IiFirmer zeBayer Shady PR: uFleishmanHillard, uKetchum, uFing Consulting

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kuthunyelwe kwasekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; Ukuhlaziywa ngoNovemba 2020

Kule posi, i-US Right to Know ilanda umkhondo wenkohliso kawonke-wonke obandakanya iifemu ze-PR ezikhulu zezoLimo iBayer AG neMonsanto abathembele kuzo kwimikhankaso yabo yokukhusela imveliso: Ukubonisana ne-FTI, uKetchum PR kunye noFleishmanHillard. Ezi femu baneembali ezinde zokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza ii-ajenda zopolitiko zabaxhasi babo, kubandakanya neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, icuba kunye nemikhankaso yokukhusela icandelo leoyile.

Ihlazo lakutsha nje

I-NYT ibhengeza ubuchule bokubonisana be-FTI ngokuqinileyo kwishishini leoyile: Kwi Ngomhla kaNovemba 11, 2020 inqaku leNew York Times, U-Hiroko Tabuchi utyhila indlela i-FTI Consulting "eye yanceda ngayo uyilo, abasebenzi kunye nemibutho kunye newebhusayithi ezixhaswa ngemali ziinkampani zamandla ezinokubonakala ngathi zimele inkxaso yamalinge e-fossil-fuel." Ngokusekwe kudliwanondlebe nabalishumi elinababini ababesebenza kwi-FTI kunye namakhulu amaxwebhu angaphakathi, u-Tabuchi unika ingxelo ngendlela i-FTI ebeka iliso ngayo kubaphembeleli bendalo, eqhuba amaphulo ezopolitiko e-astroturf, enabasebenzi beendaba ezimbini kunye neendawo zolwazi kwaye wabhala amanqaku e-pro-shishini malunga ne-fracking, amatyala emozulu kunye nokunye okushushu Imiba yeqhosha kwicala lase-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kunye neefemu zayo ze-PR zenze iinzame zeGOP ukoyikisa abaphandi bomhlaza: U-Lee Fang uxele i-The Intercept Kwi-2019 kumaxwebhu aphakamisa ukuba abalawuli abachasene neMonsanto kunye noxinzelelo lokufaka uxinzelelo kuphando lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Ibali libika ngeendlela zobuqhetseba ze-PR, kubandakanya nendlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo ileta malunga nesayensi ye-glyphosate etyikitywe yi-congressman ephezulu ye-GOP.

Amaxwebhu eMonsanto atyhila ubuchule bokujongela phantsi uphando lomdla woluntu: Amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto akhutshwe ngesimangalo ngo-Agasti 2019 abonisa uluhlu lweendlela zenkampani kunye neefemu zayo ze-PR ezisetyenziselwa ukujolisa kwiintatheli nakwabanye abachaphazeli abaphakamise inkxalabo malunga nezibulala-zinambuzane kunye nee-GMO, kwaye bazama ukuphikisa uphando kwimisebenzi yabo yi-US Ilungelo Lokwazi.

Jonga amaphepha e-USRTK, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe kuphando lwethu, ukunika ingxelo ngabantu besithathu ababandakanyeka kukhuseleko kumzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi: Ukulandelela iNethiwekhi yePropaganda yoShishino lweePilisi.

Nge-Meyi ka-2019, saxela kwizikrelemnqa ezininzi ezibandakanya iifemu ze-Bayer PR:

'Ifayile yeMonsanto' ihlazo

Iintatheli kwi U-Le Monde uxele ngoMeyi 9 ukuba bafumene "Ifayile yeMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yonxibelelwano noluntu uFleishmanHillard edwelisa "ulwazi oluninzi" malunga ne-200 yeentatheli, abezopolitiko, izazinzulu kunye nabanye ababonwa ngathi banokuba nefuthe kwingxoxo ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde wafaka isikhalazo Iofisi yomtshutshisi waseParis etyhola ukuba uxwebhu olo lubandakanya ukuqokelelwa ngokungekho mthethweni kunye nokulungiswa kwedatha, kukhuthaza iofisi yomtshutshisi ukuba vula inkqubo yolwaphulo-mthetho. Oku kubaluleke kakhulu kuba kubonisa ukuba kukho iindlela ezithile zokuvala amazwi anamandla. Ndiyabona ukuba bebezama ukundihlula, ” Owayengumphathiswa Wezendalo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okuluhlu, uxelele iFrance 24 TV.

"Le yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kuba ibonisa ukuba kukho iindlela ezizizo zokuvala ilizwi elinamandla."

UFrancois Veillerette, osingqongileyo naye kuluhlu, uxelele iFrance 24 ukuba iqulethe iinkcukacha zonxibelelwano, izimvo kunye nenqanaba lokuzibandakanya ngokunxulumene neMonsanto. "Esi sisothuko esikhulu eFrance," utshilo. "Sicinga ukuba yinto eqhelekileyo le." U-Bayer uvumile ukuba uFleishmanHillard uzobe “'Uluhlu lokubukela 'lwamanani e-pro- okanye anti-pesticides”Kumazwe asixhenxe aseYurophu, ingxelo ye-AFP. Uluhlu luneenkcukacha malunga neentatheli, abezopolitiko kunye namanye amaqela anomdla. I-AFP ithe ifake isikhalazo kwi-arhente yolawulo yaseFrance kuba ezinye zeentatheli zayo bezikuluhlu olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa kwaye watsho bunqumamisa ubudlelwane bayo kunye namafemu abandakanyekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kunye nabacebisi bakaPublicis, ngelixa kuqhubeka uphando. Eyona nto iphambili kuthi kukudala izinto elubala, Utshilo uBayer. "Asikunyamezeli ukungaziphathi kakuhle kwinkampani yethu." (Iifemu zacocwa kamva kukungaziphathi kakuhle ngumthetho oqeshwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli kwiilingo zomhlaza weMonsanto

Ukongeza kwiingxaki zeBayer PR, i-AFP yanika ingxelo ngoMeyi 18 ukuba umqeshwa wenye into "yolawulo lwentlekele" uqine ukuba isebenza neBayer neMonsanto Ukubonisana ne-FTI- kwabanjwa ukuzenza njengentatheli ezizimeleyo Kwilingo laseburhulumenteni eSan Francisco eliphele ngo Isigwebo se- $ 80 yezigidi ngokuchasene neBayer ngaphezulu kwengxaki yomhlaza we-glyphosate.

Umsebenzi we-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonwe encokola neentatheli malunga nemibono yamabali kwityala. Ubanga ukuba usebenzela i-BBC kwaye akazange achaze ukuba wayesebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

I-Ketchum kunye neFleishmanHillard baleka i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, ishishini lezolimo lacofa uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabini bangabanini bakaOmnicom, PR ekhubekisayo ukulungisa umfanekiso ye-GMO kunye nemveliso yokubulala izitshabalalisi. Kukhethwe iMonsanto I-FleishmanHillard ukuba "yenze ngokutsha" igama layo phakathi "kwenkcaso ekrakra" kukutya okuguqulweyo, ngokweNgxelo yeHolmes. Ngexesha elifanayo, uFleishmanHillard naye waba ngu Iarhente ye-PR yerekhodi yeBayer, kunye neBhunga loLwazi lweBiotechnology (i-CBI) -iqela lezorhwebo kuxhaswa ngemali Bayer (Monsanto), Corteva (DowDuPont), Syngenta kunye ne-BASF-baqesha inkampani yezobudlelwane noluntu yaseKetchum ukuze iphumeze umkhankaso wentengiso obizwa ngokuba ziiGMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujikeleza aqeshwe zezi femu kubandakanya "wooing mama blogger"Kunye nokusebenzisa amazwi ekuthiwa" azimeleyo "kwiingcali"susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Malunga nee-GMO. Nangona kunjalo, ubungqina buvele ukuba iifemu ze-PR zihlele kwaye zabhala ezinye zeengcali "ezizimeleyo". Umzekelo, amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa oko Kubhalwe uKetchum Izithuba zeGMO Iimpendulo ezazisayinwe ngu Unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseFlorida Ozibanga ezimeleyo njengoko wayesebenza emfihlekweni neMonsanto kwiiprojekthi ze-PR. Usekela-mongameli omkhulu kwiFleishmanHillard ihlelwe intetho a UC Davis uprofesa kwaye wamqeqesha indlela "yokuphumelela abantu egumbini" e Ingxoxo ye-IQ2 yokukholisa uluntu ukwamkela ii-GMOs. UKetchum naye wanika unjingalwazi amanqaku okuthetha Udliwanondlebe lonomathotholo malunga nophando lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa bezizezona zibalulekileyo kubathunywa kwimizamo yokuphembelela ukuchaswa kwelebheli ye-GMO INew York Times ngo-2015. "Oonjingalwazi / abaphandi / izazinzulu banomnqwazi omkhulu omhlophe kule mpikiswano kunye nenkxaso kumazwe abo, ukusuka kwezopolitiko ukuya kubavelisi," uBill Mashek, usekela-mongameli e-Ketchum, ubhalele unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseFlorida. "Qhubeka!" Iqela lezorhwebo le-CBI lichithe ngaphezulu kweedola ezili-11 yezigidi kwiiMpendulo zeGMO zikaKetchum ukusukela nge2013, ngokweerekhodi zerhafu.

