemical pathway ye-gut gut bacteria yezilwanyana ezisetyenziswe kulingo. Olo phazamiso lwabonakaliswa lutshintsho kwizinto ezithile emathunjini. Uhlalutyo lwamathumbu kunye ne-biochemistry yegazi luveze ubungqina bokuba izilwanyana ziphantsi koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, imeko ehambelana nomonakalo we-DNA kunye nomhlaza.

Abaphandi bathi akucaci ukuba ukuphazamiseka ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi kwe-microbiome kuthinte uxinzelelo lwe-metabolic.

Ukubonakaliswa koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwabonakala ngakumbi kuvavanyo kusetyenziswa i-glyphosate-based herbicide ebizwa ngokuba yiRoundup BioFlow, imveliso yomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, izazinzulu zatsho.

Ababhali bokufunda bathi baqhuba izifundo ezininzi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuba uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative abalubonayo luyonakalisa ne-DNA, eya kuphakamisa umngcipheko womhlaza.

Ababhali bathi uphando oluthe kratya luyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokwenyani imeko yezempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ebukekayo kunye nolunye uphazamiseko kwimetro microbiome nasegazini kodwa iziphumo zokuqala zinokusetyenziswa kuphuhliso lweempawu ze-bio zophando lwezifo kunye nokuqonda ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokuba neziphumo zebhayiloji ebantwini.

Kwisifundo, iigundane zabasetyhini zanikwa i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso yeRoundup. Iidosi zisiwe ngamanzi okusela anikezelwa kwizilwanyana kwaye zanikwa kumanqanaba abonisa ukufakwa okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo ngabalawuli baseYurophu naseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe iziphumo zophando zakha kolunye uphando olwenza ukuba kucace ukuba abalawuli baxhomekeke kwiindlela eziphelelwe lixesha xa kusenziwa isigqibo ngamanqanaba "akhuselekileyo" e-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ekutyeni nasemanzini. Iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo zihlala zifumaneka kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa rhoqo.

"Abalawuli kufuneka bangene kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini ananye, bayeke ukurhuqa iinyawo zabo ... kwaye bamkele iintlobo zohlalutyo esele sizenzile kolu phando," utshilo u-Antoniou. Uthe ukuprofeta kwemolekyuli, yinxalenye yesebe lezesayensi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "OMICS," Uguqula isiseko solwazi malunga nefuthe lokuchazwa kwemichiza kwezempilo.

Uphononongo lweerat kodwa lolutshanje kuthotho lwezilingo zesayensi ezijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ngaba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides- kubandakanya iRoundup- inokuba yingozi ebantwini, nakumanqanaba abalawuli bokubhengeza bathi bakhuselekile.

Izifundo ezininzi ezinjalo zifumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo, kubandakanya epapashwe ngoNovemba  ngabaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland abathi babenakho ukufumanisa, "kuqikelelo olulondolozayo," ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto ezisembindini wegciwane lomntu emathunjini "zinokuthamba" kwi-glyphosate.

Njengabaphandi baya besanda jonga ukuqonda i-microbiome yomntu kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwimpilo yethu, imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome khange ibe yingxoxo nje kuphela kwizangqa zesayensi, kodwa nakwizimangalo.

Kunyaka ophelileyo, iBayer uvumile ukuhlawula i-39.5 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa amabango athi iMonsanto yaqhuba intengiso elahlekisayo ibanga ukuba i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme kwizityalo kwaye ayinakuba nefuthe kwizilwanyana nakwabantu. Abamangali kwimeko etyholwa ukuba i-glyphosate ijolise kwi-enzyme efumaneka ebantwini nakwizilwanyana ezomeleza amajoni omzimba, ukwetyisa kunye nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukusukela ngelo xesha, iBayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka umhlaza wabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye iBayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

IGlyphosate kwimbungu yenkukhu esetyenziswa njengesichumiso yonakalisa imveliso yokutya, abaphandi bathi

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Izazinzulu zizise ezinye iindaba ezimbi ngokubhekisele kwi-herbicide glyphosate, eyaziwa ngokuba yiRoundup, kwiphepha elitsha lophando elipapashwe kule nyanga.

Abaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland ityhilwe ephepheni papashwe kwincwadi  Inzululwazi Yendalo Engqongileyo iyonke ukuba umgquba ovela kwiinkuku ezisetyenziswa njengesichumisi unganciphisa isivuno sezityalo xa umgquba uqukethe iintsalela zemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglyphosate, efana neRoundup. Izichumisi zenzelwe ukonyusa imveliso yezityalo, ke ubungqina bokuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuba neziphumo ezichaseneyo zibalulekile.

Inkunkuma yenkukhu, njengoko ibizwa njalo umgquba, ihlala isetyenziswa njengesichumisi, kubandakanywa nezolimo eziphilayo, kuba ithathwa njengezityebile kwizakhamzimba eziyimfuneko. Ukusetyenziswa kwenkunkuma yenkuku njengesichumisi bekukhula kokubini kwezolimo kunye nokulima kunye nezitiya zasekhaya.

Ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kukhula, “umngcipheko onokubakho onxulunyaniswa nokuqokelelwa kwe-agrochemicals kumgquba weenkukhu usahoywa kakhulu,” balumkisa abaphandi baseFinland.

Amafama e-organic aye akhula exhalabile malunga nomkhondo we-glyphosate kwisichumiso somgquba esivunyelwe kwimveliso yezinto eziphilayo, kodwa uninzi kolu shishino aluthandabuzi ukwazisa lo mbandela.

