Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

Uvavanyo lwe-EPA lweekhemikhali lutsala ukugxeka kwizazinzulu zalo

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Many U.S. scientists working for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) say they don’t trust the agency’s senior leaders to be honest and they fear retaliation if they were to report a violation of the law, according to a survey of employees conducted in 2020.

Ngokutsho Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey for 2020, which was conducted by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 75 percent of EPA workers in the National Program Chemicals Division who responded to the survey indicated that they did not think the agency’s senior leadership maintained “high standards of honesty and integrity.” Sixty-five percent of the workers responding from the Risk Assessment Division answered the same way.

Also alarming, 53 percent of respondents in the EPA’s Risk Assessment Division said they could not disclose a suspected violation of the law or regulation without fear of reprisal. Forty-three percent of responding EPA workers in the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) answered the same way.

The negative sentiments reflected in the survey results coincide with mounting reports of malfeasance inside EPA’s chemical assessment programs, according to the Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER).

“It should be of grave concern that more than half the EPA chemists and other specialists working on crucial public health concerns do not feel free to report problems or flag violations,” PEER Executive Director Tim Whitehouse, a former EPA enforcement attorney, said in a statement.

Earlier this month, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine said the EPA’s hazard assessment practices within the framework of the Toxic Substances Control Act were of “critically low quality.”

“EPA’s new leadership will have its hands full righting this sinking ship,” Whitehouse said.

After taking office in January, President Joe Biden issued an executive order noting that the EPA under Biden may diverge in its position on several chemicals from decisions made by the agency under previous president Donald Trump.

In lelana dated Jan. 21, the EPA Office of General Counsel said the following:

“In conformance with President Biden’s Executive Order on Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis issued January 20, 2021, (Health and Environment EO), this will confirm my request on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) seek and obtain abeyances or stays of proceedings in pending litigation seeking judicial review of any EPA regulation promulgated between January 20, 2017, and January 20, 2021, or seeking to establish a deadline for EPA to promulgate a regulation in connection with the subject of any such

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Isifundo esitsha sivavanya ifuthe le-Roundup herbicide kwiinyosi zobusi

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Iqela labaphandi baseTshayina lifumene ubungqina bokuba iimveliso zeherbicide ezisekwe kwintengiso ye-glyphosate ziyingozi kwiinyosi zobusi okanye ngaphantsi kwezingqinisiso ezicetyiswayo.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwi Ijenali ye-intanethi Iingxelo zeSayensi, Abaphandi abazimanya ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kunye ne-Chinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathi bafumene uluhlu lweempembelelo ezingalunganga kwiinyosi zobusi xa beveza iinyosi kwi-Roundup - a glyphosateImveliso esekwe kuthengiswa ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Inkumbulo yeenyosi zeenyosi "yayonakele kakhulu emva kokuvezwa yiRoundup" iphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kweenyosi kumachiza okubulala ukhula "kunokuba nefuthe elibi ekufuneni nasekuqokeleleni izixhobo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwemisebenzi yokutya" ziinyosi, abaphandi bathi .

Kananjalo, "amandla okunyuka kweenyosi zeenyosi anciphile kakhulu emva konyango kunye noxinzelelo lweRoundup," bafumanisa abaphandi.

Abaphandi bathi sikhona isidingo “senkqubo yokutshiza isilumkiso sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwangethuba” kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni e-China kuba abagcini nyosi kulezo ndawo “bahlala bengaziswanga phambi kokuba kutshizwe iherbicides” kwaye “neziganeko zetyhefu rhoqo yeenyosi zobusi” zenzeka.

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo ezininzi ezibalulekileyo zokutya kuxhomekeke kwiinyosi zobusi kunye neenyosi zasendle ukuze kufuduswe umungu, kwaye kuphawulwe ukwehla kubemi beenyosi baphakamise iinkxalabo kwihlabathi liphela malunga nokhuseleko lokutya.

Iphepha eliphuma kwiYunivesithi yaseRutgers ipapashwe kwihlobo elidlulileyo ilumkise ngelithi "isivuno sama-apile, iitsheri kunye namaqunube kulo lonke elaseMelika sincitshiswa kukuswela kwezidlulisi."

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina bokuba ukhula olubulala ukhula luyaphazamisa iihormoni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina obukhathazayo kwinkxalabo yokuba ukubulala ukhula kusetyenziswa kakhulu imichiza glyphosate inokubanakho ukuphazamisa iihomoni zabantu.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwijenali Imichiza zibizwa IGlyphosate kunye neempawu eziphambili zokuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine: Uphengululo, Isithathu senzululwazi sagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate ibonakala ineempawu ezisibhozo kwezilishumi eziphambili ezinxulunyaniswa i-endocrine ephazamisa iikhemikhali . Ababhali balumkisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba izifundo eziza kudibana ziyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokucacileyo iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwinkqubo ye-endocrine yomntu.

Ababhali, uJuan Munoz, uTammy Bleak noGloria Calaf, elowo nalowo unxulumene neYunivesithi yaseTarapacá eChile, bathi iphepha labo luphononongo lokuqala lokudibanisa ubungqina boomatshini kwi-glyphosate njenge-endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC).

Obunye bobungqina bucacisa ukuba iRoundup, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate-based herbicide, inokutshintsha i-biosynthesis yehomoni zesondo, ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ii-EDCs zinokulingisa okanye ziphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye zinxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Eli phepha litsha lilandela ukupapashwa ebutsheni balo nyaka Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ebonakalise ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuchaphazela amalungu okuzala kwaye isoyikisa ukuzala.

IGlyphosate sesona sifo sisetyenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, esithengiswa kumazwe ali-140. Yaziswa ngentengiso ngo-1974 nguMonsanto Co, imichiza sisithako esisebenzayo kwiimveliso ezithandwayo ezinje ngeRoundup kunye namakhulu abanye babulali bokhula abasetyenziswa ngabathengi, oomasipala, izixhobo, amafama, abaqhubi begalufa kunye nabanye kwihlabathi liphela.

UDana Barr, Unjingalwazi kwiYunivesithi yaseEmory iRollins School of Health Public, wathi obu bungqina “buye bubonakalise ngendlela engathethekiyo ukuba i-glyphosate ine-endocrine ephazamisa iipropathi.”

