Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Iphepha leNqaku leGlyphosate: Umhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zeMpilo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Glyphosate, into eyenziwayo yokubulala ukhula enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wayo ngo-1974 yiNkampani iMonsanto kwaye ngoku yenziwe yaza yathengiswa ziinkampani ezininzi kumakhulu eemveliso, inxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa njengeyona nto iphambili kwi-Roundup-branded herbicides, kunye ne-herbicide esetyenziswa kwi "Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulweyo (GMOs).

Ukunyamezelana nokubulala intsholongwane lolona hlobo lwe GMO luxhaphakileyo olwenziweyo kwizityalo zokutya, malunga ne-90% yengqolowa kunye ne-94% yeembotyi zesoya e-US ezilungiselelwe ukunyamezela i-herbicides, ngokweedatha ze-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ukufumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwabantu baseMelika kwi-glyphosate kunyuke malunga 500 ekhulwini okoko i-Roundup Ready GMO izityalo zaziswa e-US ngo-1996. Nazi ezinye iinyani eziphambili malunga neglyphosate:

Uninzi lweePesticide ezisetyenziswa kakhulu

Ngokutsho NgoFebruwari 2016 isifundo, Iglyphosate yi esetyenziswa kakhulu isibulali zinambuzane: E-US, akukho sibulali zinambuzane sisondeleyo kule ndawo isetyenziswa kakhulu. ” Iziphumo zibandakanya:

  • Abantu baseMelika basebenzise i-1.8 yezigidi zeetoni ze-glyphosate okoko yaqaliswa ngo-1974.
  • Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni zekhemikhali ziye zafafazwa kumasimi-anele ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sepawundi yeRoundup kuyo yonke iakile yomhlaba elinywayo.
  • Ehlabathini jikelele, ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuye kwanda phantse kangangezihlandlo ezili-15 okoko kwaziswa izityalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Iingxelo ezivela kwizazinzulu nakubanikezeli bezempilo 

Iingxaki zomhlaza

Uncwadi lwezenzululwazi kunye nezigqibo zolawulo ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides zibonisa ukuxubana kweziphumo, okwenza ukhuseleko lwe-herbicide lube sisifundo esixoxwa kakhulu. 

Kwi-2015, i I-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Iiarhente zase-US: Ngexesha lokuhlelwa kwe-IARC, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yayiqhuba uphononongo lobhaliso. IKomiti yokuHlola uMhlaza ye-EPA (CARC) ikhuphe ingxelo ngoSeptemba 2016 Ukuqukumbela ukuba i-glyphosate "ayinakulindeleka ukuba ibe ngumhlaza ebantwini" ngeedosi ezifanelekileyo kwimpilo yabantu. NgeyoMnga yowama-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigqeba esiCebisayo ngezeNzululwazi ukuze siqwalasele ingxelo; amalungu ebekhona yahlulwe kuvavanyo lomsebenzi we-EPA, ngokufumanisa ukuba i-EPA yenze impazamo kwindlela eluvavanye ngayo uphando oluthile. Ukongeza, iOfisi ye-EPA yoPhando noPhuhliso igqibe ekubeni iOfisi yeNkqubo ye-Pesticide ye-EPA ayilandelwa iiprothokholi ezifanelekileyo kuvavanyo lwayo lwe-glyphosate, wathi ubungqina bungathathwa njengexhasa ubungqina “obunokubakho” be-carcinogenic okanye obucebisayo “bokuhlelwa kwe-carcinogenicity. Nangona kunjalo i-EPA ikhuphe ingxelo eyilwayo kwi-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuba imichiza ayinakuba ngumhlaza. Ngo-Epreli 2019, i-EPA iphinde yaqinisekisa ukuma kwayo loo glyphosate ayibeki mngcipheko kwimpilo yoluntu. Kodwa kwangoko kwakuloo nyanga, i-Arhente yase-US yeZinto ezinobungozi kunye neRegistry yeZifo (i-ATSDR) ixele ukuba kukho amakhonkco phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza. Ngokwe- Idrafti yengxelo evela kwi-ATSDR, "Uphononongo oluninzi luchaze umngcipheko omkhulu kunomnye kwimibutho phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nomngcipheko we-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma okanye i-myeloma emininzi." 

I-EPA ikhuphe i Isigqibo sokuHlola okwethutyana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi oluhlaziyiweyo malunga nokuma kwayo kwi-glyphosate. 

Udibano lwaseyurophu: The IGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu kwaye i I-arhente yeekhemikhali yaseYurophu bathe i-glyphosate ayinakubangelwa yi-carcinogenic ebantwini. A Ingxelo kaMatshi 2017 ngamaqela okusingqongileyo kunye nabathengi bathi abalawuli baxhomekeke ngokungafanelekanga kuphando olwalujolise kwaye lwenziwa ngumzi mveliso weekhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ifumanise ukuba i-Federal Institute yaseJamani yoVavanyo loMngcipheko kwi-glyphosate, engafumananga mngcipheko womhlaza, ibandakanya amacandelo okubhaliweyo echazwe kwizifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebruwari 2020, kwavela iingxelo zokuba izifundo ezingama-24 ezingeniswe kubalawuli baseJamani ukungqina ukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate zavela kwilabhoratri enkulu yaseJamani utyholwa ngobuqhetseba nokunye okungalunganga.

Intlanganiso edibeneyo ye-WHO / FAO kwiiNtsalela zeziBulala-zinambuzane misele Kwi-2016 ukuba i-glyphosate yayingenakulindeleka ukuba ibangele umngcipheko we-carcinogenic ebantwini ekuvezweni kukutya, kodwa oku kufunyaniswa kwaphazanyiswa ukugqubana kwemidla inkxalabo emva kokuvela ukuba usihlalo kunye nosihlalo weqela bakwizikhundla zobunkokheli kunye IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi, iqela elixhaswe ngemali yinxalenye yeMonsanto kunye nenye yemibutho yokucela inkxaso.

California OEHHA: Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesibhozo ku-Matshi ngo-28, iOfisi yeArhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo eCalifornia yoVavanyo lweNgozi yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo yaqinisekisa ukuba iya kuba njalo yongeza i-glyphosate Isindululo saseCalifornia uluhlu lwama-65 lweekhemikhali ezaziwa ngokubangela umhlaza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba isenzo kodwa ityala lachithwa. Kwityala elahlukileyo, inkundla yafumanisa ukuba iCalifornia ayinakufuna izilumkiso zomhlaza kwiimveliso eziqukethe i-glyphosate. Nge-12 kaJuni ka-2018, iNkundla yeSithili sase-US yasikhaba isicelo se-Attorney General sase-California sokuba inkundla iphinde isijonge isigqibo. Inkundla yafumanisa ukuba iCalifornia inokufuna kuphela intetho yentengiso echaze "ulwazi oluyinyani nolungenakuphikiswa," kwaye inzululwazi ejikeleze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayiboniswanga.