Amafama atshiza i-glyphosate ngokuthe ngqo kwinani lezityalo ezikhuliswe kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya iimbotyi zesoya, umbona, umqhaphu, i-canola kunye nezinye izityalo ezenzelwe ufuzo ukumelana nonyango lwe-glyphosate. Bahlala betshiza ngokuthe ngqo izityalo ezifana nengqolowa kunye ne-oats, ezingafakwanga ngokwemfuza- kwakamsinya phambi kokuvuna ukomisa izityalo.

Ngenxa yemiyinge yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate-based esetyenziselwa ukunyanga izityalo ezisetyenziswa ekutyeni kwezilwanyana, kunye nomthamo womgquba osetyenziswayo njengesichumisi, "kufanele ukuba siyazi ukuba olu hlobo lomngcipheko lukhona," utshilo omnye wababhali. yokufunda, u-Anne Muola.

Akukho mntu ubonakala enomdla wokuthetha kakhulu malunga nayo. ” Muola uqaphele.

Ukusetyenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate herbicides ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo zokutya kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto - ngoku iyunithi yeBayer AG - ukusukela nge1990s, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuxhaphake kangangokuba iintsalela zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni, emanzini nakwiisampulu zomoya.

Kuba kukho iintsalela zeglyphosate kukutya kwabantu nakwizilwanyana, amanqanaba e-glyphosate anokufunyanwa kumchamo womntu nakwimanyolo yezilwanyana.

Ezi ntsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumiso ziyingxaki kubalimi ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi, ngokutsho kwabaphandi baseFinland.

"Sifumanise ukuba umgquba weenkukhu unokuqokelela intsalela ephezulu (ye-glyphosate-based herbicides), unciphise ukukhula kwezityalo kunye nokuzala, kwaye ke kuthintele ukukhula okunyusa ukukhula komgquba xa usetyenziswa njengesichumiso," latsho iphepha. "Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba intsalela idlula kwinkqubo yokuhlafunisisa kweentaka, kwaye okona kubaluleke kakhulu, iyaqhubeka isichumiso ixesha elide."

Abaphandi bathi iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuqhubeka kwiinkqubo zendalo, zichaphazela izinto ezininzi ekungajoliswanga kuzo kwiminyaka emininzi.

Iziphumo, bathi, zibandakanya ukunciphisa ukusebenza komgquba njengesichumisi; ukungcoliseka kweherbicide esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwimijikelezo yezolimo; Ungcoliseko "olungalawulwayo" lweglyphosate yemimandla engajoliswanga kuyo; ukwanda kwesoyikiso "kwizinto ezisemngciphekweni ekungajoliswanga kuzo," kunye nomngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhathisa okuvela kwi-glyphosate.

Abaphandi bathi kufuneka kwenziwe uphando oluninzi ukuveza ubungakanani bokungcoliseka kwe-glyphosate kwizichumiso zezinto eziphilayo kunye nendlela echaphazela ngayo uzinzo.

Uphando lwaseFinland longeza kubungqina bobungozi bezintsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumisi, ngokweengcali zezolimo.

"Iimpembelelo zentsalela ye-glyphosate ethe yaqokelelwa kwilindle leenkuku yindawo engakhathalelwanga," utshilo isazinzulu somhlaba iRodale Institute, uGqirha Yichao Rui. “Kodwa oluphi uphando olwenziweyo lubonakalisile ukuba ezo ntsalela zinganefuthe elibi kwizityalo, ukuba umgquba weenkukhu wawusetyenziswa njengesichumiso. Intsalela yeGlyphosate kwizichumisi ibonakalisiwe ukuba ineziphumo ezibi kwizityalo, ii-microbiomes zomhlaba, kunye neentsholongwane ezinxulunyaniswa nezityalo kunye nezilwanyana kubandakanya nabantu kwikhonkco lokutya. Xa olu tshintsho lusasazwa ngabom ngesichumiso, lubeka uxinzelelo olukhulu kwimisebenzi nakwiinkonzo zendalo. ”

Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni yeglyphosate Utshiziwe emasimini- ngokwaneleyo ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sephawundi yeRoundup kuwo onke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.

Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amashumi amawaka abantu eUnited States abaphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ndimangalele uMonsanto, kwaye kwizilingo ezintathu ezigcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, amajaji afumanise ukuba inkampani ye-glyphosate herbicides ibekwasizathu sokubangela umhlaza.

Ukongeza, i Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana kukhutshwa kweli hlobo kubonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeze ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Uhlalutyo olungathandekiyo oluvela kwi-FDA

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Kwinyanga ephelileyo uLawulo lokutya kunye neziyobisi lupapashe uhlalutyo lwamva nje lonyaka yamanqanaba entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi engcolisa iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kunye nokunye ukutya thina maMelika esihlala sikubeka kwiipleyiti zethu zokutya. Idatha entsha yongeza kwinkxalabo yabathengi ekhulayo kunye nengxoxo yezenzululwazi malunga nokuba iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni zinganegalelo njani - okanye hayi - kwizigulo, kwizifo nakwiingxaki zokuzala.

Ngaphezulu kwamaphepha angama-55 eedatha, iitshathi kunye neegrafu, ingxelo ye-FDA “yeNkqubo yokuHlolwa kweNdawo yokuBulala izinambuzane” ikwanika nomzekelo ongathandekiyo kwinqanaba apho amafama ase-US athe athembela kwizibulali zinambuzane zokwenziwa, imingxunya yokubulala iintsholongwane kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukutya kwethu.

