Inkundla yomanyano iyala isicelo sikaSyngenta sokuphosa ityala malunga neparaquat herbicide

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Ijaji yomdibaniso iyayikhanyela iinzame zenkampani yaseSwitzerland yemichiza iSyngenta yokuphosa elinye lamanani akhulayo amatyala atyhola imveliso yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ebangela isifo sikaParkinson. Isigqibo sinika inkxaso kwi ukwandisa Inani lamashishini ezomthetho kunye nabamangali benza amabango afanayo.

Kwisigwebo se-12 ka-Epreli, iJaji yeSithili sase-US uJohn Ross kwi-Mpuma yeSithili sase-Missouri usikhabile isindululo esenziwe ngu-Syngenta kunye nommangalelwa u-DRM owayefuna ukugxotha ityala eziswe ngabantu abatshatileyo baseMissouri uHenry noTara Holyfield.

"Kuyasivuyisa ukuba inkundla yasikhaba isicelo sokuba kugxothwe," utshilo uSteven Crick, igqwetha lenkampani yaseHumphrey, Farrington & McClain omele iHallfields. “Siqinisekile ukuba iinzame zabamangalelwa zokuchitha okanye ukuphazamisa ityala liza kuqhubeka.”

Isimangalo sityhola uHenry Holyfield wenza i-Parkinson's, inkqubo yokuphazamiseka kwenkqubo ye-nervous ephazamisayo nenganyangekiyo, ngenxa yokuvezwa kwakhe kwiparaquat emsebenzini wakhe njenge-duster yesityalo. Isuti ithethe ukuba iparaquat yahanjiswa "ngaphandle kwemiyalelo eyaneleyo malunga nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo" kwaye "ngaphandle kwemiyalelo okanye izilumkiso zokuba iparaquat iyingozi empilweni nakubomi kwaye ibangela izifo."

Abavelisi baseSyngenta kwaye basasaza iparaquat-based Gramoxone, umbulali wokhula osetyenziswa kakhulu othandwayo kumafama aseMelika kodwa uvaliwe kumazwe angaphezu kwama-30 kuba isaziwa njengeyityhefu. ISyngenta iyabubona ubungozi betyhefu yengozi enxulunyaniswa neparaquat, kwaye iimveliso zayo zineelebheli ezilumkisayo ezingqongqo malunga nezilumkiso ezifunekayo ukuze zisetyenziswe ngokukhuselekileyo.

Kodwa inkampani iyabukhanyela ubunyani bophando lwezenzululwazi olufumene unxibelelwano phakathi kokuvezwa kweparaquat kunye nesifo sikaParkinson.

I-DRM ifumene amalungelo okuthengisa nawokuhambisa imveliso yeGramoxone paraquat e-United States kwisivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe nge-paraquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yanikwa amalungelo okwenza Sebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

Kwisindululo sabo Ukulahla ityala, uSyngenta kunye no-DRM bathi amabango e-Holyfield ahlawulelwa ngumthetho olawula ukumiselwa kweparaquat yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo (EPA).

“IParaquat ibilawulwa kakhulu yi-EPA kumashumi eminyaka phantsi komthetho iFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)…” sitsho isindululo. “Kumashumi eminyaka yokuqwalaselwa, isigwebo se-EPA siyaqhubeka ukuba iparaquat ikhuselekile ukuba ingathengiswa kwaye isetyenziswe kude kube kuthatyathwa amanyathelo okhuseleko amiselwe yi-EPA kwaye kulandelwe imiyalelo. Ukuqinisekisa ukufana, i-FIFRA iyakwalela amazwe ukuba abeke naziphi na iimfuno zokuphawula "ukongeza okanye ngokwahlukileyo" kwiimfuno ze-FIFRA kunye neelebheli ezivunyiweyo ze-EPA… Kodwa yile nto kanye esi sikhalazo sifuna ukuyenza. "

Ujaji Ross uthe lempikiswano iphosakele. I-FIFRA ithi ukuvunywa kobhaliso yi-EPA “akwenzi
bakhusela ngokupheleleyo ”amabango okuba imveliso ethile“ ibhalwe igama elibi, ”wabhala kwisigqibo sakhe. Ngapha koko, isigwebo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US ngo-2005 kwityala elalibizwa ngokuba yi-Bates v. Dow Agrosciences yaqinisekisa ukuba ukuvunywa kwemveliso yi-EPA akuthinteli amabango okusilela ukulumkisa ngokuziswa komthetho welizwe.

"Le Nkundla iyazi ukuba akukho tyala okoko iBates apho inkundla yenqabe ulawulo malunga nebango elinxulumene ne-FIFRA ngokuhambelana nemfundiso yolawulo oluphambili," yabhala ijaji kwisigwebo sayo. "Iziphumo zovavanyo lwe-EPA zeparaquat, ngaphezulu, azizukunyanzela impumelelo okanye ukusilela kwamabango abaMangali."

Okwangoku kukho ubuncinci kumatyala ayi-14 afakwe ziifemu zomthetho ezisibhozo kwiinkundla zomdibaniso ezahlukeneyo ezintandathu kwilizwe liphela. Amacala onke afakwe egameni labamangali abafunyaniswe benesifo se-neurodegenerative, kwaye bonke batyhola ukubonakaliswa kweparaquat yaseSyngenta kubangele iimeko zabo. Amanye amatyala aliqela enza izityholo ezifanayo asalindelwe nakwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Hambisa ukudibanisa isimangalo se-paraquat yase-US njengoko amatyala enyuka ngokuchasene neSyngenta

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Amagqwetha amangalela inkampani yemichiza yaseSwitzerland iSyngenta bacela iphaneli yezomthetho yase-US ukuba idibanise ngaphezulu kweshumi elinesihlanu lezimangalo ezifanayo phantsi kweliso lejaji yomanyano eCalifornia. Eli nyathelo luphawu oluchazayo lokwandiswa kwezimangalo ezibanga ukuba imveliso yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ibangela isifo sikaParkinson.

Ngokutsho kwisindululo, ifayilishwe umhla we-7 ku-Epreli yi-Texas-based Fears Nachawati firm firm kunye ne-US Judicial Panel kwi-Multidistrict Litigation, kungoku nje kukho ubuncinci amatyala ali-14 afakwe ziifemi ezisibhozo zomthetho kwiinkundla zomdibaniso ezahlukeneyo ezintandathu kwilizwe liphela. Amacala onke afakwe egameni labamangali abafunyaniswe benesifo se-neurodegenerative, kwaye batyhola ukubhencwa kwababulali bokhula baseSyngenta abenziwe ngemichiza ebizwa ngokuba yiparaquat yesifo. Amanye amatyala aliqela enza izityholo ezifanayo zilindelwe kwiinkundla zamazwe.

"La matyala ngawona magqwetha alungeleleneyo kwityala elingaphambi kokuthethwa kwetyala kuba avela kwityhefu enye enetyhefu edala isifo esikhubazekayo esibangelwa kukungaziphathi kakuhle kwabamangalelwa abathathu," uloyiko uNachawati ngokufutshane ukuxhasa yokuhamba kwayo ithi. "UMovant ulindele ukuba inani lamatyala afanayo afakwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente kunye nelizwe liphela lizakwanda ngokukhawuleza."

Isindululo sifuna ukugqithiselwa ngokukodwa kwiJaji u-Edward Chen kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

UMajed Nachawati, iqabane lenkampani eyoyikayo iNachawati, uthe inkampani isaphanda ubungakanani nobubanzi besimangalo sisonke kodwa ikholelwa kwelokuba ukumiswa kweparaquat ngokuchasene neSyngenta “kuzakubaluleka kwaye kubaluleke kwindalo…”

"Kungekudala, kuzakubakho isimangalo kwiinkundla zomanyano kwilizwe liphela," utshilo uNachawati.

Amagqwetha abamangali bazakufuna amaxwebhu angaphakathi enkampani kunye nokufakwa kwamagosa eenkampani ahambelana "nokuvavanywa, ukuyilwa, ukufakwa iileyibhile, ukuthengiswa, kunye nokukhuselwa kweeparaquat herbicides," kunye nophando oluhlangeneyo kunye nokuvavanywa kobutyhefu kunye nokukhuseleka kweparaquat yayo. iimveliso.

IMiller Firm yaseVirginia, encedise ukukhokelela kwisimangalo seRoundup ngokuchasene neMonsanto esikhokelele kwisigqibo se- $ 11 lezigidi kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, uphakathi kweefemu zomthetho ezijoyina isimangalo separaquat. Inkampani yaseMiller ixhasa iinzame zokudibanisa iintshukumo zomdibaniso eCarlifonia, apho amawaka amatyala eRoundup adityanisiwe kwenkqubo yamatyala, ngokwegqwetha elikhokelayo lenkampani uMike Miller.

"Siqinisekile ukuba inzululwazi iyaluxhasa ngamandla unxibelelwano phakathi kwe-paraquat kunye nokutshatyalaliswa kwesifo sika-Parkinson," utshilo uMiller ngesindululo. "ISithili saseMantla saseCalifornia sinezixhobo ezifanelekileyo zokujongana nala matyala."

Amatyala ngokuchasene neSyngenta ukwabiza i-DRM Phillips Chemical Co njengommangalelwa. I-DRM isasazwa kwaye ithengise iimveliso ze-Gramoxone paraquat e-United States ngokuqala ngesivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe yiparaquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yayinelungelo lokwenza, ukusebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

USyngenta noChevron bayaziphika izityholo.

USyngenta uthi iimveliso zayo zeparaquat zivunyiwe njenge “zikhuselekile kwaye zisebenza” ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kwaye “iya kuzikhusela” ngamandla. ISyngenta yeyabanini beChina National Chemical Corporation, eyaziwa ngokuba yiChemChina.

Izifundo zesayensi

Isifo sikaParkinson sisifo esinganyangekiyo esiqhubela phambili esichaphazela iiseli zemithambo-luvo kwingqondo, sikhokelela kumatyala aphambili kukudodobala komzimba kakhulu kwaye kuhlala kuluphazamiseko engqondweni. Iingcali ezininzi zika-Parkinson zithi esi sifo sinokubangelwa luluhlu lwezinto, kubandakanya ukubhencwa kwizibulali zinambuzane ezinje nge paraquat, kunye nezinye iikhemikhali.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi ziye idityaniswe neparaquat kwiParkinson's, kubandakanya isifundo esikhulu samafama ase-US ngokudibeneyo abekwa esweni ziiarhente zikarhulumente zase-US ezininzi. Oko Uphando ngo-2011 uxele ukuba abantu abasebenzisa i-paraquat baphindwe kabini amathuba okuphuhlisa isifo sika-Parkinson njengabantu abangasisebenzisanga.

"Izifundo ezininzi zesifo esihambelana nezifo kunye nezilwanyana ziye zadibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson," utshilo uRay Dorsey, unjingalwazi weeurology kunye nomlawuli weZiko loNyango loNyango loLuntu kwiYunivesithi yaseRochester eNew York. UDorsey ukwangumbhali we incwadi malunga nokuthintela kunye nokunyanga isifo sikaParkinson.

"Ubungqina obudibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson yeyona nto yomeleleyo kuyo nayiphi na into yokubulala izinambuzane esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo," utshilo.

Olunye uphononongo alufumananga unxibelelwano olucacileyo phakathi kweparaquat kunye neParkinson kunye neSyngenta iqinisekisa ukuba olona phando lwamva nje nolunegunya alubonisi nxibelelwano.

Ewe kunjalo, isifundo papashwe kwi2020 ifumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwezinye izitshabalalisi kunye neParkinson's, kodwa abukho ubungqina obomeleleyo obubonisa iparaquat ebangela esi sifo.

Uvavanyo oluzayo

Ityala elinye elifakwe kwinkundla yelizwe licwangciselwe ukuba lixoxwe kwinyanga ezayo. IHoffman V. Syngenta icwangciselwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngoMeyi 10 eSt. Inkomfa yobume icwangciselwe ukuphela kwale nyanga.

Igqwetha laseMissouri uSteve Tillery, omele abamangali kwityala lika-Hoffman kunye nabanye abamangalelwa kwamanye amaphepha-mthetho, uthe nangona uSyngenta eqinisekile, uqokelele ubungqina obuquka iirekhodi zenkampani zangaphakathi ezibonisa ukuba iSyngenta yazi amashumi eminyaka ukuba Imveliso ibangela isifo sikaParkinson.

“Akufanelekanga ukuba bayayithengisa le mveliso, utshilo uTillery. "Le khemikhali kufuneka ingabikho kwimarike."