Isifundo seMpilo yezoLimo: Isifundo sexesha elide esixhaswa ngurhulumente wase-US esineqela elixhasayo ngeentsapho zasezifama e-Iowa nase-North Carolina khange lifumane nxu lumano phakathi kokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abaphandi baxela ukuba "phakathi kwezicelo ezikwindawo ephezulu yokuvezwa, bekukho umngcipheko okhulayo we-myeloid leukemia (AML) xa kuthelekiswa nabantu abangazange basebenzise… ”Olona hlaziyo lupapashiweyo kutsha nje kuphando yenziwa esidlangalaleni ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zamva nje zokudibanisa i-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazamiseka kwe-Endocrine, ukuchuma kunye neenkxalabo zokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Uphononongo lwango-2017 olunxulumene nokuchasana okungapheliyo, kwinqanaba eliphantsi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingatyebanga kwiigundane. Ngokutsho kwabaphandi, iziphumo "zithetha ukuba ukusetyenziswa okungapheliyo kwamanqanaba asezantsi kakhulu e-GBH formulation (Roundup), kwindawo eyamkelekileyo yokulingana kwe-glyphosate, zinxulunyaniswa notshintsho oluphawuliweyo lweproteome yesibindi kunye nemetabolome," ii-biomarkers ze-NAFLD.

Ukuphazamiseka kweMicrobiome

  • Novemba 2020 iphepha kwiJenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi uxela ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo kwi-gut gut microbiome "ezinokuthi zivelele" kwi-glyphosate. Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeebhaktiriya ezisemathunjini ezinokuthi zichaphazeleke kwi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo. 
  • 2020 uphononongo loncwadi lweziphumo zeglyphosate kwi-gut microbiome Uqukumbela ngelithi, "intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni inokubangela i-dysbiosis, ngenxa yokuba ii-pathogen ezinamathuba amelana ne-glyphosate xa kuthelekiswa ne-bacteria." Eli phepha liqhuba lithi, “IGlyphosate ingangunobangela obalulekileyo kwindalo esingqongileyo kwizifo ezininzi ezinxulunyaniswa nesifo se-dysbiosis, kubandakanya isifo se-celiac, isifo sokukrala kwamathumbu kunye nesifo samathumbu. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate kunokuba nemiphumo kwimpilo yengqondo, kubandakanya uxinzelelo kunye noxinzelelo, ngokutshintsha kwegciwane le-microbiome. ”
  • Uphononongo lwe-2018 lweerat oluqhutywa yiRamazzini Institute luxele ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweedosi ezisezantsi kwiRoundup kumanqanaba athathwa njengokukhuselekileyo utshintshe i-gut microbiota kwezinye iinjana zeempuku.
  • Olunye uphononongo lwe-2018 luxele ukuba amanqanaba aphezulu e-glyphosate alawulwa kwiimpuku aphazamisa i-gut microbiota kunye kubangele uxinzelelo kunye nokuziphatha okufana nokudakumba.

Iimpembelelo ezinobungozi iinyosi kunye namabhabhathane e monarch

Amacala omhlaza

Ngaphezulu kwabantu abangama-42,000 abafake isimangalo ngokuchasene neNkampani iMonsanto (ngoku eyiBayer) betyhola ukuba ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye iMonsanto yagquma ubungozi. Njengengxenye yenkqubo yokufumanisa, iMonsanto kuye kwafuneka iguqulwe kwizigidi zamaphepha eerekhodi zangaphakathi. Singo ukuthumela la maPhepha eMonsanto njengoko ezifumaneka. Ukufumana iindaba kunye neengcebiso malunga nomthetho oqhubekayo, jonga uCarey Gillam's Umjongi weTrial Rounder. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaye zaphelela kumabhaso amakhulu kubamangali ngenxa yoxanduva kunye nomonakalo, ngamajaji agweba ukuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba negalelo elibangela ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL. I-Bayer ibhengeza isigwebo. 

Impembelelo yeMonsanto kuphando: Ngo-Matshi 2017, ijaji yenkundla yomanyano yavula amanye amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto iphakamise imibuzo emitsha malunga nefuthe likaMonsanto kwinkqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bophando abathembele kuyo. Amaxwebhu abonisa ukuba amabango akudala kaMonsanto malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ungaxhomekeki kwisayensi elungileyo njengoko inkampani iqinisekisa, kodwa ivulwe iinzame zokusebenzisa inzululwazi

Ulwazi oluthe kratya malunga nokuphazamiseka kwesayensi

Izazinzulu zaseSri Lankan zinike ibhaso lenkululeko le-AAAS kuphando lwesifo sezintso

I-AAAS inikezele ngoososayensi ababini baseSri Lankan, uGqr. UChanna Jayasumana kunye noSarath Gunatilake, Imbasa ye-2019 yeNkululeko yeSayensi kunye noXanduva Umsebenzi wabo "wokuphanda unxibelelwano olunokubakho phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nesifo sezintso ezingapheliyo phantsi kweemeko ezinzima." Oososayensi baxele ukuba i-glyphosate idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuthutheni isinyithi esinzulu kwizintso zalabo basela amanzi angcolileyo, ekhokelela kwizinga eliphezulu lesifo sezintso ezingapheliyo kuluntu lwasezifama. Jonga amaphepha kwi  I-SpringerPlus (2015) IBMC yeNephrology (2015) LeMpilo yeNdalo (2015) Ijenali yehlabathi yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu (2014). Ibhaso le-AAAS belikhona kumiswa phakathi kwephulo eliphikisayo eliphikisayo ngamanyano eshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi ukujongela phantsi umsebenzi woososayensi. Emva koqwalaselo, iAAAS ubuyisele ibhaso

Ukuchithwa: omnye umthombo wokuvezwa kokutya 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate kwizityalo ezingezo-GMO ezifana nengqolowa, irhasi, i-oats, kunye neelentile ukomisa isityalo ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kukhawuleziswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-desiccation, inokuba ngumthombo obalulekileyo wokuvezwa kokutya kwi-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekutyeni: I-US irhuqa iinyawo zayo kuvavanyo

I-USDA ithe cwaka yalahla isicwangciso sokuqala ukuvavanya ukutya kwentsalela ye-glyphosate ngo-2017. Amaxwebhu e-arhente angaphakathi afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa ukuba i-arhente icwangcise ukuqala ukuvavanya ngaphezulu kweesampulu ezingama-300 zesiraphu yengqolowa ye-glyphosate ngo-Epreli ka-2017. Iarhente ibulale iprojekthi ngaphambi kokuba iqale. I-US Food and Drug Administration yaqala inkqubo yovavanyo encinci ngo-2016, kodwa iinzame zazigcwele impikiswano kunye nobunzima bangaphakathi kwaye inkqubo yayi kumiswa ngoSeptemba 2016. Zombini ezi arhente zineenkqubo ezivavanya ukutya rhoqo ngonyaka kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kodwa zombini ziye zayeka ukuvavanywa kwe-glyphosate.