Umzekelo, sifunda ingxelo yokugqibela, ukuba imikhondo yezibulali zinambuzane yafunyanwa kwiipesenti ezingama-84 zeziqhamo zasekhaya, kunye neepesenti ezingama-53 zemifuno, kunye neepesenti ezingama-42 zeenkozo kunye neepesenti ezingama-73 zokutya ezibhalwe nje enye. ” Iisampulu zathathwa kwilizwe liphela, kubandakanya eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Phantse iipesenti ezingama-94 zeediliya, ijusi yamagilebhisi kunye neerasentyisi kuvavanywa intsholongwane njenge-99 pesenti yamaqunube, iipesenti ezingama-88 zama-apile kunye nejusi yeapile, kunye neepesenti ezingama-33 zeemveliso zerayisi, ngokweenkcukacha ze-FDA.

Iziqhamo kunye nemifuno engenisiweyo eneneni ibonakalise ukwanda okuncinci kwezibulali zinambuzane, kunye neepesenti ezingama-52 zeziqhamo kunye neepesenti ezingama-46 zemifuno evela phesheya kuvavanyo oluqinisekileyo lweziyobisi. Ezi sampulu zazivela kumazwe angaphezu kwama-40, kubandakanya iMexico, iChina, i-India kunye ne Canada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuba kwisampulu esandula ukubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala zinambuzane ezahlukeneyo, i-FDA ifumene umkhondo we-DDT yokubulala izinambuzane ekuthinteleni ixesha elide kwiisampulu zokutya, kunye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D kunye ne-glyphosate. I-DDT inxulunyaniswa nomhlaza wamabele, ukungachumi kunye nokuphuma kwesisu, ngelixa i-chlorpyrifos -enye inambuzane-ibonakalisiwe ngokwesayensi ukuba ibangela iingxaki ze-neurodevelopmental kubantwana abancinci.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu licebise ukuvalwa kwemichiza eYurophu, ukufumanisa ukuba kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo. Amayeza okubulala ukhula 2,4-D kunye glyphosate Zombini zinxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo ngokunjalo.

Thailand kutshanje ithe iyavalwa I-glyphosate kunye ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yomngcipheko osekwe ngokwesayensi kwezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifumaneka kukutya kwase-US, i-FDA, kunye ne-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) kunye neSebe lezoLimo lase-US (i-USDA), bathi iintsalela zemichiza yokubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni ayinanto yakwenza nokukhathazeka. Ngexesha lokuphembelela okunzima ngumzi mveliso wezolimo i-EPA ixhase ukusetyenziswa glyphosate kunye neklorpyrifos kwimveliso yokutya.

Abalawuli baphinda amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto kunye nabanye kwimizi-mveliso ngokunyanzelisa ukuba iintsalela zezitshabalalisi azisongeli kwimpilo yabantu ukuba nje amanqanaba ohlobo ngalunye lwentsalela ewela phantsi kwenqanaba "lokunyamezelana" elibekwe yi-EPA.

Kuhlalutyo lwakutsha nje lwe-FDA, kuphela iipesenti ezi-3.8 zokutya kwasekhaya ezinamanqanaba entsalela abonwa njengaphakamileyo ngokungekho mthethweni, okanye "eyaphula umthetho." Ngokutya okungeniswe elizweni, iipesenti ezili-10.4 zokutya okwenziwe kwisampulu zazisephula umthetho, ngokwe-FDA.

Oko i-FDA ingazange ikuthethe, kwaye zeziphi iiarhente zolawulo ezikuphepha ukuhlala zithetha esidlangalaleni, kukuba amanqanaba okunyamezelana kwezibulali zinambuzane ezithile sele enyukile kule minyaka njengoko iinkampani ezithengisa izibulali zinambuzane zicela imida ephezulu nangaphezulu yomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukonyuka okuvunyelweyo kwintsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni, umzekelo. Kananjalo, iarhente ihlala yenza isigqibo sokuba ayifuni kuthobela imfuneko yomthetho ethi i-EPA "iyakufaka umda okongeziweyo ophindwe kalishumi wokhuselo lweentsana nabantwana" ekumiseni amanqanaba asemthethweni kwiintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane. I-EPA igqithisile le mfuno kuseto lokunyamezelwa kwezibulali zinambuzane, isithi akukho mda wokhuseleko okhoyo uyafuneka ukukhusela abantwana.

Eyona nto iphambili: Ukunyuka kwe-EPA kuseta "ukunyamezelana" kuvunyelwe njengomda osemthethweni, kokukhona kunokwenzeka ukuba abalawuli kuya kufuneka banike ingxelo ngentsalela "yokuhlukumeza" ekutyeni kwethu. Ngenxa yoko, i-US ihlala ivumela amanqanaba aphezulu entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kukutya kunamanye amazwe aphuhlileyo. Umzekelo, umda osemthethweni wokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kwi-apile zii-0.2 iinxalenye ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa sisiqingatha kuphela selo nqanaba-0.1 ppm-esivunyelwe kwi-apile kwi-European Union. Kananjalo i-US ivumela intsalela ye-glyphosate kwingqolowa nge-5 ppm, ngelixa i-EU ivumela kuphela i-1 ppm.

Njengomda osemthethweni wokunyuka kwentsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni, uninzi lwezazinzulu ziye zanda ngokwanda malunga nemingcipheko yokusetyenziswa rhoqo kweentsalela, kunye nokusilela kolawulo lokuqwalaselwa kweempembelelo ezinokubakho zokusebenzisa uluhlu lweegciwane kunye nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isidlo .

Iqela lezenzululwazi zaseHarvard bafuna ukuba uphando olunzulu malunga nokunxibelelana okunokubakho phakathi kwezifo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwesibulali zinambuzane njengoko beqikelela ukuba ngaphezulu kwe 90 pesenti yabantu eUnited States banazo iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kumchamo nakwigazi labo ngenxa yokutya ukutya okune-pesticide. A isifundo edibene neHarvard yafumanisa ukuba ukuvezwa kwento yokubulala izinambuzane ngaphakathi kuluhlu “oluqhelekileyo” kunxulunyaniswa zombini neengxaki zabasetyhini zokukhulelwa nokubeleka abantwana abaphilayo.