Impendulo kulawulo lweengxaki zeempendulo ze-GMO

Njengomqondiso omnye wempumelelo njengesixhobo se-PR spin, Iimpendulo zeGMO zazinjalo Uluhlu olufutshane kuluhlu lweentengiso zeCIO ngo-2014 kudidi “lweCrisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uqhayisa malunga nokuphindaphinda kabini ukujongwa kweendaba ze-GMO kunye "nokulinganisa i-80% yokunxibelelana" kwi-Twitter. Uninzi lwala manxibelelwano kwi-Intanethi avela kwiiakhawunti ezibonakala zizimele kwaye azichazi unxibelelwano lwabo kumkhankaso we-PR womzi mveliso.

Nangona ividiyo kaKetchum ibanga ukuba iimpendulo zeGMO ziya "kuchaza ukuqaqamba" ngolwazi oluvela kwiingcali "ezingenanto ihluziweyo okanye engacaciswanga, kwaye kungekho mazwi athulisiweyo," isicwangciso seMonsanto PR sicebisa ukuba inkampani ibalwe kwiimpendulo zeGMO ukunceda ukujikeleza iimveliso zayo ngendlela elungileyo. Inkqubo ye- uxwebhu ukusukela ngo-2015 Uluhlu lweempendulo zeGMO phakathi "kwamaqabane oshishino" oko kunokunceda ukukhusela i-Roundup kumbandela womhlaza; Kwicandelo "lezixhobo" kwiphepha le-4, isicwangciso sidwelise amakhonkco kwiGMO Answers ecaleni kwamaxwebhu eMonsanto anokunxibelelana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyiyo i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kwiwebhusayithi ye-CLIO kwaye yasuswa emva kokuba siyibizile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Iimbali zobuqhetseba: I-FleishmanHillard, uKetchum

Kutheni nayiphi na inkampani ibeka uFleishmanHillard okanye uKetchum, bobabini bangabanini be-PR conglomerate u-Omnicom, phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukuthembana kunzima ukuyiqonda. Zombini ezi nkampani zineembali ezinde zenkohliso ebhaliweyo. Umzekelo:

Kude kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayenguye PR eqinileyo yeRussia kunye neVladimir Putin. Ngoku ka amaxwebhu afunyenwe yiProPublica, U-Ketchum wabanjwa ebeka i-pro-Putin op-eds phantsi kwamagama "abaqeqeshi ababonakala bezimeleyo" kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zeendaba. Ngo-2015, i Ukubandakanya urhulumente waseHonduran waqesha uKetchum ukuzama ukubuyisela kwisimo sayo emva kwesikrelemnqa sorhwaphilizo esigidi sezigidi.

Amaxwebhu avuza uMama uJones bonisa ukuba uKetchum wasebenza nenkampani yabucala yezokhuselo "eyayihlola iGreenpeace kunye neminye imibutho yezendalo ukusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1990 ukuya kuthi ga ngo-2000, bephanga amaxwebhu asuka kwimigqomo yenkunkuma, bezama ukutyala abasebenzi abasebenza ngokufihlakeleyo phakathi kwamaqela, ukufaka iiofisi, ukuqokelela iirekhodi zeefowuni zabaphembeleli, nokungena kwiintlanganiso eziyimfihlo. ” UHillard wabanjwa esebenzisa iindlela zokuziphatha ezingekho semthethweni ngokuchasene nempilo yoluntu kunye nabameli bolawulo lwecuba egameni lenkampani yecuba uRJ Reynolds, ngokophando olwenziwe nguRuth Malone kwi Ijenali yaseMelika yezeMpilo yoLuntu. Ifemu ye-PR yade yabhala ngokufihlakeleyo iintlanganiso zolawulo lwecuba kunye neenkomfa.

UHillard wayenjalo inkampani yobudlelwane noluntu kwiZiko leCuba, umbutho wecuba wokucenga umbutho, kangangeminyaka esixhenxe. Kwinqaku leWashington Post lango-1996, uMorton Mintz wabalisa ibali malunga nendlela uFleishmanHillard kunye neZiko lecuba abaliguqule ngayo iZiko leZempilo elisempilweni laba liqela eliphambili kwishishini lecuba kwimizamo yalo yokuphelisa inkxalabo yoluntu ngobungozi bokutshaya. Ketchum ikwasebenzele nomzi mveliso wecuba.

Zombini ezi femu ziye zasebenza ngamanye amaxesha omcimbi. UHillard ubenjalo kuqeshwe amaphulo okulwa ukutshaya. Ngo-2017, uKetchum wasungula i spin-off firm ebizwa Hlakulela ukwenza imali kwimarike yokutya ekhulayo, nangona i-GMO Answers zikaKetchum zikuhlazisile ukutya okuphilayo, zibanga ukuba abathengi bahlawula "ipremiyamu ephezulu" yokutya okungangcono kunokutya okulinywa ngokwesiqhelo.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana ne-FTI: ukukhohliswa kwemozulu, amaqhina ecuba

Ukubonisana ne-FTI, "ulawulo lweengxaki" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer nomsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli Kwilingo lakutsha nje lomhlaza we-Roundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuninzi kunye noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kubandakanya nokusetyenziswa kweendlela zokufihla, ukungabikho kokucaca kunye nembali yokusebenza nomzi mveliso wecuba.

Ifemi yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili kwimizamo ye-ExxonMobil yokuphepha uxanduva lokutshintsha kwemozulu. Njengo-Elana Schor noAndrew Restuccia ixelwe kwi-Politico ngo-2016:

Ngaphandle kwe [Exxon] uqobo lwayo, eyona nto iphikisayo kwimifuno ivela kwi-FTI Consulting, inkampani egcwaliswe ngabantu ababesakuba ngabancedisi beRiphabhlikhi abathe banceda ukumanyanisa i-GOP ekukhuseleni i-fuels. Ngaphantsi kwesibhengezo saMandla kwiNzulu, iprojekhthi eyenzela i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI iye yaxuba iintatheli ngee-imeyile ezithi "ukusebenzisana" phakathi kwamatshantliziyo aluhlaza kunye nee-AGs zikarhulumente, kwaye iphakamise imibuzo malunga nezibonelelo ze-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. "

Abasebenzi be-FTI Consulting babekhe babanjwa bezenza iintatheli ngaphambili. UKaren Savage uxele NgoJanuwari 2019 kwiiNdaba zoTyala ngemozulu, "Abacwangcisi bobudlelwane boluntu ababini abamele i-Exxon kutsha nje bazenze njengeentatheli kwilinge lodliwanondlebe elimele uluntu lwaseColorado olumangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo onxulumene notshintsho lwemozulu. Abacwangcisi bobuchule — uMichael Sandoval kunye noMatt Dempsey — baqeshwe yi-FTI Consulting, inkampani ekudala inxulumene nomzi mveliso weoyile negesi. ” Ngokweendaba zeTyala leMozulu, la madoda mabini adweliswa njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi eqhutywa yiminqweno yeoyile kwaye inabasebenzi beengcali ezivela kwi-FTI Consulting, ekwabonelela abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ipetroli yamandla ombane “uphando, imfundo kunye iphulo lokufikelela eluntwini. ”

Amandla Obunzulu aziveza njengo "mama kunye nevenkile ye pop" emele ababoneleli bamandla amancinci kodwa yadalwa ziinkampani ezinkulu zeoyile kunye negesi ukuphembelela ukupheliswa, I-DeSmog blog ibikwe kwi-2011. Iqela leGreenpeace lityhile i Iimemo zeshishini zika-2009 ezichazayo Amandla Ezobunzulu “njengephulo elitsha kushishino ngokubanzi… ukulwa nemigaqo emitsha yokusingqongileyo, ingakumbi ngokubhekisele kuqhekeko lombane oluhamba ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi” “obungenakwenzeka ngaphandle kokuzibophelela kwezezimali kwangethuba” kwiminqweno ephambili yeoyile negesi kubandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (ngoku eye-ExxonMobil).

Enye into efana nayo yonke le mveliso ziimveliso zecuba. I-FTI Consulting "inembali ende yokusebenza nomzi mveliso wecuba," ngokuka Amacandelo oTuba.org. Ukukhangela kwithala leencwadi lamaXwebhu e-UCSF izisa amaxwebhu angaphezu kwama-2,400 XNUMX ngokunxulumene nokubonisana ne-FTI.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ingxelo engaphezulu kwizikrelemnqa zikaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFrentshi

Ukufunda ngesiNgesi

Abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwiminyaka kwidatha yesiphene yokubulala izinambuzane ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iminyaka, abalawuli base-US baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yi-Dow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga eekhemikhali ze-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika, ngokwe Uhlalutyo olutsha Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo luphinda luphonononge umsebenzi ukusuka kwiminyaka ye-1970 exhaswa yi-Dow kwaye ingeniswe kwi-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhokela iarhente ekumiseleni oko izazinzulu zibhekisa kuzo njenge- "akukho -qwalaselwe-inqanaba lesiphumo esibi" okanye i-NOAEL. Le mibundu isetyenziselwa ukumisela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwaye kwinqanaba apho ukuvezwa kweekhemikhali kunokuvunyelwa kwaye kungathathwa ngokuba kukhuselekile.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olutsha, olupapashwe kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi 3 kwiphephancwadi Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, Iziphumo ezingachanekanga zaba ziziphumo zophononongo lweedosi olwenziwe ngumphandi uFrederick Coulston kunye noogxa kwiAlbany Medical College kwii-1970s zokuqala zeDow.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baphinde bavavanya ukuba umsebenzi wangaphambili nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske weSebe lezeNdalo nezeMpilo kwiNzululwazi yezeMpilo, kwiSikolo seMpilo kaRhulumente kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Ngelixa isifundo sasibhalwa liqela laseCoulston, uhlalutyo lwagqitywa ngumbalo weDow kwaye kwagqitywa kwelokuba i-0.03 mg / kg-day yayililungu elingapheliyo le-NOAEL ye-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Kodwa uhlalutyo olutsha olwenziwe ngabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington bafumanise ukuba bagqithile kumda wokhuseleko. Ukuba idatha ibihlalutyiwe ngokufanelekileyo i-NOAEL engezantsi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ngeyifunyenwe, batsho.