Phambi kokumiswa, kwafunyanwa ikhemesti enye ye-FDA Amanqanaba othusayo e-glyphosate Kwiisampulu ezininzi zobusi baseMelika, amanqanaba awayengekho semthethweni ngenxa yokuba kungakhange kubekho manqanaba avumelekileyo enzelwe ubusi yi-EPA. Nalu uphinda lweendaba malunga ne-glyphosate efumaneka kukutya:

Amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni kwethu: Iphi idatha yokhuseleko?

Idatha ye-USDA ukusuka ngo-2016 ibonisa amanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi kwi-85% yokutya okungaphezulu kwe-10,000 kwisampuli, yonke into isuka kumakhowa ukuya kwiidiliya ukuya kwiimbotyi eziluhlaza. Urhulumente uthi akukho nto inokubeka impilo emngciphekweni, kodwa ezinye izazinzulu zithi akukho lwazi luninzi lokuxhasa eli bango. Jonga "Iikhemikhali ekutyeni kwethu: Xa "kukhuselekile" kusenokungakhuseleki ngokwenyani: Uvavanyo lwezenzululwazi lwentsalela yezinambuzane ekutyeni iyakhula; ukhuseleko lolawulo lubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

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Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

Inkundla yezibheno iyayikhaba imali iMonsanto yokuphinda umiselwe ityala

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Inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ngoLwesibini yalahla iMonsanto Umzamo wokunciphisa i-4 yezigidi ukusuka kwisixa semali esityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukusinda umhlaza ofunyenwe yijaji yabangelwa kukuvezwa komntu kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yeSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia ikwasikhaba isicelo senkampani sokuphinda umanyelwe lo mbandela. Isigqibo senkundla silandele isigwebo saso kwinyanga ephelileyo Ukubetha iMonsanto  ngokukhanyela ukomelela kobungqina bokuba ababulali bayo bokhula olusisiseko se-glyphosate babangela umhlaza. Kweso sigwebo sangoJulayi, inkundla yathi ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson unike ubungqina “obuninzi” bokuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ubangele umhlaza wakhe. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa," inkundla yezibheno yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJulayi.

Kweso sigqibo ukusukela kwinyanga ephelileyo, inkundla yezibheno yenze njalo, isike isinxephezelo somonakalo esityala uJohnson, eyalela uMonsanto ukuba ahlawule i-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, ezantsi ukusuka kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa ngumgwebi wetyala kwaye yehla kwi-289 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa yijaji eyagqiba isigqibo sikaJohnson Ityala ngo-Agasti 2018.

Ukongeza kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iMonsanto etyala uJohnson, inkampani iyalelwa ukuba ihlawule i-519,000 yeedola kwiindleko.

IMonsanto, eyayithengwe nguBayer AG kwi2018, yayinayo ibongoza inkundla ukusika ibhaso kuJohnson ukuya kwi- $ 16.5 yezigidi.

Isigqibo seDicamba simi ngokunjalo

Isigqibo senkundla yangoLwesibini silandele a Isigqibo esikhutshwe ngoMvulo yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba iphika ukuphinda kuqhutywe isigqibo senkundla kaJuni shiya imvume yemveliso yokubulala ukhula esekwe dicamba Bayer ezuzwe njengelifa kwiMonsanto. Isigwebo sikaJuni sikwaphelise ngokufanelekileyo i-dicamba-based herbicides eyenziwe yi-BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience.

Iinkampani zaye zacela iqela elibanzi leejaji kwiijaji zesekethe zeThoba ukuba liziqhelanise neli tyala, zisithi isigqibo sokurhoxisa ukwamkelwa kolawulo lweemveliso sasingalunganga. Kodwa inkundla yasikhaba ngaw 'omane eso sicelo.

Kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni, iSekethe yethoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

Isigqibo senkundla sokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani sabangela isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa yiMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba iinkampani ezintathu. Ngokufana ne "Roundup Ready" izityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo, izityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba zivumela amafama ukuba afafaze i-dicamba ngaphezulu kwamasimi abo ukubulala ukhula ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo.

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni.

I-Bayer icela inkundla yezibheno ukuba iphinde isike umvuzo we-Roundup onetyala kumgcini wezizathu wase-California onomhlaza

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U-Bayer ucela inkundla yezibheno yase-California ukuba inciphise i-4 yezigidi zeedola kwimali eyityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukuba aphile umhlaza owafunyanwa yinkundla yetyala ibangelwa kukuvezwa kwale ndoda kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Kwi "uxwebhu lwesikhalazo”Bafaka ngoMvulo kwiNkundla yezibheno kwiSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia, amagqwetha eMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG bacele inkundla ukuba isike kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iye kwi-16.5 yezigidi zeerandi ngomonakalo owanikwa uDewayne“ Lee ”Johnson.

Inkundla yezibheno "yafikelela kwisigqibo esingalunganga esisekwe kwimpazamo yomthetho," ngokufayilwa nguMonsanto. Umcimbi ujika ekubeni kulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elingakanani uJohnson. Kuba ubungqina kwityala ufumene ukuba uJohnson wayekulindelwe ukuba aphile "kungadluli kwiminyaka emibini," akufuneki afumane imali yeentlungu ezizayo kunye nokubandezeleka okwabiweyo ixesha elingaphezulu kweminyaka emibini- ngaphandle kwento yokuba uyaqhubeka nokuphila uqikelelo, inkampani iyaphikisana.

Ngaphantsi kokubala okucelwe nguMonsanto, inkundla kufuneka isike kwi-4 yezigidi ukuya kwi-2 yezigidi isixa-mali esi-odolwe kumonakalo ongekho kwezoqoqosho, (iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka.) Oko kuya kunciphisa ukonakala kwembuyekezo (eyadlulayo neyexesha elizayo) ukuya kwi- $ 8,253,209. Ngelixa isanyanzelisa ukuba akufuneki ukuba ibenetyala lokohlwaywa, ukuba ngaba isohlwayo somonakalo sihlawulisiwe kufuneka sibekwe ngaphezulu kwe-1-to-1 ratio ngokuchasene nembuyekezo, ukuzisa itotali kwi-16,506,418 yeedola, uMonsanto uxoxa ngokugcwalisa kwayo.