Izifundo ezongezelelekileyo zifumene ezinye iingxaki zempilo ezibotshelelwe kukutya okuchaseneyo nokubulala izitshabalalisi, kubandakanya ne-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate sesona sisibulala-ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi kwaye sesona sithako sisebenzayo kwi-Roundup yaseMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula.

Icandelo lamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi libuyisele umva

Kodwa njengoko inkxalabo inyuka, amahlakani eshishini lezolimo abuyela umva. Kule nyanga iqela labaphandi abathathu abanobuhlobo obude kunye neenkampani ezithengisa izitshabalalisi zezolimo bakhuphe ingxelo efuna ukuthomalalisa iinkxalabo zabathengi kunye nokuphelisa uphando lwenzululwazi.

Ingxelo, eyakhutshwa nge-21 ka-Okthobha, wathi “abukho ubungqina obungqalileyo benzululwazi okanye bezonyango obubonisa ukuba ukubhencwa okuqhelekileyo kwabathengi kwiintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane kubangela nayiphi na ingozi kwimpilo. Idatha yentsalela yamayeza okubulala izinambuzane kunye noqikelelo lokubonisa lubonisa ukuba abathengi bokutya bafumanekile kumanqanaba entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi engaphantsi kwemilinganiselo yezempilo. ”

Ayothusi into yokuba ababhali abathathu bengxelo basondelelene kakhulu nomzi mveliso wezolimo. Omnye wababhali bengxelo nguSteve Savage, ishishini lezolimo umcebisi kwaye Owayesakuba ngumqeshwa waseDuPont. Omnye nguCarol Burns, owayesakuba sisazinzulu seDow Chemical kunye nomcebisi wangoku weCortevia Agriscience, ukususwa kweDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, uSihlalo weSebe lezeNzululwazi ngezoKutya neTekhnoloji kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Iyunivesithi ifumene phantse I-2 yezigidi ngonyaka Ukusuka kumzi mveliso wezolimo, ngokomphandi weyunivesithi, nangona ukuchaneka kwelo nani kungakhange kubonwe.

Ababhali bayise ingxelo yabo ngqo kwiCongress, bebambe iintetho ezintathu ezahlukeneyo eWashington, DC, eyilelwe ukukhuthaza umyalezo wabo wokhuseleko lwezibulali zinambuzane ukuze zisetyenziswe “kumabali okhuseleko lokutya kwimidiya, kunye neengcebiso zabathengi malunga nokutya abathengi (okanye abangafanelekanga) bakutye.”

Iiseshoni zokubulala izitshabalalisi zabanjwa kwizakhiwo zeofisi zamalungu eCongress kwaye, kubonakala ngathi, kwikomkhulu CropLife Melika, lobbyist kwishishini lezolimo. 

 

Umyalezo ovela eMaine: Lixesha lokuba ujonge ngokuGcina

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Njengokuba ihlobo liphethuka ukuwa, imbonakalo yelizwe iMaine intle ukuyibona. Amahlathi aluhlaza alula ukuya kuthi ga ngakwiliso elinokubonwa kwilitye lamagqabi aluhlaza, omthubi kunye nobomvu krwe. Zonke iikhilomitha ezimbalwa ecaleni kwendlela emxinwa, koovimba beplanga ababuyiselweyo abadibana namakhaya afanelekileyo abekwe kwiihektare ezicocekileyo apho iintsapho zasefama zidibanisa ukutya emhlabeni kwaye zithande imfuyo.

Ndibe nethamsanqa lokundwendwela eli lizwe lomntla mpuma wefama kutshanje, ndichitha ixesha e “Umboniso Welizwe Oqhelekileyo” Kubunye, Maine. Bamalunga nama-2,000 57,000 kuphela abantu abahlala kwidolophana encinci, kodwa abantu abaqikelelwa kuma-XNUMX baxinene kwiindlela ezingoohola bodwa ukuze batyibilike kumsitho weentsuku ezintathu kulo nyaka uphele ngoSeptemba.

Umboniso olungileyo wawuyinxalenye yokubhiyozela kunye nenxalenye yemfundo-umnyhadala wolwazi lokuqala malunga nendlela yokuvelisa ukutya ngeendlela ezijolise ekuphuculeni, hayi ekungciphekeni, impilo yabantu kunye nokusingqongileyo. Abancinci nabadala bahlanganisene kwiitente ezinemibala emthubi namhlophe ukuba baxoxe ngezihloko ezinje ngokuthengiswa kweeblueberries zasendle, indlela yokuphuhlisa "ii-micro-dairies," kunye inzululwazi ebonisa Imihlaba esempilweni, engenamachiza inokwenza ngcono ikhabhon evela emoyeni njengesixhobo sokunciphisa imeko yemozulu.

Kumngcelele we-jangly obaleka phakathi kumabala endle, abantwana kunye nabantu abadala benxibe njengeenyosi, imifuno esandula ukwenziwa, ojongilanga kunye nemithi kwaye bephethe imiqondiso emibalabala efuna ukukhuselwa kwizisongelo ezibangelwa lolimo lwezemizi-mveliso. Omnye umntwana omncinci wayephethe uphawu olwalubhalwe “Andifafazi.”