Uphononongo lwaseCoulston aluzange luvavanywe ngoontanga kodwa lwalusetyenziswa yi-EPA kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's, abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington baxela.

Abaphandi baqukumbele: “Ngelo xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi zokuhlala ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kungabeka umngcipheko kuluntu ngokungeyomfuneko. ”

Kusetyenziswa kakhulu

Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kwigama lophawu lweLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos inambuzane yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kuseto lwezolimo. Eyona ntengiso inkulu yezolimo yechlorpyrifos ngumbona kodwa iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi likwasetyenziswa ngamafama alima iimbotyi zesoya, iziqhamo kunye nemithi yamandongomane, amahlumelo aseBrussels, iicranberry kunye nekholifulawa, kunye nezinye izityalo ezilandelelana. Iintsalela zekhemikhali zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni. Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ekhuthazwe yi-Dow, uphando oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi lubonakalisile ubungqina obandayo bobungozi be-chlorpyrifos, ngakumbi abantwana abancinci. Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa obusezantsi, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo, kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto.

IAmerican Academy for Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana noogqirha babantwana, ilumkise ngelithi ukuqhubeka nokusetyenziswa kwale khemikhali kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu lathi kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo.

I-EPA yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow ngo-2000 yokuphelisa yonke indawo yokuhlala ekusetyenzisweni kwayo ngenxa yophando olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zabantwana kunye nabantwana abancinci. Ngo-2012, ii-chlorpyrifos zazingavumelekanga ukuba zisetyenziswe kwizikolo zonke.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwehlabathi, uCorteva AgriScience, iqumrhu eliza kungena ngokudibana kweDow kunye neDuPont, yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Imichiza, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Izifundo zabantu

Isifundo esingumbandela wephepha elitsha labaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington sabekwa esweni ngo-1971 yiAlbany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Olu phononongo lubandakanya amabanjwa angamadoda angama-16 asempilweni aphuma echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, intolongo yezokhuseleko e-Dannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ayekhethwe ngokulandelelana kumaqela amane ovavanyo, kubandakanya elinye iqela lolawulo, amalungu alo afumana indawo ye-placebo yemihla ngemihla. Amalungu amanye amaqela amathathu afumana unyango lwe-chlorpyrifos mihla le ngeedosi ezintathu ezahlukeneyo. Isifundo senziwe ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-63.

Uhlalutyo olutsha lufumene iingxaki ezininzi kufundo, kubandakanya nokushiywa kwamanqanaba asisiseko asibhozo kwelinye lala maqela onyango.

"Ukushiyeka okunje kwedatha esebenzayo ngaphandle kokuthethelelwa yindlela yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eyaphula yonke imigaqo esemgangathweni yophando yokuziphatha kwaye ichazwe njengokuziphatha gwenxa kophando," bagqibe ngelithi abaphandi beYunivesithi yase Washington.

Abaphandi bathi ichlorpyrifos "yadlula kwinkqubo yolawulo ngaphandle kwengxoxo enkulu," nangona "ubungqina obukhulayo bokuba inokuba yingozi kwezempilo kwiindawo zokuhlala."

"Uphononongo lwaseCoulston lulahlekise abalawuli ngokushiya idatha efanelekileyo," kwaye "inokuba nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yoluntu" iminyaka eliqela, liphetha iphepha laseYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

Intshukumo yaseburhulumenteni

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

imvelaphi

I-Dicamba ibisoloko isetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngee-1960s kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukhumala kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude ukusuka apho wafafazwa khona. Xa iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithandwayo zeMonsanto, ezinje ngeRoundup, ziqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ngeglyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo

Iingxilimbela zamachiza ezothusayo zifuna indlela yokuvalwa kwenkundla ngababulali babo bokhula

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Bacaphula “imeko yongxamiseko,” izigebenga zemichiza i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont bacele inkundla yomanyano ukuba ibavumele ukuba bangenelele kwimeko apho inkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga yayalela ukuba i-dicamba herbicides ivalwe kwangoko kunye nemveliso ye-dicamba eyenziwe ngumnini-Monsanto uBayer AG .

Intshukumo yeenkampani zemichiza ilandela a Isigwebo se-3 kaJuni yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba eyathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

I-EPA ukutyeshela loo myalelo, Nangona kunjalo, ukuxelela abalimi ukuba bangaqhubeka nokutshiza ngemichiza yokubulala ukhula ekuthethwa ngayo ukuphela kukaJulayi.

Umanyano lwamaqela asefama kunye nabathengi abathi ekuqaleni bafaka ityala ngokuchasene ne-EPA babuyele enkundleni kwiveki ephelileyo, ukucela umyalelo ongxamisekileyo ibambe i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla inike i-EPA kude kube sekupheleni kosuku Lwesibini, nge-16 kaJuni, ukuba iphendule.

Uqhushululu kwiLizwe laseFama

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zeenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kula masimi ngemithi ye-dicamba eyenziwe zezi zintathu. iinkampani.

"Inkqubo yesityalo se-dicamba" ibonelela amafama ukuba atyale amasimi abo ngezityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-dicamba, abanokuthi emva koko batshize "ngaphezulu-phezulu" ngombulali we-dicamba. Inkqubo ityebise iinkampani ezithengisa imbewu kunye neekhemikhali kwaye yanceda amafama ukuba akhule umqhaphu okhethekileyo wokunyamezela i-dicamba kunye ne-soy malunga nokhula olunenkani olunganyangekiyo kwimveliso ye-Roundup esekwe kwi-glyphosate.

Kodwa kwinani elikhulu lamafama angazityali izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza, ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-dicamba herbicides kuye kwathetha ukonakala kunye nelahleko yezityalo kuba i-dicamba ithambekele ekunyukeni nasekuhambeni kude apho inokubulala izityalo, imithi kunye namatyholo ayitshintshiswanga ngokwemfuza ukumelana nemichiza.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla yomanyano yaphawula kwisigqibo sayo.

Amafama amaninzi ekuqaleni abhiyozela isigwebo senkundla kwaye bakhululeka ekubeni iifama zabo kunye neigadi zabo zingasindiswa kweli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba abaye bahlangabezana nawo ehlotyeni elingaphambili. Kodwa uncedo lwaluhlala ixesha elifutshane xa i-EPA isithi ayizukunyanzela kwangoko ukuthintelwa kwenkundla.

Kwifayile eyenziwe ngolwesiHlanu, I-BASF iyicenge inkundla ukunganyanzelisi ukuvalwa kwangoko kwaye uxelele inkundla ukuba iyakudinga ukuvala indawo yokuvelisa eBeaumont, eTexas, okwangoku "esebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku phantse ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" ukuba ayikwazi ukuvelisa uphawu lwayo lwe-dicamba olubizwa ngokuba Engenia. I-BASF ichithe i-370 yezigidi zeedola kule minyaka idlulileyo ukuphucula isityalo kwaye iqeshe abantu abayi-170 apho, utshilo inkampani.

Iphawula "utyalo-mali olubalulekileyo" kwimveliso yayo, i-BASF ikwatshele nenkundla ukuba yanele imveliso yayo okwangoku kuyo yonke "ijelo labathengi" lokunyanga ii-26.7 zezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu. I-BASF inezigidi ezongezelelekileyo ze- $ 44 yezigidi zeemveliso ze-Engenia dicamba, eyaneleyo yokunyanga ii-6.6 yezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu, utshilo inkampani.

UDuPont / uCorteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, ukuxelela inkundla ekufayeleni kwayo ukuba ukuvalwa "kuyonakalisa ngokuthe ngqo" inkampani "kunye nabalimi abaninzi kulo lonke eli lizwe eliphakathi kwexesha lokukhula." Iya konakalisa "igama" lenkampani ukuba ukubulala iyeza kuvaliwe, inkampani ixelele inkundla.

Ngaphaya koko, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukuvelisa "ingeniso ebalulekileyo" kwintengiso ye-dicamba herbicide, ebizwa ngokuba yiFeXapan kwaye iyakuphulukana naloo mali ukuba ukuvalwa kuyanyanzeliswa, utshilo inkampani.

IMonsanto yayisebenza kwimeko exhasa ukuvunywa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesigwebo, kodwa bobabini i-BASF kunye neDuPont baqinisekisa ngokungachanekanga ukuba ityala lenkundla lisebenza kuphela kwiimveliso zikaMonsanto hayi ezabo. Inkundla ikucacisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-EPA yamkele ngokungekho mthethweni iimveliso ezenziwe zezi nkampani zontathu.