“Ayisiyonto ingalindelekanga kuba i-glyphosate inezakhiwo ezifanayo nezinye i-endocrine ephazamisa ukubulala izinambuzane; Nangona kunjalo, ingakumbi kuba ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kudlula kude ezinye izibulali zinambuzane, ”utshilo u-Barr, olawula inkqubo ngaphakathi kwiziko le-National Institutes of Health elixhaswa ngezempilo. "IGlyphosate isetyenziswa kwizityalo ezininzi nakwizicelo ezininzi zokuhlala ezinokubangela ukubonwa kwabantu ngokubanzi."

Phil Landrigan, umlawuli we-Global Observatory on Pollution and Health, kunye nonjingalwazi webhayoloji
KwiKholeji yaseBoston, uthe uphononongo ludibanise "ubungqina obuqinileyo" bokuthi i-glyphosate ngumphazamisi we-endocrine.

"Ingxelo iyahambelana nomzimba omkhulu woncwadi obonisa ukuba i-glyphosate inoluhlu olubanzi lweziphumo ezibi kwezempilo - iziphumo eziguqula imeko ende kaMonsanto ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate njengekhemikhali enobungozi engenazimpembelelo zimbi kwimpilo yabantu, ”utshilo uLandrigan.

Ii-EDC bezingumbandela oxhalabisayo ukusukela nge-1990s emva kothotho lopapasho olucebisayo ukuba ezinye iikhemikhali zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwizibulali zinambuzane, izinyibilikisi zorhwebo, iiplastikhi, iisepha, kunye nezinye izinto zinokubanakho ukuphazamisa unxibelelwano phakathi kwamahomoni kunye nezamkeli.

Izazinzulu ngokubanzi ziye zamkela iipropathi ezilishumi ezisebenzayo zearhente eziguqula isenzo sehomoni, zibhekisa kwezi "njengeempawu eziphambili" ezilishumi ze-endocrine-disorors. Iimpawu ezilishumi zezi zilandelayo:

Ii-EDC's zinako:

  • Ukutshintsha kwehomoni ukuhanjiswa kwamanqanaba okujikeleza kwehomoni
  • Yenza utshintsho kwi-hormone metabolism okanye kugqitywe
  • Guqula ikamva lokuvelisa iincindi zamadlala okanye iiseli eziphendula iihomoni
  • I-Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Ukuchasene ne-hormone receptors
  • Nxibelelana okanye wenze ii-hormone receptors
  • Ukutshintshwa kwesiginali yokutshintsha kwiiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Yenza uhlengahlengiso lwe-epigenetic kwimveliso evelisa iihomoni okanye iiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Utshintsho lwehormoni yokuhambisa kwiimbrane zeseli

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi uphononongo lwedatha yoomatshini lubonise ukuba i-glyphosate idibene nazo zonke iimpawu eziphambili ngaphandle kwezi zimbini: "Ngokubhekiselele kwi-glyphosate, abukho ubungqina obunxulunyaniswa namandla okuchasana nabamkeli behomoni," batsho. Kananjalo, "abukho ubungqina bempembelelo yayo kwimetabolism ye-hormonal okanye kugqitywe," ngokutsho kwababhali.

Uphando kule minyaka ingamashumi idlulileyo lujolise ikakhulu kumakhonkco afunyanwa phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza, ngakumbi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza. I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Bangaphezu kwe-100,000 abantu Ndimangalele uMonsanto e-United States etyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate esekwe kwinkampani kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL.

Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu kwaye umnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG uchithe unyaka ophelileyo enesiqingatha ukuzama ukuhlala Ukumangalelwa ngaphandle kwenkundla.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baqaphela indalo ekuyo yonke indawo ye-glyphosate, besithi "ukusetyenziswa okukhulu" kwale khemikhali "kukhokelele ekusasazekeni kwendalo," kubandakanya nokuvela okuchaphazelayo okuboshwe kukusetyenziswa kwabantu kombulali wokhula ngokutya.

Abaphandi bathi nangona abalawuli bathi amanqanaba entsalela ye-glyphosate efumaneka ekutyeni iphantsi ngokwaneleyo ukuba ikhuseleke, "abanakuyilawula" ingozi "enokubakho ebantwini abatya ukutya okungcoliswe yimichiza, ngakumbi iinkozo kunye nezinye izityalo- ukutya okusekwe, okuhlala kunamanqanaba aphezulu kunobisi, inyama okanye iimveliso zentlanzi.

Amaxwebhu aseburhulumenteni ase-US abonisa ukuba iintsalela ze-glyphosate zifunyenwe kuluhlu lokutya, kubandakanya ubusi bendalo, yaye igranola kunye nabaqhekezi.

Abaphandi bakarhulumente waseCanada bakwachaze intsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni. Ingxelo enye ekhutshwe ngo-2019 ngoososayensi abavela kwiiLabhoratri zeAgri-Food eCanada e-Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry bafumana i-glyphosate kwi-197 ye-200 yeesampulu zobusi abazihlolisayo.

Ngaphandle kwenkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya nokuvezwa kokutya, abalawuli base-US bakhusele ngokuqinileyo ukhuseleko lweekhemikhali. Inkqubo ye- I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo igcina ayifumanekanga "nayiphi na impilo yomntu ngenxa yokuchanabeka kwi-glyphosate. ”

I-Chlorpyrifos: isibulala-zinambuzane esiqhelekileyo esibotshelelwe ekonakaleni kwengqondo ebantwaneni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

I-Chlorpyrifos, isibulali zinambuzane esisetyenziswa ngokubanzi, sinxibelelene kakhulu ne ukonakala kwengqondo ebantwaneni. Ezi kunye nezinye iinkxalabo zempilo zikhokelele amazwe aliqela kwaye amanye amazwe aseMelika ukuvala i-chlorpyrifos, kodwa imichiza yile isavumelekile kwizityalo zokutya e-US emva ukuphembelela ngempumelelo ngumenzi wayo.