Imiyalezo eqhutywa ngalo mngcelele nakwindawo ezinamabala alungileyo ithetha ukuba ecaleni kwalo mnyhadala wokutya kunye nokulima unyusa inkxalabo malunga nokungabikho kobunkokheli eWashington kunye nokunyusa umgangatho wokusetyenziswa okuvumayo kwezichumisi zokwenziwa kunye nezibulala-zinambuzane ekulimeni; ngokunjalo nendlela zokutyala izilwanyana zodwa eziye zangumhlaba ophambili kwezolimo e-US kwaye zisusa indalo ebalulekileyo.

Kule veki, iqela leenkokheli zikarhulumente lisike iribhoni kwiprojekthi ukunceda ukulungisa ezo nkxalabo ngokukhuthaza izisombululo ezizinzileyo eMaine abazimisele ukuba ngumzekelo kuluntu lonke ukuba lulandele.

The Maine Ukuvuna Federal Credit Union yavula iingcango zayo ngo-Okthobha 8 njengeziko lezemali eliphantsi kwelungu lase-US elijolise kuphela kwinkxaso mali kwiifama ezincinci kunye namashishini okutya abandakanyeka kwizenzo ezizinzileyo zezolimo. Umbutho wababolekisi ujonge ukubonelela ngemali kwimizamo ephucula ukufikelela kukutya okutsha, okulinywe kweli kwaye kukhusela indalo. Ngama-40 epesenti yeefama zikarhulumente ezingama-7,600 40 eziqhutywa ngamadoda nabafazi abangaphantsi kweminyaka engama-XNUMX, kukho umnqweno wezicwangciso eziqhubekayo zokuphucula iinkqubo zokuvelisa ukutya, abaxhasi bathi.

“Asizukuxhasa ngezolimo imveliso yorhwebo. Siququzelelwe ukuba sisebenze ngokubaluleka kwaye siphinde sibeke uqoqosho lokutya, ”utshilo uSam May. “Inkqubo yokutya yale mihla ayinayo yonke into. Ibulala iplanethi, umhlaba, impilo yethu kunye nokubeka impilo yethu emngciphekweni. Senza le siyenzayo eMaine kuba kufuneka yenziwe kwaye singayenza. ”

Abasunguli bemanyano yamatyala, ababengamagqala eWall Street, banyuse i-2.4 yezigidi zeedola kwimali eyinkunzi ebandakanya i-300,000 yeedola yolondolozo lwesibonelelo esivela kwiSebe lezoLimo laseMelika. Abasunguli bayifumene inkxaso yegqiza likarhulumente lase-US, kubandakanya ne-Republican yase-US uSusan Collins.

U-Meli wase-US u-Chellie Pingree, u-Democrat wase Maine, ugxininise imfuneko yokufumana olu hlobo lwenkxaso: Ndonwabe kakhulu ukubona lo manyano wokuqala kwilizwe ukuxhasa ngezidingo ezizodwa zeefama ezincinci kunye namashishini okutya. Ndiyathemba ukuba amanye amazwe azakuthathela ingqalelo kwaye ancede ukuvala umsantsa ophakathi kwamafama namaziko abo ezemali, utshilo kwingxelo.

Umsebenzi awuncomeli nje kodwa ungxamisekile. Ukongeza kwiingxelo zenzululwazi ezinxibelelanisa ezolimo zeshishini kunye neagrochemicals nongcoliseko lwamanzi, imihlaba engenazintsholongwane, izifo zabantu kunye neengxaki zokuzala, uphando olusandula ukukhutshwa lubonisa amakhonkco ongezelelweyo kukuhla okubukhali kwintaka ebalulekileyo kwaye izinambuzane.

Kodwa endaweni yokuthobela izilumkiso, uLawulo lukaTrump lubalekela ekubuyiseleni ukhuseleko kulawulo olukhawulezileyo.

Kubonakala kufanelekile ukuba ibilapha eMaine, ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 eyadlulayo, apho umbhali uRachel Carson igcinwe indlu encinci kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ibuyela umva njengoko ibhala malunga neziphumo ezibi zehlabathi ezingene kwimichiza, ilizwe apho indalo ibingelelwa khona, kunye nezandi zeentaka zengoma zithe cwaka.

Ukutyelela ulungelelwaniso lwelizwe ekwindla eMaine kukubona oko kudala kubiza inyathelo elivela eCarson. Aba ngabantu abayiqondayo into yokuba kufuneka bakhusele kwaye bakhele kwiinkqubo ezizinzisayo nezondlayo, hayi iinkqubo ezichithayo. Aba ngabantu abanethemba lokuba abantwana babo kunye nabazukulwana baya kuhlala bekwazi ukubona indawo enamahlathi aluhlaza kunye neefama ezityebileyo kude kube ngamehlo.

Sisifundo esifunwa lilizwe lonke. Akukho xesha lokuchitha.

Ukuguqula ukutya esikutyayo ngeDowDuPont

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uhlaziyo 2 / 26 / 18: Kwi-spinoff elandela ukudibana ne-Dow, uPioneer waseDuPont uzakutshintsha igama lakhe libe yiCorteva Agriscience; ngokusekwe kwindibaniselwano yamagama athetha "intliziyo" kunye "nendalo." Nantsi into esiyithathayo.

NguStacy Malkan

Ezona zinambuzane zibulala zinambuzane kunye nembewu zifuna ukuba ukholelwe ukuba zikwicala lesayensi. Ukutya okuphezulu kwezobuchwephesha likamva, bathi, kwaye abantu abaphakamisa inkxalabo malunga nemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nembewu yobunjineli yemfuza "bayayichasa inzululwazi."