Ikhokelwe liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ngokuchasene ne-EPA lwaziswa ngumbutho weSizwe weFama yoMbutho, iZiko lokwahluka kweBioloji, kunye neNethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Xa ibuza inkundla ukuba ifumane i-EPA ngokudelela, iqumrhu liye lalumkisa ngomonakalo wezityalo oza kubakho ukuba iimveliso ze-dicamba azithintelwa kwangoko.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukutshizwa kwezigidi ezili-16 zeepiccic ze-dicamba kunye nomonakalo kwizigidi zeehektare, kunye nomngcipheko obonakalayo kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini," utshilo umdibaniso. Enye into isemngciphekweni nayo: umthetho. Inkundla kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuthintela ukungabikho kobulungisa kwaye ixhase ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yokugweba. Ngenxa yokungahoywa ngokucacileyo kwe-EPA kwisigqibo seNkundla, abafaki-zikhalazo bayabongoza iNkundla ukuba iyidelele i-EPA. ”

EPA oobhontsi bempumlo ngokomyalelo wenkundla, uthi amafama asengayisebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides engekho mthethweni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(IINKCUKACHA ngezimvo ezivela kwi-BASF)

I-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo ngoMvulo wathi ngekhe usihloniphe kwangoko isigwebo senkundla esikhutshwe kwiveki ephelileyo esithi kuthintelwe ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe ziinkampani ezintathu ezinkulu zemichiza emhlabeni.

Ukuhamba kwe-EPA kufana nesipho esivulekileyo kwi-BASF, Bayer naseCorteva Agrisciences ezinama-dicamba herbicides abonwa njengenkundla ukuba yamkelwe yi-EPA ngokungekho mthethweni. Inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ikhutshwe kwiveki ephelileyo ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezi zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe laseFama.

Kodwa i-EPA ibhengeze uMvulo ukuba ikhupha "umyalelo wokurhoxisa" oza kunika amafama kude kube nguJulayi 31 ukuba asebenzise isitokhwe esele sikhona seBayer Xtendimax, i-Engenia ye-BASF, kunye ne-FeXapan yaseCorteva.

Isigwebo seNkundla yeziBheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba safumanisa ukuba i-EPA yenza iimpazamo ezininzi ekuvumeni iimveliso ze-dicamba kwaye yaphendula kwisikhalazo esiziswe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iZiko loKhuseleko lokutya, iZiko lokwahlukahlukana kwezinto eziphilayo, kunye Inethiwekhi yokuSebenza ngezibulala-zinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Iziko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS), elinamagqwetha aphikisanayo nabaceli, bathi kwingxelo yokuba isenzo se-EPA "asinasihlahla" kwaye "siyabutyeshela ubungqina obubhalwe kakuhle noboyikekayo bokulimala okukhulu kumafama avela kwelinye ixesha lokutshiza eliyingozi. . ” Isenzo se-EPA sikwabutyeshela ubungozi be-dicamba kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini, utshilo uCFS.

“Ulawulo lukaTrump luyaphinda lubonakalise ukuba aluqwalaseli mthetho. Bonke abasebenzisi abaqhubeka bengafuni ezinye iindlela kufuneka babone ukuba basebenzisa imveliso eyingozi, enesiphene, kunye nemveliso engekho mthethweni. Siza kuzisa ukungaphumeleli kwe-EPA ukuthobela umyalelo weNkundla kwiNkundla ngokukhawuleza okukhulu, ”utshilo uCFS.

Unobhala wezoLimo e-US u-Sonny Perdue kwiveki ephelileyo ukhuthaze i-EPA ukuba icinge indlela ejikeleze isigwebo senkundla, evakalisa izimvo zika-Bayer, BASF kunye no-Corteva ezibiza i-dicamba herbicides ebalulekileyo "izixhobo" zamafama akhulisa iimbotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu.

I-EPA ithe ngokuthatha isigqibo sokuvumela amafama ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenzisa i-dicamba ukuphela kukaJulayi yayiphendula "iifowuni ezininzi ezingacelwanga kunye ne-imeyile" exelela iarhente "kukho inkxalabo yokwenyani kunye nokubakho kokutshatyalaliswa kwezityalo zomqhaphu nezesoya ezinokuthi kukhokelela kwintlekele kushishino. ”

I-EPA ayikhange iwamkele amanqaku amafama akhula ngaphandle kwezityalo ngaphandle kweembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo kunye nekotoni abaye balahlekelwa sisityalo kwi-dicamba drift kwaye boyika elinye ihlobo lokonakaliswa kwesityalo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo ezinokonakalisa izityalo, iigadi, izitiya, namatyholo.

IMonsanto, eyayithengwe yiBayer kwi2018, yawuphakamisa lo mqobo xa yasungula imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, ikhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imixube emitsha yedicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zityalo zenziwe ngemfuza ngexesha lokushisa kwemozulu iinyanga ezikhulayo.

Intshukumo kaMonsanto yokudala izityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo ze-dicamba yeza emva kwesityalo esinganyamezelekiyo se-glyphosate kunye nokutshiza okuxhaphakileyo kwe-glyphosate kudala ubhubhane wokumelana nokhula kwilizwe lonke lasefama lase-US.

Amafama, izazinzulu zezolimo kunye nezinye iingcali zalumkisa uMonsanto kunye ne-EPA ukuba ukuzisa inkqubo yokunyamezela i-dicamba ayizukudala kuphela ukuxhathisa i-herbicide kodwa iya kukhokelela kumonakalo owonakalisayo kwizityalo ezingezonjongo zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zihambe njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakaliswe zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezibanzi zomonakalo we-dicamba drift kule minyaka idlulileyo. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo ze-dicamba waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla iqaphele.

NgoFebruwari, ijaji evumayo yanika umfama wase-Missouri ipesika $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo ohlawulelwayo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo ozohlawulwa yiBayer kunye ne-BASF ngomonakalo we-dicamba kwipropathi yakhe.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesibhengezo se-EPA, i-BASF ithe iyasixhasa isigqibo se-EPA sokuvumela ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekekayo kwezitokhwe ezikhoyo ze-BASF's Engenia herbicide nge-31 kaJulayi, kodwa yathi "ukucaca okongeziweyo kunye nokuguquguquka" kuyafuneka. Inkampani ithi ikurhoxisile kwangoko ukuthengisa kunye nokuthumela i-Engenia herbicide emva kwesigqibo seveki ephelileyo. 

Inkampani ithe izakuqhubeka nokulandela ukubhaliswa kwakhona kwe-Engenia kwi-EPA kwaye ivavanya iindlela zayo zokulandela izilungiso zomthetho zokucela umngeni kwinkundla.

KWIINKCUKACHA-Inkundla igxotha ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kweBayer dicamba herbicide; Umlawuli uthi "uthoba umngcipheko"

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(UPHATHAZI ngeNgxelo evela kwi-BASF)

Ngokukhalima okumangalisayo kwe-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo, inkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yeedicamba ezisekwe kwi-herbicides ezenziwe ziikhemikhali ezinkulu Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva Agrisciences. Isigwebo esisebenzayo senza kube semthethweni ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Isigwebo seNkundla Yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe Yesithoba safumanisa ukuba i-EPA “ibubeka ecaleni kakhulu ubungozi” bokubulala ukhula i-dicamba kwaye “yasilela ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela ezinye iingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza iimpazamo ezininzi ekunikezeleni ubhaliso olunemiqathango," isigwebo senkundla sithi.

IMonsanto kunye ne-EPA babeyicelile inkundla, ukuba iyavumelana nabamangali, ukuba bangakutshintshi kwangoko ukwamkelwa kwemveliso yokubulala ukhula. Inkundla yathi: “Siyala ukwenjenjalo.”

Umgwebo waziswa nguMbutho weSizwe weFama yokuBumbana, iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, iZiko lokwahluka kweBiological, kunye neNkqubo yokubulala izinambuzane eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali batyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ekuvavanyeni iimpembelelo zenkqubo eyilwe yiMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwi2018, ethe yabangela ukonakala "kwezityalo ngokubanzi" kwihlobo ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo kwaye iyaqhubeka nokusongela iifama kwilizwe liphela.

"Isigqibo sanamhlanje siphumelele kakhulu kumafama nakwindalo esingqongileyo," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell weZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, igqwetha elikhokelayo kwityala. “Kulungile ukukhunjuzwa ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeMonsanto kunye neTrump Administration azinakho ukubaleka umthetho, ngakumbi ngexesha lobunzima obunjengale. Ufikile umhla wabo wokuziphendulela. ”

Inkundla ifumanise ukuba phakathi kwezinye iingxaki, i-EPA “iyala ukuqikelela isixa somonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza umonakalo 'njengonokubakho' kunye 'nokutyholwa,' xa ubungqina berekhodi bubonisa ukuba i-dicamba ibangele umonakalo omkhulu kwaye awunakuphikiswa.”

Inkundla ikwafumanise ukuba i-EPA ayiphumelelanga ukuvuma ukuba izithintelo ezibekwa kusetyenziso lwe-dicamba ayizukulandelwa, kwaye yafumanisa ukuba i-EPA “isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko omkhulu wokuba ubhaliso luya kuba neziphumo zoqoqosho imizi-mveliso yeembotyi zesoya nomqhaphu. ”

Okokugqibela, inkundla ithe, i-EPA isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko wokusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba herbicides esekwe yi-Monsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva "iyakudiliza imeko yentlalo yoluntu."

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo ezinokonakalisa izityalo, iigadi, izitiya, namatyholo.

IMonsanto iwuphakamisile lo mqobo xa yayisungula imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo, ikhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imixube emitsha ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zityalo zenziwe ngemfuza ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo zemozulu.

Intshukumo kaMonsanto yokudala izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza zenziwe ngemfuza emva kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-glyphosate kunye nokutshiza okuxhaphakileyo kwe-glyphosate kudala ubhubhane wokumelana nokhula kumhlaba wonke weefama wase-US.