Ekuqaleni uJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola nge-Agasti ka-Agasti 2018, emenza ukuba abe ngummangali wokuqala ukuba aphumelele kwinqanaba lokuvavanywa kwamabango okuba ukubhencwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela ukuba kungabikho iHodgkin lymphoma kwaye iMonsanto ifihle umngcipheko. Ijaji yetyala lehlise ibhaso laya kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola. IMonsanto ibhenele ukufuna ityala elitsha okanye ibhaso elincitshisiweyo. UJohnson wenza isibheno efuna ukubuyiselwa kumvuzo wakhe opheleleyo.

Inkundla yezibheno Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson. Kwaye inkundla yafumanisa ukuba "bekukho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson ubandezelekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Kodwa inkundla ithe umonakalo kufuneka wehliswe ufike kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola ngenxa yemeko yobomi obufutshane bukaJohnson.

Kunye nemfuno yayo yokuncitshiswa komonakalo, iMonsanto icela inkundla yezibheno ukuba inike isimangalo sokulungisa "uhlalutyo lwayo" kwaye "isijike isigwebo ngemiyalelo yokungena kwisigwebo.
IMonsanto okanye, ubuncinci, phuma kuwongwa ngembuyekezo yokohlwaya. ”

Ityala likaJohnson laligqunywe ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka iliso kwimizamo kaMonsanto yokusebenzisa irekhodi lesayensi kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup kunye neenzame zayo zokuthula abagxeki kunye nefuthe labalawuli. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

Izenzo zikaBayer zokunciphisa amabhaso omonakalo ngenxa yokulahleka kwetyala likaMonsanto liza njengoko inkampani ifuna ukuhlala kufutshane ne-100,000 Roundup amabango omhlaza asalinde i-United States kwiinkundla ezahlukeneyo. Abanye abamangali abonwabanga ngokuhlala ngokwemiqathango, kwaye besoyikisela ukungavumi kwintengiselwano.

Intshukumo kwisibheno sePilliod

Kwisenzo esahlukileyo sesibheno esimalunga nokumangalelwa ngeRoundup, kwiveki ephelileyo amagqwetha eAlva naseAlberta Pilliod wafaka ingxelo emfutshane ucela inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ukuba iyalele umonakalo kumabhaso atshatileyo efikelela kwi-575 yezigidi zeedola. Esi sibini sikhulileyo- bobabini babethwa ngumhlaza odakisayo ababekek 'ityala ekuvezeni iRoundup- baphumelela ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi xa kuvavanywa ityala, kodwa ijaji yetyala emva koko wehlisa ibhaso lejaji ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-87 zeedola.

Ukuchithwa kwebhaso lomonakalo kwakugqithisile, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha amele esi sibini, kwaye akamohlwayi ngokwaneleyo uMonsanto ngesenzo sakhe esingalunganga.

"Amajaji amathathu aseCalifornia, iijaji zetyala ezine, kunye neejaji ezintathu zezibheno eziye zajonga ukungaziphathi kakuhle kukaMonsanto bavumile ngamxhelo-mnye ukuba" kukho ubungqina obubambekayo bokuba uMonsanto wenza ngokungakhathali ngabom nangolwazelelelo ngokhuseleko lwabanye, "Isishwankathelo sePilliod sithi. "Ibango likaMonsanto lokuba lixhoba" lokungabikho kokusesikweni "kule meko liya lisiba lilize ngenxa yezi ngxelo zifunyenwe ngamxhelomnye."

Amagqwetha acela inkundla ukuba inikezele nge-10-to-1 ratio yomonakalo owohlwaywayo kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo.

"Amaxhoba okwenyani kokungabikho kokusesikweni kule meko ziiPilliods, eziye zanesifo esibuhlungu nesenzakalisayo ngenxa yesifo seMonsanto," lishwankathela. "Ijaji, ekumiseleni ukuba abemi abahloniphekileyo akufuneki bayinyamezele isimilo esibi sikaMonsanto, bagqiba kwelokuba ngumonakalo omkhulu kuphela onokumohlwaya kwaye uthintele iMonsanto."

Inkundla yezibheno ixhasa izizathu zovavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup ophumelele iMonsanto

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Ngenye ilahleko yenkundla kumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, inkundla yezibheno yala umzamo wenkampani wokubhukuqa uloyiso lwetyala olungafakwanga ngumgcini wesikolo saseCalifornia otyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane eMonsanto yabangela ukuba abe nomhlaza, nangona inkundla yathi umonakalo kufuneka ube yinqumle kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Inkundla yeziBheno yesiThili sokuqala seZibheno eCalifornia utshilo uMvulo ukuba iimpikiswano zikaMonsanto zazingacacanga kwaye uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayenelungelo lokuqokelela i-10.25 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye nezinye i-10.25 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayo. Oko kuhla kwisimbuku se-78 yezigidi zeedola ijaji yetyala ivumelekile.

"Ngokokubona kwethu, uJohnson wabonisa ubungqina obuninzi-kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo bukhulu- bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza wakhe," yatsho inkundla. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa."

Inkundla iphinde yaqaphela ukuba "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson wabandezeleka, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Inkundla yathi impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuba iziphumo zesayensi malunga nokunxibelelana kwe-glyphosate nomhlaza zenza "umbono omncinci" awuxhaswanga.

Ngokukodwa, inkundla yezibheno yongeze ukuba isohlwayo somonakalo sasikhona ngenxa yokuba kwakukhona ubungqina obaneleyo bokuba uMonsanto wenza "ngabom nangokungakhathaleli ukhuseleko lwabanye."

UMike Miller, ogama lakhe laseVirginia lalimela uJohnson etyaleni kunye neBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles, wathi wayevuyiswa kukuqinisekiswa kwenkundla ukuba uJohnson uhlaselwe ngumhlaza ekusebenziseni kwakhe iRoundup kwaye inkundla iqinisekisile imbasa yesohlwayo. umonakalo ngenxa “yokuziphatha gwenxa ngabom kukaMonsanto.”

“Umnumzana Johnson usaqhubekeka nokugula. Siyazingca ngokulwela uMnu Johnson nokulandela kwakhe ubulungisa, ”utshilo uMiller.

