Isityalo esingcolisayo se-Pesticide sivaliwe; Jonga amaxwebhu olawulo e-Nebraska ngokubhekisele kwiingxaki ze-AltEn neonicotinoid

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(~ # ~) Hlaziya (~ # ~) -Kwinyanga kaFebruwari, malunga nenyanga emva kokunika ingxelo kutyhile ubungozi besityalo se-AltEn sokusebenzisa imbewu ephathwa ngesibulali zinambuzane, abalawuli belizwe laseNebraska iyalele ukuba kuvalwe isityalo.  

khangela eli bali likaJanuwari 10 kwi-Guardian, eyayiyeyokuqala ukuveza amanqanaba ayingozi ezitshabalalisi zonakalise indawo encinci eNebraska kunye nokungasebenzi ngokuhambelana nabalawuli.

Iinkxalabo zijolise kwi-AltEn, isityalo se-ethanol eMead, eNebraska umthombo wezikhalazo zasekuhlaleni ngaphezulu kokusetyenziswa kwembewu egalelwe isibulali zinambuzane ukuze isetyenziswe kwimveliso yayo ye-biofuel kunye nemveliso yenkunkuma ebangelwe, ebonakalise ukuba inamanqanaba ezinto ezinobungozi ze-neonicotinoids kunye nezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ezingaphezulu kwamanqanaba ngokubanzi kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo.

Iinkxalabo eMead kodwa ngumzekelo wakutshanje wokukhula koloyiko lwehlabathi malunga neempembelelo ze-neonicotinoids.

Bona apha amanye amaxwebhu olawulo ahambelana nembambano kunye ezinye izinto zangasemva:

Uhlalutyo lweenkozo ze-wetcake distillers

Uhlalutyo lwamanzi amdaka 

Epreli 2018 isikhalazo sabemi

Impendulo kaRhulumente kwizikhalazo zika-Epreli 2018

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2018 impendulo yelizwe kwizikhalazo

I-AltEn Yeka ukusebenzisa kunye nokuthengisa ileta ngoJuni 2019

Ileta kaRhulumente iyala iimvume kwaye ixoxa ngeengxaki

Uluhlu luka-Meyi 2018 lwamafama apho basasaza khona inkunkuma

NgoJulayi 2018 ingxoxo yenyangi ephathwe ngembewu emanzi

NgoSeptemba 2020 ileta iphinde ichitheke ngeefoto

Ngo-Okthobha u-2020 ileta yokungathobeli

Iifoto zasemoyeni zesayithi ethathwe ngurhulumente

I-Neonicotinoids ingazibulala njani iinyosi

Iindlela ezenzeka kwi-neonicotinoid pesticide residues ekutyeni nakumanzi eUnited States, 1999-2015

Ileta evela kwiingcali zezempilo isilumkiso se-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids

Ileta evela kuMbutho we-Endocrine eya kwi-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids 

I-Neonicotinoid pesticides inokuhlala kwintengiso yase-US, i-EPA ithi

Isikhalazo eCalifornia sokulawula imbewu ephathwe nge-neonic

Ukulahleka kweenyosi: iNzululwazi, ezepolitiko kunye neMpilo yobusi (I-Rutgers University Press, 2017)

I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

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NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

Ezona zinambuzane zisetyenziswa kakhulu

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Uboshwe ekufeni kweenyosi

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.