Isityalo esingcolisayo se-Pesticide sivaliwe; Jonga amaxwebhu olawulo e-Nebraska ngokubhekisele kwiingxaki ze-AltEn neonicotinoid

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(~ # ~) Hlaziya (~ # ~) -Kwinyanga kaFebruwari, malunga nenyanga emva kokunika ingxelo kutyhile ubungozi besityalo se-AltEn sokusebenzisa imbewu ephathwa ngesibulali zinambuzane, abalawuli belizwe laseNebraska iyalele ukuba kuvalwe isityalo.  

khangela eli bali likaJanuwari 10 kwi-Guardian, eyayiyeyokuqala ukuveza amanqanaba ayingozi ezitshabalalisi zonakalise indawo encinci eNebraska kunye nokungasebenzi ngokuhambelana nabalawuli.

Iinkxalabo zijolise kwi-AltEn, isityalo se-ethanol eMead, eNebraska umthombo wezikhalazo zasekuhlaleni ngaphezulu kokusetyenziswa kwembewu egalelwe isibulali zinambuzane ukuze isetyenziswe kwimveliso yayo ye-biofuel kunye nemveliso yenkunkuma ebangelwe, ebonakalise ukuba inamanqanaba ezinto ezinobungozi ze-neonicotinoids kunye nezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ezingaphezulu kwamanqanaba ngokubanzi kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo.

Iinkxalabo eMead kodwa ngumzekelo wakutshanje wokukhula koloyiko lwehlabathi malunga neempembelelo ze-neonicotinoids.

Bona apha amanye amaxwebhu olawulo ahambelana nembambano kunye ezinye izinto zangasemva:

Uhlalutyo lweenkozo ze-wetcake distillers

Uhlalutyo lwamanzi amdaka 

Epreli 2018 isikhalazo sabemi

Impendulo kaRhulumente kwizikhalazo zika-Epreli 2018

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2018 impendulo yelizwe kwizikhalazo

I-AltEn Yeka ukusebenzisa kunye nokuthengisa ileta ngoJuni 2019

Ileta kaRhulumente iyala iimvume kwaye ixoxa ngeengxaki

Uluhlu luka-Meyi 2018 lwamafama apho basasaza khona inkunkuma

NgoJulayi 2018 ingxoxo yenyangi ephathwe ngembewu emanzi

NgoSeptemba 2020 ileta iphinde ichitheke ngeefoto

Ngo-Okthobha u-2020 ileta yokungathobeli

Iifoto zasemoyeni zesayithi ethathwe ngurhulumente

I-Neonicotinoids ingazibulala njani iinyosi

Iindlela ezenzeka kwi-neonicotinoid pesticide residues ekutyeni nakumanzi eUnited States, 1999-2015

Ileta evela kwiingcali zezempilo isilumkiso se-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids

Ileta evela kuMbutho we-Endocrine eya kwi-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids 

I-Neonicotinoid pesticides inokuhlala kwintengiso yase-US, i-EPA ithi

Isikhalazo eCalifornia sokulawula imbewu ephathwe nge-neonic

Ukulahleka kweenyosi: iNzululwazi, ezepolitiko kunye neMpilo yobusi (I-Rutgers University Press, 2017)

IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) liQela leLobby yeShishini lokuTya

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IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) ngumbutho ongajonganga nzuzo oxhaswa ngemali liqumrhu eliseWashington DC, elinamahluko ali-17 amanyeneyo kwihlabathi liphela. ILSI zichaza Njengeqela eliqhuba "isayensi ukulungiselela uluntu" kwaye "liphucula impilo yoluntu kunye nokuphila kunye nokukhusela okusingqongileyo." Nangona kunjalo, uphando olwenziwe ngabahlohli, intatheli kunye nabaphandi abanomdla kuluntu babonisa ukuba i-ILSI liqela elikhuselayo elikhusele iimfuno zeshishini lokutya, hayi impilo yoluntu.

Iindaba zamva nje

  • ICoca-Cola iqhawule ubudlelwane bayo obude kunye ne-ILSI. Eli nyathelo "libuhlungu kumbutho wokutya onamandla owaziwa ngophando lwayo kunye neenkqubo zalo zeswekile," IBroomberg yabika ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • I-ILSI incede iNkampani yeCoca-Cola ukuba yenze umgaqo-nkqubo wokutyeba kakhulu e-China, ngokophando lukaSeptemba 2020 kwi Ijenali yezopolitiko, Umgaqo-nkqubo kunye noMthetho nguNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphantsi kwengxelo kawonke-wonke yesayensi engakhethi cala kwaye akukho mgaqo-nkqubo ubeka uluhlu lweenkampani ezifihliweyo ezisetyenziselwa ukuqhubela phambili iimfuno zabo. Ukusebenza ngala majelo, uCoca Cola uphembelele inzululwazi yase-China kunye nokwenziwa komgaqo-nkqubo kuwo onke amabakala enkqubo yomgaqo-nkqubo, ukusuka ekuyileni le miba kuyilo lomgaqo-nkqubo osemthethweni, ”ligqibe eli phepha.

  • Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know yongeza obunye ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili kushishino lokutya. Ngomhla we-Meyi 2020 kufunda kwiSondlo seMpilo kaRhulumente ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu kutyhila "ipateni yomsebenzi apho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukuthembeka kwezazinzulu kunye nezifundiswa ukomeleza izikhundla zeshishini kunye nokukhuthaza umxholo osekwe kwimizi-mveliso kwiintlanganiso zawo, ijenali, kunye neminye imisebenzi." Jonga ukogquma kwi-BMJ, Icandelo lokutya kunye nokusela lifuna ukuphembelela oososayensi kunye nabahlohli, ii-imeyile zibonisa  (5.22.20)

  • Uxanduva lweshishini Ingxelo ka-Epreli 2020 Ivavanya indlela amashishini okutya kunye neziselo athe anika ngayo i-ILSI ukungena kwiKomiti yeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US, kunye nenkqubela yokukhubazeka kumgaqo-nkqubo wezondlo kwihlabathi liphela. Jonga ingxelo kwi-BMJ, Ukutya kunye nomzi mveliso wesiselo esinxilisayo kunempembelelo enkulu kwizikhokelo zokutya zaseMelika, ingxelo ithi (4.24.20) 

  • Uphando lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs utyhila ukuba itrasti ye-ILSI exhaswa ngumzi-mveliso icebise urhulumente wase-Indiya ukuba aqhubeke neelebheli zokulumkisa ngokutya okungenampilo. Ixesha ichaze i-ILSI njenge "shishini leqela elinemveliso" kwaye "lelona qela linamandla lokutya ongazange uve ngalo." (9.16.19) AmaXesha akhankanya a Isifundo sikaJuni kuHlabathi lwehlabathi kunye neMpilo ibhalwe ngu-Gary Ruskin wase-US kwiLungelo lokuKwazi ukunika ingxelo yokuba i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokubambela abaxhasi bayo bokutya kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

  • The INew York Times ityhile ubudlelwane obungachazwanga be-ILSI bukaBradley C. Johnston, umbhali-mbhali wezifundo ezintlanu zamva nje ezithi inyama ebomvu neyenziweyo azibeki ngxaki zempilo. UJohnston wasebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo kwisifundo esixhaswa ngemali yi-ILSI ukubanga iswekile ayisiyongxaki. (10.4.19)

  • I-blog yezopolitiko zikaMarion Nestle, I-ILSI: imibala yokwenyani ityhiliwe (10.3.19)

Izibophelelo ze-ILSI kwiCoca-Cola 

I-ILSI yasekwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayesakuba ngusekela Mongameli kwiCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke ukusukela ngo-1969-2001. ICoca-Cola igcine ubudlelwane obusondeleyo ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-Voca yeCoca-Cola yemicimbi yezenzululwazi kunye nemicimbi yezolawulo ukusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI ukusukela ngo-2009-2011. In 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI yayinguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlala-phantsi emsebenzini wakhe njengegosa eliyintloko lezempilo kunye nesayensi likaCoca-Cola (kwaye ukusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 emva ENew York Times kwaye I-Press Associated uxele ukuba uCoke uxhase ngemali i-Global Energy Balance Network ukunceda ukutshintsha ityala lokutyeba kakhulu kude neziselo ezineswekile.  

Inkxaso mali yeziko 

ILSI ixhaswe ngemali yiyo amalungu eenkampani kunye nabaxhasi beenkampani, kubandakanya ukutya okukhokelayo kunye neenkampani zamachiza. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuba ifumana inkxaso-mali kumzi mveliso kodwa ayichazi esidlangalaleni ukuba ngubani onikelayo okanye unegalelo elingakanani. Uphando lwethu lutyhila:

  • Imirhumo yequmrhu kwi-ILSI Global efikelela kwi-2.4 yezigidi zeerandi ngo-2012. Oku kubandakanya i- $ 528,500 evela kwi-CropLife International, igalelo lama- $ 500,000 elivela eMonsanto nase- $ 163,500 lisuka eCoca-Cola.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-ILSI yowama-2013 ibonisa ukuba i-ILSI ifumene i- $ 337,000 evela kwiCoca-Cola nangaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 nganye eMonsanto, eSyngenta, eDow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience kunye ne-BASF.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-2016 ILSI eMntla Melika ibonisa igalelo le- $ 317,827 elivela kwaPepsiCo, igalelo elingaphezulu kweedola ezingama-200,000 ukusuka eMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, kunye negalelo elingaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 kwiGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Uniliver kunye neCampbell Soup.  

I-imeyile ibonisa indlela i-ILSI efuna ukuphembelela ngayo umgaqo-nkqubo ukukhuthaza izimvo zeshishini 

A Ngomhla we-Meyi ka-2020 kwizifundo zeMpilo kaRhulumente wongeza ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili lokutya. Uphononongo, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know ngokusebenzisa iirekhodi zikarhulumente izicelo, ityhila indlela i-ILSI ekhuthaza ngayo umdla wokutya kunye nemizi-mveliso yezolimo, kubandakanya nendima ye-ILSI ekukhuseleni izithako zokutya ezinempikiswano kunye nokucinezela izimvo ezingathandekiyo kushishino; ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeCoca-Cola zinokuthi zibeke igalelo kwi-ILSI kwiinkqubo ezithile; kwaye, indlela i-ILSI ebasebenzisa ngayo abafundi kwiziphathamandla zabo kodwa ivumela ishishini elifihliweyo kwimpapasho yabo.

Olu phononongo lukwaveza iinkcukacha ezintsha malunga nokuba zeziphi iinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI kunye namasebe ayo, kunye namakhulu amawaka eedola kwimirhumo ebhaliweyo evela ekukhokeleni ukutya okungenampilo, isoda kunye neenkampani zamachiza.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 kwi-Globalization kunye neMpilo ibonelela ngemizekelo eliqela yendlela i-ILSI eqhubela phambili ngayo kwimidla yeshishini lokutya, ngakumbi ngokukhuthaza isayensi enobungcali kumzi-mveliso kunye neengxoxo kubenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo. Olu phononongo lusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe lilungelo lase-US lokwazi ngemithetho yeerekhodi zikarhulumente.  

Abaphandi baqukumbele ngelithi: “ILSI ifuna ukuphembelela abantu, izikhundla, kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe aphesheya, kunye namalungu ayo asebenza njengesixhobo sokukhuthaza umdla wabo kwihlabathi liphela. Uhlalutyo lwethu lwe-ILSI lusebenza njengesilumkiso kwabo bathatha inxaxheba kulawulo lwempilo lwehlabathi ukuba balumke ngamaqela ophando azimeleyo, nokuzilolonga phambi kokuthembela kwizifundo zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kunye / okanye ukuzibandakanya kubudlelwane nala maqela. ”   

I-ILSI ijongele phantsi umlo wokutyeba e-China

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabini ngo UNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh ityhile impembelelo enamandla ye-ILSI kurhulumente wase-China kwimicimbi enxulumene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola kunye neminye imibutho esebenza ngayo kwisebe lase China le-ILSI ukuphembelela amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yaseTshayina kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya ezinje ngohlobo lweswekile 2 kunye noxinzelelo lwegazi. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kakuhle e-China kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwiziko likarhulumente loLawulo lweZifo noThintelo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaNjingalwazi Geenhalgh abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola nezinye izigebenga zaseNtshona zokutya neziselo “zanceda ekubumbeni amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yase-China kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukutyala amagosa aphambili eTshayina "kumzamo wokuthintela intshukumo ekhulayo yokulawulwa kokutya kunye neerhafu zesoda ebezitshayela entshona, ”ingxelo yeNew York Times.  

Uphando olongezelelweyo kwezemfundo oluvela e-US Right to Know malunga ne-ILSI 

Ugcino lwamaxwebhu oShishino lwecuba lwe-UCSF luphelile Amaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI.  

Isifundo seswekile ye-ILSI “kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba”

Iingcali zempilo yoluntu zigxeka inkxaso-mali ye-ILSI isifundo seswekile epapashwe kwiphephancwadi lezonyango elidumileyo ngo-2016 oko "kwakuyingozi yokuhlaselwa kweengcebiso zezempilo zehlabathi zokutya iswekile encinci," uxele uAnahad O'Connor kwiThe New York Times. Isifundo esixhaswe ngemali yi-ILSI sathi izilumkiso zokusika iswekile zisekwe kubungqina obubuthathaka kwaye azinakuthenjwa.  