IMonsanto ityala inzala yonyaka kwinqanaba leepesenti ezili-10 ukusuka ngo-Epreli we-2018 de ihlawule isigwebo sokugqibela.

Ukuncitshiswa komonakalo kubotshelelwe kwinxalenye yokuba oogqirha baxelele uJohnson ukuba umhlaza wakhe awupheli kwaye akalindelwe ukuba aphile ixesha elide. Inkundla ivumile noMonsanto ukuba ngenxa yomonakalo owenzelwayo wenzelwe ukubuyekeza iintlungu ezizayo, ukubandezeleka ngokwasengqondweni, ukuphulukana nokonwaba kobomi, ukukhubazeka emzimbeni, njlnjl .. Ixesha elifutshane lokuphila kukaJohnson ngokusemthethweni lithetha ngomonakalo "ongekho kwezoqoqosho" wexesha elizayo owanikwa yinkundla yamatyala. kufuneka icuthwe.

U-Brent Wisner, elinye lamagqwetha kaJohnson, wathi ukwehliswa komonakalo sisiphumo "sesona siphoso sinzulu somthetho waseCalifornia."

"Ngokusisiseko, umthetho waseCalifornia awumvumeli ummangali ukuba afumane ithuba elifutshane lokuphila," utshilo uWisner. “Oku kuvuza ngokufanelekileyo ummangalelwa ngokubulala ummangali, ngokuchasene nokwenzakala nje kwakhe. Yimpambano. ”

Ukujongwa kokuziphatha kukaMonsanto

Kwakuyinyanga nje ezimbini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto, ngo-Agasti 2018, ukuba ijaji enye wanika uJohnson i-289 yezigidi zeedola, kubandakanya i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo, ukufumanisa ukuba ayenzanga kuphela imichiza yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto ibangele ukuba uJohnson avelise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa ukuba inkampani iyayazi ingozi yomhlaza kwaye yasilela ukulumkisa uJohnson. Ityala elalibandakanya iMonsanto glyphosate ezimbini zeemveliso zokutshabalalisa ukhula - iRoundup kunye neRanger Pro.

Ijaji yetyala lasithoba isigwebo esiyi- $ 78 yezigidi kodwa uMonsanto wabhenela kwisixa esincitshisiweyo. Umnqamlezo uJohnson ubhenele ekubuyiseleni isigwebo se-289 yezigidi.

Ityala likaJohnson lagutyungelwa ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka ukuqaqanjelwa kokuziphatha okungathandabuzekiyo kweMonsanto. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amaxwebhu angaphakathi akwabonisa ukuba iMonsanto ilindele ukuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza ihlukanise i-glyphosate njengento enokwenzeka okanye enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu ngo-Matshi ka-2015. bakhupha udidi lwabo.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

NgoJuni, iBayer yathi ifikelele kwi-  isivumelwano sokuhlala kunye namagqwetha amele iipesenti ezingama-75 ze-125,000 ezifakiweyo kwaye ziseza kufakwa amabango aqalwe ngabamangali baseMelika abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. U-Bayer uthe uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo. Kodwa amagqwetha amele ngaphezulu kwe-20,000 XNUMX yabamangali abathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesigwebo senkundla, uBayer uthe umi ngasemva kukhuseleko lweRoundup: Isigqibo senkundla yesibheno sokunciphisa umonakalo kunye nezohlwayo linyathelo eliya kwicala elilungileyo, kodwa siyaqhubeka nokukholelwa ekubeni isigwebo sejaji kunye nomonakalo Amabhaso awuhambelani nobungqina ekuxoxweni kwetyala nasemthethweni. IMonsanto iza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwayo lwezomthetho, kubandakanya nokufaka isibheno kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia. ”

I-EPA isusa igama legosa laseMelika kwisilumkiso sekhonkco lomhlaza we-glyphosate

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(Hlaziya ngenkcazo ye-EPA)

Kwintshukumo engaqhelekanga, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ilisusile igama legosa lezempilo laseMelika elikwisikhundla esiphakamileyo kumagqabantshintshi kawonke-wonke alumkisa ngomhlaza onxulumene nokubulala ukhula kwemichiza i-glyphosate kwaye yabiza ukumiswa kophando kushishino.

Izimvo zoluntu ekuthethwa ngazo zingeniswe kwi-EPA kwaye yathunyelwa kwiwebhusayithi ye-arhente phantsi kwegama likaPatrick Breysse, umlawuli weZiko leSizwe lezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo kunye ne-Arhente yeZinto ezinobungozi kunye neRejista yezifo (i-ATSDR). I-ATSDR yinxalenye yeSebe lezeMpilo laseMelika kunye neenkonzo zoLuntu.

Amagqabantshintshi phantsi kwegama likaBreysse afakwa kunyaka ophelileyo kunye ne-EPA ekuphenduleni ukuphononongwa kwearhente ehlaziyiweyo ye-glyphosate kwaye yabongoza iarhente ukuba iphonononge "ubungqina obubhaliweyo" bokuba i-glyphosate iyingozi kwaye kufuneka ivinjelwe.

Kwaphela iinyanga uluvo luhleli kwiwebhusayithi ye-EPA phantsi kwegama likaBreysse. Kwakungemva kokuba i-US Right to Know ifune amagqabantshintshi kwiveki ephelileyo evela eBreysse malunga nengxelo yakhe apho i-EPA yasusa igama lakhe. Amagqabantshintshi ngoku kuthiwa "Ongaziwayo," emva kokuba umqeshi kaBreysse egqibe ekubeni ayingeniswanga nguye, ngokwe-EPA.

I-Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwiRoundup nakwezinye izinto zokubulala ukhula kwaye yenziwa yathandwa nguMonsanto, iyunithi yeBayer AG. Kucingelwa ukuba lolona hlobo lonyango lusetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. Ikwayenye yezona ziphikisanayo kwaye ingumcimbi wamatyala aziswe ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi baphuhlise umhlaza ngenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup kunye nezinye izinto zokubulala ukhula ezenziwe ngeglyphosate ezenziwe nguMonsanto.

I-EPA ikukhusele ngokungagungqiyo ukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate ngaphandle kokufunyanwa zizazinzulu ezininzi ezizimeleyo zokuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokubangela uluhlu lwezifo kunye nezifo, kubandakanya ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amagqabantshintshi phantsi kwegama likaBreysse aphikisana nesimo se-EPA:

“Izifundo ezininzi ziye zadibanisa ukusetyenziswa kwayo nokwanda kwee-lymphomas, kwaye lixesha lokuba siyeke ukuvumela ishishini leekhemikhali ukuba lisebenzise uphando ukuze lisebenzele iimfuno zalo. Abemi base-US kufuneka bayithembe i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo ukuba isebenze ngendlela yethu, okuthetha ukuba ubunzima bobungqina obuvela kwimithombo yezenzululwazi engathath'icala.

