Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Izifundo ezitsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa inkxalabo kwimpilo yokuzala

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Njengoko iBayer AG ifuna ukuphungula inkxalabo yokuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides ibangela umhlaza, izifundo ezininzi ezitsha ziphakamisa imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho lwekhemikhali kwimpilo yokuzala.

Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ezikhutshiweyo ehlotyeni zibonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeza ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Kwi iphepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo in I-Endocrinology yeMelecular and Cellular, Abaphandi abane baseArgentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yokuba i-glyphosate ikhuselekile.

Uphando olutsha luza njengoko iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezulu kwamabango e-100,000 aziswe e-United States ngabantu abathi batyhileka kwi-Roundup yeMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso ze-glyphosate-based based herbicide ezibangele ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

I-Bayer izuze njengelifa ityala le-Roundup xa wathenga iMonsanto Ngo-2018, kungekudala phambi kokuphumelela kwamatyala amathathu kwabamangali.

Izifundo ziye zeza njengamaqela abathengi esebenzela ukuqonda ngcono indlela yokunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwabo kwi-glyphosate ngokutya. Isifundo ipapashwe nge-11 ka-Agasti ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokusika amanqanaba e-glyphosate afunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwepesenti ze-70. Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya.

IGlyphosate, eyona nto isebenzayo kwiRoundup, sesona sibulali sokhula sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. IMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinyamezelayo nge-glyphosate kwii-1990s ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba afafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuwo onke amasimi ezityalo, abulale ukhula kodwa hayi izityalo eziguqulweyo. Ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngamafama kunye nabanini bamakhaya, izixhobo kunye nezinto zikarhulumente, kuye kwatsala inkxalabo ekhulayo kule minyaka ngenxa yokuxhaphaka kwayo kunye noloyiko malunga nokuba inokwenza ntoni na kwimpilo yabantu kunye nokusingqongileyo. Imichiza ngoku ifunyanwa ngokutya nakumanzi kunye nomchamo womntu.

Ngokwenzululwazi yaseArgentina, ezinye zeempembelelo zeglyphosate ezibonwe kwizifundo ezitsha zezilwanyana zibangelwa kukuvezwa kweedosi eziphezulu; kodwa kukho ubungqina obutsha obubonisa ukuba nokuba sesichengeni sokweedosi esezantsi kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwendlela yokuzala kwabasetyhini, neziphumo ekuchumeni. Xa izilwanyana zichanekile kwi-glyphosate ngaphambi kokufikisa, utshintsho lubonakala kuphuhliso kunye nokwahlulahlula ii-ovari follicles kunye nesibeleko, zitsho izazinzulu. Ukongeza, ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe ngeglyphosate ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwembewu. Konke kudibanisa ukubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ziziphazamiso ze-endocrine, baphetha abaphandi.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osuka kwiYunivesithi yasePurdue, uthe uphando olutsha lwandisa ulwazi malunga nobungakanani bomonakalo onxulunyaniswa ne-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides kwaye inikezela "ukuqonda okungcono kobuzaza bokubhengeza okuxhaphakileyo inkcubeko ngoku. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka ukuba iMonsanto's Roundup inokuba negalelo kwiingxaki zokuzala kwimfuyo.

inye isifundo esibalulekileyo yapapashwa kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi kwiphephancwadi Ukutya kunye neTyxicology, ezimisele ukuba i-glyphosate okanye i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "i-hormonal ebalulekileyo kunye neethagethi zesibeleko seemolekyuli" kwiigundane ezikhulelweyo.

Isifundo esahlukileyo kutshanje papashwe kwincwadi I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yase-Iowa State bajonge ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kwiimpuku. Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kwinqanaba eliphantsi kwi-glyphosate "kuguqula iproteome ye-ovari" (iseti yeeprotein ezivakalisiweyo kuhlobo oluthile lweseli okanye komzimba) kwaye "inokuba nefuthe ekusebenzeni kwe-ovari. Kwiphepha elinxulumene nelaba baphandi babini baseIowa State kunye nombhali omnye owongezelelweyo, papashwa ngo Inzala yetyhefu, Abaphandi bathi abafumananga ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine kwiimpuku ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate, nangona kunjalo.  

Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseGeorgia kuchazwe kwiphephancwadi Inzululwazi yezilwanyana kunye neNzululwazi yezilwanyana Ukusetyenziswa kwemfuyo yengqolowa edityaniswe nentsalela ye-glyphosate kubonakala ngathi inokwenzakalisa izilwanyana, ngokujonga izifundo kwesihloko. Ngokusekwe kuphononongo loncwadi, i-glyphosate-based herbicides ibonakala ngathi "yityhefu yokuzala, ineziphumo ezahlukeneyo kwiinkqubo zokuzala zamadoda nabasetyhini," utshilo umphandi.

Iziphumo ezothusayo zazikhona ikwabonwa nasezimvini. Uphando lupapashwe kwiphephancwadi Ungcoliseko lwendalo kujonge iimpembelelo zokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuphuhliso lwesibeleko kwiimvana zabasetyhini. Bafumene utshintsho abathi lunokuchaphazela impilo yokuzala kwabasetyhini yeegusha kwaye babonise i-glyphosate-based herbicides esebenza njengophazamisayo kwi-endocrine.

Ikwapapashwe kwakhona kwi Ungcoliseko lwendalo, izazinzulu ezivela eFinland naseSpain zithe kwi iphepha elitsha Ukuba benze uvavanyo lokuqala lwexesha elide lweziphumo ze- "sub-toxic" glyphosate exposure kwiinkukhu. Bazama ukuvavanya izagwityi zabasetyhini nezamadoda kwii-glyphosate-based herbicides ukusuka kwiintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kwiiveki ezingama-52.

Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate herbicides "inokuguqula iindlela eziphambili zomzimba, inqanaba le-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kunye ne-microbiome" kodwa khange bafumane ziphumo zokuzala. Bathe iimpembelelo zeglyphosate azinakuhlala zibonwa “ngokwesiko, ngakumbi ixesha elifutshane, uvavanyo lwetyhefu, kwaye olo vavanyo alunakho ukububeka ngokupheleleyo ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate kunye neNeonicotinoids

Enye ye ezona zifundo zintsha Ukujonga iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwimpilo kwapapashwa kule nyanga kwi Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu.  Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-insectides ye-thiacloprid kunye ne-imidacloprid, zazinokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine.

Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane ayinxalenye yekhemikhali ye-neonicotinoid kwaye aphakathi kwezona zisetyenziselwa ukubulala izinambuzane ehlabathini.

Abaphandi bathi babeke iliso kwimpembelelo ye-glyphosate kunye neonicotinoids ezimbini kwiithagethi ezibalulekileyo zenkqubo ye-endocrine: I-Aromatase, i-enzyme ejongene ne-estrogen biosynthesis, kunye ne-estrogen receptor alpha, eyona proteni iphambili ekhuthaza umqondiso we-estrogen.

Iziphumo zabo zaxutywa. Abaphandi bathi ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uthintele umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa isithintelo "besingabalulekanga kwaye sibuthathaka." Ngokubalulekileyo abaphandi bathi i-glyphosate ayikhange ibangele misebenzi ye-estrogenic. Iziphumo "bezingqinelani" nenkqubo yovavanyo eqhutywa yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US, egqibe kwelokuba "abukho ubungqina obukholisayo bokunxibelelana okunokubakho kwindlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate," batsho.

Abaphandi bawubonile umsebenzi we-estrogenic kunye ne-imidacloprid kunye ne-thiacloprid, kodwa kugxininiso oluphezulu kunamanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi alinganiswe kwiisampulu zebhayiloji yomntu. Abaphandi bagqibe kwelokuba “amayeza aphantsi ezi zinambuzane akufuneki athathwe njengangenabungozi,” kodwa, kuba ezi zinambuzane, kunye nezinye ezonakalisa imichiza ye-endocrine, “zinokubangela iziphumo ze-estrogenic.”

Iziphumo ezahluka-hlukeneyo ziza njengoko amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kuvavanya ukuba okanye akunciphisi okanye kuthintelwe ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.

Abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwiminyaka kwidatha yesiphene yokubulala izinambuzane ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical

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Iminyaka, abalawuli base-US baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yi-Dow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga eekhemikhali ze-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika, ngokwe Uhlalutyo olutsha Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo luphinda luphonononge umsebenzi ukusuka kwiminyaka ye-1970 exhaswa yi-Dow kwaye ingeniswe kwi-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhokela iarhente ekumiseleni oko izazinzulu zibhekisa kuzo njenge- "akukho -qwalaselwe-inqanaba lesiphumo esibi" okanye i-NOAEL. Le mibundu isetyenziselwa ukumisela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwaye kwinqanaba apho ukuvezwa kweekhemikhali kunokuvunyelwa kwaye kungathathwa ngokuba kukhuselekile.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olutsha, olupapashwe kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi 3 kwiphephancwadi Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, Iziphumo ezingachanekanga zaba ziziphumo zophononongo lweedosi olwenziwe ngumphandi uFrederick Coulston kunye noogxa kwiAlbany Medical College kwii-1970s zokuqala zeDow.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baphinde bavavanya ukuba umsebenzi wangaphambili nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske weSebe lezeNdalo nezeMpilo kwiNzululwazi yezeMpilo, kwiSikolo seMpilo kaRhulumente kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Ngelixa isifundo sasibhalwa liqela laseCoulston, uhlalutyo lwagqitywa ngumbalo weDow kwaye kwagqitywa kwelokuba i-0.03 mg / kg-day yayililungu elingapheliyo le-NOAEL ye-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Kodwa uhlalutyo olutsha olwenziwe ngabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington bafumanise ukuba bagqithile kumda wokhuseleko. Ukuba idatha ibihlalutyiwe ngokufanelekileyo i-NOAEL engezantsi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ngeyifunyenwe, batsho.

Uphononongo lwaseCoulston aluzange luvavanywe ngoontanga kodwa lwalusetyenziswa yi-EPA kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's, abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington baxela.

Abaphandi baqukumbele: “Ngelo xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi zokuhlala ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kungabeka umngcipheko kuluntu ngokungeyomfuneko. ”

Kusetyenziswa kakhulu

Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kwigama lophawu lweLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos inambuzane yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kuseto lwezolimo. Eyona ntengiso inkulu yezolimo yechlorpyrifos ngumbona kodwa iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi likwasetyenziswa ngamafama alima iimbotyi zesoya, iziqhamo kunye nemithi yamandongomane, amahlumelo aseBrussels, iicranberry kunye nekholifulawa, kunye nezinye izityalo ezilandelelana. Iintsalela zekhemikhali zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni. Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ekhuthazwe yi-Dow, uphando oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi lubonakalisile ubungqina obandayo bobungozi be-chlorpyrifos, ngakumbi abantwana abancinci. Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa obusezantsi, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo, kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto.

IAmerican Academy for Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana noogqirha babantwana, ilumkise ngelithi ukuqhubeka nokusetyenziswa kwale khemikhali kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu lathi kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo.

I-EPA yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow ngo-2000 yokuphelisa yonke indawo yokuhlala ekusetyenzisweni kwayo ngenxa yophando olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zabantwana kunye nabantwana abancinci. Ngo-2012, ii-chlorpyrifos zazingavumelekanga ukuba zisetyenziswe kwizikolo zonke.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwehlabathi, uCorteva AgriScience, iqumrhu eliza kungena ngokudibana kweDow kunye neDuPont, yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Imichiza, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Izifundo zabantu

Isifundo esingumbandela wephepha elitsha labaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington sabekwa esweni ngo-1971 yiAlbany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Olu phononongo lubandakanya amabanjwa angamadoda angama-16 asempilweni aphuma echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, intolongo yezokhuseleko e-Dannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ayekhethwe ngokulandelelana kumaqela amane ovavanyo, kubandakanya elinye iqela lolawulo, amalungu alo afumana indawo ye-placebo yemihla ngemihla. Amalungu amanye amaqela amathathu afumana unyango lwe-chlorpyrifos mihla le ngeedosi ezintathu ezahlukeneyo. Isifundo senziwe ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-63.