Ibali leThe Times licaphule uMarion Nestle, uprofesa kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York ofunda ukungqubana komdla kuphando lwezondlo, kwisifundo se-ILSI: "Oku kuphuma kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba: yenza intandabuzo kwisayensi," utshilo uNestle. “Lo ngumzekelo weklasikhi wendlela inkxaso-mali yemizi-mveliso ekhetha ngayo izimvo. Iintloni. ” 

Iinkampani zecuba zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuthintela umgaqo-nkqubo 

Ingxelo kaJulayi 2000 yekomiti ezimeleyo yeWorld Health Organisation ichaze iindlela ezininzi apho ishishini lecuba lizame ukujongela phantsi iinzame zolawulo lwecuba ze-WHO, kubandakanya nokusebenzisa amaqela ezenzululwazi ukuphembelela ukwenziwa kwezigqibo ze-WHO kunye nokusebenzisa ingxoxo yenzululwazi malunga nemiphumela yezempilo. yecuba. I-ILSI idlale indima ephambili kwezi nzame, ngokokufunda kwimeko ye-ILSI ehamba nengxelo. "Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba i-ILSI yayisetyenziswa ziinkampani ezithile zecuba ukuthintela imigaqo-nkqubo yokulawula icuba. Abaphathi beofisi abaphezulu kwi-ILSI babandakanyeka ngokuthe ngqo kwezi zenzo, ”ngokophando lwetyala. Bona: 

Uvimba wamaXwebhu oShishino lweCuba lwe-UCSF une ngaphezulu kwamaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI

Iinkokeli ze-ILSI zincedile ukukhusela i-glyphosate njengezitulo zepaneli ephambili 

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2016, i-ILSI yaqwalaselwa emva kokutyhilwa ukuba usekela-mongameli we-ILSI Yurophu, uNjingalwazi Alan Boobis, wayekwangusihlalo wepaneli ye-UN eyafumana ikhemikhali kaMonsanto glyphosate Kwakungenakwenzeka ukuba ubeke umngcipheko womhlaza ngokutya. Usihlalo we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uNjingalwazi u-Angelo Moretto, wayelilungu lebhodi ye-ILSI ye-Health and Environment Services Institute. Akukho nasinye kwizitulo ze-JMPR ezichaze indima yabo yobunkokeli kwi-ILSI njengengxabano yomdla, ngaphandle kwe igalelo lemali elibalulekileyo elifunyenwe yi-ILSI ukusuka eMonsanto kunye neqela lezorhwebo ngezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwane obuluqilima be-ILSI kumaziko ase-US kuLawulo lweZifo noThintelo  

NgoJuni 2016, Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi ingxelo ukuba uGqirha Barbara Bowman, umlawuli wecandelo le-CDC eligwetyelwe ukuthintela isifo sentliziyo kunye ne-stroke, wazama ukunceda umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nefuthe kumagosa oMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi ukurhoxa kwimigaqo-nkqubo yokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweswekile. U-Bowman ucebise abantu kunye namaqela eMalaspina ukuba athethe nawo, kwaye wacela izimvo zakhe kwizishwankathelo zeengxelo ze-CDC, ii-imeyile zibonisa. (UBowman wehla emva kokuba inqaku lethu lokuqala lipapashiwe linika ingxelo ngezi zibophelelo.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 Isifundo kwikota yeMilbank ichaza ii-imeyile eziphambili zeMalaspina ngokudibanisa noGqirha Bowman. Ukufumana ingxelo engaphezulu ngesi sihloko, bona: 

Impembelelo ye-ILSI kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo zokuTya eMelika

Ingxelo yeqela elingenzi nzuzo Ukuphendula ngoxanduva uxwebhu lokuba i-ILSI inefuthe elinjani kwizikhokelo zokutya zase-US ngokungena kwayo kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US. Ingxelo ivavanya ukuphazamiseka kwezopolitiko okuxhaphakileyo kokutya kunye neziselo ezinje ngeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, kunye nePepsiCo, kunye nendlela le mibutho eyenze ngayo i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inkqubela phambili kumgaqo-nkqubo wesondlo kwihlabathi liphela.

Impembelelo ye-ILSI eIndiya 

I-New York Times inike ingxelo ngempembelelo ye-ILSI e-India kwinqaku layo elinesihloko esithi, “IQela leShishini eliLuhlaza lenza iMilo yomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya kwihlabathi liphela. "

I-ILSI inonxibelelwano olusondeleyo namanye amagosa aseburhulumenteni eIndiya kwaye, njengase China, i-nonprofit ityhale imiyalezo efanayo kunye nezindululo zomgaqo-nkqubo njenge-Coca-Cola -ukudlala indima yeswekile kunye nokutya njengesizathu sokutyeba kakhulu, kunye nokukhuthaza ukwanda kwemisebenzi yomzimba njengesisombululo , ngokweZiko leZibonelelo zaseIndiya. 

Amalungu ebhodi ye-ILSI yase-India ibandakanya umphathi we-Coca-Cola wase-India kwimicimbi yezolawulo kunye nabameli abavela eNestlé nase-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyongeza ukutya, kunye namagosa aseburhulumenteni asebenza kwiiphaneli zesayensi ezinikwe uxanduva lokuthatha isigqibo malunga nemicimbi yokhuseleko lokutya.  

Ukuxhalaba okude malunga ne-ILSI 

I-ILSI inyanzelisa ukuba ayilo qela lokungenelela kushishino, kodwa inkxalabo kunye nezikhalazo zihlala ixesha elide malunga neqela elixhasa ushishino kunye nokungqubana komdla phakathi kweenkokheli zombutho. Jonga, umzekelo:

Ukuphelisa iimpembelelo zeshishini lokutya, Amayeza endalo (2019)

Iarhente yokutya iyalikhaba ibango lembambano. Kodwa izityholo zeshishini lokuthengisa zinokungcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophuIndalo (2010)

Ukutya Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Umlo wokugqibela woMnqamlezo, Gcina ukuLungela iMilo, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukutya okwenene xa kuvavanywa, NguGqirha Tim Noakes kunye noMarika Sboros (uColumbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukutshutshiswa nokutshutshiswa okungazange kubonwe nguNjingalwazi uTim Noakes, isazinzulu esaziwayo nogqirha, kwityala leerandi elingaphaya kweminyaka emine. Yonke itweet enye inika uluvo malunga nesondlo. ”

I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

Ezona zinambuzane zisetyenziswa kakhulu

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Uboshwe ekufeni kweenyosi

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.

IiFirmer zeBayer Shady PR: uFleishmanHillard, uKetchum, uFing Consulting

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kuthunyelwe kwasekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; Ukuhlaziywa ngoNovemba 2020

Kule posi, i-US Right to Know ilanda umkhondo wenkohliso kawonke-wonke obandakanya iifemu ze-PR ezikhulu zezoLimo iBayer AG neMonsanto abathembele kuzo kwimikhankaso yabo yokukhusela imveliso: Ukubonisana ne-FTI, uKetchum PR kunye noFleishmanHillard. Ezi femu baneembali ezinde zokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza ii-ajenda zopolitiko zabaxhasi babo, kubandakanya neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, icuba kunye nemikhankaso yokukhusela icandelo leoyile.

Ihlazo lakutsha nje

I-NYT ibhengeza ubuchule bokubonisana be-FTI ngokuqinileyo kwishishini leoyile: Kwi Ngomhla kaNovemba 11, 2020 inqaku leNew York Times, U-Hiroko Tabuchi utyhila indlela i-FTI Consulting "eye yanceda ngayo uyilo, abasebenzi kunye nemibutho kunye newebhusayithi ezixhaswa ngemali ziinkampani zamandla ezinokubonakala ngathi zimele inkxaso yamalinge e-fossil-fuel." Ngokusekwe kudliwanondlebe nabalishumi elinababini ababesebenza kwi-FTI kunye namakhulu amaxwebhu angaphakathi, u-Tabuchi unika ingxelo ngendlela i-FTI ebeka iliso ngayo kubaphembeleli bendalo, eqhuba amaphulo ezopolitiko e-astroturf, enabasebenzi beendaba ezimbini kunye neendawo zolwazi kwaye wabhala amanqaku e-pro-shishini malunga ne-fracking, amatyala emozulu kunye nokunye okushushu Imiba yeqhosha kwicala lase-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kunye neefemu zayo ze-PR zenze iinzame zeGOP ukoyikisa abaphandi bomhlaza: U-Lee Fang uxele i-The Intercept Kwi-2019 kumaxwebhu aphakamisa ukuba abalawuli abachasene neMonsanto kunye noxinzelelo lokufaka uxinzelelo kuphando lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Ibali libika ngeendlela zobuqhetseba ze-PR, kubandakanya nendlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo ileta malunga nesayensi ye-glyphosate etyikitywe yi-congressman ephezulu ye-GOP.

Amaxwebhu eMonsanto atyhila ubuchule bokujongela phantsi uphando lomdla woluntu: Amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto akhutshwe ngesimangalo ngo-Agasti 2019 abonisa uluhlu lweendlela zenkampani kunye neefemu zayo ze-PR ezisetyenziselwa ukujolisa kwiintatheli nakwabanye abachaphazeli abaphakamise inkxalabo malunga nezibulala-zinambuzane kunye nee-GMO, kwaye bazama ukuphikisa uphando kwimisebenzi yabo yi-US Ilungelo Lokwazi.

Jonga amaphepha e-USRTK, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe kuphando lwethu, ukunika ingxelo ngabantu besithathu ababandakanyeka kukhuseleko kumzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi: Ukulandelela iNethiwekhi yePropaganda yoShishino lweePilisi.

Nge-Meyi ka-2019, saxela kwizikrelemnqa ezininzi ezibandakanya iifemu ze-Bayer PR:

'Ifayile yeMonsanto' ihlazo

Iintatheli kwi U-Le Monde uxele ngoMeyi 9 ukuba bafumene "Ifayile yeMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yonxibelelwano noluntu uFleishmanHillard edwelisa "ulwazi oluninzi" malunga ne-200 yeentatheli, abezopolitiko, izazinzulu kunye nabanye ababonwa ngathi banokuba nefuthe kwingxoxo ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde wafaka isikhalazo Iofisi yomtshutshisi waseParis etyhola ukuba uxwebhu olo lubandakanya ukuqokelelwa ngokungekho mthethweni kunye nokulungiswa kwedatha, kukhuthaza iofisi yomtshutshisi ukuba vula inkqubo yolwaphulo-mthetho. Oku kubaluleke kakhulu kuba kubonisa ukuba kukho iindlela ezithile zokuvala amazwi anamandla. Ndiyabona ukuba bebezama ukundihlula, ” Owayengumphathiswa Wezendalo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okuluhlu, uxelele iFrance 24 TV.

"Le yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kuba ibonisa ukuba kukho iindlela ezizizo zokuvala ilizwi elinamandla."

UFrancois Veillerette, osingqongileyo naye kuluhlu, uxelele iFrance 24 ukuba iqulethe iinkcukacha zonxibelelwano, izimvo kunye nenqanaba lokuzibandakanya ngokunxulumene neMonsanto. "Esi sisothuko esikhulu eFrance," utshilo. "Sicinga ukuba yinto eqhelekileyo le." U-Bayer uvumile ukuba uFleishmanHillard uzobe “'Uluhlu lokubukela 'lwamanani e-pro- okanye anti-pesticides”Kumazwe asixhenxe aseYurophu, ingxelo ye-AFP. Uluhlu luneenkcukacha malunga neentatheli, abezopolitiko kunye namanye amaqela anomdla. I-AFP ithe ifake isikhalazo kwi-arhente yolawulo yaseFrance kuba ezinye zeentatheli zayo bezikuluhlu olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa kwaye watsho bunqumamisa ubudlelwane bayo kunye namafemu abandakanyekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kunye nabacebisi bakaPublicis, ngelixa kuqhubeka uphando. Eyona nto iphambili kuthi kukudala izinto elubala, Utshilo uBayer. "Asikunyamezeli ukungaziphathi kakuhle kwinkampani yethu." (Iifemu zacocwa kamva kukungaziphathi kakuhle ngumthetho oqeshwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli kwiilingo zomhlaza weMonsanto

Ukongeza kwiingxaki zeBayer PR, i-AFP yanika ingxelo ngoMeyi 18 ukuba umqeshwa wenye into "yolawulo lwentlekele" uqine ukuba isebenza neBayer neMonsanto Ukubonisana ne-FTI- kwabanjwa ukuzenza njengentatheli ezizimeleyo Kwilingo laseburhulumenteni eSan Francisco eliphele ngo Isigwebo se- $ 80 yezigidi ngokuchasene neBayer ngaphezulu kwengxaki yomhlaza we-glyphosate.