Ngokukodwa, uBreysse ukwaligosa le-ATSDR icinezelwe ngamagosa e-EPA Kwi-2015 kwisicelo seMonsanto sokumisa ukuphononongwa kwetyhefu ye-glyphosate emva koko iqhubeka kwi-ATSDR. Ukunyanzeliswa kokulibazisa ukuphononongwa kwe-ATSDR ye-glyphosate yeza kuba uMonsanto woyika ukuba i-ATSDR iya kuvumelana ne-Arhente yeHlabathi yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) ekufumaneni amakhonkco omhlaza kwi-glyphosate, imbalelwano yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

I-imeyile yangaphakathi yeMonsanto yathi igosa le-EPA uJess Rowland uxelele uMonsanto Kuya kufuneka "afumane imbasa" ukuba uphumelele ekubulaleni uphononongo lwe-ATSDR glyphosate.

Uphengululo lwe-ATSDR eneneni lwalulibazisekile de kwaba li-2019 emva koxinzelelo kumagosa aseMonsanto nase-EPA. Xa ingxelo yakhululwa ekugqibeleni, yaqinisekisa ukwesaba kukaMonsanto, Ukunika inkxaso kwinkxalabo ye-IARC ka-2015 malunga nonxibelelwano phakathi komhlaza kunye ne-glyphosate. Ingxelo ye-ATSDR isayinwe nguBreysse.

Xa ebuzwa malunga notshintsho kuluntu, u-EPA wathi ulisusile igama likaBreysse emva kwamaZiko oLawulo noThintelo lwezifo, ejongene ne-ATSDR, uxelele i-EPA ukuba amagqabantshintshi lawo angeniswanga nguBreysse kwaye wabuza ukuba icinywe okanye ihlelwe. Endaweni yokucima uluvo, i-EPA inyule ukugcina loo magqabantshintshi kwidokodo kodwa yalitshintsha igama lomthumeli laba lelingaziwayo.

I-EPA ithe ayikhangeli okanye iqinisekise izimvo ezingenisiweyo.

I-ofisi yeendaba yeZiko leSizwe lezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo ikwathi uBreysse akazange alungenise olu luvo. U-Breysse akazange aphendule kwisicelo sokuqinisekisa okanye ukukhanyela ukubhalwa kwakhe kwezimvo kwiwebhusayithi ye-EPA.

Amagqabantshintshi kunye notshintshiweyo aboniswe ngezantsi:

Inkundla iyakhwankqisa isigqibo seBayer esicetywayo sokulungisa isenzo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ijaji yomanyano ngoMvulo ibinamagama arhabaxa ngesicwangciso sikaBayer AG sokulibazisa amatyala omhlaza eRoundup anokubakho kunye nokuthintela uvavanyo lwejury, egxeka isindululo esingaqhelekanga esenziwe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha njengabangenakho ukungangqinelani nomgaqo-siseko.

“Inkundla iyathandabuza ukufaneleka nokulunga kwesi sindululo sicetywayo, kwaye inomdla wokungasamkeli isindululo,” ufunda umyalelo wokuqala owakhutshwa nguMgwebi uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US yesithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Isikhundla sejaji sibonakala siyinto ebukhali kwiBayer nakwinzame zenkampani ukusombulula ilifa lesimangalo esixhonywe eMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwiminyaka emibini edlulileyo.

Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukubhengezwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye ukuba iMonsanto kudala yazi malunga nokugubungela umngcipheko womhlaza.

Izilingo ezintathu zamajaji ziye zabanjwa kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo kwaye iMonsanto yaphulukana nazo zontathu iijuri zinikezela ngaphezulu kwe-2 yezigidigidi kumonakalo. Onke la matyala ngoku afakwe kwisibheno kwaye iBayer ibisenza amatile ukuthintela ukulingwa kwejaji elizayo.

Kwinyanga ephelileyo uBayer uthe wayenayo kufikelelwe kwizivumelwano ukusombulula uninzi lwamatyala afakiweyo ngoku kwaye ayila isicwangciso sokusingatha amatyala anokuthi afakwe kwixa elizayo. Ukujongana nesimangalo sangoku uBayer uthe uzakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula malunga neepesenti ezingama-75 zamabango akhoyo kwaye uya kuqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa ezinye.

Kwisicwangciso sokusingatha iimeko ezinokubakho zexesha elizayo, U-Bayer uthe bekusebenza neqela elincinci lamagqwetha amangileyo abaza kwenza ngaphezulu kwe-150 yezigidi zeerandi kwimali yokuvuma ukuvuma "ukuma" kweminyaka emine kumatyala okugcwalisa. Esi sicwangciso siza kusebenza kubantu abanokuthi bafunyaniswe kwikamva nge-NHL abakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup. Ngokuchasene nokuhlaliswa kweMonsanto yamatyala asalindelwe ngokuchasene nayo, ukuhlawulwa kwale nyathelo "lekamva" elitsha kufuna inkundla yamkelwe.

Ukongeza kulibaziseko lwezilingo ezingaphezulu, isivumelwano sifuna ukuba kusekwe amalungu "ezenzululwazi" amalungu amahlanu anokuthatha naziphi na iziphumo eziza kubakho kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji. Endaweni yoko, "iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeeklasi" iya kumiselwa ukumisela ukuba ngaba iRoundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, kweliphi inqanaba lokuvezwa. I-Bayer iya kuthi inyule amalungu amabini kwiphaneli ezintlanu. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele izilingo ezintathu zomhlaza weRoundup ayasichasa isicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi, esithi iya kuhlutha amalungelo abamangali ngeli xesha ityebisa abambalwa bamagqwetha abangazange babephambili kwityala leRoundup.

Isicwangciso sifuna ukuvunywa nguJaji Chhabria, kodwa umyalelo okhutshwe ngoMvulo ubonakalisile ukuba akacwangcisi kunika imvume.

"Kwindawo apho isayensi inokuthi iguquke khona, kufanelekile njani ukuba utshixe
isigqibo seqela lezazinzulu kuwo onke amatyala exesha elizayo? ” ijaji ibuze ngolandelelwano lwayo.

Ijaji ithe izakubamba isimangalo ngoJulayi 24 ngesindululo sokuqala semvume yetyala. Wabhala wathi: “Ngenxa yokungaqiniseki kwale Nkundla, kungangqubana nomdla wakhe wonke umntu ukulibazisa ukumanyelwa kwetyala,” ubhale watsho.