IiChlorpyrifos ekutyeni  

IiChlorpyrifos I-insecticide yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kwizimo zezolimo. Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kumagama e-brand Dursban kunye neLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos yi-organophosphate insecticide, i-acaricide kunye ne-miticide esetyenziselwa ubukhulu becala ukulawula amagqabi kunye nezinambuzane ezibangelwa ngumhlaba kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo zokutya kunye nezityalo zokutya. Iimveliso ziza kwifom engamanzi kunye negranules, iipowder, kunye neepakethi ezinyibilikayo ngamanzi, kwaye zinokusetyenziswa ngumhlaba okanye izixhobo zomoya.

I-Chlorpyrifos isetyenziswa kwizityalo ezahlukeneyo kubandakanya ii-apile, iiorenji, istrawberry, umbona, ingqolowa, isitrasi kunye nokunye ukutya kwiintsapho kwaye abantwana bazo batya mihla le. Ii-USDA Inkqubo yeDatha yeZibulala-zinambuzane ifunyenwe intsalela ye-chlorpyrifos kwizitrasi kunye neevatala nasemva kokuvaswa nokuxobulwa. Ngokomthamo, i-chlorpyrifos isetyenziswa kakhulu kwingqolowa nakwiisoya, ngaphezulu kwesigidi seepawundi esisetyenziswa minyaka le kwisityalo ngasinye. Imichiza ayivumelekanga kwizityalo eziphilayo.

Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Iinkxalabo zempilo yoluntu

IAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana kunye noogqirha babantwana, ulumkisile ukuba Ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-chlorpyrifos kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukuvezwa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto. Izifundo eziphambili zidweliswe apha ngezantsi.

I-Chlorpyrifos ikwanxulunyaniswa netyhefu yokubulala izinambuzane kwaye inokubangela ukuxhuzula, ukukhubazeka kokuphefumla, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha, nokufa.

I-FDA ithi ukutya kunye nokusela amanzi okuveziweyo akukhuselekanga

I-Chlorpyrifos inetyhefu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu ukuthengiswa okungavumelekanga kwekhemikhali ukusukela ngoJanuwari 2020, ukufumanisa ukuba ikhona akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo. Amanye amazwe ase-US nawo awathintele ama-chlorpyrifos ekusebenziseni kwezolimo, kubandakanya California kwaye Hawaii.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow Chemical ngo-2000 yokuphelisa konke ukusetyenziswa kweeklorpyrifos ngenxa yophando lwenzululwazi olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zeentsana nabantwana abancinci. Kwakungavunyelwe ukusetyenziswa ezikolweni ngo-2012.

Ngo-Okthobha u-2015, i-EPA yathi yayiceba uku rhoxisa konke ukunyamezelana kwentsalela yokutya ye-chlorpyrifos, okuthetha ukuba akusayi kuba semthethweni ukuyisebenzisa kwezolimo. I-arhente ithe "intsalela elindelekileyo ye-chlorpyrifos kwizityalo zokutya igqithile kumgangatho wokhuseleko phantsi komthetho iFederal Food, iziyobisi, kunye noMthetho wezithambiso." Eli nyathelo laye laphendula kwisikhalazo sesibhengezo kwiBhunga lezoKhuselo lweNdalo kunye neNkqubo yokuSebenza kweZibulala-zinambuzane.

Ngo-Novemba ngo-2016, i-EPA ikhuphe ifayile ye- Uvavanyo oluhlaziyiweyo lomngcipheko wempilo yabantu kwi-chlorpyrifos eqinisekisa ukuba ayikhuselekanga ukuvumela imichiza ukuba iqhubeke isetyenziswa kwezolimo. Phakathi kwezinye izinto, i-EPA ithe konke ukuvezwa kokutya kunye nokusela kwamanzi bekungakhuselekanga, ngakumbi kubantwana abaneminyaka emi-1-2 ubudala. I-EPA ithe ukuvalwa kuya kwenzeka ngo-2017.

I-Trump EPA ilibazisa ukuvalwa

Ukulandela unyulo lukaDonald Trump njengoMongameli wase-United States, isindululo se-chlorpyrifos sanqunyanyiswa. Ngo-Matshi 2017, ngo enye yezenzo zakhe zokuqala ezisesikweni njengegosa lesizwe kwezendalo, uMlawuli we-EPA uScott Pruitt wasikhaba isicelo ngamaqela ezendalo kwaye ukuthintela i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe kuqhubeke.

I-Associated Press ingxelo ngo-Juni 2017 ukuba uPruitt wadibana ne-CEO ye-Dow u-Andrew Liveris kwiintsuku ezingama-20 ngaphambi kokumisa ukuvalwa. Imithombo yeendaba ikwachaze ukuba uDow igalelo $ 1 yezigidi kwimisebenzi yokuvulwa kukaTrump.

NgoFebruwari ka-2018, i-EPA ifikelele kwisivumelwano esifuna iSyngenta ukuhlawula isohlwayo se- $ 150,000 kunye nokuqeqesha amafama ekusebenziseni i-pesticide emva kokuba inkampani isilele ukulumkisa abasebenzi ukuba baphephe amasimi apho kutshizwe i-chlorpyrifos kunye nabasebenzi abangena emasimini bagula kwaye ufuna unyango. I-Obama EPA ekuqaleni yayiphakamise isohlwayo phantse amaxesha asithoba amakhulu.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwihlabathi liphela, uCorteva AgriScience (eyayisakuba yiDowDuPont) yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos, kodwa ikhemikhali ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olupapashwe ngoJulayi 2020, abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga e-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika iminyaka. Uhlalutyo lwabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington luye lwathi iziphumo ezingachanekanga zisisiphumo sophando lwe-dosing olwenziwe kwii-1970s zakuqala ze-Dow.

NgoSeptemba 2020 i-EPA yakhupha eyesithathu vavanyo lo mngcipheko kwi-chlorpyrifos, isithi "ngaphandle kweminyaka eliqela yokufunda, ukuphononongwa koontanga, kunye nenkqubo yoluntu, isayensi ejongene neziphumo zophuhliso lophuhliso ihlala ingasonjululwanga," kwaye isenokusetyenziswa kwimveliso yokutya.

Isigqibo siza emva iintlanganiso ezininzi phakathi kwe-EPA kunye neCorteva.

