Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Ukuhlaliswa eMonsanto Roundup kumatyala esifo somhlaza esenziwe nzima ligqwetha eliphumayo

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Kuya kuthatha ntoni ukwenza ukuba uMike Miller azinzise? Lowo ngumbuzo oxinzelelweyo njengomnye wamagqwetha akhokelayo kwityala lesizwe lomhlaza we-Roundup ukuza kuthi ga ngoku akavumanga ukulungelelanisa nabanye abantu ukuba bavume ukulungisa amatyala egameni lamawaka ezigulana ezinomhlaza ezibanga ukuba izifo zazo zibangelwe kukuvezwa kwemveliso yokubulala intsholongwane kaMonsanto .

UMike Miller, oyintloko yeOrange, eFlorida esekwe kwifemu yezomthetho enegama lakhe, ebengathandi ukwamkela imiqathango yokuhlawulwa kweengxoxo ezixoxwa phakathi kweengxoxo phakathi komnini waseMonsanto waseJamani uBayer AG kunye negqwetha labamangali. Oko kuphinda kubekhona kwakhona yindawo ebambekayo ephazamisayo nesisisombululo, imithombo esondeleyo kwisimangalo ithi.

Endaweni yokuba inkampani kaMiller isungule izilingo ezimbini kule nyanga, kubandakanya enye eqale namhlanje eContra Costa, eCalifornia, kunye neqala ngoLwesibini eSt. Louis, eMissouri. Kungenzeka ukuba uMiller angavuma ukuhlawulwa nangaliphi na ixesha, aphazamise iinkqubo zetyala, nangona kunjalo. UMiller naye unetyala elisetelwe uFebruwari kwiNkundla yeSithili saseMelika eSan Francisco. Elo tyala, elethwe sisigulana esinomhlaza u-Elaine Stevick, iya kuba lityala lesibini ukubanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano.

Ukuhamba kukaMiller kokuqhubeka nokuzama amatyala kuyazahlula kwezinye iifemu zabamangali baseRoundup, kubandakanya neBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye negqwetha laseGoldman laseLos Angeles kunye neDenver, e-Colorado esekwe nguAndrus Wagstaff. Njengenkampani iMiller, uBaum Hedlund kunye noAndrus Wagstaff bamele amawaka abamangali.

Ezo femu zivumile ukurhoxisa okanye ukuhlehlisa ulingo oluninzi, kubandakanya ezimbini ezazibandakanya abantwana abancinci abanomhlaza, ukulungiselela ukubonelelwa.

Eminye imithombo ikhombise inani lokuhlawula elinokubakho kwi-8 yezigidigidi zeedola- i-10 yezigidigidi, nangona abanye abahlalutyi bathe eli nani linganzima ukuthethelela abatyali mali beBayer, abagcina iliso elibukhali kuphuhliso.

Abagxeki batyhola uMiller ngokwenza into enokuthi yenzakalise amandla amawaka abamangali ukuba bafumane intlawulo evela eBayer, kodwa abaxhasi bathi uyayilwela imidla yabathengi bakhe kwaye uyala ukwamkela imigaqo ayifumana ingaphantsi. UMiller ligqala lomchasi elinembali ende yokuthatha iinkampani ezinkulu, kubandakanya iziyobisi ezinkulu, ngaphezulu kokulimala kwabathengi okunxulumene nemveliso.

Umlamli uKen Feinberg uthe akucaci ukuba kungabakho isisombululo sehlabathi ngaphandle kwe Miller.

"UMike Miller unombono wokuba axabisa ntoni amatyala akhe kwaye ufuna into acinga ukuba yimbuyekezo efanelekileyo," utshilo uFeinberg. UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria wonyula uFeinberg ukuba asebenze njengomlamli phakathi kweBayer kunye negqwetha labamangali ngoMeyi ophelileyo.

IMonsanto ilahlekile zontathu izilingo ibanjwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. IMiller Firm iphathe ezibini kwezi zilingo-bezisa iBaum Hedlund igqwetha ukunceda kwityala lika  UDewayne "Lee" Johnson (emva kokuba uMike Miller enzakaliswe kabuhlungu engozini ngaphambi nje kwetyala) nakwimeko yabamangaleli bendoda nomfazi. Alva kunye neAlberta Pilliod. UJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola kwaye ii-Pilliods zanikwa ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba amabhaso. Elinye ityala esele lenziwe, kumabango aziswe ngu-Edwin Hardeman, liphethwe yinkampani ka-Andrus Wagstaff kunye negqwetha uJennifer Moore.