Apha ngezantsi kukho isicatshulwa somyalelo wejaji:

Abamangaleli bomhlaza we-Roundup balindele ngolangazelelo iindaba zokuhlala

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amawaka ezigulana ezinomhlaza kunye neentsapho zawo ezijikeleze iUnited States zazisiwe kule veki ukuba kufuneka kubhengezwe ukugqitywa kwamabango abo ngokuchasene ne-Monsanto Co yangaphambili ngaphambi kokuphela kwenyanga.

Nangona izixa ezithile zokuhlawulwa kwabamangali ziseza kugqitywa, amaqela abamangali axelelwe ukuba alindele iinkcukacha zesivumelwano sezemali esiza kubhengezwa esidlangalaleni phambi komhla wokugqibela kaJuni omiselwe ukugqibezela uthethathethwano lonyaka. Zonke izityholo bakhulisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva kokubhencwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup. Baye batyhola ngelithi inkampani iyabazi ubungqina besayensi obubonisa umngcipheko womhlaza onxulunyaniswa neemveliso zayo, kodwa isebenze ukucinezela ulwazi ukukhusela inzuzo yayo.

Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye namagqwetha amele ngaphezulu kwama-50,000 XNUMX abamangali abebebandakanyeka kwiingxoxo, ukuqala-nokuyekisa iingxoxo malunga nokuhlala iinyanga ezininzi, kuphazamisa iintsapho ezisokolayo ngokwezezimali nangokweemvakalelo ngenxa yomlo wokulwa nomhlaza.

Uninzi lwabamangali luphulukene nemisebenzi kunye namakhaya njengoko ejongene nonyango lomhlaza olubizayo kwaye abanye babhubhile ngelixa belinde ukuba amatyala abo asonjululwe, iirekhodi zenkundla zibonisa. Isaziso se ukufa komnye ummangali onjalo Yenziwe kwinkundla yomanyano eSan Francisco ngoJuni 1.

Uninzi lweefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezinee-caseloads ezinkulu zivumile kwimvumelwano yesivumelwano esifuna ukuba i-8 yezigidigidi- $ 10 yezigidigidi ihlawulwe yi-Bayer endaweni yesivumelwano sokuba ezo mveliso azizukufaka amabango amatsha omhlaza ngokuchasene nenkampani, ngokwe imithombo ekufutshane nesimangalo.

Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo liya kuxhomekeka kwizinto ezininzi. Iindawo zokuhlala kulindeleke ukuba zakhiwe ngoko ke azizukuhlawulwa rhafu kubamangali.

Ezinye iinkampani zomthetho ezinabamangali baseRoundup kusafuneka zigqibe isivumelwano, kwaye iintlanganiso zetyala zazisaqhubeka kwiveki ephelileyo, kubandakanya ne-Louisiana-based firm of Pendley, Baudin & Coffin, ngokutsho kwemithombo ekufutshane nesimangalo.

Isithethi seBayer uChris Loder akasayi kuqinisekisa ixesha okanye imiqathango yaso nasiphi na isibhengezo, esithi kuphela yinkampani esele ihambile kuthethathethwano kodwa "ngekhe icinge malunga neziphumo zokuhlala okanye ixesha."

Uthe nasiphi na isisombululo kufuneka sibe "sengqiqweni ngokwezezimali" kwaye sinikeze "inkqubo yokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo."

I-Bayer, eyathenga iMonsanto ngoJuni ka-2018, ibizama ukuphelisa isimangalo esikhulu esiye saqhuba isitokhwe senkampani, sikhuthaza ukungazinzi kwabatyali mali, kwaye sivelise indlela yokuziphatha ethandabuzekayo eluntwini. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zakhokelela kwilahleko ezintathu zeMonsanto kunye neembasa zamajuri ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona abagwebi bamatyala kamva banciphisa kabukhali amabhaso. IMonsanto ibhenele kwilahleko nganye kwezintathu kwaye ngoku ilindele isigqibo sesibheno kwityala lokuqala- UJohnson v. Monsanto - emva kwe Juni 2 ingxoxo yomlomo. 

Ngaphandle kweentetho zokuhlawula, iinkqubo zenkundla bezisaqhubeka kumatyala amaninzi. Kutshintshiswé amatyala asandula ukuhanjiswa esuka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente zaya kumanyano lwamacala amaninzi e-Roundup kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia eSan Francisco. Kwaye amagqwetha ka-Bayer ebesoloko ethatha uxanduva lokugcwalisa iimpendulo zawo kwizimangalo zomthetho.

Kwisixeko sase-St. Louis, Mo., kwidolophu yasekhaya ekudala ikho Monsanto, ityala likaTimothy Kane v. Monsanto inetyala lokumamela u-Juni 15 kwaye ityala le-jury liza kuqala ngoJuni 29. Kwaye nangona kubonakala ngathi akunakwenzeka Ityala liza kuqhubeka, ngolwe-Lwesithathu amagqwetha esigebenga semichiza afake isindululo efuna ukukhuphela ngaphandle ubungqina belinye lamangqina labamangali.

.

Iifilitha ezintsha zomthetho ngaphezulu kweengozi zeRoundup phakathi kokulibaziseka kwenkundla

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Nangona ukusasazeka kwe-coronavirus kuvala iminyango yenkundla kuluntu kunye namagqwetha, ukuqhutywa komthetho kuyaqhubeka kumabango obungozi obunxulunyaniswa ne-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides.

Amaqela amabini enkxaso engenzi nzuzo, iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye neZiko lokwahluka kweBiological (CBD), ifayilishe i-amicus emfutshane egameni lesigulana somhlaza uEdwin Hardeman ngo-Matshi 23. UHardeman uphumelele isigwebo sejaji ngokuchasene neMonsanto ye- $ 80 yezigidi Nge-Matshi ka-2019, uba ngummangali wesibini ophumeleleyo kwisimangalo seRoundup. Ijaji yetyala yalinciphisa ibhaso lejaji laba ngu zizonke ezizigidi ezingama-25 zeedola. IMonsanto ibhenele ibhaso nangona kunjalo, ukubuza inkundla yezibheno ukuguqula isigwebo.

Isishwankathelo esitsha somthetho esixhasa izixhobo zokubala zikaHardeman enye efayilishwe yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo (EPA) exhasa iMonsanto kwisibheno seHardeman.