Uhlalutyo olutsha lufumene iingxaki ezininzi kufundo, kubandakanya nokushiywa kwamanqanaba asisiseko asibhozo kwelinye lala maqela onyango.

"Ukushiyeka okunje kwedatha esebenzayo ngaphandle kokuthethelelwa yindlela yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eyaphula yonke imigaqo esemgangathweni yophando yokuziphatha kwaye ichazwe njengokuziphatha gwenxa kophando," bagqibe ngelithi abaphandi beYunivesithi yase Washington.

Abaphandi bathi ichlorpyrifos "yadlula kwinkqubo yolawulo ngaphandle kwengxoxo enkulu," nangona "ubungqina obukhulayo bokuba inokuba yingozi kwezempilo kwiindawo zokuhlala."

"Uphononongo lwaseCoulston lulahlekise abalawuli ngokushiya idatha efanelekileyo," kwaye "inokuba nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yoluntu" iminyaka eliqela, liphetha iphepha laseYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwiminyaka kwidatha yesiphene yokubulala izinambuzane ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iminyaka, abalawuli base-US baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yi-Dow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga eekhemikhali ze-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika, ngokwe Uhlalutyo olutsha Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo luphinda luphonononge umsebenzi ukusuka kwiminyaka ye-1970 exhaswa yi-Dow kwaye ingeniswe kwi-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhokela iarhente ekumiseleni oko izazinzulu zibhekisa kuzo njenge- "akukho -qwalaselwe-inqanaba lesiphumo esibi" okanye i-NOAEL. Le mibundu isetyenziselwa ukumisela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwaye kwinqanaba apho ukuvezwa kweekhemikhali kunokuvunyelwa kwaye kungathathwa ngokuba kukhuselekile.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olutsha, olupapashwe kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi 3 kwiphephancwadi Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, Iziphumo ezingachanekanga zaba ziziphumo zophononongo lweedosi olwenziwe ngumphandi uFrederick Coulston kunye noogxa kwiAlbany Medical College kwii-1970s zokuqala zeDow.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baphinde bavavanya ukuba umsebenzi wangaphambili nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske weSebe lezeNdalo nezeMpilo kwiNzululwazi yezeMpilo, kwiSikolo seMpilo kaRhulumente kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Ngelixa isifundo sasibhalwa liqela laseCoulston, uhlalutyo lwagqitywa ngumbalo weDow kwaye kwagqitywa kwelokuba i-0.03 mg / kg-day yayililungu elingapheliyo le-NOAEL ye-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Kodwa uhlalutyo olutsha olwenziwe ngabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington bafumanise ukuba bagqithile kumda wokhuseleko. Ukuba idatha ibihlalutyiwe ngokufanelekileyo i-NOAEL engezantsi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ngeyifunyenwe, batsho.

Uphononongo lwaseCoulston aluzange luvavanywe ngoontanga kodwa lwalusetyenziswa yi-EPA kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's, abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington baxela.

Abaphandi baqukumbele: “Ngelo xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi zokuhlala ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kungabeka umngcipheko kuluntu ngokungeyomfuneko. ”

Kusetyenziswa kakhulu

Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kwigama lophawu lweLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos inambuzane yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kuseto lwezolimo. Eyona ntengiso inkulu yezolimo yechlorpyrifos ngumbona kodwa iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi likwasetyenziswa ngamafama alima iimbotyi zesoya, iziqhamo kunye nemithi yamandongomane, amahlumelo aseBrussels, iicranberry kunye nekholifulawa, kunye nezinye izityalo ezilandelelana. Iintsalela zekhemikhali zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni. Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ekhuthazwe yi-Dow, uphando oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi lubonakalisile ubungqina obandayo bobungozi be-chlorpyrifos, ngakumbi abantwana abancinci. Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa obusezantsi, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo, kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto.

IAmerican Academy for Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana noogqirha babantwana, ilumkise ngelithi ukuqhubeka nokusetyenziswa kwale khemikhali kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu lathi kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo.