Umsebenzi we-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonwe encokola neentatheli malunga nemibono yamabali kwityala. Ubanga ukuba usebenzela i-BBC kwaye akazange achaze ukuba wayesebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

I-Ketchum kunye neFleishmanHillard baleka i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, ishishini lezolimo lacofa uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabini bangabanini bakaOmnicom, PR ekhubekisayo ukulungisa umfanekiso ye-GMO kunye nemveliso yokubulala izitshabalalisi. Kukhethwe iMonsanto I-FleishmanHillard ukuba "yenze ngokutsha" igama layo phakathi "kwenkcaso ekrakra" kukutya okuguqulweyo, ngokweNgxelo yeHolmes. Ngexesha elifanayo, uFleishmanHillard naye waba ngu Iarhente ye-PR yerekhodi yeBayer, kunye neBhunga loLwazi lweBiotechnology (i-CBI) -iqela lezorhwebo kuxhaswa ngemali Bayer (Monsanto), Corteva (DowDuPont), Syngenta kunye ne-BASF-baqesha inkampani yezobudlelwane noluntu yaseKetchum ukuze iphumeze umkhankaso wentengiso obizwa ngokuba ziiGMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujikeleza aqeshwe zezi femu kubandakanya "wooing mama blogger"Kunye nokusebenzisa amazwi ekuthiwa" azimeleyo "kwiingcali"susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Malunga nee-GMO. Nangona kunjalo, ubungqina buvele ukuba iifemu ze-PR zihlele kwaye zabhala ezinye zeengcali "ezizimeleyo". Umzekelo, amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa oko Kubhalwe uKetchum Izithuba zeGMO Iimpendulo ezazisayinwe ngu Unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseFlorida Ozibanga ezimeleyo njengoko wayesebenza emfihlekweni neMonsanto kwiiprojekthi ze-PR. Usekela-mongameli omkhulu kwiFleishmanHillard ihlelwe intetho a UC Davis uprofesa kwaye wamqeqesha indlela "yokuphumelela abantu egumbini" e Ingxoxo ye-IQ2 yokukholisa uluntu ukwamkela ii-GMOs. UKetchum naye wanika unjingalwazi amanqaku okuthetha Udliwanondlebe lonomathotholo malunga nophando lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa bezizezona zibalulekileyo kubathunywa kwimizamo yokuphembelela ukuchaswa kwelebheli ye-GMO INew York Times ngo-2015. "Oonjingalwazi / abaphandi / izazinzulu banomnqwazi omkhulu omhlophe kule mpikiswano kunye nenkxaso kumazwe abo, ukusuka kwezopolitiko ukuya kubavelisi," uBill Mashek, usekela-mongameli e-Ketchum, ubhalele unjingalwazi weYunivesithi yaseFlorida. "Qhubeka!" Iqela lezorhwebo le-CBI lichithe ngaphezulu kweedola ezili-11 yezigidi kwiiMpendulo zeGMO zikaKetchum ukusukela nge2013, ngokweerekhodi zerhafu.

Impendulo kulawulo lweengxaki zeempendulo ze-GMO

Njengomqondiso omnye wempumelelo njengesixhobo se-PR spin, Iimpendulo zeGMO zazinjalo Uluhlu olufutshane kuluhlu lweentengiso zeCIO ngo-2014 kudidi “lweCrisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uqhayisa malunga nokuphindaphinda kabini ukujongwa kweendaba ze-GMO kunye "nokulinganisa i-80% yokunxibelelana" kwi-Twitter. Uninzi lwala manxibelelwano kwi-Intanethi avela kwiiakhawunti ezibonakala zizimele kwaye azichazi unxibelelwano lwabo kumkhankaso we-PR womzi mveliso.

Nangona ividiyo kaKetchum ibanga ukuba iimpendulo zeGMO ziya "kuchaza ukuqaqamba" ngolwazi oluvela kwiingcali "ezingenanto ihluziweyo okanye engacaciswanga, kwaye kungekho mazwi athulisiweyo," isicwangciso seMonsanto PR sicebisa ukuba inkampani ibalwe kwiimpendulo zeGMO ukunceda ukujikeleza iimveliso zayo ngendlela elungileyo. Inkqubo ye- uxwebhu ukusukela ngo-2015 Uluhlu lweempendulo zeGMO phakathi "kwamaqabane oshishino" oko kunokunceda ukukhusela i-Roundup kumbandela womhlaza; Kwicandelo "lezixhobo" kwiphepha le-4, isicwangciso sidwelise amakhonkco kwiGMO Answers ecaleni kwamaxwebhu eMonsanto anokunxibelelana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyiyo i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kwiwebhusayithi ye-CLIO kwaye yasuswa emva kokuba siyibizile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Iimbali zobuqhetseba: I-FleishmanHillard, uKetchum

Kutheni nayiphi na inkampani ibeka uFleishmanHillard okanye uKetchum, bobabini bangabanini be-PR conglomerate u-Omnicom, phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukuthembana kunzima ukuyiqonda. Zombini ezi nkampani zineembali ezinde zenkohliso ebhaliweyo. Umzekelo:

Kude kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayenguye PR eqinileyo yeRussia kunye neVladimir Putin. Ngoku ka amaxwebhu afunyenwe yiProPublica, U-Ketchum wabanjwa ebeka i-pro-Putin op-eds phantsi kwamagama "abaqeqeshi ababonakala bezimeleyo" kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zeendaba. Ngo-2015, i Ukubandakanya urhulumente waseHonduran waqesha uKetchum ukuzama ukubuyisela kwisimo sayo emva kwesikrelemnqa sorhwaphilizo esigidi sezigidi.

Amaxwebhu avuza uMama uJones bonisa ukuba uKetchum wasebenza nenkampani yabucala yezokhuselo "eyayihlola iGreenpeace kunye neminye imibutho yezendalo ukusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1990 ukuya kuthi ga ngo-2000, bephanga amaxwebhu asuka kwimigqomo yenkunkuma, bezama ukutyala abasebenzi abasebenza ngokufihlakeleyo phakathi kwamaqela, ukufaka iiofisi, ukuqokelela iirekhodi zeefowuni zabaphembeleli, nokungena kwiintlanganiso eziyimfihlo. ” UHillard wabanjwa esebenzisa iindlela zokuziphatha ezingekho semthethweni ngokuchasene nempilo yoluntu kunye nabameli bolawulo lwecuba egameni lenkampani yecuba uRJ Reynolds, ngokophando olwenziwe nguRuth Malone kwi Ijenali yaseMelika yezeMpilo yoLuntu. Ifemu ye-PR yade yabhala ngokufihlakeleyo iintlanganiso zolawulo lwecuba kunye neenkomfa.

UHillard wayenjalo inkampani yobudlelwane noluntu kwiZiko leCuba, umbutho wecuba wokucenga umbutho, kangangeminyaka esixhenxe. Kwinqaku leWashington Post lango-1996, uMorton Mintz wabalisa ibali malunga nendlela uFleishmanHillard kunye neZiko lecuba abaliguqule ngayo iZiko leZempilo elisempilweni laba liqela eliphambili kwishishini lecuba kwimizamo yalo yokuphelisa inkxalabo yoluntu ngobungozi bokutshaya. Ketchum ikwasebenzele nomzi mveliso wecuba.

Zombini ezi femu ziye zasebenza ngamanye amaxesha omcimbi. UHillard ubenjalo kuqeshwe amaphulo okulwa ukutshaya. Ngo-2017, uKetchum wasungula i spin-off firm ebizwa Hlakulela ukwenza imali kwimarike yokutya ekhulayo, nangona i-GMO Answers zikaKetchum zikuhlazisile ukutya okuphilayo, zibanga ukuba abathengi bahlawula "ipremiyamu ephezulu" yokutya okungangcono kunokutya okulinywa ngokwesiqhelo.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana ne-FTI: ukukhohliswa kwemozulu, amaqhina ecuba

Ukubonisana ne-FTI, "ulawulo lweengxaki" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer nomsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli Kwilingo lakutsha nje lomhlaza we-Roundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuninzi kunye noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kubandakanya nokusetyenziswa kweendlela zokufihla, ukungabikho kokucaca kunye nembali yokusebenza nomzi mveliso wecuba.

Ifemi yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili kwimizamo ye-ExxonMobil yokuphepha uxanduva lokutshintsha kwemozulu. Njengo-Elana Schor noAndrew Restuccia ixelwe kwi-Politico ngo-2016:

Ngaphandle kwe [Exxon] uqobo lwayo, eyona nto iphikisayo kwimifuno ivela kwi-FTI Consulting, inkampani egcwaliswe ngabantu ababesakuba ngabancedisi beRiphabhlikhi abathe banceda ukumanyanisa i-GOP ekukhuseleni i-fuels. Ngaphantsi kwesibhengezo saMandla kwiNzulu, iprojekhthi eyenzela i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI iye yaxuba iintatheli ngee-imeyile ezithi "ukusebenzisana" phakathi kwamatshantliziyo aluhlaza kunye nee-AGs zikarhulumente, kwaye iphakamise imibuzo malunga nezibonelelo ze-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. "

Abasebenzi be-FTI Consulting babekhe babanjwa bezenza iintatheli ngaphambili. UKaren Savage uxele NgoJanuwari 2019 kwiiNdaba zoTyala ngemozulu, "Abacwangcisi bobudlelwane boluntu ababini abamele i-Exxon kutsha nje bazenze njengeentatheli kwilinge lodliwanondlebe elimele uluntu lwaseColorado olumangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo onxulumene notshintsho lwemozulu. Abacwangcisi bobuchule — uMichael Sandoval kunye noMatt Dempsey — baqeshwe yi-FTI Consulting, inkampani ekudala inxulumene nomzi mveliso weoyile negesi. ” Ngokweendaba zeTyala leMozulu, la madoda mabini adweliswa njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi eqhutywa yiminqweno yeoyile kwaye inabasebenzi beengcali ezivela kwi-FTI Consulting, ekwabonelela abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ipetroli yamandla ombane “uphando, imfundo kunye iphulo lokufikelela eluntwini. ”

Amandla Obunzulu aziveza njengo "mama kunye nevenkile ye pop" emele ababoneleli bamandla amancinci kodwa yadalwa ziinkampani ezinkulu zeoyile kunye negesi ukuphembelela ukupheliswa, I-DeSmog blog ibikwe kwi-2011. Iqela leGreenpeace lityhile i Iimemo zeshishini zika-2009 ezichazayo Amandla Ezobunzulu “njengephulo elitsha kushishino ngokubanzi… ukulwa nemigaqo emitsha yokusingqongileyo, ingakumbi ngokubhekisele kuqhekeko lombane oluhamba ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi” “obungenakwenzeka ngaphandle kokuzibophelela kwezezimali kwangethuba” kwiminqweno ephambili yeoyile negesi kubandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (ngoku eye-ExxonMobil).

Enye into efana nayo yonke le mveliso ziimveliso zecuba. I-FTI Consulting "inembali ende yokusebenza nomzi mveliso wecuba," ngokuka Amacandelo oTuba.org. Ukukhangela kwithala leencwadi lamaXwebhu e-UCSF izisa amaxwebhu angaphezu kwama-2,400 XNUMX ngokunxulumene nokubonisana ne-FTI.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ingxelo engaphezulu kwizikrelemnqa zikaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFrentshi

Ukufunda ngesiNgesi

Iprojekthi yeJon Entine yoFundo lokuFunda nokuBhala: Abathunywa be-PR beMonsanto, iBayer kunye neShishini leMichiza

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

UJon Entine ngumseki kunye nomphathi olawulayo kwiProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala, iqabane eliphambili kwimizamo yobudlelwane noluntu eMonsanto ukukhusela nokukhusela iimveliso zezolimo. U-Entine wayeyintatheli eyazibonakalisa njengegunya kwinjongo yesayensi, kodwa ubungqina obuchazwe kweli phepha lubonisa ukuba usebenze ixesha elide kwi-PR kunye nonxibelelwano olunzulu kumzi mveliso weekhemikhali kwaye Inkxaso mali yemizi engachazwanga.

Imvelaphi njengeMonsanto PR eqinile

Ukungena ngumseki kwaye inqununu ye-ESG MediaMetrics, inkampani yobudlelwane noluntu eyayine IMonsanto njengomthengi kwi2011 xa iqina ubhalise i-GeneticLiteracyProject.org kwesizinda.

I-Entine yayiqeshwe ngelo xesha ziinkonzo zeStatistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqela elingenzi nzuzo elichazwe ziintatheli njenge “iphulo lokungazichazi”Ukuba ilungelelana nezikhundla zeshishini Ukujongela phantsi impilo. Iprojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project yaphuhliswa “njengenkqubo yoluleko enqamlezileyo nee-STATS,” ngokuka Oovimba bewebhu. Ngo-2015, iprojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project yahamba phantsi kweambrela yeqela elitsha, iProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala, eyafumana ilifa le-STATS inombolo yesazisi.