Amaqela kunye namazwe amangalela i-EPA

Ukulandela isigqibo solawulo lukaTrump sokulibazisa nakuphi na ukuthintelwa kude kube ubuncinci ngo-2022, i-Pesticide Action Network kunye neBhunga lezoKhuselo lweNdalo ufake isimangalo ngokuchasene ne-EPA ngo-Epreli 2017, efuna ukunyanzela urhulumente ukuba alandele kunye nezindululo zolawulo luka-Obama zokuthintela i-chlorpyrifos. Nge-Agasti ka-2018, umanyano Inkundla yezibheno ifunyenwe ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetyenziswa kwe-chlorpyrifos, kwaye yayalela i-EPA ukuba iqukumbele isibhengezo sayo esicetywayo kwithuba leenyanga ezimbini. Emva koko ukulibaziseka okungakumbi, Umlawuli we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler wabhengeza ngoJulayi 2019 ukuba i-EPA ngekhe ayivimbe imichiza.

Amazwe aliqela athe amangalela i-EPA ngenxa yokusilela kwayo ukuvala ii-chlorpyrifos, kubandakanya iCalifornia, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Vermont kunye Oregon. Amazwe aphikisana namaxwebhu enkundla ukuba ii-chlorpyrifos kufuneka zithintelwe kwimveliso yokutya ngenxa yeengozi ezinxulumene nayo.

Ubulungisa bomhlaba buye bafaka isimangalo kwiNkundla yeziBheno yaseMelika kwiNkundla yesithoba yeesekethe Ukufuna ukuvalwa kwelizwe lonke egameni lamaqela athethelela ezendalo, abasebenzi basezifama kunye nabantu abakhubazekileyo ekufundeni.

Izifundo zonyango kunye nezenzululwazi

Uphuhliso lweeurotoxicity

“Izifundo zesifo esiqwalaselwe apha zichaze unxibelelwano ngokwezibalo phakathi kokuvezwa kokubeleka kwi-CPF [chlorpyrifos] kunye neengxaki zemithambo-luvo nasemva kokubeleka, ngakumbi ukusilela kwengqondo okuhambelana nokunxulunyaniswa nokuthembeka kobume bengqondo…. Amaqela ophando ahamba phambili kwihlabathi liphela abonakalise ngokungaguqukiyo ukuba i-CPF yiprojotoxicant ekhulayo. Ukuphuhliswa kwe-CPF ye-neurotoxicity, exhaswa kakuhle zizifundo ezisebenzisa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezilwanyana, iindlela zokuvezwa, izithuthi, kunye neendlela zovavanyo, zihlala zibonakaliswa kukusilela kwengqondo kunye nokuphazamiseka kwesidima sobuchopho. ” Uphuhliso lwe-neurotoxicity ye-organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: ukusuka kwiziphumo zeklinikhi ukuya kwiimodeli zangaphambi kwendlela kunye neendlela ezinokubakho. Ijenali yeNeurochemistry, 2017.

"Ukusukela ngo-2006, uphononongo lwe-epidemiological luye lwadwelisa ezinye ii-neurotoxicants zophuhliso ezongezelelweyo-i-manganese, i-fluoride, i-chlorpyrifos, i-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i-tetrachlorethylene, kunye ne-diphenyl ether ene-polybrominated." Iziphumo ze-Neurobehavioural yetyhefu yophuhliso. I-Lancet Neurology, ngo-2014.

I-IQ yabantwana kunye nokukhula kwengqondo

Uvavanyo lwe-longitudinal lokuzalwa kweqela loomama abaphakathi esixekweni kunye nabantwana bafumanisa ukuba "ukubonakaliswa okuphezulu kokubeleka kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], njengoko kulinganiswa ngentambo yegazi leplasma, kwakudityaniswa nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo kwii-indices ezimbini ezahlukeneyo ze-WISC-IV, kwisampulu yedolophu. abantwana abambalwa baneminyaka esixhenxe ubudala… i-Working Memory Index yayiyeyona inxulumene kakhulu nokubonakaliswa kwe-CPF kwabahlali. ” Isikolo seminyaka esixhenxe seNeurodevelopmental Scores kunye nokuBoniswa ngaphambi kokubeleka kwiChlorpyrifos, isiQinisekiso esiQhelekileyo sezoLimo.. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2011.

Isifundo seqela lokuzalwa kwiintsapho zabasebenzi basezifama ikakhulu eLatino eCalifornia ezinxulumene nemetabolite ye-organophosphate pesticides efumaneka kumchamo kubafazi abakhulelweyo abanamanqaku ahluphekayo kubantwana babo kwimemori, isantya sokulungisa, ukuqonda ngomlomo, ukuqonda okuqiqayo kunye ne-IQ. “Iziphumo zethu zicebisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwangaphambi kokubeleka kwi-OP [organophosphate] yezibulali zinambuzane, njengoko kulinganiswa nge-urap ye-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] metabolites kwabasetyhini ngexesha lokukhulelwa, kunxulunyaniswa nobuchule obuhlwempuzekileyo bokuqonda kubantwana abaneminyaka esi-7 ubudala. Abantwana abakwinqanaba eliphezulu kakhulu koxinzelelo lwe-DAP yoomama babenentsilelo yomndilili wamanqaku e-7.0 IQ xa kuthelekiswa nalawo akweyona quintile isezantsi. Unxibelelwano lwalungenanto, kwaye sasingaboni mda. ” Ukubonakaliswa ngaphambi kokubeleka kwi-Organophosphate Pesticides kunye ne-IQ yaBantwana abaneminyaka eli-7 ubudala. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2011.

Ukufundwa kweqela labasetyhini kunye nokufunyanwa kwabantwana babo "kuphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwangaphambi kokubeleka kwi-organophosphates kunxulunyaniswa kakubi nokukhula kwengqondo, ngakumbi ukuqonda okuqinisekileyo, kunye nobungqina beziphumo eziqala kwiinyanga ezili-12 kunye nokuqhubeka kubuntwana." Ukubonakaliswa ngaphambi kokuzalwa kwi-Organophosphates, iParaoxonase 1, kunye noPhuhliso lweCognitive ebuntwaneni. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2011.