Umzamo kaMiller wokutyhala izilingo ezintsha ubeka umngcipheko omninzi, kubandakanya nento yokuba iMonsanto inokuphumelela kwityala elinye okanye nangaphezulu, elinokuthi libonelele ngeBayer kwiingxoxo zokuhlala. Ngokuchaseneyo, nangona kunjalo, ukuba uMiller wayeza kuphumelela izilingo ezinokuthi zibonelele ngendlela entsha kubamangali ukuba bacele imali ethe kratya.

Uxinzelelo lokuhlala kuye kwaxatyiswa phezulu kuwo omabini amacala. Izinto ezintsonkothileyo zibandakanya ukubhaliswa kwenani labamangali 'elityikitywe ziifemu zamagqwetha eUnited States phakathi kolwazi lwentlawulo enokwenzeka. Ezinye iingxelo zosasazo ziye zalikhaba inani labamangali abangama-80,000 ngelixa eminye imithombo ithe eli nani lingaphezulu kwe-100,000. Inxalenye enkulu yelo nani, nangona kunjalo, ibonisa abamangaleli abasayiniweyo kodwa abangafaki manyathelo enkundleni, kwaye abanye bagcwalisile kodwa abanayo imihla yokuvavanywa kwetyala. Nakuphi na ukuhlaliswa ngoku kuya kubonisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali, kodwa kungenzeki konke oku, imithombo ithe.

Onke la matyala atyhola ukuba umhlaza ubangelwe kukuvezwa yimichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe eMonsanto, kubandakanya neRoundup brand esetyenziswa ngokubanzi. Kwaye bonke abantu bathi iMonsanto yayazi malunga nayo, kwaye igqunyiwe, umngcipheko.

Phakathi kobungqina obuye bavela ngenxa yesimangalo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto abonisa ukuba inkampani yenze uxwebhu lokupapashwa kwamaphepha enzululwazi abonakala ngobuxoki ukuba enziwe kuphela zizazinzulu ezizimeleyo; Inkxaso mali, kunye nokusebenzisana, amaqela angaphambili abesetyenziselwa ukuzama ukunyelisa izazinzulu ezixela ukwenzakala ngamayeza okubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; kunye nokusebenzisana namagosa athile ngaphakathi kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhusela kunye nokukhuthaza isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuba iimveliso zayo azibanga ngumhlaza.

Kwilingo laseCalifornia eliqale namhlanje, uKathleen Caballero utyhola ukuba uphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva kokutshiza iRoundup ukusukela ngo-1977 ukuya ku-2018 njengenxalenye yomsebenzi wakhe kwishishini lokulima nokulungisa umhlaba, nasekusebenzeni kwakhe kwifama.

Kwityala elimiselwe ukuqala ngoLwesibini eSt. Louis, kukho abamangali abane- uChristopher Wade, uGlen Ashelman, uBryce Batiste no-Ann Meeks.

Ityala lesithathu limiselwe le nyanga kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseRiverside County. Elo tyala laziswa nguTreesa Cotton, owasetyhini owafunyaniswa ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2015 esithi utyhola ngokuvezwa kuka-Monsanto's Roundup.

Izihlangu ezingaphezulu zeMonsanto (amaXwebhu) Cwangcisa ukuDrop

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Ifemu yezomthetho yeBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman, eyadibana ne-The Miller Firm ekubhaleni uloyiso lwembali lommangali u-Dewayne Lee Johnson ngaphezulu kwe-Monsanto ngo-Agasti, ifuna ukutyunjwa kwamaphepha angamakhulu aliqela eerekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto ezafunyanwa ngokufumanisa kodwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kugqityiwe ukutywinwa.

U-Baum Hedlund kunyaka ophelileyo wakhupha amakhulu ezinye iirekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto ezibandakanya ii-imeyile, ii-memos, imiyalezo ebhaliweyo kunye nolunye unxibelelwano olunempembelelo kwisigwebo samacala afanayo sokufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yasebenza "ngolunya" ngokungalumkisi abathengi malunga neenkxalabo zesayensi malunga ne-glyphosate-based herbicides . Imithombo yeJury ithi ezo rekhodi zangaphakathi zazinefuthe kakhulu kwimbasa yabo yokulimala ngezigidigidi ezingama-250 zeedola ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathi ijaji kwimeko yanciphisa yaya kuthi ga kwi-39 yezigidi zeedola kwiibhiliyoni ezingama-78 zeedola.

Amagqwetha abamangali kwizilingo ezimbini ezizayo athi iirekhodi zeMonsanto ezingakhange zibonwe esidlangalaleni ngaphambili ziya kuba yinxalenye yobungqina obutsha abaceba ukubazisa kwizilingo.

Namhlanje ikwangumhla wokugqibela wabamangali wokuphendula kwisindululo sikaMonsanto sokuba "sibuyise umva" ityala likaFebruwari 25 elimiselwe iNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. (jonga u-Disemba 11 ukungena ngezantsi ngeenkcukacha)