I-EPA yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow ngo-2000 yokuphelisa yonke indawo yokuhlala ekusetyenzisweni kwayo ngenxa yophando olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zabantwana kunye nabantwana abancinci. Ngo-2012, ii-chlorpyrifos zazingavumelekanga ukuba zisetyenziswe kwizikolo zonke.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwehlabathi, uCorteva AgriScience, iqumrhu eliza kungena ngokudibana kweDow kunye neDuPont, yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Imichiza, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Izifundo zabantu

Isifundo esingumbandela wephepha elitsha labaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington sabekwa esweni ngo-1971 yiAlbany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Olu phononongo lubandakanya amabanjwa angamadoda angama-16 asempilweni aphuma echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, intolongo yezokhuseleko e-Dannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ayekhethwe ngokulandelelana kumaqela amane ovavanyo, kubandakanya elinye iqela lolawulo, amalungu alo afumana indawo ye-placebo yemihla ngemihla. Amalungu amanye amaqela amathathu afumana unyango lwe-chlorpyrifos mihla le ngeedosi ezintathu ezahlukeneyo. Isifundo senziwe ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-63.

Uhlalutyo olutsha lufumene iingxaki ezininzi kufundo, kubandakanya nokushiywa kwamanqanaba asisiseko asibhozo kwelinye lala maqela onyango.

"Ukushiyeka okunje kwedatha esebenzayo ngaphandle kokuthethelelwa yindlela yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eyaphula yonke imigaqo esemgangathweni yophando yokuziphatha kwaye ichazwe njengokuziphatha gwenxa kophando," bagqibe ngelithi abaphandi beYunivesithi yase Washington.

Abaphandi bathi ichlorpyrifos "yadlula kwinkqubo yolawulo ngaphandle kwengxoxo enkulu," nangona "ubungqina obukhulayo bokuba inokuba yingozi kwezempilo kwiindawo zokuhlala."

"Uphononongo lwaseCoulston lulahlekise abalawuli ngokushiya idatha efanelekileyo," kwaye "inokuba nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yoluntu" iminyaka eliqela, liphetha iphepha laseYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo olungathandekiyo oluvela kwi-FDA

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kwinyanga ephelileyo uLawulo lokutya kunye neziyobisi lupapashe uhlalutyo lwamva nje lonyaka yamanqanaba entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi engcolisa iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kunye nokunye ukutya thina maMelika esihlala sikubeka kwiipleyiti zethu zokutya. Idatha entsha yongeza kwinkxalabo yabathengi ekhulayo kunye nengxoxo yezenzululwazi malunga nokuba iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni zinganegalelo njani - okanye hayi - kwizigulo, kwizifo nakwiingxaki zokuzala.

Ngaphezulu kwamaphepha angama-55 eedatha, iitshathi kunye neegrafu, ingxelo ye-FDA “yeNkqubo yokuHlolwa kweNdawo yokuBulala izinambuzane” ikwanika nomzekelo ongathandekiyo kwinqanaba apho amafama ase-US athe athembela kwizibulali zinambuzane zokwenziwa, imingxunya yokubulala iintsholongwane kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukutya kwethu.

Umzekelo, sifunda ingxelo yokugqibela, ukuba imikhondo yezibulali zinambuzane yafunyanwa kwiipesenti ezingama-84 zeziqhamo zasekhaya, kunye neepesenti ezingama-53 zemifuno, kunye neepesenti ezingama-42 zeenkozo kunye neepesenti ezingama-73 zokutya ezibhalwe nje enye. ” Iisampulu zathathwa kwilizwe liphela, kubandakanya eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Phantse iipesenti ezingama-94 zeediliya, ijusi yamagilebhisi kunye neerasentyisi kuvavanywa intsholongwane njenge-99 pesenti yamaqunube, iipesenti ezingama-88 zama-apile kunye nejusi yeapile, kunye neepesenti ezingama-33 zeemveliso zerayisi, ngokweenkcukacha ze-FDA.