Isishwankathelo se-CFS kunye ne-CBD sithi iMonsanto kunye ne-EPA zombini azilunganga ukubanga ukuba ukwamkelwa kwe-EPA ye-glyphosate herbicides izame umngeni kukhuseleko lweemveliso:

        Ngokuchasene nezimangalo zikaMonsanto, ityala likaMnu Hardeman alinakulungiswa kwisigqibo se-EPA ngokumalunga ne-glyphosate kuba i-Roundup yinkqubo ye-glyphosate i-EPA engazange ivavanye i-carcinogenicity. Ngapha koko, iziphene kunye nokucalucalula kujongela phantsi ukuvavanywa kwe-EPA ye-glyphosate's carcinogenicity kunye nenkundla yesithili yayichanekile ngokuvumela ubungqina bokuba kunjalo, "sitsho ngokufutshane.

         "IMonsanto ifuna le Nkundla ikholelwe ukuba" i-glyphosate "iyafana 'neRoundup.' Isizathu silula: ukuba la magama ayatshintshana, ke, bathi, ukufumanisa kwe-EPA ukuba i-glyphosate "ayinakubangelwa yi-carcinogenic" iya kusebenza kwi-Roundup kwaye inokuthi inyanzele ityala likaMnu Hardeman. Nangona kunjalo njengoko ubungqina oboniswe kuvavanyo luboniswa, "i-glyphosate" kunye ne "Roundup" azifani kwaphela, kwaye iRoundup inetyhefu kakhulu kune-glyphosate. Ngaphaya koko, i-EPA ayikaze ivavanye i-Roundup ye-carcinogenicity. Iifomathi zeGlyphosate, ezinje ngeRoundup, ziqulathe izithako ezongezelelweyo (co-formulants) ukuphucula ukusebenza ngandlela thile. I-EPA iyayiqonda le mixube ukuba iyityhefu kune-glyphosate iyodwa, kodwa ijolise kuvavanyo lomhlaza kwi-glyphosate emsulwa… ”

Yahlula amagama okugweba i-EPA

Kwisenzo somthetho esahlukileyo, kwiveki ephelileyo iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya lifake isimangalo somthetho ngokuchasene ne-EPA ngaphezulu kwenkxaso yayo eqhubekayo ye-glyphosate. Ibango, elenzelwe umanyano lwabasebenzi basezifama, amafama, kunye nabalondolozi bendalo, ityhola i-EPA kukwaphula umthetho weFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, kunye neRodenticide Act kunye ne-Endangered Species Act ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

"Ngelixa i-EPA ikhusela i-glyphosate, amatyala amatyala aliqela afumanise ukuba abangela umhlaza, elawula abo bachaphazeleka kukuvezwa," utshilo uCFS kwimithombo yeendaba. “Iifomathi zeGlyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup nazo zimiselwe kakuhle njengezinefuthe elinobungozi kwindalo esingqongileyo. Emva kovavanyo lobhaliso olwenziwe kwisithuba seminyaka elishumi, i-EPA yavumela intengiso eqhubekayo yesibulali zinambuzane nangona iarhente isilele ukuvavanya ngokupheleleyo ukuphazamiseka kwencindi yamadlala eglyphosate okanye iziphumo zayo kwizilwanyana ezisengozini nasengozini. ”

UBill Freese, umhlalutyi womgaqo-nkqubo wezenzululwazi kwiCFS uthe: "Endaweni yokubonana 'nesayensi efumanekayo,' njengoko i-EPA isitsho, iarhente ixhomekeke phantse ngokupheleleyo kwizifundo zeMonsanto, ukukhetha idatha ehambelana nenjongo yayo kunye nokugxotha ezinye."

Ukuphazamiseka kwenkundla okunxulumene nentsholongwane

IMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG bebesebenza ukuzama ukulungisa inani elikhulu lamashumi amawaka amabango omhlaza we-Roundup angeniswe kwiinkundla zase-US. Lo mzamo uyaqhubeka, kwaye iindawo zokuhlala sele zifikelelwe kubamangali abathile, ngokokutsho kwemithombo ebandakanyekayo kwezi ntetho. Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi uxelwe ekuqaleni kukaJanuwari Amaqela ebesebenza kwisivumelwano esikwi- $ 8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola.

Nangona kunjalo, amanye amatyala amaninzi ayaqhubeka nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla, kubandakanya isibheno sikaDewayne "Lee" Johnson, ummangali wokuqala ukuphumelela ngokuchasene neMonsanto kwityala leRoundup. Amagqwetha kaJohnson ayenethemba lokuba iNkundla yeziBheno yaseCalifornia izakubamba iingxoxo zomlomo kwisibheno sikaMonsanto sokuphumelela kukaJohnson ngaxa lithile ngo-Epreli. Kodwa ngoku kubonakala kungenakulindeleka njengoko amanye amatyala acwangciselwe uMatshi ngoku atyhalelweyo ku-Epreli.

Kananjalo, zonke iiseshoni zomntu buqu zeempikiswano zomlomo kwinkundla yezibheno okwangoku zimisiwe. Umcebisi okhetha ukunikezela ingxoxo yomlomo kufuneka enze njalo ngomnxeba, inkundla ithi.

Ngeli xesha, iinkundla kumacandelo amaninzi aseCalifornia zivaliwe kwaye amatyala ejaji amisiwe ukuzama ukukhusela abantu ekusasazeni intsholongwane. Inkundla yomanyano eSan Francisco, apho isigwebo se-Roundup sisembindini, ivaliwe eluntwini, kubandakanya nokumiswa kwamatyala, kude kube ngoMeyi 1. Iijaji zisakwazi ukukhupha izigwebo, nangona kunjalo, kwaye zibambe ukuxoxwa ngefowuni.

EMissouri, apho uninzi lwenkundla yamatyala e-Roundup esekwe, zonke iinkqubo zenkundla yomntu (ngaphandle kwezimbalwa) zinqunyanyisiwe ngo-Epreli 17, ngokweNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseMissouri umyalelo. 

Ityala elinye laseMissouri elalimiselwe ukuxoxwa nge-Matshi 30 kwiNkundla yesiXeko saseSt. Louis ngoku linomhla wetyala obekelwe umhla we-27 ku-Epreli. Ityala nguSeitz v Monsanto # 1722-CC11325.

Ukuyalela olu tshintsho, iJaji uMichael Mullen ubhale wathi: “NGENXA YOKUXHAPHAZWA KWESIZWE KWI-COVID-19 VIRUS KUNYE NOKUFUMANEKA KWEJURORS KWELI CIRCITIT INKUNDLA EBHEKILEYO IYASUSA ELI Tyala KUMATSHI 30, 2020 TRIAL DOCKET. UNOBANGELA UPHINDE WABEKA INKOMFA YOKULUNGISELELA UVAVANYO NGOMVULO, APRILI 27, 2020 @ 9:00 AM. ”