STATS yayi "Umdlali ophambili kwiphulo lobudlelwane noluntu ukungcolisa inkxalabo malunga ne-bisphenol A,”Ngokutsho kwe Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Umbutho wabazali, iZiko leMithombo yeendaba kunye neMicimbi yoLuntu (CMPA) ihlawulwe yingxilimbela yecuba UPhillip Morris ngeminyaka yoo-1990 “ukukhetha amabali agxeka ukutshaya.” U-Entine wayengumlawuli we-CMPA kwi-2014/2015, ngokuka kwiifom zerhafu.

IMonsanto yayingumthengi we-Entine's PR xa yayibhalisa i-domain ye-Genetic Literacy Project.

Inja kaMonsanto 

Iprojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ihlasela rhoqo izazinzulu, inzululwazi, intatheli kunye nabanye abagxeka iMonsanto okanye iimveliso zayo. Amaxwebhu afunyenwe ngu Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi kwaye ngetyala baqinisekise ukuba amaqabane eMonsanto kunye ne-Entine ne-GLP kwiiprojekthi ze-PR ukukhuthaza nokukhusela ii-GMO kunye nezibulala-zinambuzane. Olu bambiswano aluchazwanga.

A Isicwangciso se-Monsanto PR se-2015 amagama eProjekthi yemfuzo kuLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala phakathi "Amaqabane oshishino" IMonsanto icwangcise ukubandakanyeka kwiinzame zayo "zokulungisa isikhalazo" malunga a ingxelo yomhlaza evela kwi-Arhente yeHlabathi yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC). Injongo kaMonsanto, ngokwesicwangciso se-PR: "khusela igama" leRoundup. I-GLP sele ithunyelwe ngaphezulu kwama-200 amanqaku malunga ne-IARC, uninzi lwazo ukuhlasela izazinzulu as buqhetseba kwaye amaxoki ngobani o iqhutywa yinzuzo kunye namampunge.

Ukuphumelela ibhaso Uphando lweLe Monde malunga "neMonsanto Papers" ichaze iProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project njenge "webhusayithi eyaziwayo yepropaganda" "eyondliwa ngabantu be-PR abanxulumene namayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nebiotechnology." Iprojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project yadlala indima enkulu kwimizamo kaMonsanto “yokutshabalalisa iarhente yomhlaza yeZizwe eziManyeneyo nangayiphi na indlela,” uxele uLe Monde.

Kwifayile yenkundla ka-2017, amagqwetha abamangali abamangalela iMonsanto malunga nexhala lomhlaza we-glyphosate abachaze iProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project kunye ne-American Council on Science and Health "njengemibutho ejonge ukuhlazisa oososayensi kunye nokuqaqambisa ulwazi oluluncedo kuMonsanto nakwabanye abavelisi bemichiza."

Iphepha le-Pro GMO ngoonjingalwazi

Ngo-2014 nango-2015, iProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala isebenze neMonsanto kunye nenkampani yabo ye-PR ukupapasha nokukhuthaza uthotho lwamaphepha e-pro-GMO abhalwe ngoonjingalwazi. IMonsanto yabelwa kwaye yahlelwa amaphepha, kwaye isete iProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala ukuze iwashicilele. Indima yombutho khange ichazwe.

Ngokwe-imeyile kaSeptemba 2014, Abaphathi beMonsanto bakhethe iProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project njengeyona “ndawo iphambili” yokupapasha amaphepha oonjingalwazi, kunye nokwakha “isicwangciso sokurhweba” nenkampani ye-PR i-CMA ukukhuthaza amaphepha. I-PR eqinile i-CMA, ngoku ebizwa ngokuba yi-Look East, ilawulwa nguCharlie Arnot. Ubaleka nayo Iziko lokuDibana kokutya, engenzi nzuzo efumana inkxaso-mali kwiMonsanto, kananjalo inikela ku Iprojekthi yemfuzo yokuFunda nokuBhala.

Amaqhina eSyngenta kunye neqela eliphambili loshishino

ISyngenta yayixhasa ngemali i-ACSH xa yayipapasha incwadi ka-Entine ikhusela isibulali zinambuzane saseSyngenta.

UJon Entine usondelelene kakhulu kunye Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo (ACSH), iqela eliphambili elidibeneyo ifumana inkxaso-mali kwiMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani zamachiza. I-ACSH yapapasha incwadi ka-Entine ka-2011, ekhusela i-atrazine, iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elenziwa yiSyngenta. Ukunika ingxelo ngo UTom Philpott kuMama uJones kwaye i Iziko leMidiya kunye neDemokhrasi baqinisekise ukuba iSyngenta yayixhasa ngemali i-ACSH ngelo xesha, kwaye i-ACSH icele iSyngenta ukuba ibonelele ngenkxaso-mali eyongezelelweyo yeprojekthi ebandakanya incwadi evakala ngathi yincwadi ka-Entine. USyngenta wayefuna amaqabane angaphandle ukuba ancede inkampani khusela i-atrazine.

In 2009, Abasebenzi be-ACSH babuze iSyngenta yesibonelelo seedola ezili-100,000, “eyahlukileyo neyahlukileyo kwinkxaso yokusebenza ngokubanzi iSyngenta ibibonelela ngesisa kule minyaka idlulileyo,” ukuvelisa iphepha kunye "nencwadana elungele abathengi" malunga neatrazine. Ngo-2011, I-ACSH ibhengeziwe Incwadi entsha ka-Entine kunye "nephepha elinobuhlobo, elifinyeziweyo," zombini zikhusela i-atrazine. U-Entine uxelele uPhilpott ukuba "akayazi" iSyngenta yayixhasa ngemali i-ACSH.

Umxholo ophambili: uhlaselo lwenzululwazi kunye neentatheli

Umxholo ophambili emsebenzini ka-Entine uhlasela oososayensi kunye neentatheli ezixela ngokunzulu malunga nomzi mveliso weekhemikhali, ishishini leoyile okanye iingxaki zempilo ezinxulumene nazo. Eminye imizekelo:

  • Kuhlaselwe New Yorker Intatheli uRachel Aviv ukuzama ukumhlazisa Ukunika ingxelo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eSyngenta etyhila indlela le nkampani yemichiza ezame ngayo ukutshabalalisa igama lika-UC Berkeley uNjingalwazi uTyrone Hayes ngenxa yophando lwakhe oludibanisa i-herbicide atrazine neziphene zokuzalwa kumasele. Owona mthombo uphambili yayinguBruce Chassy, ​​unjingalwazi owayenguye cwaka eyamkela imali ukusuka eMonsanto kwaye ndanceda ukuqala Iqela eliphambili leMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki beshishini.
  • Kuhlaselwe UNjingalwazi waseHarvard uNaomi Oreskes, umbhali-mbhali we Abathengisi Bokungabaza, "njengeLuddite edumileyo, iRottweiler ekrelekrele yobuso bakho, imekobume, iyilumkele ngokungeyomfuneko itekhnoloji yale mihla."
  • Ummangalelwe Umphathi weColumbia yoBuntatheli uSteve Coll kunye nentatheli uSusanne Rust "wokuthambisa u-Exxon" ngokunika ingxelo yokuba u-Exxon wayesazi iminyaka ukuba utshintsho lwemozulu lwaluyinyani kodwa wafihla inzululwazi ukugcina ingeniso iqhubeka.
  • Kwi uhlaselo olulandelayo (okoko isuswe kwifayile ye- IHotff Post iwebhusayithi), u-Entine utyhola iRust yokuphula umthetho wokuziphatha kwakhe ngokunika ingxelo kuthotho lokuphumelela amabhaso kwi-BPA Uluhlu olufutshane kwiBhaso likaPulitzer; I-Entine ayichazanga ukuba ingxelo yakhe ichonge umqeshi wakhe we-STATS njenge Umdlali ophambili kwimizamo ye-PR yomzi mveliso.

Umzila weNkxaso-mali kaMurky yokuNgena kunye ne-GLP

Imbali yenkxaso mali yokungena inzima kwaye ilungile, kodwa amaxwebhu erhafu kunye nokuveza kwakhe ukuveza ipatheni yenkxaso mali evela kwimithombo engaziwayo nakwiziko lephiko lasekunene ukunyanzeliswa kwemida kunye nokwaliwa kwesayensi yemozulu, kunye nemali engachazwanga evela kwishishini le-biotechnology.

Inqaku elichanekileyo nelisoloko litshintsha "elubala"

Inqaku elithi "Ukucaca kwezezimali" kwiwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy ayichanekanga, iinguqu rhoqo kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ziyaziphikisa. Ngo-2017 nango-2018, iProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala ibanga ukuba ifumene inkxaso-mali ukusuka kwiziseko ezimbalwa kubandakanya iziseko zeTempleton kunye neSearle, ezi abaxhasi abakhokelayo kwiinzame zesayensi yemozulu. I-GLP ikwaphawula imali evela kwiZiko lokuDibanisa ukuTya, a icandelo eliphambili lokutya efumana imali kwiMonsanto kunye namaqabane neMonsanto kunye neProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala ukukhuthaza ushishino ngezolimo PR.

In NgoSeptemba 2016, "ukubhengezwa" Inqaku lathi i-GLP ayifumananga nkxaso-mali kumashishini, kodwa iveze i- $ 27,500 ye- "pass through" evela ku- "Academics Review Charitable Association," ebonakala ngathi ayikho. Eli qela ngokucacileyo IziFundoReview.org, iqela eliphambili elifumene uninzi lwenkxaso mali yalo kumzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi iqela lezorhwebo, kodwa libanga ukuba lizimeleyo kushishino.

In Ngomhla ka-Matshi 2016, i-GLP ayibhengezi mali kwaye u-Entine wazama ukumisa kude i-GLP kumqeshi wakhe wangaphambili u-STATS, ebanga ukuba i-STATS ibonelela ngeenkonzo zokunika ingxelo kuphela kwaye la maqela akabandakanyekanga kwimisebenzi yomnye nomnye. Kodwa ngo-2012, i-GLP yathi “iphuhliswe njengenkqubo yoluleko kunye ne-STATS. "

Iziko leMithombo yeendaba kunye neMicimbi yoLuntu / iYunivesithi yaseGeorge Mason

Kunyaka-mali 2014 / 2015, ngokweerekhodi zerhafu, u-Entine ufumene i-173,100 yeedola ngomsebenzi wakhe "njengomlawuli" kwiziko leMedia kunye neMicimbi yoLuntu, iqela elisekwe kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorge Mason kwaye yasekwa nguNjingalwazi weGMU URobert Lichter. I-CMPA ihlawulwe nguPhillip Morris kwii-1990s ukuphazamisa inkxalabo malunga necuba ngokwamaxwebhu akwithala leencwadi le-UCSF leCuba.

I-CMPA ayichazi baxhasi bayo kodwa ifumene inkxaso-mali kwiGeorge Mason University Foundation, umamkeli ophambili yeminikelo ehambelana neCharles Koch kunye neKoch Industries. I-GMUF ikwafumene i-5.3 yezigidi zeedola kwi-Donors Trust nakwi-Donors Capital Fund phakathi ko-2011-13, ngokweGciniwe. Ezi mali zesiteshi semali ezivela kubanikeli abangaziwayo kubandakanya neenkampani ukuya kumaphulo kunye nezifundo ezityhala umdla kwishishini, njengoko iGreenpeace ibonakalisile uphando olufihlakeleyo.

STATS Iintlawulo neMali mboleko

Iqela lodade le-CMPA, elisekwe ngu-Lichter kwaye lisekwe kwi-GMU, yayiyi-Statistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqela elingenzi nzuzo elidlale indima ephambili kwimizi-mveliso ye-PR kwimizamo yokukhusela iimveliso eziyityhefu, ngokwe ngxelo Ukuthintela, Milwaukee Journal Journal Sentinel, the Atlantic kwaye Imibiko yabathengi.

Ngokweefom ze-IRS:

  • STATS ihlawulwe ingeniso $ 140,600 kwi 2012 / 2013 kwaye $ 152,500 ngaphakathi 2013 / 2014 "njengomcebisi kwezophando"
  • I-STATS kunye neZiko leMithombo yeendaba kunye neMicimbi yoLuntu zombini zidwelise i-Entine njengoMlawuli kwi 2014 / 2015 ngembuyekezo ye- $ 173,100. Iirekhodi zerhafu kuwo omabini la maqela zidwelise noMongameli uTrevor Butterworth nge $ 95,512 kunye noMlawuli uTracey Brown ngaphandle kwembuyekezo. UTracey Brown ngumlawuli weSense malunga neNzululwazi, iqela nalo ijikelezisa isayensi ukukhusela umdla kwimizi-mveliso; EGcuwa Isiseko seSense malunga neSayensi ye-USA Ngo-2014 kwaye zahlanganiswa ii-STATS kwelo qela.
  • IProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala yeSayensi ithathe i-ID yERhafu ye-STATS kwi 2015 Uluhlu oludwelisiweyo njengoMlawuli oLawulayo ngentlawulo eyi- $ 188,800.
  • Ngo-2018, i-ESG MediaMetrics, i-Entine's PR firm, uxele i-176,420 yeedola kwingeniso.