Amafama, izazinzulu zezolimo kunye nezinye iingcali zalumkisa uMonsanto kunye ne-EPA ukuba ukuzisa inkqubo yokunyamezela i-dicamba ayizukudala kuphela ukuxhathisa i-herbicide kodwa iya kukhokelela kumonakalo owonakalisayo kwizityalo ezingezonjongo zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezilumkiso, iMonsanto, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa imveliso entsha ye-dicamba herbicides kolu hlobo lubanzi lokutshiza. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo ezichazwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwiindawo ze-18, inkundla iqaphele.

Njengoko bekuxelwe kwangaphambili, kukho amawakawaka ezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodwe kwiindawo ezininzi. Kwisigwebo sayo, inkundla iqaphele ukuba kwi-2018, kwizigidi ezili-103 zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu otyalwe e-United States, malunga ne-56 yezigidi zeehektare zatyalwa nembewu ene-Micanto dicamba-ukunyamezelana, ukusuka kwi-27 yezigidi zeehektare kunyaka ongaphambili. Ngo-2017.

NgoFebruwari, ijaji evumayo yanika umfama wase-Missouri ipesika $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo ohlawulelwayo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo ozohlawulwa yiBayer kunye ne-BASF ngomonakalo we-dicamba kwipropathi yakhe.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo elandela esi sigwebo esithi akavumelani kwaphela nesigwebo senkundla kwaye uvavanya ukhetho.

Isigqibo esisekwe kwisayensi esisekwe kwi-EPA siyasiqinisekisa ukuba esi sixhobo sibalulekile kubalimi kwaye asibeki mngcipheko wokungahambi kakuhle xa sisetyenziswa ngokwemikhombandlela yeelebheli, utshilo inkampani. "Ukuba isigwebo simi, siza kusebenza ngokukhawuleza ukunciphisa nayiphi na impembelelo kubathengi bethu kule sizini."

UCorteva ukwathe i-dicamba herbicides yayidinga izixhobo zomfama kwaye yayivavanya ukhetho lwayo.

I-BASF ibize lo mthetho wenkundla "ngendlela engazange ibonwe ngaphambili" kwaye ithi "inokuba namandla okuphazamisa amashumi amawaka amafama."

Abalimi banokuphulukana "nengeniso ebalulekileyo" ukuba abakwazi ukubulala ukhula kwiindawo zabo zesoya kunye nekotoni kunye ne-dicamba herbicides, utshilo inkampani.

"Siza kusebenzisa zonke iindlela ezisemthethweni zokufumana lo mngeni," utshilo uBASF.

Isithethi se-EPA sithe i-arhente ngoku ijonga isigqibo senkundla kwaye "izakuhamba ngokukhawuleza ukujongana nomyalelo weNkundla."

Inkundla isamkele isigqibo singanendleko kumafama asele ethengile kunye / okanye atyale imbewu ye-dicamba enganyamezelekiyo ngelixesha lonyaka kwaye icwangcise ukusebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula kuyo ngenxa yokuba isigwebo asikuvumeli ukusetyenziswa kweyeza.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima obunokubangelwa ngaba balimi ekufumaneni amayeza okubulala ukhula asebenzayo nakwezomthetho ukukhusela izityalo zabo (ezinyamezelayo) ..." isigwebo sitsho. “Babekwe kule meko kungekho siphoso sabo. Nangona kunjalo, ukungabikho kobungqina obuninzi obuxhasa isigqibo se-EPA kusinyanzela ukuba siphume kubhaliso. ”

UDicamba: Amafama oyika elinye ixesha lomonakalo wezityalo; Kulindelwe isigwebo senkundla

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngokujika kwekhalenda ukuya kuJuni, amafama aseMelika eMidwest asonga ukutyala izityalo zesoya ezintsha kunye nokujonga amasimi akhulayo ezityalo zengqolowa kunye nemifuno. Kodwa baninzi abakwalungiselela ukubethwa lutshaba olungabonakaliyo oluye lwadala umonakalo kwilizwe lasezifama ihlobo lokugqibela- ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umfama oqinisekisiweyo wase-Robinson, e-Kansas, uchaza amaxesha okugqibela okukhula ehlotyeni njengoko ephawulwe "sisiphithiphithi," kwaye uthe waphulukana nesiqinisekiso sentsimi enye yezityalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efafazwe kude. Ngoku uyabongoza abamelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula kumasimi abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuba ikhemikhali ihlala kude kwipropathi yakhe.

"Kukho dicamba kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomnye kuphela wamakhulu amafama ajikeleze iMidwest West yase-US kunye namazwe aliqela asezantsi athe axela ukonakaliswa kwesityalo kunye nelahleko abathi zibangelwe kukukhukuliseka kwe-dicamba kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo.

Olo thintelo lwabuyiselwa umva emva kokuba uMonsanto ephehlelele imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imichiza ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zilimo zenziwe ngemfuza. IMonsanto, ngoku eyeyeBayer AG, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokuthengisa iimveliso ezintsha ze-dicamba herbicides zokutshiza ngaphezulu kweentlobo zezityalo ezikhulayo ezinganyangekiyo. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza.

Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umanyano lwamaqela amafama kunye nabathengi amangalele i-EPA malunga nokuxhasa kwayo ukusetyenziswa okuphezulu kweyeza ze-dicamba kwaye ngoku balindele isigwebo senkundla yesithoba yesibheno sezibheno eSan Francisco malunga nemfuno yabo yokuba inkundla iguqule i-EPA Ukuvunywa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Iingxoxo zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Epreli.

Abathengi kunye namaqela ezendalo atyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ngokusilela ukuhlalutya "iindleko zentlalo noqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kumafama" ekhokelela kumanqanaba "obubi" omonakalo wezityalo.

Amaqela athi i-EPA ibonakala inomdla ngakumbi ukukhusela umdla kwishishini zeMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani kunokukhusela amafama.

Amagqwetha eMonsanto, amele inkampani njengeyunithi yaseBayer, bathi abamangali abanangqiniseko ethembekileyo. Idicamba herbicide yenkampani entsha, ebizwa ngokuba yiXtendiMax, “incede abalimi ekusombululeni ingxaki enkulu yokhula kwilizwe lonke, kwaye isivuno seembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu zifikelele kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe lonke ngeli xesha lesimangalo,” ngokufutshane ifayilishwe ngamagqwetha enkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Abaceli besicelo somyalelo wokumisa kwangoko konke ukuthengisa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwento yokubulala izitshabalalisi kumema impazamo yomthetho kunye neempembelelo ezinokubakho eziyinyani kwilizwe liphela," yatsho inkampani.

Njengoko belinde isigqibo senkundla yomanyano, amafama athemba ukuba izithintelo ezitsha ezibekwe ngamanye amazwe ziya kubakhusela. ISebe lezoLimo lase-Illinois ucebisile Abafakizicelo abangenako ukutshiza emva komhla wama-20 kuJuni, nokuba akufuneki batshize iimveliso ze-dicamba ukuba amaqondo obushushu angaphezulu kwe-45 degrees Fahrenheit, kwaye kufuneka basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba xa umoya uvuthuza usuka kwiindawo “ezibuthathaka”. IMinnesota, iIndiana, iNyakatho yeDakota kunye noMzantsi Dakota ziphakathi kwamanye amazwe zibeka imihla yokuphelisa ukutshiza i-dicamba.

U-Steve Smith, umlawuli wezolimo e-Red Gold Inc, iprosesa enkulu yeetamati enkonkxiweyo, uthe nangemida karhulumente "uxhalabile kakhulu" malunga nexesha elizayo. Iihektare ezininzi zokutyala kunye neembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto ke kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuyakubakho ukutshizwa kwe-dicamba, utshilo.

"Sisebenze nzima ukugcina umyalezo phaya ukuze ungasondeli kuthi, kodwa umntu, ngamanye amaxesha, uza kwenza impazamo enokusibizela ishishini lethu," utshilo.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuba inkundla izakuchitha ukuvuma kwe-EPA kwaye "ayeke obu buhlanya benkqubo."

Ngokwahlukileyo kumonakalo onokubakho we-dicamba kwizityalo, uphando olutsha kutshanje kupapashwe kubonisa ukuba amafama avezwe kumanqanaba aphezulu e-dicamba kubonakala ngathi aphakame umngcipheko wesibindi kunye nezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Abaphandi bathi idatha entsha ibonise ukuba umbutho owawubonwe ngaphambili kwidatha phakathi kwe-dicamba kunye ne-lung kunye ne-colon cancer zazingabonakali "ngedatha ehlaziyiweyo.

UNina Fedoroff: Ukukhuthaza igunya lenzululwazi yaseMelika ukuba ibuyisele iMonsanto

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna
  • Njengomongameli kunye nosihlalo webhodi ye-AAAS ukusuka kwi-2011-2013, uGqr Fedoroff uqhubele phambili kwiinjongo zomgaqo-nkqubo wezolimo. Ngoku usebenza kwinkampani yokuphembelela.
  • Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa ukuba ubudlelwane boluntu kunye neenzame zokufuna ulungelelwaniso zilungelelaniswe njani emfihlekweni phakathi kwezolimo, amaqela angaphambili kunye nabahlohli ababonakala bezimele.

