Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

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Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Inkundla yezibheno ixhasa izizathu zovavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup ophumelele iMonsanto

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Ngenye ilahleko yenkundla kumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, inkundla yezibheno yala umzamo wenkampani wokubhukuqa uloyiso lwetyala olungafakwanga ngumgcini wesikolo saseCalifornia otyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane eMonsanto yabangela ukuba abe nomhlaza, nangona inkundla yathi umonakalo kufuneka ube yinqumle kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Inkundla yeziBheno yesiThili sokuqala seZibheno eCalifornia utshilo uMvulo ukuba iimpikiswano zikaMonsanto zazingacacanga kwaye uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayenelungelo lokuqokelela i-10.25 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye nezinye i-10.25 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayo. Oko kuhla kwisimbuku se-78 yezigidi zeedola ijaji yetyala ivumelekile.

"Ngokokubona kwethu, uJohnson wabonisa ubungqina obuninzi-kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo bukhulu- bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza wakhe," yatsho inkundla. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa."

Inkundla iphinde yaqaphela ukuba "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson wabandezeleka, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Inkundla yathi impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuba iziphumo zesayensi malunga nokunxibelelana kwe-glyphosate nomhlaza zenza "umbono omncinci" awuxhaswanga.

Ngokukodwa, inkundla yezibheno yongeze ukuba isohlwayo somonakalo sasikhona ngenxa yokuba kwakukhona ubungqina obaneleyo bokuba uMonsanto wenza "ngabom nangokungakhathaleli ukhuseleko lwabanye."

UMike Miller, ogama lakhe laseVirginia lalimela uJohnson etyaleni kunye neBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles, wathi wayevuyiswa kukuqinisekiswa kwenkundla ukuba uJohnson uhlaselwe ngumhlaza ekusebenziseni kwakhe iRoundup kwaye inkundla iqinisekisile imbasa yesohlwayo. umonakalo ngenxa “yokuziphatha gwenxa ngabom kukaMonsanto.”

“Umnumzana Johnson usaqhubekeka nokugula. Siyazingca ngokulwela uMnu Johnson nokulandela kwakhe ubulungisa, ”utshilo uMiller.

IMonsanto ityala inzala yonyaka kwinqanaba leepesenti ezili-10 ukusuka ngo-Epreli we-2018 de ihlawule isigwebo sokugqibela.

Ukuncitshiswa komonakalo kubotshelelwe kwinxalenye yokuba oogqirha baxelele uJohnson ukuba umhlaza wakhe awupheli kwaye akalindelwe ukuba aphile ixesha elide. Inkundla ivumile noMonsanto ukuba ngenxa yomonakalo owenzelwayo wenzelwe ukubuyekeza iintlungu ezizayo, ukubandezeleka ngokwasengqondweni, ukuphulukana nokonwaba kobomi, ukukhubazeka emzimbeni, njlnjl .. Ixesha elifutshane lokuphila kukaJohnson ngokusemthethweni lithetha ngomonakalo "ongekho kwezoqoqosho" wexesha elizayo owanikwa yinkundla yamatyala. kufuneka icuthwe.

U-Brent Wisner, elinye lamagqwetha kaJohnson, wathi ukwehliswa komonakalo sisiphumo "sesona siphoso sinzulu somthetho waseCalifornia."

"Ngokusisiseko, umthetho waseCalifornia awumvumeli ummangali ukuba afumane ithuba elifutshane lokuphila," utshilo uWisner. “Oku kuvuza ngokufanelekileyo ummangalelwa ngokubulala ummangali, ngokuchasene nokwenzakala nje kwakhe. Yimpambano. ”

Ukujongwa kokuziphatha kukaMonsanto

Kwakuyinyanga nje ezimbini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto, ngo-Agasti 2018, ukuba ijaji enye wanika uJohnson i-289 yezigidi zeedola, kubandakanya i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo, ukufumanisa ukuba ayenzanga kuphela imichiza yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto ibangele ukuba uJohnson avelise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa ukuba inkampani iyayazi ingozi yomhlaza kwaye yasilela ukulumkisa uJohnson. Ityala elalibandakanya iMonsanto glyphosate ezimbini zeemveliso zokutshabalalisa ukhula - iRoundup kunye neRanger Pro.

Ijaji yetyala lasithoba isigwebo esiyi- $ 78 yezigidi kodwa uMonsanto wabhenela kwisixa esincitshisiweyo. Umnqamlezo uJohnson ubhenele ekubuyiseleni isigwebo se-289 yezigidi.

Ityala likaJohnson lagutyungelwa ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka ukuqaqanjelwa kokuziphatha okungathandabuzekiyo kweMonsanto. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amaxwebhu angaphakathi akwabonisa ukuba iMonsanto ilindele ukuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza ihlukanise i-glyphosate njengento enokwenzeka okanye enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu ngo-Matshi ka-2015. bakhupha udidi lwabo.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

NgoJuni, iBayer yathi ifikelele kwi-  isivumelwano sokuhlala kunye namagqwetha amele iipesenti ezingama-75 ze-125,000 ezifakiweyo kwaye ziseza kufakwa amabango aqalwe ngabamangali baseMelika abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. U-Bayer uthe uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo. Kodwa amagqwetha amele ngaphezulu kwe-20,000 XNUMX yabamangali abathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesigwebo senkundla, uBayer uthe umi ngasemva kukhuseleko lweRoundup: Isigqibo senkundla yesibheno sokunciphisa umonakalo kunye nezohlwayo linyathelo eliya kwicala elilungileyo, kodwa siyaqhubeka nokukholelwa ekubeni isigwebo sejaji kunye nomonakalo Amabhaso awuhambelani nobungqina ekuxoxweni kwetyala nasemthethweni. IMonsanto iza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwayo lwezomthetho, kubandakanya nokufaka isibheno kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia. ”