Ukufundwa kweqela elifunekayo labantu abaphakathi esixekweni kufumanise ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu okuvezwa yi-chlorpyrifos “bafumana, ngokomndilili, amanqaku angama-6.5 asezantsi kwi-Bayley Psychomotor Development Index kunye ne-3.3 yamanqaku asezantsi kwi-Bayley Mental Development Index kwiminyaka emi-3 ubudala nabo banamanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa. Abantwana bavelele kumanqanaba aphezulu, xa kuthelekiswa namanqanaba asezantsi e-chlorpyrifos nabo banamathuba amahle okufumana i-Psychomotor Development Index kunye nokulibaziseka kwe-Index yoPhuculo lwengqondo, iingxaki zokunaka, ukunqongophala kwengqondo / iingxaki zengxaki yokuchaphazeleka, kunye neengxaki zokukhula ezichaphazela ukukhula kwiminyaka emithathu ubudala. Iziphumo zePrenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure kwiNeurodevelopment kwiminyaka emi-3 yokuQala yoBomi phakathi kwaBantwana beSixeko. Ijenali yeAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Isifundo seqela elide lokuzalwa kwindawo yezolimo eCalifornia yandisa "iziphumo zangaphambili zemibutho phakathi kwe-PON1 genotype kunye namanqanaba e-enzyme kunye nemimandla ethile ye-neurodevelopment ukuya kubudala besikolo, ebonisa ubungqina obutsha bokuba imibutho emibi phakathi kwamanqanaba e-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kunye ne-IQ inokuba yomeleleyo kubantwana boomama abanamanqanaba asezantsi e-PON1 enzyme. ” Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate pesticide, i-PON1, kunye ne-neurodevelopment kubantwana abakwiminyaka yesikolo kwisifundo se-CHAMACOS. UPhando lwezeNdalo, 2014.

Autism kunye nezinye iingxaki ze-neurodevelopmental

Uphononongo lolawulo lwamatyala oluntu lubonisa ukuba, "Ukubeleka ngaphambi kokubeleka okanye ukusana kwabantwana kwipriori ekhethiweyo yokubulala izitshabalalisi-kubandakanya i-glyphosate, i-chlorpyrifos, i-diazinon, kunye ne-permethrin-zinxulunyaniswa namathuba okonyuka kwesifo se-autism." Ukuvezwa kokubeleka ngaphambi kokuzalwa komntwana nosana kwizibulala-zinambuzane ezijikelezayo kunye nokuphazamiseka kwengqondo kubantwana: isifundo esisekwe kuluntu. I-BMJ, 2019.

Uphononongo lokulawulwa kwamatyala oluntu "luqwalasele unxibelelwano oluqinisekileyo phakathi kwe-ASD [ukuphazamiseka kwembonakalo ye-autism] kunye nokuhlala kwindawo engekazalwa kwindawo yokuhlala kwizibulala-zinambuzane ze-organophosphate kwindawo yesibini (yechlorpyrifos) kunye neyesithathu yetrimesters (i-organophosphates iyonke)". Ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo kwi-Neurodevelopmental Disorder kunye nePrenatal Residential Residence of Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: Isifundo se-CHARGE. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2014.

Bona kwakho: Ukurhafisa ibhalansi yomngcipheko we-Autism: Iindlela ezinokubakho zokudibanisa i-Pesticides kunye ne-Autism. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2012.

Ukungafani kobuchopho

"Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba ukubeleka kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos] kokubeleka, kumanqanaba aqatshelweyo ngokusetyenziswa kwesiqhelo (ukungakhathali) nangaphantsi komqobo wayo nayiphi na imiqondiso yokuvezwa kakhulu, kunesiphumo esilinganisekayo kubume bengqondo kwisampulu yabantwana abangama-40 5.9-11.2 y of ubudala. Sifumene ukungaqheleki okubonakalayo kumanyathelo e-morphological of the cerebral surface ahambelana nokuvezwa okuphezulu kokubeleka kwe-CPF… .Ukonyuselwa kwendawo yommandla wobuchwephesha kugqityiwe kwaye babekwe kwindawo ephezulu yethutyana, esemva kwexesha eliphakathi, kunye ne-gyri yangaphambi kwexesha eliphambili, nakwi-gyrus ephezulu yangaphambili. , i-gyrus rectus, i-cuneus, kunye ne-precuneus ecaleni kodonga lwe-mesial ye-hemisphere yasekunene ”. Ukuchaphazeleka kobuchopho ebantwaneni kubhencwa ngokukhethekileyo kwimbumba yokubulala izitshabalalisi ye-organophosphate. Iinkqubo zeSizwe seSizwe seSayensi, 2012.

Ukukhula komntwana

Olu phononongo "lubone umanyano olubaluleke kakhulu oluguqulweyo phakathi kwamanqanaba e-umbilical cord chlorpyrifos kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude bokuzalwa phakathi kweentsana ezikweli qela langoku lizalwe ngaphambi komthetho we-EPA wase-US ukuphelisa ukusetyenziswa kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane." I-Biomarkers kuvavanyo lokuchazwa kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunye nefuthe ekukhuleni komntwana. I-Toxicology kunye ne-Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Okucetywayo, isifundo seqela lamaqela eentlanga ezininzi safumanisa ukuba “xa kuthathelwa ingqalelo inqanaba lomsebenzi woomama we-PON1, amanqanaba oomama be-chlorpyrifos ngaphezulu komda wokubhaqa odityaniswa nomsebenzi ophantsi woomama we-PON1 unxulunyaniswa nophungulo olubalulekileyo kodwa oluncinci kwisangqa sentloko. Ukongeza, amanqanaba e-PON1 oomama kuphela, kodwa hayi i-PON1 yemvelo polymorphisms, enxulunyaniswa nobungakanani bentloko encitshisiweyo. Ngenxa yokuba ubukhulu obuncinci bentloko bufunyaniswe buxela kwangaphambili amandla okuqonda, ezi datha zibonisa ukuba i-chlorpyrifos inokuba nefuthe elibi kuphuhliso lwe-neurodevelopment koomama ababonisa imisebenzi ephantsi ye-PON1. Ukuvezwa kwe-Utero Pesticide, Umsebenzi woomama weParaoxonase, kunye nokujikeleza kweNtloko. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, 2003.