UNina Fedoroff, PhD, yenye yezona nzulu zinempembelelo ekukhuthazeni ukwanda kunye nokupheliswa kokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza. Ungumongameli wangaphambili waseMelika woPhuculo lweNzululwazi (2011-2012) kunye nosihlalo wangaphambili weBhodi yabaLawuli ye-AAAS (2012-2013). Ungumntu Umcebisi omkhulu kwezenzululwazi ukusukela nge-2015 kumthetho we-OFW, inkampani yokubambisa enabaxhasi bayo ebabandakanyayo ISyngenta kwaye i IBhunga leNgcaciso yeBiotechnology, Iqela lezorhwebo elimele iBayer (eyeMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (icandelo leDowDuPont) kunye neSyngenta.

Ukusukela ngo-2007-2010, uGqirha Fedoroff wasebenza njengomcebisi kwezobunzululwazi nobuchwephesha kuNobhala Wezwe kunye noMlawuli we-USAID phantsi kolawulo lukaGeorge W. Bush kunye no-Obama. Ngaphambi koko, waye ilungu lebhodi ye-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamachiza ehlabathi kunye ne-biotech; kunye Ilungu lebhodi yeengcebiso ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, ISyngenta, Bayer kwaye IMonsanto.

Umsitho we-2017 wokukhuthaza iBhunga laseMelika kwiNzululwazi kunye neMpilo Incwadi "ye-junk science" Ibhalwe nguGqirha Fedoroff kunye izazinzulu ezimbini ezinxulumene namaqela aphika inzululwazi yemozulu.

NjengoNobhala Welizwe uHillary “Umlawuli wenzululwazi” kaClinton"Ugqirha Fedoroff wasebenza njengoonozakuzaku"GMO yonke indlela"Umgaqo-nkqubo wezangaphandle wase-US, uTom Philpott uxele kwi-Grist ngowama-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uGqirha Fedoroff njengo"ngunozakuzaku wase-US ”kubunjineli bemfuza. Ngokutsho kukaGreenpeace, uGqr. Fedoroff ebesoloko “engu Ummeli oshushu wokwanda kwe-GM (kuguqulwe ngokwemfuza) ukutya kulo lonke ikhondo lomsebenzi. ”

Ngexesha lakhe lokuba ngumongameli kunye nosihlalo we-AAAS, i inkulu ehlabathini kwizenzululwazi ezininzi, uGqirha Fedoroff wanyusa ezo ndima ukubonelela ngoncedo lwezopolitiko kumzi mveliso wezolimo: umzekelo, iBhodi yabaLawuli yeAAAS phantsi kosihlalo wayo ikhuphe ingxelo ephelelwe lixesha yokuphikisa ukubhalwa kweGMO ngo-2012. Ngelixa umongameli wombutho wezenzululwazi ngo-2011 Ugqirha Fedoroff uncede woyisa isindululo sase-US EPA ebesiza kufuna idatha eyongezelelweyo yezempilo kunye nokhuseleko kwizityalo ze-GMO, ngokweimeyile ezichazwe ngezantsi. Yabona, UNina Fedoroff, iAAAS kunye nomzi mveliso wezolimo. UGqr Fedoroff kunye neAAAS abaphendulanga kwizicelo zempendulo.

Ukudibana namaqela aphambili emveliso kunye neenzame ze-PR

Ugqirha Fedoroff ukhuthaze kwaye wanceda ekuqinisekiseni amaqela athi angamazwi azimeleyo enzululwazi kodwa asebenze ngasemva kunye nomzi mveliso wezolimo ngeendlela ezilahlekisa uluntu-kubandakanya amaqela amabini awanceda iMonsanto zama ukuhlambalaza Oososayensi abasebenza kwi-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) yeqela leengcali elalichaza i-glyphosate njenge Isidumbu somntu kwi 2015.

Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo (ACSH) ixhaswe ngu iikhemikhali, amayeza kunye neenkampani zecuba, ngoku ka avuza amaxwebhu angaphakathi Olu xwebhu lubonisa ukuba iqela lizifaka njani iinkonzo zalo kwimibutho yemikhankaso yokukhusela imveliso. Ii-imeyile ezikhutshwe ngenkqubo yenkundla zibonisa ukuba iMonsanto kuvunyelwene ngokuxhasa ngemali i-ACSH kwi2015, kwaye ucele iqela ukuba libhale malunga nalo Ingxelo yomhlaza kwi-IARC kwi-glyphosate; I-ACSH kamva zifunyenwe ingxelo yomhlaza "ubuqhetseba besayensi."     

Ugqirha Fedoroff uncede ukukhuthaza eli qela njengomthombo wesayensi osemthethweni kwi-2017 Umnyhadala weSizwe weKlabhu yeendaba ukumilisela i-ACSH's "Incwadi encinci emnyama yeNzululwazi yeJunk." Ukuvela ecaleni kukaGqirha Fedoroff kumsitho wokushicilela zazinzulu ezimbini ezinxulumene namaqela athi iphike inzululwazi yemozulu kwaye Ukuphembelela iimveliso zecuba:

Iprojekthi yemfuzo yokuFunda nokuBhala: Ugqirha Fedoroff udwelisiwe njengelungu lebhodi kwiwebhusayithi yeProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala, iqela elibanga ukuba lizimele kodwa amaqabane neMonsanto kwi-PR kunye neeprojekthi zokuphembelela, ngokwamaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know. Amaxwebhu akhutshwe kwiifayile zenkundla zibonisa ukuba iMonsanto idwelise eli qela phakathi "Amaqabane oshishino" icwangcise ukubandakanyeka kwisicwangciso-qhinga "sokulungisa isikhalazo" ngokuchasene novavanyo lwe-IARC lwe-glyphosate ukuze "kukhuselwe igama kunye ne-FTO yeRoundup." Iprojekthi yemfuzo yokuFunda nokuBhala sele ithunyelwe ngaphezulu kwe- 200 amanqaku egxeka iarhente yophando ngomhlaza, kubandakanya uninzi lohlaselo lobuqu kwizazinzulu ezichaphazelekayo kwingxelo yeglyphosate, ibatyhola iyelenqe, ubuqhetseba, buxoki, urhwaphilizo, ukufihla, kwaye ukukhuthazwa nguinzuzo namampunge. "??

Ku Uthotho lwamabhaso eLe Monde malunga neenzame zikaMonsanto zokutshabalalisa iarhente yomhlaza ye-UN nangayiphi na indlela, iintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iProjeki yoFundo lokuFunda nokuBhala kunye ne-ACSH "njengeewebhusayithi ezaziwayo ze-propaganda" kwaye bathi i-GLP "ityiswa ngabantu be-PR amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nebiotechnology. ” I-GLP yasungulwa ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, ongumnini wefemu yobudlelwane noluntu eyayinoMonsanto njengomthengi ngelo xesha.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphandi ngomhlaza kwiwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project edwelisa uGqirha Fedoroff njenge "lungu lebhodi":

Uphengululo lwezifundo: UGqr Fedoroff ukhuthaze uPhononongo lweziFundo njengomthombo othembekileyo wesayensi kwinqaku lowama-2012 ku Iindlela eziqhubekayo kwiGenetics kunye nodliwanondlebe lowama-2016 no Washington Examiner malunga ubuntatheli besayensi obuhlwempuzekileyo. Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa ukuba uPhononongo lwezeMfundo Ukusekwa njengeqela langaphambili ngoncedo lweMonsanto yokujongela phantsi abagxeki bobunjineli bemfuza kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, ngelixa ukugcina iminwe yeminwe ifihliwe. Iqela, elithi zifunyenwe ukuzimela kodwa ixhaswe ngemali ziinkampani zezolimo, Hlasela ushishino lwezinto eziphilayo “njengobuqhophololo bentengiso.”

Inkampu yeBootech Liter Boot Camp: UGqirha Fedoroff wadweliswa njenge ilungu lesiseko yeProjekthi ye-Biotech Literacy Project “eyayiqala ukusebenza” eyayibanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo msitho waququzelelwa ngamaqela amabini e-PR, IProjekthi yokuFunda ngokuBhala kwaye Uphengululo lwezifundo, kwaye baxhaswa ngemali ngokufihlakeleyo ziinkampani zezolimo ukuze "baqeqeshe oososayensi kunye neentatheli ukumisela ingxoxo malunga ne-GMO kunye netyhefu yeglyphosate," uxele uPaul Thacker kwiNkqubela phambili. Izithethi zibandakanya uluhlu oluqhelekileyo lwamashishini amanyeneyo e-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH kunye a Ngundoqo by “Inzululwazi Yomntwana.”

AgBioWorld: KwiiTrends zakhe ze-2012 kunye neGenetics inqaku, UGqirha Fedoroff ukhuthaze i-AgBioWorld kwiwebhusayithi njenge "enye into ebalulekileyo" yokufunda ngenzululwazi. Ngo-2002 kwinqaku kwi Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze indlela iqela le-Monsanto's PR elisebenzisa ngayo iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld kunye neeakhawunti zemidiya zentlalo ezingezizo ukunyelisa izazinzulu kunye nabezendalo abaphakamise iinkxalabo malunga nezityalo ze-GM. UMonbiot uxele: 

“Ekupheleni konyaka ophelileyo, uJay Byrne, owayesakuba [ngumlawuli kaMonsanto] wokufikelela kwi-intanethi, wacacisela amanye amafemu amaqhinga awayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ubonakalisile ukuba, ngaphambi kokuba afike emsebenzini, iindawo eziphezulu ze-GM ezidweliswe yinjini yokukhangela kwi-intanethi zonke zazigxeka itekhnoloji. Ukulandela ukungenelela kwakhe, iindawo eziphambili zazizonke ezixhasayo (ezine zazo ezasekwa yiMonsanto's PR firm Bivings). Wabaxelela ukuba 'bacinge nge-intanethi njengesixhobo setafile. Nokuba uyayichola okanye umntu okhuphisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa umntu uza kubulawa.