Imagazini iAtlantic iya kubonelela ngeqonga kulawo manqaku athetha ngokushintshisana ngemali ezinkozo ngomhla kaFebruwari 15 isiganeko esihloko sithi, "Ukuvuna: Ukuguqula ukutya esikutyayo" kuxhaswe yiDowDuPont.

I-ajenda enefluff ine “abalimi, ii-foodies, iiteki kunye neetinkers” ezixoxa ngendlela iitekhnoloji zokutya zakutshanje eziguqula ngayo indlela yokulima izityalo kunye nezilwanyana, kunye nefuthe lekamva lokutya.

Ngaba nabaphi na abathathi-nxaxheba baya kubuza ukuba kutheni iDowDuPont iyaqhubeka nokutyhala iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi eliyingozi nangona lomelele ubungqina besayensi ukuba yenzakalisa ubuchopho babantwana?

Ngaba nawuphi na kubo uya kubuza ukuba kutheni iDuPont zigubungele imingcipheko yezempilo of Imichiza yeTefon inxulunyaniswe neziphene zokuzalwa, njengoko ivumela ikhemikhali ukuba ingcolise iindlela zamanzi kwihlabathi liphela?

Ngaba baya kubuza ukuba kutheni-ngaphandle kwerekhodi yenzuzo- iDowDupont inayo wala ukunceda amaxhoba entlekele okanye nokucoca ungcoliseko lwekhemikhali olubangelwe yingozi yesityalo sokubulala izitshabalalisi ngo-1984 Bhopal?

Ngaba iAtlantic ingabamba umsitho "oguqula imozulu" nge-ExxonMobil?

Yintoni elandelayo? Ngaba iAtlantic iyavuma ukusingatha umsitho "wokuguqula impilo" oxhaswe nguPhillip Morris okanye umcimbi "oguqula imozulu" oxhaswe yi-ExxonMobil?

Ingayiyo. Ngo-2015, iAtlantic Ingqungquthela yokutya ibhalwe ngu-Elanco, icandelo lika-Eli Lilly elenza i-ractopamine, ikhemikhali ekhuthaza ukukhula esetyenziswa kwimveliso yenyama kuvaliwe kumazwe ayi-100 ngenxa yenkxalabo yezempilo, kodwa isasetyenziswa apha.

NjengoTom Philpott ixelwe kuMama uJones, UMongameli wase-Elanco uJeff Simmons wenza intetho exhaswa ngulo msitho, apho “ekhalaze ngelithi iqela alibize 'i-fringe 1 pesenti,' elikhuthaza ukwandiswa kwemithetho ngabavelisi benyama, liqhuba ingxoxo yelizwe malunga nokutya.”

IiSimon Intetho yemizuzu eli-15 ibonise ividiyo evuselelayo yomama owayeye kwinkqubo ye-Elanco / American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics kwaye wafunda malunga "nokubaluleka kweprotein" kunye nokutya inyama eninzi njengendlela yokuphucula impilo yosapho.

Ukuthenga iNgcaciso yokutya

IAtlantic igubungele ixesha elidlulileyo le-Dow / Union Carbide kodwa ngoku ibonelela ngesigqubuthelo se-DowDuPont's PR kwixa elizayo.

Ngemodeli yentlanganiso yokuqesha ukutya, iAtlantic inceda amaqumrhu abumba indlela esicinga ngayo ngenkqubo yethu yokutya. Oko akuhambelani nesibophelelo seAtlantic sokukhangela "inyaniso."

Zonke iimveliso zithatha inxaxheba kule veki yomnyhadala “wokuTshintsha ukuTya” - iTanki lokutya, iLake O'Lakes kunye neNew Harvest, nazo-zinika ikhava yeDowDuPont ukuba bazibonakalise njengeentshatsheli zesayensi ngelixa besenza ingxoxo-mpikiswano malunga nokutya malunga neetekhnoloji abazithengisayo.

Kodwa iinyani zembali zibalulekile kuyo nayiphi na ingxoxo ethembekileyo ngekamva, kwaye iDowDuPont ayiyontshatsheli kwezenzululwazi.

Zombini iDow kunye neDupont zineembali ezinde ze ukugubungela inzululwaziUkucinezela inzululwazi, bethengisa besazi iimveliso eziyingozi, ukugubungela iinkxalabo zempilo, ukusilela ukucoca messes zabo, kunye nokuzibandakanya amanye amanyundululu, ulwaphulo-mthetho kunye nokungalungisi -Nantoni na eyenziweyo ukukhusela umgca osezantsi.

Ukukhusela imijelo yenzuzo ethembekileyo, endaweni yokwenza izinto ezilungileyo ezenzelwe abantu kunye nokusingqongileyo, kuya kukhuthaza ezi nkampani kwikamva.

 Ingeniso yeTreadmill yeNzuzo ye-Pesticide

Ukuqonda indlela iDowDuPont kunye nezinye I-pesticide / imbewu mega-ukudibana zinokuba nefuthe kwikamva lenkqubo yethu yokutya, jonga kwindlela ezi nkampani ezihambisa ngayo ubuchwepheshe bokutya obunelungelo ngoku.

Uninzi lokutya kwe-GMO kwimarike Namhlanje zenzelwe ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane ezithile, ezikhokelele ukusetyenziswa okongezelelekileyo kwezi zinambuzane, ukwanda kokhula kuyanyangeka kwizibulala-zinambuzane, kunye nomzamo wobundlobongela wokuthengisa iyeza yokubulala izitshabalalisi ukulimaza umhlaba wefama ngaphesheya kweMidwest.

Ukuqonda ukuba yintoni ekufuneka itshintshiwe ukuze ube nokutya okunempilo, buza abalimi, hayi iDowDuPont. Buza abahlali ukuba ukulwela impilo yabo kunye zabo ilungelo lokwazi malunga nezibulala-zinambuzane abaziselayo nabaphefumlayo.