Uphononongo lweqela elifunekayo loomama abambalwa kunye neentsana zabo ezisanda kuzalwa "ziqinisekisa iziphumo zethu zangaphambili zonxibelelwano olungenanto phakathi kwamanqanaba e-chlorpyrifos kwi-umbilical cord plasma kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude… Ngapha koko, ubudlelwane bempendulo yedosi buye babonwa kwisifundo esikhoyo. Ngokukodwa, unxibelelwano phakathi kwentambo ye-plasma chlorpyrifos kunye nokwehla kobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude kwafunyanwa ikakhulu kubantwana abasandul 'ukuzalwa benamaqondo aphezulu okuvezwa. ” Ukuvezwa kokubulala izinambuzane ngaphambi kokubeleka kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude phakathi kweQela eliNcinci laseDolophini. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2004.

Umhlaza wemiphunga  

Kuvavanyo lwabangaphezulu kwama-54,000 abafaka izicelo zezibulali zinambuzane kwiSifundo seMpilo sezoLimo, oososayensi kwiNational Cancer Institute baxele ukuba izehlo zomhlaza wemiphunga zinxulunyaniswa nokuvezwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. "Kolu hlalutyo lweziganeko zomhlaza phakathi kwe-chlorpyrifos-eveze isicelo se-pesticides eNorth Carolina nase-Iowa, safumana imeko ebonakalayo yokwanda komngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga, kodwa hayi kuwo nawuphi na omnye umhlaza ovavanyiweyo, ngokunyuka kwe-chlorpyrifos." Iziganeko zomhlaza phakathi kwabafaki zicelo zezibulali-zinambuzane ezivezwe kwiiChlorpyrifos kwisifundo seMpilo yezoLimo. Ijenali yeZiko loMhlaza leSizwe, 2004.

Isifo sikaParkinson

Uhlolisiso lolawulo lwamatyala lwabantu abahlala kwiCentral Valley yaseCalifornia baxela ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungagungqiyo kwi-36 ye-organophosphate pesticides ngokwahlukeneyo kwandisa umngcipheko wokuba nesifo sika-Parkinson. Uphononongo "longeza ubungqina obuqinileyo" bokuthi i-organophosphate pesticides "iyanyanzeliswa" kwi-etiology yesifo se-idiopathic Parkinson. Umanyano phakathi kokuvezwa okukuko kwi-organophosphates kunye nomngcipheko wesifo sika-Parkinson. Umsebenzi kunye noNyango lokusiNgqongileyo, 2014.

Iziphumo zokuzalwa

Iqela labazali abahlukeneyo abakhulelweyo kunye neentsana zifumene ukuba i-chlorpyrifos “yayanyaniswa nokwehla kobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude bokuzalwa ngokubanzi (p = 0.01 kunye p = 0.003, ngokulandelanayo) kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa obuncinci phakathi kwama-Afrika aseMelika (p = 0.04) kunye nobude obuncitshisiweyo bokuzalwa eDominican (p <0.001) ". Iziphumo zokuBonakaliswa kweTransplacental ekungcoleni kwendalo esingqongileyo kwiziphumo zokuzalwa kubemi abahlukeneyo. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2003.

Ukuphazamiseka kwe-Neuroendocrine

"Ngokuhlalutya kweendlela zokuziphatha zesini-dimorphic ezinzima sibonisa ukuba imisebenzi ye-neurotoxic kunye ne-endocrine ephazamisa imisebenzi ye-CPF [chlorpyrifos] iyadibana. Le ntsholongwane isasazeke ngokubanzi kwi-organophosphorus ye-pesticide inokuthi ithathelwe ingqalelo njengesiphazamiso se-neuroendocrine ekunokwenzeka ukuba sibeke umngcipheko wokuphazamiseka kwesini kubantwana. ” Isimilo sokuziphatha kwe-dimorphic njengophawu lokuphazamiseka kwe-neuroendocrine ngamachiza okusingqongileyo: Ityala le-chlorpyrifos. NeuroToxicology, 2012.

Ukugubha

"Iziphumo ezikhoyo zibonisa ukuba abantwana abasesichengeni sokukhulelwa ngaphambi kwexesha kokubeleka kwii-chlorpyrifos babesengozini yokubonisa ukungcangcazela okuphakathi okanye okuphakathi kwingalo enye okanye zozibini xa kuvavanywa phakathi kweminyaka eyi-9 ne-13.9 yeminyaka yobudala…. Sidibene kunye, ubungqina obukhulayo bubonisa ukuba ukuba sesichengeni kokubeleka ngaphambi kokubeleka kwi-CPF [i-chlorpyrifos], kumanqanaba asetyenziswayo ngoku, kunxulunyaniswa nothotho lweengxaki ezingapheliyo kunye neziphathelene nophuhliso. ” Ukuvezwa komntwana ngaphambi kokubeleka kwi-organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos kunye nokunyikima kwabantwana. NeuroToxicology, 2015.

Iindleko ze-chlorpyrifos

Uqikelelo lweendleko zokuvezwa kweekhemikhali ezonakalisa i-endocrine kwi-European Union zifumanise ukuba "ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate kunxulunyaniswa nesigidi se-13.0 (uhlalutyo lobuntununtunu, i-4.24 yezigidi ukuya kwi-17.1 yezigidi) ilahle amanqaku e-IQ kunye nama-59 300 (uhlalutyo lobuntununtunu, i-16 500 ukuya kuma-84 400) amatyala ukukhubazeka ngokwasengqondweni, ngexabiso le- € 146 yezigidigidi (uhlalutyo lobuntununtunu, i-46.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi- € 194 yezigidigidi). ” Ukusilela kwe-Neurobehaisheral, Izifo, kunye neNdleko eziHlangeneyo zokuBhengeza i-Endocrine-Ukuphazamisa iiKhemikhali kwi-European Union.. Ijenali ye-Clinical Endocrinology kunye neMetabolism, 2015.