Iziqhamo kunye nemifuno engenisiweyo eneneni ibonakalise ukwanda okuncinci kwezibulali zinambuzane, kunye neepesenti ezingama-52 zeziqhamo kunye neepesenti ezingama-46 zemifuno evela phesheya kuvavanyo oluqinisekileyo lweziyobisi. Ezi sampulu zazivela kumazwe angaphezu kwama-40, kubandakanya iMexico, iChina, i-India kunye ne Canada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuba kwisampulu esandula ukubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala zinambuzane ezahlukeneyo, i-FDA ifumene umkhondo we-DDT yokubulala izinambuzane ekuthinteleni ixesha elide kwiisampulu zokutya, kunye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D kunye ne-glyphosate. I-DDT inxulunyaniswa nomhlaza wamabele, ukungachumi kunye nokuphuma kwesisu, ngelixa i-chlorpyrifos -enye inambuzane-ibonakalisiwe ngokwesayensi ukuba ibangela iingxaki ze-neurodevelopmental kubantwana abancinci.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu licebise ukuvalwa kwemichiza eYurophu, ukufumanisa ukuba kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo. Amayeza okubulala ukhula 2,4-D kunye glyphosate Zombini zinxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo ngokunjalo.

Thailand kutshanje ithe iyavalwa I-glyphosate kunye ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yomngcipheko osekwe ngokwesayensi kwezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifumaneka kukutya kwase-US, i-FDA, kunye ne-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) kunye neSebe lezoLimo lase-US (i-USDA), bathi iintsalela zemichiza yokubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni ayinanto yakwenza nokukhathazeka. Ngexesha lokuphembelela okunzima ngumzi mveliso wezolimo i-EPA ixhase ukusetyenziswa glyphosate kunye neklorpyrifos kwimveliso yokutya.

Abalawuli baphinda amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto kunye nabanye kwimizi-mveliso ngokunyanzelisa ukuba iintsalela zezitshabalalisi azisongeli kwimpilo yabantu ukuba nje amanqanaba ohlobo ngalunye lwentsalela ewela phantsi kwenqanaba "lokunyamezelana" elibekwe yi-EPA.

Kuhlalutyo lwakutsha nje lwe-FDA, kuphela iipesenti ezi-3.8 zokutya kwasekhaya ezinamanqanaba entsalela abonwa njengaphakamileyo ngokungekho mthethweni, okanye "eyaphula umthetho." Ngokutya okungeniswe elizweni, iipesenti ezili-10.4 zokutya okwenziwe kwisampulu zazisephula umthetho, ngokwe-FDA.

Oko i-FDA ingazange ikuthethe, kwaye zeziphi iiarhente zolawulo ezikuphepha ukuhlala zithetha esidlangalaleni, kukuba amanqanaba okunyamezelana kwezibulali zinambuzane ezithile sele enyukile kule minyaka njengoko iinkampani ezithengisa izibulali zinambuzane zicela imida ephezulu nangaphezulu yomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukonyuka okuvunyelweyo kwintsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni, umzekelo. Kananjalo, iarhente ihlala yenza isigqibo sokuba ayifuni kuthobela imfuneko yomthetho ethi i-EPA "iyakufaka umda okongeziweyo ophindwe kalishumi wokhuselo lweentsana nabantwana" ekumiseni amanqanaba asemthethweni kwiintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane. I-EPA igqithisile le mfuno kuseto lokunyamezelwa kwezibulali zinambuzane, isithi akukho mda wokhuseleko okhoyo uyafuneka ukukhusela abantwana.

Eyona nto iphambili: Ukunyuka kwe-EPA kuseta "ukunyamezelana" kuvunyelwe njengomda osemthethweni, kokukhona kunokwenzeka ukuba abalawuli kuya kufuneka banike ingxelo ngentsalela "yokuhlukumeza" ekutyeni kwethu. Ngenxa yoko, i-US ihlala ivumela amanqanaba aphezulu entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kukutya kunamanye amazwe aphuhlileyo. Umzekelo, umda osemthethweni wokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kwi-apile zii-0.2 iinxalenye ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa sisiqingatha kuphela selo nqanaba-0.1 ppm-esivunyelwe kwi-apile kwi-European Union. Kananjalo i-US ivumela intsalela ye-glyphosate kwingqolowa nge-5 ppm, ngelixa i-EU ivumela kuphela i-1 ppm.