EHawaii kwaye Argentina, apho izityalo eziyinjini yemvelo zikhula ngamandla, oogqirha baphakamisa inkxalabo malunga nokunyuka kweziphene zokuzalwa kunye nezinye izifo abarhanela ukuba zinxulumene nezibulala-zinambuzane. E-Iowa, omnye umvelisi ophambili we-GMO, ubonelelo lwamanzi lungcoliswe yimichiza ebalekayo evela kumbona nakwiifama zezilwanyana.

Ixesha elizayo lokutya okuphezulu, phantsi kolawulo lweenkampani ezinje ngeDowDuPont kunye ne-Elanco, kulula ukuba uqikelele: ngaphezulu kwezinto esele zithengiswa ziinkampani-imbewu eninzi yenzelwe ukuba isinde kwimichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, izibulala-zinambuzane ezingakumbi, kunye nokutya izilwanyana ezilungiselelwe ukuba zikhule ngokukhawuleza kwaye ulunge ngcono kwiimeko ezixineneyo, kunye namayeza okunceda.

Amaqonga eendaba athengiweyo anje ngoAtlantic "ukutya okuguqukayo," kunye namanqaku kunye neengxoxo malunga "nekamva lokutya" awayekulo uSyngenta ndibanjwe nje ukuthenga eLondon, kunye elinye ishishini lokufihla i-PR Iiprojekthi zokuyila kwakhona ingxoxo ye-GMO, ziinzame zokuphazamisa iinyani zembali kunye nenyaniso emhlabeni.

Abathengi abayithengi i-spin. Ibango lokutya okuphilayo iyaqhubeka ukunyuka ngaphesheya lonke uluntu Yoluntu lwaseMelika.

Ukutshintsha ukuthanda abathengi ukuncipha kweenkampani ezinkulu zokutya njenge-icebergs kwaye Ukwahlukana ushishino lokutya luphembelela ukuba “amawaka eminyaka oomama bafune iimveliso ezisempilweni neziselubala.”

Masibanike into abayifunayo: inkqubo yokutya esempilweni yabantu, amafama, umhlaba kunye neenyosi-inkqubo yokutya ebeka phambili ukukhusela iingqondo zabantwana bethu ngaphezulu kwenzuzo yeshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

Leyo yingxoxo ekufuneka siyenzile malunga nokuguqula ukutya esikutyayo.

Bona kwakho:
Ileta eya kwiAtlantic isuka ku-Anne Frederick umlawuli we Umdibaniso weHawaii weQonga eliQhubekayo: "Uluntu lwethu luye lwazama kaninzi ukumisela imigaqo yengqiqo kwinqanaba laseburhulumenteni nakwilizwe, kodwa laphazanyiswa yiDowDuPont kunye nomzi mveliso wezolimo ... Njengomfundi wopapasho lwakho, ayothusi into yokufumanisa ukuba iAtlantic iyakulungelelanisa uphawu lwayo kunye ishishini elibeke emngciphekweni ngokungakhathali impilo nezokhuseleko loluntu lwethu. Ndiyathemba ukuba niyakuyithathela ingqalelo inkxaso-mali yeDowDuPont, kwaye nime kubumbano noluntu lwethu oluhlala ngaphambili kule nkohlakalo. ”

Ngaba ufuna ukwazi iimfihlelo ezingaphezulu zokutya kunye neenkampani zeekhemikhali ezifihlakeleyo malunga nokutya kwethu? Bhalisela i-US ilungelo lokwazi Incwadana yeendaba apha, kwaye unako nikela apha ukugcina uphando lwethu lupheka.

Intlanganisela yoRhwebo lweOrganic kwiDC njengeeMfazwe eziBhuqwayo ngaphezulu kweMigangatho

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Eli nqaku ekuqaleni livele ngaphakathi IHotff Post

Yiyo “IVeki yeOrganic” kwakhona eWashington, DC, kunye nababekho "kumsitho wokwenza umgaqo-nkqubo wokutyikitya" we-Organic Trade Association (i-OTA) kuninzi abanokubhiyozela. Kwiveki ephelileyo, i-OTA, elona lizwi likhokelayo kushishino lwezinto eziphilayo, yabhengeza ukuba eli candelo lithumele eyona nzuzo inkulu eyakhe yafunyanwa ngonyaka kwi-2015, ngentengiso epheleleyo yezinto eziphilayo ikhula nge- $ 4.2 yezigidigidi, okanye iipesenti ezili-11, ukuya irekhodi le-43.3 yezigidigidi zeedola.

"Kukhuthazwe kukhetho lwabathengi, ikamva lezolimo ikamva," utshilo u-OTA kwingxelo ethetha ngenkomfa, eqhuba nge-23 kaMeyi-ngoMeyi 27.

Okwangoku, eli shishini liyavuma ukuba ikamva ligutyungelwe kukunqongophala konikezelo lonikezelo ebusweni bento i-OTA eyibiza ngokuba "yimfuno yabathengi ebonakala ingenakucimeka yezinto eziphilayo."

Unobhala wezoLimo uTom Vilsack kulindeleke ukuba athethe ne-OTA ngoLwesithathu, ukuxelela iinkokheli zezinto eziphilayo ukuba iSebe lezoLimo laseMelika lifuna ukwenza kube lula kumafama amatsha ukuba aqinisekiswe ngezinto eziphilayo kunye nokunceda icandelo lezinto eziphilayo ngengxaki yalo yemfuno.