IZiko leMithombo yeendaba kunye neMicimbi yoLuntu ikwaboleke imali kwi-STATS, ethi "ngenxa yokungonelanga kwemali" ayikabuyiselwa. Isiseko seYunivesithi yaseGeorge Mason, esingachazangayo inkxaso-mali, sinike izibonelelo zeCMPA ngaloo minyaka. Iirekhodi zerhafu zibonisa:

Inkxaso mali kwishishini le-Biotechnology yokuqeqesha oososayensi kunye neentatheli

Ngo-2014 nango-2015, amafemu aphezulu okubulala izitshabalalisi achithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 300,000 kwiziganeko ezibini eziququzelelwe yiProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala kunye neqela eliphambili eliHlola iziFundo ku “qeqesha izazinzulu kunye neentatheli ukuyila ingxoxo mpikiswano malunga ne-GMOs kunye netyhefu yeglyphosate, ”Ngokweengxelo zerhafu kunye nokwenza ingxelo kwi Inkqubela. Iziganeko, ezibizwa ngokuba Iprojekthi yeeBiotech Literacy Projekthi, zabanjwa kwi IYunivesithi yaseFlorida ngo-2014 kwaye UC Davis ngo-2015.

Ii-ajenda zichaza iminyhadala "njengoqeqesho lwezakhono zonxibelelwano" kwizazinzulu kunye neentatheli ukunceda ukuphinda kuxoxwe ngokhuseleko lokutya kunye nengxoxo ye-GMO, kwaye wathembisa ukubonelela oososayensi "ngezixhobo kunye nezixhobo zokuxhasa eziyimfuneko ukubandakanya amajelo eendaba kwaye babonakale njengeengcali kwezomthetho ukumanyelwa koorhulumente basekhaya, neminye imigaqo-nkqubo kunye namanye amathuba okufikelela kuluntu. ”

I-Faculty ekuqaleni inkampu yokuqala yebhuthi kubandakanya abameli abavela kwicandelo lezolimo, amaqela aphambili kushishino lokutya kunye namaqela orhwebo, kunye nabahlohli be-pro-GMO kubandakanya uNjingalwazi weDyunivesithi yaseFlorida UKevin Folta, kunye neYunivesithi yase-Illinois uNjingalwazi uEmeritus UBruce Chassy, bobabini bamkele inkxaso-mali engachazwanga evela eMonsanto kwaye bakhuthaza ii-GMO kunye namayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi abathembela kuwo ukuthengisa kweMonsanto. Washington Post Umbhali wekholamu yokutya uTamar HaspelNgubani lowo yamkela imali kumdla wezolimo, wayeyintatheli kwi-faculty.

Abaxhasi bezemali besayensi yemozulu

Abaxhasi abakhulu bezezimali be-Entine owayesakuba ngumqeshi we-STATS kunye neqela lakhe langoku leProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala kubandakanya iziseko zamaphiko asekunene- ikakhulu iScaife Foundation, iSearle Freedom Trust kunye neTempleton Foundation - ekhokhela abaxhasi bezokwaliwa kwesayensi yemozulu, ngokwe Ufundo lweDyunivesithi yaseDrexel ka-2013. Jonga uphando lwe-USRTK: Imozulu yeNzululwazi yeNzululwazi yeNzululwazi yezeMozulu yeNgxowa-mali eyityhefu.

Umzi mveliso wokhuselo weKhemikhali

Iminyaka emininzi, u-Entine ebengumkhuseli obalaseleyo kwimidla yeshishini leekhemikhali, elandela incwadi yokudlala yomzi mveliso: uyayikhusela imichiza njengekhuselekileyo; uphikisa ngokuchasene nommiselo; kwaye ihlasele isayensi, oososayensi beendaba kunye nabanye baphakamisa inkxalabo.

Ukukhusela i-neonicotinoids

Ukukhulisa ubungqina besayensi bucebisa ukuba i-neonicotinoids, iklasi elisetyenziswa kakhulu lamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi, zezona zinto zibalulekileyo ekufeni kweenyosi. I-European Union ithintele i-neonics ngenxa yenkxalabo malunga nefuthe leenyosi. Inqaku likaFebruwari 2020 kwiThe Intercept nguLee Fang uxele "ngenkqubela phambili yolwazi emfazweni" iinkampani zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezilwela ukugcina imichiza kwintengiso kwi-US Entine ibe ngumthunywa ophambili we-pro-industry; Ubuye wathi i-neonics ayingomqhubi ophambili wokubulawa kweenyosi (I-American Enterprise Institute), ukuba "Inyosi Apocalypse khange ibe yeyokwenyani," (Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo) kunye neonics ezibanga ukuba zinokunceda impilo yeenyosi (I-American Enterprise Institute kwaye Forbes). U-Entine uphinde wahlasela isifundo soprofesa waseHarvard malunga nenyosi iColony Collapse Disorder (I-American Enterprise Institute) kwaye batyhola abapolitiki baseYurophu ngokuzama ukubulala iinyosi ngokuthintela ii-neonics (Forbes).

Ukukhusela amanqanaba

Iifthalates ludidi lweekhemikhali ezide zinxulunyaniswa nokuphazamiseka kwencindi yedlala, ukwenzakala kokuzala, iingxaki zokuchuma kunye nokunxibelelana nokukhuluphala kwabantwana, isifuba, iingxaki zemithambo-luvo kunye nemicimbi yentliziyo. Urhulumente wase-US waqala ukuthintela imichiza kwinto zokudlala zabantwana ngowama-2013 ngenxa yenkxalabo yezempilo. I-Entine ikhusele iimveliso zabantwana ezineekhemikhali. "Zimbalwa iikhemikhali kwintengiso namhlanje eziye zaphononongwa nzulu njengezenzululwazi ze-phthalate esters," u-Entine wabhala (Forbes) - kodwa khange ayikhankanye umzimba obalulekileyo of ubungqina besayensi Iqulunqwe ngaphezulu kwamashumi amabini eminyaka edibanisa ukubonakaliswa kwe-phthalate ukukhula ngendlela engaqhelekanga in abantwana abangamakhwenkwe. Imiyalezo yayiquka uhlaselo kwiintatheli; U-Entine utyhola intatheli ye-NBC ephakamise imibuzo malunga nokhuseleko "lobuntatheli obungenantlonelo." (Forbes). Inkampani yokungena yonxibelelwano, ESG MediaMetrics, yenze i-PR ye IZiko leVinyl; IVinyl plastiki ingumthombo ophambili wokubhengeza ii-phthalates. U-Entine khange achaze unxibelelwano kushishino kumanqaku akhe eForbes.

Ukukhusela ukugcwala

I-Entine ikhusela ukuqhekeka ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi ("fracking"), ukumpompa amanzi ngoxinzelelo oluphezulu lweekhemikhali emhlabeni ukutyhoboza shale kunye nokukhupha irhasi yendalo. Njengakwiminye imikhankaso yakhe yemiyalezo, i-Entine iqhuma inzululwazi kunye nososayensi abaphakamisa inkxalabo, bebenza "njengabaphembeleli," ngelixa besenza ingxelo etshabalalisayo nengathethekiyo malunga nesayensi "ekrelekrele" eqhutywa kwiminyaka emininzi ekhusela ukhuseleko lwayo. Umzekelo, u-Entine ubanga ukuba: "Ngokwezimvo zesayensi, akukho sizathu sokwenza oko U krokrela impilo engaziwayo okanye imiba yokusingqongileyo iya kuvela ”Post New York).

Kwakhona, uhlaselo lwaluyinxalenye ephambili yemiyalezo. U-Entine utyhola intatheli ze-New York Times ngokulahlekisa abantwana malunga neengozi zokusingqongileyo ezinokubakho (Forbes), bahlasele izazinzulu ezimbini zeYunivesithi yaseCornell kufundo lwabo becebisa ukuba imisebenzi yokuqhekeza ivuza imethane (Forbes), kwaye yahlasela iPark Foundation, ibanga ukuba "iphantse yaphazamisa uphuhliso lwerhasi ephuma kwisithili esinee-methane eNew York State, yabeka uphawu kwizimvo zoluntu nakwizigqibo zomgaqo-nkqubo kwilizwe liphela." (Ububele obujikelezayo)

Ukukhusela i-BPA

U-Entine ubhala ekhusela ikhemikhali i-bisphenol A (BPA), ngaphandle kobungqina obuninzi besayensi obuphakamisa inkxalabo malunga ne-endocrine yokuphazamisa amandla kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo ezinxulumene nayo. ICanada ibhengeze ukuba le khemikhali inetyhefu Ngo-2010, kunye ne-EU I-BPA evaliweyo kwiibhotile zabantwana kwi 2011.

I-Entine ihlasele abaphandi beyunivesithi, ii-NGO kunye neentatheli ziphakamisa inkxalabo malunga ne-BPA (Forbes), Wacebisa ukuba abasetyhini abangakwaziyo ukukhulelwa akufuneki bayibeke ityala kwiiplastikhi (Forbes), kwaye wacela umngeni kwizazinzulu ezazidibanisa iBPA nesifo sentliziyo (Forbes).

Ukukhusela aMandla eNyukliya

I-Entine ikhusela ishishini lamandla enyukliya; Ubanga ukuba izityalo zamandla enyukliya zikhona okusingqongileyo nokuba “akukho nto imbi njengeChernobyl enokwenzeka naseNtshona.” Utyhola uNjingalwazi waseHarvard uNaomi Oreskes inzululwazi "ukukhanyela," kuba, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ukubonisa umngcipheko wezoqoqosho kunye nokusingqongileyo kwamandla enyukliya.

Ubuhlobo

U-Entine wayengumntu ongahlawulelwanga kwiZiko lezeMpilo kunye noNxibelelwano lomngcipheko kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorge Mason (GMU) ukusukela ngo-2011 ukuya ku-2014. abanikeli bayo, kunye umntu otyeleleyo kwiZiko laseMelika lamaShishini, itanki lokucinga leDC lixhaswe ngemali yinxalenye ngu Iqumrhu kwaye imali emnyama iminikelo.

Bona kwakho, Iphepha leGreenpeace Polluter Watch kuJon Entine kunye no “ibali elifihliweyo leProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala. "

Amaqela ahambelana nabantu

Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo
UGeoffrey Kabat
UJay Byrne
Uphengululo lwezifundo
UPamela Ronald kunye no-UC Davis
Iiprojekthi zeBiotech Literacy 

ICornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi liPhulo le-PR kwishishini lezolimo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngaphandle kwegama layo lokuvakala kwezemfundo kunye nokunxulumana neziko le-Ivy League, ICornell Alliance yeNzululwazi (CAS) liphulo lobudlelwane noluntu elixhaswa ngemali yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation eqeqesha abanye abantu kwihlabathi liphela ukukhuthaza nokukhusela izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli kunye nezolimo kumazwe abo. Izifundiswa ezininzi, iingcali zomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya, amaqela okutya kunye nawokulima ziye zakhwaza umyalezo ongachanekanga kunye namaqhinga akhohlisayo amaqabane e-CAS athe azama ukuzama ukunyelisa inkxalabo malunga nezinye iindlela kwezolimo lweshishini.

NgoSeptemba, CAS umemezele Izigidi ezili-10 zeedola kwinkxaso mali entsha evela kwiGates Foundation, izisa iiGates zizonke inkxaso-mali kwi-22 yezigidi zeedola ukusukela ngo-2014. Inkxaso mali entsha iza ngokuba yiGates Foundation ejongene nokubuya emva kulimo lwaseAfrika, ukutya kunye namaqela enkolo Ukuchitha iibhiliyoni zeedola kwizikim zophuhliso lwezolimo eAfrika oko ubungqina bubonisa ukusilela ukuthomalalisa indlala okanye ukuphakamisa amafama amancinci, njengoko beqinisa iindlela zokulima ezixhamla amashishini ngaphezulu kwabantu. 

Eli phepha libhala imizekelo emininzi yolwazi olungelulo oluvela kwi-CAS kunye nabantu abanxulumene neqela. Imizekelo echazwe apha inika ubungqina bokuba i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, isidima kunye negunya lokuqhubela phambili i-PR kunye ne-ajenda yezopolitiko yeyona mibutho mikhulu yemichiza kunye nembewu.

Umsebenzi olungelelaniswe nomzi mveliso kunye nemiyalezo

I-CAS yaphehlelelwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates se- $ 5.6 yezigidi kwaye ithembisa “batshabalalise ”ingxoxo malunga nee-GMO. Iqela itsho injongo yayo Kukukhuthaza ukufikelela kwizityalo kunye nokutya ngokuqeqesha “amahlakani ezenzululwazi” kwihlabathi liphela ukuze afundise abahlali ngezibonelelo zebhayoloji yezolimo.