Idlala lengqula kwiimpuku

"Uphononongo lwangoku lubonakalise ukuba ukubhencwa kweempuku ze-CD1, ngexesha leefestile ezibalulekileyo zangaphambi kokubeleka naphambi kokubeleka, kwi-CPF [chlorpyrifos] kumanqanaba edosi angaphantsi kwalawo athintela ubuchopho be-AchE, kunokubangela utshintsho kwidlala lengqula." Ukuvezwa koPhuculo lweChlorpyrifos kukhuthaza ukuTshintsha kweNqanaba leTyroid kunye neeHormone zeHormone ngaphandle kwezinye Iimpawu zeTyhefu kwiCd1 iimpuku. Inzululwazi yeTyhefu, ngo-2009.

Iingxaki ngezifundo zeshishini

“Ngo-Matshi 1972, uFrederick Coulston kunye nabalingane bakhe eAlbany Medical College banike ingxelo ngeziphumo ze-chlorpyrifos dosing study kumxhasi wesifundo, i-Dow Chemical Company. Ingxelo yabo iqukumbele ngelithi i-0.03 mg / kg-imini yayiyinqanaba elingapheliyo elingalindelwanga-inqanaba lesiphumo (NOAEL) se-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Sibonisa apha ukuba uhlalutyo olululo lwendlela yoqobo yeenkcukacha-manani bekufanele ukuba lufumene i-NOAEL esezantsi (i-0.014 mg / kg-day), kwaye ukusetyenziswa kweendlela zobalo ezifumaneka okokuqala kwi-1982 bekuya kubonisa ukuba nelona dosi lisezantsi kuphononongo isiphumo sonyango. Uhlalutyo lwantlandlolo, olwenziwe ngabasebenzi beenkcukacha-manani abaqeshwe nguDow, khange baphonononge oontanga ngokusesikweni; Nangona kunjalo, i-EPA ikhankanye isifundo saseCoulston njengophando oluthembekileyo kwaye yagcina ingxelo yayo NOAEL njengendawo yokuhamba kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's. Ngeli xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliswe kwiindawo zokuhlala ezininzi ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali-zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kunokubeka uluntu engozini ngokungeyomfuneko. ” Uhlalutyo olungalunganga lwesifundo sedosi esenziwe ngabom kunye nefuthe laso kuvavanyo lomngcipheko we-chlorpyrifos. Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, 2020.

"Kuphononongo lwethu lwedatha ekrwada yesibulala-zinambuzane, i-chlorpyrifos, kunye nenye into ehambelana nayo, kuye kwafunyanwa ukungangqinelani phakathi kokuqwalaselweyo kunye nezigqibo ezenziweyo luvavanyo lwengxelo kwingxelo engenisiweyo yokugunyazisa isibulali zinambuzane." Ukhuseleko kuVandlakanyo loKhuseleko lwee-Pesticides: ukukhula kwe-neurotoxicity ye-chlorpyrifos kunye ne-chlorpyrifos-methyl. IMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, i-2018.

Amanye amaphepha enyaniso

Iziko laseHarvard Kennedy School eShorenstein: Isinambuzane esiphikisayo kunye nefuthe laso ekukhuleni kwengqondo: Uphando kunye nezixhobo

IYunivesithi yaseHarvard: Eyona yezibulala-zinambuzane isetyenziswa ngokubanzi, emva konyaka omnye

Umhlaba: I-Chlorpyrifos: Isibulala-zinambuzane esinetyhefu esenzakalisa abantwana bethu kunye nokusingqongileyo

Iqela leSierra: Abantwana kunye neChlorpyrifos

Ubuntatheli kunye neMbono

Ukucingwa nguBradley Peterson, ngokuQhubeka kweZiko leSayensi leSizwe; ENew York Times

Ilifa likaTrump: Iingqondo ezonakalisiweyo, nguNicholas Kristof, ENew York Times. “Isibulali zinambuzane, esisodidi lweekhemikhali eziveliswe njengegesi yemithambo-luvo eyenziwe yiJamani yamaNazi, ngoku zifumaneka ekutyeni, emoyeni nasemanzini okusela. Izifundo zabantu nezilwanyana zibonisa ukuba zonakalisa ingqondo kwaye zinciphisa ii-IQ ngelixa zibangela ukungcangcazela kwabantwana. ”

Khusela iingqondo zabantwana bethu, nguSharon Lerner, ENew York Times. Ukusetyenziswa okuxhaphakileyo kwe-chlorpyrifos kukhomba kwinto yokuba ayilulo uhlobo lweekhemikhali olonzakalisa wonke umntu odibana nalo- okanye olubangela ukuba bawe phantsi. Endaweni yoko, uphando lubonisa ukwanda komngcipheko wokubandezeleka ngenxa yeengxaki ezithile zophuhliso ezithi, nangona zingabalulekanga kangako, zikwanyamezele.

Isiqhamo seTyhefu: IDow Chemical ifuna amafama ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenzisa i-Pesticide edityaniswe ne-Autism kunye ne-ADHD, NguSharon Lerner, uMmiselo. “IDow, inkampani enkulu yemichiza enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi lechlorpyrifos kwaye isenza uninzi lweemveliso ezinayo, ibuphikisile ubungqina bezenzululwazi obandayo bokuba i-blockbuster chemical iyabenzakalisa abantwana. Kodwa ingxelo karhulumente ikubeke kwacaca ukuba i-EPA ngoku iyayamkela inzululwazi ezimeleyo ebonisa ukuba iyeza lokubulala izinambuzane elalisetyenziselwa ukukhulisa ukutya kwethu okuninzi alikhuselekanga. ”

Xa idatha eyaneleyo ingonelanga ukwenza umgaqo-nkqubo: Ukusilela ukunqanda i-chlorpyrifos, NguLeonardo Trasande, PLOS Biology. “Izazinzulu zinoxanduva lokuthetha xa abenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo besilela ukwamkela idatha yesayensi. Kufuneka bachaze ngokucacileyo ukusilela kwemigaqo-nkqubo, nokuba ezinye zezinto ezisisiseko zenzululwazi zihlala zingaqinisekanga. ”