Ngelixa wayesebenzela iMonsanto, u-Byrne uxelele i-intanethi ye-Intanethi ukuba 'Uchitha ixesha lakhe kunye nomzamo wokuthatha inxaxheba' kwiingxoxo zewebhu malunga ne-biotech. Ukhethe indawo i-AgBioWorld, apho 'aqinisekisa ukuba inkampani yakhe ifumana umdlalo ofanelekileyo.' I-AgBioWorld yindawo apho [uMariya ongeyonyani kwi-Intanethi] uSmetacek asungule khona iphulo lakhe. ”

Uhlaselo kwi-Greenpeace: UGqirha Fedoroff wathetha e umsitho wokushicilela ka-2016 weqela elizibiza “Inkxaso kwezolimo, ”Ebinikezela ngeleta etyikitywe ngabaphumelele iimbasa zeNobel abangaphezu kwe-100 begxeka iGreenpeace ngokuchasa kwabo iiGMOs. Amashishini adibeneyo kwezolimo Uncede ngephulo, kubandakanya noMonsanto owayenguMlawuli wezoNxibelelwano UJay Byrne; Iqela langaphambili lobugcisa be-biotech VP Ixabiso leZipho; kunye noMat Winkler, oxhasa ngemali Iprojekthi yeqela le-PR yolwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala Kwaye idweliswe njenge ilungu lebhodi Kunye noGqirha Fedoroff kwiwebhusayithi yeqela. Inguqulelo ye .com yewebhusayithi ekuthiwa izimeleyo "yeNkxaso yoLimo lwezoLimo" Idluliselwe kwiProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala iminyaka (yayihlanjululwe emva kokuba siyibizele kwi-2019). Kwi Imeyile ukusukela ngo-2011, U-Byrne uchonge i-Greenpeace kuluhlu “lweethagethi” awayezenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki kwimizi-mveliso abanokujongana nayo emva kwekhava iqela lezemfundo elixhaswa ngemali oko kwabonakala kuzimele.

Umhlobo wempendulo zeGMO: UGqirha Fedoroff ngu ingcali ezimeleyo yeempendulo zeGMO, a Iphulo le-PR eliphuhliswe bubudlelwane boluntu no-Ketchum, ene-a Imbali yokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuphembelela uluntu. Nangona uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weempendulo zeGMO iya "kuchaza ngokucacileyo ukungafihli," Iqela iimpendulo ezibhaliweyo yengcali "ezimeleyo" kwaye yadweliswa phakathi "kwamaqabane oshishino" kwi Isicwangciso se-Monsanto PR ukukhusela i-Roundup kwinkxalabo yomhlaza. A Icandelo "lezixhobo" (iphepha le-4) likhombe kwiimpendulo ze-GMO kunye neMonsanto zonxibelelwano ezihambisa umyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyiyo i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UGqirha Fedoroff Uthethe kwiqela elalixhaswe ngabakwa GMO Answers, Scientific American kunye ne ICornell Alliance yeNzululwazi malunga nokusasazwa kweendaba zesayensi ezinentatheli ezonwabisayo zeshishini UKeith Kloor kwaye UTamar Haspel. Jonga "Umatshini weMediaanto weMonsanto uza eWashington, ”Ebhalwe nguPaul Thacker.

Uphando oluchasiweyo lokufumanisa ubudlelwane bezemfundo

Kwi-2015, uGqirha Fedoroff kunye nabanye ababekade bengomongameli be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bakhuthaze iindima zabo zobunkokheli ze-AAAS, kodwa basilela ukubhengeza naliphi na ishishini labo, kuMgcini i-op-ed Ukuchasa uphando lweerekhodi zoluntu olwalufuna ukufumanisa ubambiswano olungachazwanga kunye namalungiselelo ezemali phakathi kweenkampani zezolimo, amaqela abo e-PR kunye noonjingalwazi abafumana inkxaso-mali esidlangalaleni. Inkqubo ye- uphando olwenziwe yi-US ilungelo lokwazi kutyhilwe amanye amaxwebhu aphambili achazwe kolu xwebhu.

Nangona uMgcini kamva wongeze i- ukudalulwa ukuba uGqirha Fedoroff usebenza kwi-lobby firm ye-OFW Law, ayikuchazanga oko Umthengi we-OFW ngelo xesha yayiliqela lezorhwebo lezolimo, elineenkampani ezingamalungu ezazigxile kuphando lweerekhodi zoluntu. Oo mongameli bangaphambili be-AAAS babephikisa ukuba uphando lokufumanisa ukungangachazwanga kwimizi-mveliso yezemfundo "yayikhupha iphepha kwi-Climategate playbook" kwaye ibandakanya "ukukhanyela inzululwazi," amabango afanayo yenziwe ngamaqela e-PR oluchazwe kweli phepha.

Sebenzisa i-AAAS ukuqhubela phambili iinjongo zomgaqo-nkqubo wezolimo

Ngexesha lokuhlala kwakhe njengo-Mongameli we-American Association yokuqhubela phambili kweNzululwazi (i-AAAS) ukusukela ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi yaBalawuli ukusukela ngo-2012-2013, uGqirha Fedoroff wasebenza namahlakani oshishino lwezolimo ukuqhubela phambili iinjongo eziphambili zomgaqo-nkqubo: ukugcina imfuzo ukutya okwenziwe ngobunjineli okungabhalwanga kunye nokuloyisa isindululo se-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo e-US ebiya kufuna idatha eyongezelelweyo kwimpembelelo yezendalo kunye nokusingqongileyo kwezityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezihlelwe njengezibulali zinambuzane.

I-AAAS incede ukucenga abavoti ukuba bayichase iilebhile ze-GMO

Kwi-2012, iBhodi yabaLawuli ye-AAAS phantsi kukaSihlalo kaGqirha Fedoroff yathatha inyathelo elingaqhelekanga lokuthatha inxaxheba kwimicimbi yezopolitiko enesiphene kwiiveki nje ezimbini ngaphambi kokuba abavoti baseCalifornia baye kuvota ukuze bathathe isigqibo ngeProposition 37, inyathelo lokuvota ukubiza ii-GMOs. Uphengululo lweengxelo ezininzi zopolitiko ezenziwe yiAAAS azifumananga eminye imizekelo yombutho ozama ukuphembelela abavoti ngaphambi konyulo lukarhulumente. (I-AAAS kunye noGqirha Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokwenza izimvo. Ukwazisa kwakhona: abalawuli be-USRTK basebenze kwiphulo lokufaka iilebheli.)

Ibhodi yeAAAS mazwi Ukuchasana nokubhalwa kwe-GMO kwakuphikisana. It iqulethe ukungachaneki, ngokwexesha elide amalungu e-AAAS, amaninzi kuwo Uyichasile ingxelo yokuchasana neelebheli njengohlaselo "lobuzali" kumalungelo abathengi elahlekisa uluntu ngokushiya umxholo obalulekileyo wesayensi kunye nolawulo. Isithethi se-AAAS ngelo xesha, uGinger Pinholster, wathi ezi zigxeko “azilunganga kwaye azinampumelelo.” Uxelele intatheli Wayesegumbini xa ibhodi yayigqithisa le ngxelo: “Asililo iqela lokukhuthaza. Iingxelo zethu sizenza ngokusekelwe kubungqina besayensi, ”utshilo uPinholster. Ndiyakuxelela ukuba ingxelo yethu ibingengomsebenzi okanye ingakhange ichukunyiswe ngumbutho ongaphandle. ”

Abanye ababukeleyo baqaphela ukufana kulwimi olusetyenziswa yi-AAAS kunye iphulo elixhaswa ngemali ngumzi-mveliso Ukoyisa iSindululo 37. "Ngaba lelona qela liphambili lenzululwazi elityala iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon eGrist. USimon uchaze ingxelo yebhodi njenge "engeyiyo eyenzululwazi kodwa ifanelekile ukuba icatshulwe", kwaye waqaphela ukuba Ukuhamba nokukhutshwa kwe-AAAS iqulethe "amanqaku okuthetha" ahambelana no-37 kuncwadi lomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ngathi akukho ngaphantsi ekuhleni kungumbono ombi ngokwenene kuluntu lwenzululwazi"

Kwi Ileta ka-2013 kwiphephancwadi leSayensi, Elinye iqela lezazinzulu ezili-11 laphakamisa inkxalabo yokuba ingxelo yebhodi ye-AAAS malunga nokutya kwe-GMO "inokubuyisa. Babhale, “sixhalabile kukuba indawo yeAAA imele indlela enolwazi olunqongopheleyo kunxibelelwano lwenzululwazi…  ukubonakala ngathi azicacanga yinto engeyonyani leyo kwezenzululwazi. ”

UGqirha Fedoroff wayengumxhasi wokuqala kwishishini elixhaswe ngu-No kwiphulo le-37, elidweliswe kwiwebhusayithi yalo ngoJuni 2012 njengomnye wabo izazinzulu ezine emele "uluntu lwenzululwazi kunye noluntu lwezifundo" oluchaseneyo neelebhile ze-GMO. Eli phulo lacela uGqirha Fedoroff ukuba ancede ekufumaneni abafundi abaninzi kwizizathu zabo, awathi wenza ngokwendlela Okthobha 1, 2012 imeyile kuMeghan Callahan weMicimbi yoLuntu ye-BCF, “Ndidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi kwezemfundo] kwiqela lamazwe ngamazwe le-biotechnology exhasa izifundiswa. Ndiyarhana ukuba uyakuva kwiindawo ezininzi zehlabathi, utshilo uGqirha Fedoroff.