Icandelo leshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi likhuthaza iCAS 

Inxalenye ephambili yesicwangciso-qhinga se-CAS kukugaya nokuqeqesha IiNkokheli zeNkokheli zeHlabathi kunxibelelwano nakumaqhinga okukhuthaza, kugxilwe kwimimandla apho kukho inkcaso yoluntu kushishino lwebiotech, ngakumbi amazwe aseAfrika athe amelana nezityalo zeGMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngokumangalisayo iBhunga loLwazi lweBiotechnology (I-CBI), ishishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi elixhasa ngemali inyathelo lobudlelwane noluntu Isebenzisana neCAS. Iqela loshishino lisebenzele ukwakha ubudlelwane ngaphaya kwetyathanga lokutya kunye qeqesha abantu besithathu, ngakumbi izifundiswa kunye namafama, ukucenga uluntu ukuba lwamkele ii-GMOs.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS iyangqinelana ngokusondeleyo nomzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi i-PR: kugxilwe kwi-myopic ekufumaneni izibonelelo ezinokubakho zexesha elizayo zokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza ngelixa kudlalwa, ukungahoyi okanye ukwala umngcipheko kunye neengxaki. Njengemizamo ye-PR yomzi-mveliso, i-CAS ikwajolise kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukuhlazisa abagxeki bemveliso yezolimo, kubandakanya oososayensi kunye neentatheli eziphakamisa impilo okanye imeko yendalo.

Ukugxekwa ngokubanzi

I-CAS kunye nababhali bayo bathathe ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, amafama, abafundi, amaqela oluntu kunye neentshukumo zolawulo lokutya abathi eli qela likhuthaza imiyalezo engachanekanga nelahlekisayo kwaye lisebenzisa amaqhinga angafanelekanga. Jonga umzekelo:

Imizekelo yemiyalezo elahlekisayo

Iingcali kubunjineli bemfuza, ibhayoloji, i-agroecology kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya babhale imizekelo emininzi yamabango angachanekanga enziwe nguMark Lynas, umntu owayetyelele eCornell obhale inqwaba yamanqaku ekhusela iimveliso zezolimo egameni le-CAS; Jonga umzekelo wakhe amanqaku amaninzi akhuthazwe yiProjekthi yoLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala, iqela PR ukuba isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi ka-Lynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amkele ii-GMO, kwaye anike isahluko ekukhuseleni iMonsanto.

Amabango achanekileyo malunga nee-GMOs

Izazinzulu ezininzi zigxeke uLynas ngokwenza iingxelo zobuxoki, “Ayinasayensi, ayikho ngqiqweni kwaye ayinangqondo”Iingxoxo, ukukhuthaza imfundiso ngaphezulu kwedatha kunye nophando kwii-GMO, Ukuhlaziya icandelo lokuthetha ngamashishini, nokwenza amabango angachanekanga malunga nezibulali zinambuzanebonisa ulwazi olunzulu lwenzululwazi, okanye iinzame ezenziwayo zokuvelisa amathandabuzo. ”

Uluhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezinto uMark Lynas aphosakeleyo malunga nazo zombini ii-GMO kunye nesayensi lubanzi, kwaye luye lwangqinwa ngenqaku ngamanye ngamanye e-agroecologists kunye nezazi zebhayoloji, " kubhale uEric Holt-Giménez, Umlawuli olawulayo weFood First, ngo-Epreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomntu owayetyelele kamva kulo nyaka).  

"Uyangqina kwaye akananyani"

Amaqela asekwe e-Afrika aye agxeka uLynas ixesha elide. Umanyano lobukhosi bokutya e-Afrika, umanyano lwamaqela okutya kunye namafama angaphezu kwama-40 kwiAfrika iphela uchaze uLynas njenge "ingcungcu" ethi "ukudelela abantu baseAfrika, isiko kunye nesiko lakhe ngokungathandabuzekiyo." Isigidi se-Belay, umlawuli we-AFSA, kuchazwe uLynas "njengohlanga olucacisa ukuba ezolimo kuphela ezinokusindisa iAfrika."

Kwiphepha lokushicilela lika-2018, iZiko lase-Afrika lase-Afrika elise-Biodiversity lichaze amaqhinga angekho mthethweni uLynas awasebenzisileyo ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby e-Tanzania. "Kukho umba ngokuqinisekileyo malunga noxanduva lokuphendula kunye [nesidingo] sokulawula i-Cornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi kuyo, ngenxa yolwazi olungeyonyani kunye nendlela abangathembeki ngayo nabangeyonyani," utshilo uMariam Mayet, umlawuli olawulayo weZiko lase-Afrika lezinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo, utshilo. kwi Nge-Julayi 2020 kwiwebhu.

Ngolwazi oluneenkcukacha zomsebenzi kaLynas, jonga amanqaku ekupheleni kwale post kunye neyethu Uxwebhu lwenyani lukaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Umzekelo wakutshanje wemiyalezo engachanekanga linqaku elibekwe ngokubanzi kwi-CAS website nguLynas ebanga ukuba, "i-agro-ecology isemngciphekweni wokonzakalisa amahlwempu." ?? Izifundo zichaze eli nqaku njenge “idemagogic kunye nengcaciso engeyiyo eyenzululwazi yokutolika iphepha lesayensi, ""ngokungathandabuzekiyo, ""ideology emsulwa ”kunye“ neentloni umntu ofuna ukubanga ukuba uyinzululwazi, "a"uhlalutyo oluneziphene ngokwenene“?? lonto yenza “ukwenziwa ngokubanzi“?? kwayeizigqibo zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki bizelwa a Ukurhoxiswa.

Inqaku le-2019 ngoogxa be-CAS uNassib Mugwanya ubonelela ngomnye umzekelo womxholo olahlekisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. Inqaku elithi, “Kutheni iindlela zemveli yezolimo zingenakho ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika,” libonisa indlela yokuthunyelwa kwemiyalezo kwizixhobo ze-CAS: ukubonisa izityalo ze-GMO njenge “pro-science” ngelixa kupeyintwa “ezinye iindlela zophuhliso lwezolimo njenge-anti-science, 'engenamhlaba kwaye ayenzakalisi,' ” ngokokuhlalutya ngoMbutho woLuntu wase-Seattle woBulungisa beLizwe.

"Eyona nto iqaphelekayo kwinqaku kukusetyenziswa okukuko kwezikweko (umzekelo, i-agroecology efaniswa nozibophelelo), ukwenziwa kwezinto ngokubanzi, ukushiywa kolwazi kunye nenani lezinto ezingachanekanga," latsho iqela.

Sebenzisa incwadi yokudlala yeMonsanto ukukhusela amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi

Omnye umzekelo wokulahleka kwemiyalezo ye-CAS ehambelana nomzi mveliso unokufunyanwa kukhuseleko lweqela kwi-Rounduposate esekwe kwi-glyphosate. Amayeza okubulala ukhula yeyona nto iphambili kwizityalo zeGMO I-90% yengqolowa kunye ne-soy zikhulile e-United States yemfuza yenzelwe ukunyamezela iRoundup. Kwi-2015, emva kokuba iphaneli yophando yomhlaza ye-World Health Organisation yathi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu, i-Monsanto iququzelele amahlakani ayo ukuba "acule isikhalazo" ngokuchasene neqela lenzululwazi elizimeleyo "ukukhusela igama" le-Roundup, ngokwe Amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto.

Incwadi yokudlala ye-Monsanto: ukuhlasela iingcali zomhlaza 'njengabaphembeleli'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i Iqonga CAS ukwandisa umyalezo weMonsanto, echaza ingxelo yomhlaza njenge "ukuzingelwa kwamagqwirha" okwenziwe "ngabaphembeleli be-anti-Monsanto" "abasebenzisa kakubi isayensi" kwaye benze "ukugqwethwa okucacileyo kwesayensi kunye nobulungisa bendalo" ngokunika ingxelo yomngcipheko womhlaza we-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo iimpikiswano eziphosakeleyo kunye nemithombo yoshishino njengeBhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo, a iqela eliphambili iMonsanto lihlawulwe ukunceda ukujikeleza ingxelo yomhlaza.

Ngelixa ebanga ukuba usecaleni lenzululwazi, uLynas akabunanzanga ubungqina obaneleyo obuvela kumaxwebhu eMonsanto, ingxelo ngokubanzi kumajelo eendaba, ukuba IMonsanto yaphazamisa kunye uphando lwezenzululwazi, iiarhente zolawulo ezilawulwayo kwaye ndisebenzise enye amaqhinga anzima ukwenza inkqubo yenzululwazi ukukhusela iRoundup. Kwi-2018, ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto "Usebenze ngolunya, ingcinezelo okanye ubuqhetseba”Ekugubungeleni umngcipheko womhlaza we-Roundup.

Ukudibanisa amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye nee-GMO

Nangona eyona ndawo kugxilwe kuyo yi-Afrika, i-CAS ikwanceda kwimizamo yecandelo lokubulala izitshabalalisi ukukhusela izibulala-zinambuzane kunye nokujongela phantsi abameli bempilo yoluntu eHawaii. Iziqithi zeHawaii zibalulekile kwindawo yokuvavanya izityalo ze-GMO kunye nommandla obika phezulu ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi kwaye inkxalabo malunga neengxaki zempilo ezinxulumene nezifo, kubandakanya iziphene zokuzalwa, umhlaza kunye nesifuba. Ezi ngxaki zikhokelele abahlali ukuba baququzelele umlo othabatha iminyaka Ukupasisa imimiselo eyomeleleyo ukunciphisa ukubhencwa kwezinambuzane kunye nokuphucula ukubhengezwa kweekhemikhali ezisetyenziswa kumhlaba wezolimo.

"Uqalise uhlaselo olukhohlakeleyo"

Njengokuba ezi nzame zifumana ukubambeka, i-CAS ibandakanyeke kwiphulo "lokunxibelelana noluntu malunga nokuchaphazela inkxalabo yoluntu" malunga nemingcipheko yempilo yezibulali zinambuzane, ngokukaFern Anuenue Holland, umququzeleli woluntu kwiHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. KwiCornell yemihla ngemihla, IHolland ichaze indlela “ehlawulwe ngayo iCornell Alliance yaBafundi bezeNzululwazi- phantsi kwesitayile sobungcali kwezenzululwazi- baqalise ngohlaselo olukhohlakeleyo. Basebenzise imithombo yeendaba kwezentlalo kwaye babhala inqwaba yeebhlog zabo begxeka abahlali abanempembelelo kunye nezinye iinkokheli ezazinesibindi sokuthetha. ”

U-Holland uthe yena namanye amalungu ombutho wakhe babephantsi "kokubulawa kwabalinganiswa, ukumelwa gwenxa kunye nokuhlaselwa ukuthembeka komntu kunye nobungcali" ngabanxulumene ne-CAS. Ubhale wathi: "Ndizibonele ngokwam iintsapho kunye nobuhlobo obungapheliyo."

Ukuchasa ilungelo loluntu lokwazi     

UMlawuli weCAS USarah Evanega, PhD, u utshilo iqela lakhe elizimeleyo kushishino: “Asibhalelanga kushishino, kwaye asikhuthazi okanye sikhuthaze iimveliso ezizezeshishini. Njengoko iwebhusayithi yethu ichaza ngokucacileyo nangokucacileyo, asifumani zibonelelo zorhwebo. ” Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwee-imeyile ezifunyenwe yi-US Right to Know, ngoku ezithunyelwe kwi- I-UCSF yemizi-mveliso yamathala eencwadi, bonisa i-CAS kunye ne-Evanega ngokulungelelanisa ngokusondeleyo nomzi-mveliso wokubulala izitshabalalisi kunye namaqela aphambili kumanyathelo obudlelwane noluntu. Imizekelo ibandakanya:

Eminye imizekelo yentsebenziswano ye-CAS namaqela oshishino ichazwe ezantsi kweli xwebhu.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqela angaphambili, abathunywa abangathembekanga

Kwimizamo yayo yokukhuthaza ii-GMOs njengesisombululo “esisekwe kwinzululwazi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi inikezele ngeqonga layo kumaqela aphambili kwezorhwebo kwanakwisayensi yemozulu eyaziwayo.