Njengomda osemthethweni wokunyuka kwentsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni, uninzi lwezazinzulu ziye zanda ngokwanda malunga nemingcipheko yokusetyenziswa rhoqo kweentsalela, kunye nokusilela kolawulo lokuqwalaselwa kweempembelelo ezinokubakho zokusebenzisa uluhlu lweegciwane kunye nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isidlo .

Iqela lezenzululwazi zaseHarvard bafuna ukuba uphando olunzulu malunga nokunxibelelana okunokubakho phakathi kwezifo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwesibulali zinambuzane njengoko beqikelela ukuba ngaphezulu kwe 90 pesenti yabantu eUnited States banazo iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kumchamo nakwigazi labo ngenxa yokutya ukutya okune-pesticide. A isifundo edibene neHarvard yafumanisa ukuba ukuvezwa kwento yokubulala izinambuzane ngaphakathi kuluhlu “oluqhelekileyo” kunxulunyaniswa zombini neengxaki zabasetyhini zokukhulelwa nokubeleka abantwana abaphilayo.

Izifundo ezongezelelekileyo zifumene ezinye iingxaki zempilo ezibotshelelwe kukutya okuchaseneyo nokubulala izitshabalalisi, kubandakanya ne-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate sesona sisibulala-ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi kwaye sesona sithako sisebenzayo kwi-Roundup yaseMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula.

Icandelo lamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi libuyisele umva 

Kodwa njengoko inkxalabo inyuka, amahlakani eshishini lezolimo abuyela umva. Kule nyanga iqela labaphandi abathathu abanobuhlobo obude kunye neenkampani ezithengisa izitshabalalisi zezolimo bakhuphe ingxelo efuna ukuthomalalisa iinkxalabo zabathengi kunye nokuphelisa uphando lwenzululwazi.

Ingxelo, eyakhutshwa nge-21 ka-Okthobha, wathi “abukho ubungqina obungqalileyo benzululwazi okanye bezonyango obubonisa ukuba ukubhencwa okuqhelekileyo kwabathengi kwiintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane kubangela nayiphi na ingozi kwimpilo. Idatha yentsalela yamayeza okubulala izinambuzane kunye noqikelelo lokubonisa lubonisa ukuba abathengi bokutya bafumanekile kumanqanaba entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi engaphantsi kwemilinganiselo yezempilo. ”

Ayothusi into yokuba ababhali abathathu bengxelo basondelelene kakhulu nomzi mveliso wezolimo. Omnye wababhali bengxelo nguSteve Savage, ishishini lezolimo umcebisi kwaye Owayesakuba ngumqeshwa waseDuPont. Omnye nguCarol Burns, owayesakuba sisazinzulu seDow Chemical kunye nomcebisi wangoku weCortevia Agriscience, ukususwa kweDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, uSihlalo weSebe lezeNzululwazi ngezoKutya neTekhnoloji kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Iyunivesithi ifumene phantse I-2 yezigidi ngonyaka Ukusuka kumzi mveliso wezolimo, ngokomphandi weyunivesithi, nangona ukuchaneka kwelo nani kungakhange kubonwe.

Ababhali bayise ingxelo yabo ngqo kwiCongress, bebambe iintetho ezintathu ezahlukeneyo eWashington, DC, eyilelwe ukukhuthaza umyalezo wabo wokhuseleko lwezibulali zinambuzane ukuze zisetyenziswe “kumabali okhuseleko lokutya kwimidiya, kunye neengcebiso zabathengi malunga nokutya abathengi (okanye abangafanelekanga) bakutye.”

Iiseshoni zokubulala izitshabalalisi zabanjwa kwizakhiwo zeofisi zamalungu eCongress kwaye, kubonakala ngathi, kwikomkhulu CropLife Melika, lobbyist kwishishini lezolimo.