Ukuncedwa kokubulala iimfuno zedatha yezityalo ezivelisa izitshabalalisi

Kwi-2011 ngelixa wayesebenza njengomongameli we-AAAS, uGqirha Fedoroff wasebenza kunye ne-agrichemical allies kunye ne-lobbyist yecandelo lokumisa i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US ekufuneni iinkampani ukuba zinikeze ngedatha eyongezelelweyo yezempilo kunye nokhuseleko lokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza okuhlelwa njengezibulali zinambuzane, ngokweimeyile. ichazwe ngezantsi.

Isindululo se-EPA sisuselwe kwingxoxo yePhaneli yeNgcebiso ngezeNzululwazi ye-EPA ngo-2009 malunga iindlela zokuphucula amandla earhente yokwenza izigqibo zolawulo malunga nezityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ukuze zivelise okanye ziqulathe i-pesticides, ebizwa ngokuba yi-EPA "njengezikhuselo ezifakwe kwizityalo" (PIPs). Amalungu ephaneli aceliwe ukuba avavanye iimfuno zedatha ye-EPA yangoku kunye necetywayo yee-PIPs kwezi ndawo zilandelayo:

  • idatha yokuvavanya ukufana okunokwenzeka phakathi kwe-PIPs kunye ne-allergen, i-toxins, i-anti-izondlo kunye nezinye iiproteni eziyingozi;
  • ukuvavanywa kweziphumo ezinxulumene nempilo kunye nezinto ezingezojoliso, xa ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu iimpawu ze-GMO zidityanisiwe (i-stacked trait GMOs);
  • iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kubemi beentsholongwane kwiindawo eziphilayo zendalo; kwaye
  • idatha yokujongana ngcono nefuthe lokuhamba kofuzo.

Ngoku ka amanqaku avela kwintlanganiso ye-EPA ka-Okthobha ka-2009, imigaqo ecetywayo iya "ikakhulu ukuhlanganisa iimfuno ezikhoyo zedatha esetyenziswayo ngoku kwimeko nganye," kwaye iya kubandakanya iindidi ezintlanu zedatha kunye nolwazi: uphawu lweemveliso, impilo yabantu, iziphumo ezingezizo ekujoliswe kuzo, ukusingqongileyo kunye nokumelana ulawulo. I-EPA ubhengeze imigaqo ecetywayo kwiRejista ye-Federal ngo-Matshi 2011.

I-imeyile efunyenwe yi-US Right to Know ngokusebenzisa izicelo zeerekhodi zoluntu zibonisa ukuba amahlakani oshishino ahlanganisana njani ukoyisa isindululo.

Iimeyile zibonisa iincoko phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngelo xesha, u-Eric Sachs wase Monsanto kunye namanye amashishini axoxa ngemisebenzi kunye neentlanganiso ezazibandakanya uGqirha Fedoroff. U-Chassy uzichaze kwii-imeyile (66 iphepha) njengonxibelelwano phakathi komzi-mveliso kunye nezifundiswa kumzamo wokuchasa iimfuno zedatha ye-EPA. Ukungena kwii-imeyile zakhe kwi-Sachs yayinemibuzo malunga nokuba uMonsanto wayethumele itsheki na kwiYunivesithi yase-Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa uChassy "wokufikelela kubuchwephesha kwezobugcisa kunye nemisebenzi yezemfundo." (Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nemali engachazwanga i-Chassy efunyenwe eMonsanto iminyaka njengoko yayikhuthaza i-biotechnology, yabona ukunika ingxelo nguMonica Eng kwiWBEZ kwaye ii-imeyile ezithunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

Nge-5 kaJulayi, uGqirha Chassy Imeyile uEric Sachs waseMonsanto ukuxela ukuba uGqirha Fedoroff uthumele i ileta eya kwi-EPA ngaphezulu kokutyikitywa kwakhe kukutyikitywa ngamalungu angama-60 kwiZiko leSayensi leSizwe. "U-Nina wayithatha ngenene ibhola wayisusa ebaleni," ubhale watsho u-Chassy. Uchaze isindululo se-EPA njengo “konakala koololiwe.”

Ii-imeyile zibonisa ukuba nge-19 ka-Agasti, abameli bamaqela orhwebo abebekho umangalisiwe kwaye wonwabile (iphepha 19) ukubona iNew York Times i-op-ed kuGqirha Fedoroff ephikisana nemigaqo yobunjineli bemfuza; “Ngubani owabekwa ku-Nina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uGqirha Chassy kunye namanye amahlakani emizi-mveliso, Henry Miller kwaye Ixabiso leZipho. UChassy uphendule wathi:

UMassey ugqithisele uGqirha Chassy ileta i-BIO ayithumele kwi-EPA “ngethemba lokuba uyokwakhela kwileta yezifundiswa kwaye anike impendulo emfutshane malunga ne-EPA kule leta.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoko babenethemba. Nge-24 ka-Agasti, UGqirha Chassy ubhalele uEric Sachs (iphepha 14) uGqr. Fedoroff "wafumana impendulo evela kwi-EPA esisithuko." Uchaze izicwangciso zokuphelisa uxinzelelo.

 

NgoSeptemba, Chassy ulungiselele umnxeba wenkomfa kunye noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kunye ne-lobbyist yabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. NgokukaChassy amanqaku kwifowuni, "Ukufumana indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuba isindululo se-EPA asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kwemini kuya kuba sesona siphumo silungileyo esinokusithemba. Eyona nto ilandelayo iya kuba kukuqinisekisa ukuba yi-DOA, kodwa ukuba kukho imfuneko kufuneka sikulungele ukuqhubeka nomlo. ”

Ubuye wabelana ngengxaki yokuba, “i-EPA ayikholelwa ukuba abahlali bezemfundo banokuphikisana ngokuzinzileyo kwimigaqo yabo ecetywayo; Bakholelwa ukuba bambalwa abambalwa abaxhasa uxwebhu lwezikhalazo kwaye uninzi lwabantu abasayinileyo abazinikelanga kulo mcimbi. ” Eli qela ligqibe kwelokuba kufuneka "lakhe isiseko sososayensi abakhokelayo abanomdla wokuthetha kunye nokuchitha ixesha kulo mbandela."

Ngo-Okthobha, iqela lalinethemba ngakumbi. I-Chassy yathumela nge-imeyile iiSachs ukunika ingxelo ngentlanganiso "enemveliso emangalisayo" yena noGqirha Fedoroff bezimase uSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Intlanganiso yayimiselwe nguMassey kunye ne-lobbyist Abramson. Isindululo se-EPA sokufuna idatha ye-GMO PIPs khange sikubone ukukhanya kwemini, ngokukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu kwi-Consumers Union, othathe inxaxheba kwiintlanganiso zikawonke-wonke kunye ne-arhente.

Amakhonkco apheleleyo e-imeyile, ngokusebenzisa iThala leeNcwadi lamaxwebhu e-UCSF:

Ingxelo ehambelanayo 

"Ndathintelwa kwiNkomfa yeNkcazo ye-Nobel Laureate nguMcebisi we-PR kunye neMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Ukutya kunye nokuBonwa kwaManzi (2016)

"AbaPuppetmasters be-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Iindaba zeSayensi eziMeleyo (2015)

"Kwiminyaka engama-20 kamva: i-biotech brigade imatsha, ”INethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZibulala-zinambuzane (2012)

"Ukutya kwezobunjineli kubani? ” NguMarcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi ophezulu kwi-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011)

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ii-GMO azisayi kuligcina ilizwe, ”NguAnna Lappe, Grist (2011)

"Apho ndiya kuzwane nenzwane kunye no-H.czz's czar science over GMOs, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009)

"I-Diplomat eguqulweyo ngokwemfuza: Umgaqo-nkqubo wezangaphandle wase-US kwi-GMO yonke indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

ICropLife yamanye amazwe-amanqaku aphambili

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

isishwankathelo

ICropLife yaMazwe ngaMazwe (I-CLI) ngumbutho wezorhwebo owasekwa ngonyaka ka-2001 emele abavelisi bezona mveliso zinkulu zehlabathi zembewu yobunjineli kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi. Amalungu afaka I-BASF, iBayer, iMonsanto, iSyngenta, iCorteva (eyayisakuba yiDowDuPont), iSumitomo Chemical kunye FMC.

Iqela lezorhwebo linamalungu ali-15 amalungu: i-AfricaBio; I-AgroBio Brazil; I-AgroBio Mexico; ArgenBio; Umbutho we-Biotechnology Innovation, Ukutya kunye neAg; I-CBI iJapan; I-CIB yaseBrazil; CropLife Afrika eMbindi Mpuma; CropLife Melika; CropLife Asia, CropLife Canada; CropLife eLatin America; Umbutho woKhuseleko lweZityalo waseYurophu (ECPA); EuropaBio; kunye neJapan yoKhuseleko lweZityalo.

Izithuba ezinxulumene ne-USRTK:
Ngamana 31, 2018, "IMonsanto ithembele kula maqabane ukuze ihlasele izazinzulu eziPhezulu zoMhlaza"

Amalungu e-CLI