Kodwa kwilizwe liphela, kwigumbi lenkundla e-California, iqela labathengi kunye namagqwetha okusingqongileyo kunye namaqela angenzi nzuzo aphakamisa iflegi ebomvu ebusweni be-USDA yokunyusa ukukhula kwecandelo lezinto eziphilayo. Iikona ziyasikwa, batyhola njalo. Imigangatho iyabethwa, kwaye abathengi bayatshintshwa kukutshintshwa kweNkqubo ye-Organic Organic ye-USDA.

Ukumanyelwa kwetyala kucwangciselwe uLwesine kwimeko enye engundoqo ukubandakanya imichiza eyenziweyo kumgquba kwimveliso ye-organic. Iziko lezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya kunye nangaphaya kwezibulala-zinambuzane laye lamangalela uVilsack kunye namanye amagosa ase-USDA kunyaka ophelileyo ngokukhupha uxwebhu olwalukhokele ngo-2010 “olutshintshe kakhulu iimfuno zendalo.” Ngaphantsi kwelungiselelo elitsha, abavelisi bezinto eziphilayo banokusebenzisa izinto zomgquba eziye zanyangwa ngamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi athe athintelwa ekusetyenzisweni kwezinto eziphilayo.

Ngaphantsi kotshintsho olwenziwe yi-USDA, abavelisi bezinto eziphilayo banokusebenzisa izinto ezinje ngeengca zokucheba ezingcoliswe yimichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi njengokondla umgquba kwizityalo zabo. Umgquba ongcoliswe sisibulali zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuba yi bifenthrin kunye nezinye izitshabalalisi zivumelekile, ityala lityhola ngelithi.

Oku kugxotha isibheno esingundoqo sendalo - umbono wokuba amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi akanayo ndawo kwimveliso, amaqela aphikisana. Kwaye iarhente yaphule umthetho ngokusilela ukunika uluntu okanye ukuvumela uluntu ukuba luvakalise izimvo zalo njengoko besenza lo "mqobo", atsho amaqela.

"Abathengi be-Organic bayalahlekiswa, kwaye abasenakuthembela kwilebheli ye-organic ukuqinisekisa ukuba ukutya abakuthengayo kuveliswa ngaphandle kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kwezolimo," latsho ityala.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya kunye nabanye abamangali bazichaza ngokwabo kwinkundla yamatyala njengabasebenza ukukhusela indalo esingqongileyo kunye nempilo yoluntu kwaye basebenze njengabalindi kwintembeko yemveliso yezityalo. Bebelindele ukuba i-OTA ibuyise umnqweno wabo wokunyaniseka kwezinto eziphilayo, okanye ubuncinci bangazami ukungena endleleni yabo. Kodwa nge-2 kaMeyi, i-OTA yacela ukuba ithathe inxaxheba kule meko ingekhoyo kwicala labathengi kodwa ngokuchasene nabo.

Ekugcwaliseni kwayo, I-OTA, kunye ne-California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF) ijoyine i-Western Growers Association (WG), emele amafama anoxanduva lokufumana phantse isinye kwisithathu semveliso yase-US ephikisayo, ukuphikisana namaqela akhusela abathengi malunga nomba womgquba. I-OTA kunye namanye amaqela oshishino baphikisa ngelithi, ukuba ulungiselelo lweUSDA oluvumela intsholongwane yokubulala izinambuzane ukuba luphoselwe ngaphandle yinkundla, izinto eziphilayo bezingayi "kuzinza."

Amaqela athi kwinkundla yokugcwalisa ukuba kuya kuba nohlalutyo kunye noqoqosho olungenakubonisa ukuba yonke icompost ayinasithako ngasinye semichiza esenziweyo esalelweyo kwimveliso yezityalo eziphilayo. Ukususwa ngesiquphe kokubonelela ngomgquba kungakhokelela kwizimangalo ezibiza kakhulu kwaye uninzi lweziqinisekiso zabalimi ziya kuba semngciphekweni ngqo. Ukungayeki “indlela yobuchule kunye noxanduva kumbandela ontsonkothileyo we-USDA” “kungayiphazamisa kakhulu,” utshilo amaqela ezinto eziphilayo.

Ummangali wabamangali ukuba amabango anje ngeziphumo eziphazamisayo "abomvu." Ukhukuliseko lwemigangatho yezinto eziphilayo kunokunceda ukwandisa imveliso kunye nokuhlangabezana neemfuno zabathengi, kodwa loo ndlela inokwenza ithambeka elimtyibilizi kunye nokupheliswa kokugqibela kwendalo. "La maxabiso okusingqongileyo, kwaye ngokukodwa angaxhasi ezolimo ezixhomekeke kwizibulali zinambuzane, ngoyena nobangela wesizathu sokuba abathengi bahlawule ipremiyamu yokuthenga ukutya okungaxutywanga," bagcwalisa njalo.

Ukuchotshelwa kwangoLwesine eSan Francisco kuya kuthatha izindululo zomnqamlezo ezilindelweyo zokugweba. Ngeli xesha sibuyele eWashington, i-OTA izakuphawula "Usuku lokukhuthaza," Ukuphuma ngeCapitol Hill ukudibana nabenzi bomthetho kunye nokunyanzela imigaqo-nkqubo exhasa ukukhula okuqhubekayo kwemveliso yezendalo.

Abathengi baya kuba benza kakuhle ukugcina iliso kuzo zombini.

UCarey Gillam uligqala kwintatheli yeReuters kwaye ngoku ungumlawuli wophando wase-US Right to Know, iqela lophando lokutya.  Landela uCarey Gillam kwi-Twitter: www.twitter.com/careygillam 

Ngaba ufuna ukutya okungakumbi kokucinga? Bhalisela i Incwadana yeendaba yeUSRTK.