Kungavalwanga Njani Ukuthintelwa kwezi zinambuzane? yibhodi yabahleli yeThe New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuba yi-chlorpyrifos ngokuqinisekileyo siyingozi kwaye sisetyenziswa kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ukuba kudlula ngokulula ukusuka kumama kuye emntwaneni kwaye kunxulunyaniswe kuluhlu olubanzi lweengxaki zonyango ezinzulu, kubandakanya nokukhula kakuhle, isifo sikaParkinson kunye nezinye iindlela zomhlaza. Ayothusi loo nto. Iikhemikhali yaveliswa ekuqaleni ngamaNazi ngexesha leMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi ukuze isetyenziswe njengegesi yovalo. Nantsi into eyothusayo: Iitoni zesibulali zinambuzane zisafafazwa kwizigidi zeehektare zase-United States minyaka le, phantse iminyaka emihlanu emva kokuba i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo ifanele ivalwe. ”

Esi sibulali zinambuzane sisondele kakhulu kwiiarhente zemithambo-luvo ezisetyenziswe kwiMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi. I-EPA kaTrump ayikhathali, NguJoseph G. Allen, Washington Post. Into esiyaziyo nge-chlorpyrifos iyothusa. Mhlawumbi esona sifundo saziwa kakhulu sesinye senziwe ngabaphandi kwiYunivesithi yaseColumbia abenze ingqondo yokucinga ngengqondo yabantwana abancinci abanesifo esiphezulu se-chlorpyrifos. Iziphumo ziyothusa kwaye azicacanga. Ngokwamagama abaphengululi: "Olu phononongo luchaza imibutho ebalulekileyo yokuchaphazeleka kokubeleka kokubeleka kwindawo esetyenziswa ngokubanzi ye-neurotoxicant, kumanqanaba okusetyenziswa okuqhelekileyo, notshintsho kulwakhiwo kwingqondo yomntu ekhulayo."

Ityala elomeleleyo ngokuchasene neyeza lokubulala izinambuzane alinakuthintela i-EPA phantsi kweTrump, NguRoni Caryn Robin, New York Times. Uvavanyo oluhlaziyiweyo lomngcipheko wempilo yabantu oluqulunqwe yi-EPA ngo-Novemba lufumanise ukuba iingxaki zempilo bezisenzeka kumanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa kunokuba bekukholelwa ukuba kuyingozi. Iintsana, abantwana, amantombazana amancinci kunye nabasetyhini bavezwa kwinqanaba eliyingozi le-chlorpyrifos ngokutya kuphela, itsho iarhente. Abantwana bachanabeke kumanqanaba okufikelela kuma-140 umda wokhuseleko. ”

Iintsana zikhulu emva kokuvalwa kwe-2 yezibulali zinambuzane, uPhononongo ufumanisa, NguRichard Pérez-Peña, ENew York Times. "Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo kumantla eManhattan ababesengozini yokubulawa ziintsholongwane ezibini eziqhelekileyo babeneentsana ezincinci kunabamelwane babo, kodwa izithintelo zakutshanje kwezi zinto zimbini zanciphisa ukubhencwa kunye nokwandisa ubungakanani beentsana, ngokophando olupapashiweyo namhlanje."

Ityhefu Yithi, nguTimothy Egan, New York Times. “Xa uluma kwisiqwengana sesiqhamo, kufanele ukuba kube kukuzonwabisa okungenangqondo. Ngokuqinisekileyo, loo sitrobheli ijongeka njenge-steroidal ene-toothpaste-emhlophe yangaphakathi ayibonakali ilungile ukuqala. Kodwa akufuneki ucinge malunga nokukhula kwengqondo yobuntwana xa uyibeka kwisiriyeli yakho. Ulawulo lukaTrump, ngokubeka iicadies zeshishini leekhemikhali phakathi kokutya kunye nokhuseleko loluntu, lunyanzelise uvavanyo olutsha lesidlo sakusasa kunye nezinye iindlela ezingafanelekanga ukuba zoyike. ”

Kwisitya sakho sokutya kunye nasemzimbeni wakho: Eyona nto iyingozi kakhulu yokubulala izinambuzane ongazange uve ngayo, Ngu-Staffan Dahllöf, Uphando lweNgxelo eDenmark. Isiphumo esinetyhefu se-chlorpyrifos kwizinambuzane asiphikiswa. Umbuzo ongasonjululwanga kukuba ingaba ukusebenzisa ichlorpyrifos kuyingozi kangakanani kuyo yonke into ephilayo efana neentlanzi ezikufuphi namanzi okanye abasebenzi basezifama emasimini, okanye kuye nakubani na otya iimveliso ezinyangiweyo. ”

I-Neurotoxins kwi-broccoli yomntwana wakho: bubomi obuphantsi kukaTrump, NguCarey Gillam, uMgcini. “Ixabiseke kangakanani impilo yomntwana wakho? Impendulo evela kubunkokheli be-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US yile: ayisiyonto ingako… Ke ngoku silapha-sinenkxalabo yezenzululwazi ngokhuseleko lwabantwana bethu abamsulwa nabasesichengeni kwelinye icala kwaye benamandla, bezizityebi abadlala inxaxheba kwelinye. Iinkokheli zethu zopolitiko nezolawulo zibonise ukuba zeziphi ezona zinto bazithandayo. ”

Inambuzane eQhelekileyo inokuchaphazela amaBongo amaKhwenkwe kunamantombazana, Ngu-Brett Israel, Iindaba zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo. “Kumakhwenkwe, ukubhencwa kwi-chlorpyrifos esibelekweni kwakuyanyaniswa amanqaku asezantsi kwiimvavanyo zeememori zexesha elifutshane xa kuthelekiswa namantombazana abekwe kwizixa ezifanayo.

Amanqaku angaphezulu ezenzululwazi kwimichiza ekutyeni kwethu 

Fumana ngakumbi i-US Right to Know sheet sheet:

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka elishumi yeSayensi ibhekisa kwiingozi eziMandla zeMpilo

Iphepha leNqaku leGlyphosate: Umhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zeMpilo

Iphepha lokwenyani leDicamba 

Ilungelo lokuazi lase-US liqela eliphandayo lezempilo loluntu elisebenza kwihlabathi liphela ukubonisa ukungalunganga komntu kunye nokusilela kukarhulumente okugrogrisa ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yethu yokutya, okusingqongileyo kunye nempilo yethu.  Unga nikela apha kuphando lwethu kwaye bhalisela iincwadana zethu zeveki.  

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

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