UTrevor Butterworth kunye neSense malunga neSayensi / STATS: Amaqabane e-CAS ngeSense malunga neSayensi / ii-STATS ukubonelela "ukubonisana kweenkcukacha-manani kwiintatheli”Kwaye wanika ubudlelwane kumlawuli weqela uTrevor Butterworth, owakhe umsebenzi wakhe wokukhusela iimveliso ezibalulekileyo kwi Amachiza, iqhekeza, ukutya okungenamsoco kwaye amashishini iziyobisi. UGcuwa ngumlawuli osungula iSense About Science USA, awayidibanisa neqonga lakhe langaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Iintatheli zichaze ii-STATs kunye neButterworth njengabadlali abaphambili kwimikhankaso yokukhusela imveliso yemveliso yamachiza (jonga Iindaba zesimo, Ijenali yeMilwaukee Sentinel, Ukuthintela kwaye IAtlantic). Amaxwebhu eMonsanto achonga Ingqondo malunga neNzululwazi phakathi "kweqabane loshishino" yayixhomekeke ekubeni ikhusele i-Roundup ngokuchasene neenkxalabo zomhlaza.

Imozulu yesayensi ye-Climate Owen Paterson: Kwi-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, ipolitiki yase-Bhritane ye-Conservative Party kwaye eyaziwayo Imozulu yesayensi yemozulu Ngubani kunciphise inkxaso-mali kwiinzame zokunciphisa ubushushu behlabathi Ngexesha lokuhlala kwakhe njengo-Mphathiswa Wezendalo e-UK. UPaterson usebenzise inqanaba leCornell ukubanga ukuba amaqela okusingqongileyo aphakamisa inkxalabo malunga neeGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqela eshishini lezibulali zinambuzane ayesebenzisa imiyalezo efanayo kwiminyaka engama-50 eyadlulayo ukuzama Ukuhlazisa uRachel Carson yokuphakamisa iinkxalabo malunga ne-DDT.

Lynas kunye Ingqondo malunga neNzululwazi: I-Lynas ye-CAS ikwadityaniswa neSense Malunga neSayensi njengelungu lebhodi yeengcebiso yexesha elide. Ngo-2015, uLynas wadibana nesayensi yemozulu u-Owen Paterson Paterson naye wayeziva malunga noMlawuli weSayensi uTracey Brown qalisa oko wakubiza "intshukumo ye-ecomodernism," indibaniselwano yomanyano, uxinzelelo oluchasene nommiselo "yokusingqongileyo."

Ukhuseleko kumzi mveliso eHawaii

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yaphehlelela iqela elidibeneyo elibizwa ngokuba yi-Hawaii Alliance for Science, eyathi injongo yayo “kukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezigqibo ezisekwe kubungqina kunye nokuyilwa kwezolimo kwezi ziqithi.” Abathunywa bayo baquka:

USarah Thompson, a owayesakuba ngumqeshwa weDow AgroSciences, walungelelanisa Umdibaniso weHawaii weSayensi, eyayizichaza “njengombutho osisiseko sothungelwano ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo onxulumene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kodwa iqela ligcina ifayile ye- page Facebook.)

Amajelo eendaba ezentlalo avela kwiHawaii Alliance yezeNzululwazi kunye nomququzeleli wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki beshishini lezolimo njenge abantu abanekratshi nabangazi nto, ibhiyozelwe umbona kunye nesoy mono-izityalo kwaye ikhusela i-neonicotinoid pesticides leyo ezininzi izifundo kwaye ziyatsho njalo inzululwazi ziyingozi kwiinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukulawula uMhleli we-CAS, ubhala amanqaku ngaye kwiwebhsayithi, nganye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhlog kunye neqela eliphambili loshishino IProjekthi yokuFunda ngokuBhala uzama ukungcolisa igama bezempilo, amaqela asekuhlaleni kwaye Abezopolitiko eHawaii oxhasa ukukhuselwa kwamayeza okubulala izinambuzane, kunye neentatheli ababhala malunga neenkxalabo zezibulali zinambuzane. IConrow inayo utyhola amaqela okusingqongileyo yokubaleka ukuhlawula irhafu kunye xa kuthelekiswa neqela lokhuseleko lokutya kwiKKK.

UConrow akasoloko echaza ubudlelwane bakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii le-Civil Beat lamgxeka uConrow ngenxa yakhe ukungabikho kokungafihli nto kwaye wamkhankanya ngo-2016 njengomzekelo wokuba kutheni iphepha lalitshintsha imigaqo-nkqubo yokubeka izimvo. UConrow "wayehlala ephikisana nembono ye-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokucacileyo umsebenzi wakhe njenge-GMO sympathist," kubhala unjingalwazi wobuntatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow uphulukene nenkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (kunye nokuthembeka) ukunika ingxelo ngokufanelekileyo malunga nemicimbi ye-GMO, ngenxa yethoni yomsebenzi wakhe kule micimbi."

UJoni Kamiya, 2015 CAS UbuNkokeli beHlabathi uphikisana nemigaqo yokubulala izitshabalalisi kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Intombi yomfama waseHawaii, kwi eendaba kunye neqela eliphambili loshishino IProjekthi yokuFunda ngokuBhala. Unguye “Ingcali yonozakuzaku” kwishishini lezolimo elixhaswe ngemali intengiso kwiwebhusayithi yeempendulo zeGMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya ubanga ukubonakaliswa kwe-pesticides eHawaii ayongxaki, yaye izama ukunyelisa amagosa anyuliweyo kwaye "Abagabadeli bendalo esingqongileyo" abafuna ukulawula amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi.

Abasebenzi, abacebisi

I-CAS ichaza "njengenyathelo elisekwe kwiYunivesithi yaseConell, iziko elingenzi nzuzo." Iqela alichazi uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali, inkcitho okanye imivuzo yabasebenzi, kwaye iYunivesithi yaseCornell ayichazi naluphi na ulwazi malunga ne-CAS kwiifayile zayo zerhafu.

Uluhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be20, kubandakanya noMlawuli USarah Evanega, PhD, kunye nokuLawula uMhleli UJoan Conrow (ayidwelisi uMark Lynas okanye abanye abantu abanokufumana imbuyekezo). Abanye abasebenzi abadumileyo abadweliswe kwiwebhusayithi babandakanya:

Ibhodi yeengcebiso ye-CAS ibandakanya izifundiswa ezihlala zincedisa ishishini lezolimo kwimizamo yabo ye-PR.

Iingqinisiso zeSiseko seGates  

Ukusukela nge2016, iGates Foundation ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 4 yezigidigidi kwizicwangciso zophuhliso lwezolimo, uninzi lwazo lujolise e-Afrika. Izicwangciso zophuhliso lwezolimo zesiseko zazikhona ekhokelwa nguRob Horsch (osandula ukuthatha umhlala-phantsi), a Igqala leMonsanto engama-25. Izicwangciso-qhinga zithathe ukugxekwa ekukhuthazeni ii-GMO kunye nezolimo e-Afrika inkcaso yamaqela ase-Afrika kunye nokuhamba kwezentlalo, kwaye ngaphandle kwenkxalabo kunye namathandabuzo malunga nezityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli kwiAfrika iphela.

Iingqinisiso zendlela yeGates Foundation kuphuhliso lwezolimo kunye nenkxaso mali zibandakanya:

Olunye usebenziswano lweshishini lweCAS 

Uninzi lwee-imeyile ezifunyenwe nge-FOIA yi-US Ilungelo Lokwazi, kwaye ngoku iposwe kwi I-UCSF yemizi-mveliso yamathala eencwadi, bonisa i-CAS ilungelelanisa ngokusondeleyo nomzi mveliso wezolimo kunye namaqela ayo onxibelelwano noluntu ukulungelelanisa iminyhadala kunye nemiyalezo:

Iingcaphephe ezingakumbi zikaMark Lynas 

Iimpendulo ze-GMO liPhulo lokuThengisa kunye ne-PR kwiinkampani zezibulala-zinambuzane

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uhlaziyo:

ketchum gmo iimpendulo

Iimpendulo zeGMO ihlawulwa njengeqonga apho abathengi banokufumana iimpendulo ezichanekileyo kwiingcali ezizimeleyo malunga nokutya okwenziwe ngemfuza, kwaye ezinye intatheli ziyithatha ngokungathí sina njengomthombo ongakhethi cala. Kodwa iwebhusayithi sisixhobo sokuthengisa esichanekileyo sokujikeleza ii-GMO ngokukhanya okuhle.

Ubungqina bokuba iimpendulo ze-GMO sisixhobo esilawula imeko yokusasazeka esingathembekanga.

Iimpendulo zeGMO zenziwa njengemoto yokuhambisa uluvo loluntu ngokuxhasa ii-GMOs. Kungekudala emva kweMonsanto kunye namahlakani ayo babetha inyathelo lokuvota lika-2012 ukubiza ii-GMO eCalifornia, eMonsanto zi cwangciso ukumilisela iphulo elitsha lobudlelwane noluntu ukwenza ngokutsha isidima se-GMOs. Baqesha inkampani yezonxibelelwano noluntu iFleishmanHillard (ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) iphulo lamanani asixhenxe.

Njengenxalenye yomzamo, inkampani ye-PR i-Ketchum (ekwangumnini we-Omnicom) yaqeshwa liBhunga loLwazi lwe-Biotechnology- ixhaswe ngemali nguMonsanto, iBASF, iBayer, iDow, iDupont kunye neSyngenta -Ukudala i-GMOAnswers.com. Isiza sithembisile susa ukudideka kwaye uphelise ukungathembani malunga nee-GMO zisebenzisa amazwi angahlelwanga abizwa ngokuba "ziingcali ezizimeleyo."

Kodwa bazimele kangakanani ezo ngcali?

Iwebhusayithi iyabhala amanqaku athetha ngononophelo athetha ibali elincomekayo malunga nee-GMOs ngelixa udlala phantsi okanye ungawuthobeli umngcipheko wezempilo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Umzekelo, xa ubuzwa ukuba ii-GMO ziqhubela phambili ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane, indawo inikezela nge-convoluted no, ngaphandle kwedatha evavanywe ngoontanga ebonisa ukuba, ewe, enyanisweni, kunjalo.

"Roundup Ready" izityalo ze-GMO zikhulise ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, a umhlaza womntu onokwenzeka, by amakhulu ezigidi zeeponti. Inkqubo entsha ye-GMO / ye-pesticide ebandakanya i-dicamba ikhokelele ekutshatyalalisweni kwe Izityalo zesoya phesheya kweMelika, kunye ne-FDA ibracing kulo nyaka ukusetyenziswa kathathu ye-2,4-D, i-herbicide endala enetyhefu, ngenxa yezityalo ezitsha ze-GMO eziyilelwe ukuyichasa. Konke oku akukho nto inokukhathazeka ngayo, ngokweempendulo zeGMO.

Imibuzo malunga nokhuselo iyaphendulwa ngeengxelo ezingezizo ezifana "nayo yonke imibutho yezempilo ekhokelayo emhlabeni isemva kokhuseleko lwe-GMOs." Asifumananga kukhankanywa ingxelo esayinwe ngoososayensi abangama-300, oogqirha kunye nabahlohli abathi kukhoakukho mvumelwano yesayensi kukhuseleko lwe-GMO,”Kwaye asifumananga mpendulo kwimibuzo esiyithumele ngale ngxelo.

Imizekelo sele iyifumene I-Ketchum PR ibhale ezinye zeempendulo ze-GMO ezisayinwe “ziingcali ezizimeleyo.”

Uluhlu olufutshane kulawulo lweengxaki PR ibhaso

Njengobunye ubungqina bokuba isiza sisithuthi esijikelezayo: Ngo-2014, iimpendulo zeGMO zazikho Uluhlu olufutshane kuluhlu lweentengiso zeCIO kudidi "Lonxibelelwano noLuntu: uLawulo lweNtlekele kunye noLawulo lweMicimbi."

Kwaye inkampani ye-PR eyenze iimpendulo ze-GMO yaqhayisa ngempembelelo yayo kwiintatheli. Kwividiyo ethunyelwe kwiwebhusayithi ye-CLIO, uKetchum waqhayisa esithi iimpendulo zeGMO “ziphantse zaphindeka kabini kumajelo eendaba e-GMO.” Ividiyo isuswe emva kokuba i-US Right to Know itsalele ingqalelo kuyo, kodwa thina ndiyigcine apha.

Kutheni iintatheli zingathemba isithuthi sentengiso esenziwe nguKetchum njengomthombo othembekileyo kunzima ukusiqonda. Ketchum, de kwaba ngu-2016 PR ngokuqinileyo eRashiya, kuye kwachaphazeleka kwi Iinzame zobuntlola ngokuchasene nokungenzi nzuzo ochaphazelekayo malunga nee-GMO. Ayisiyo ncam imbali ebolekisa ukungathembani.

Ngenxa yokuba iimpendulo ze-GMO sisixhobo sokuthengisa esidalwe saze saxhaswa ngemali ziinkampani ezithengisa ii-GMOs, sicinga ukuba ngumdlalo ofanelekileyo ukubuza: Ngaba “ziingcali ezizimeleyo” ezibolekisa ukuthembeka kwiwebhusayithi- uninzi lwazo lusebenzela iiyunivesithi zikarhulumente kwaye zihlawulwa ngabarhafi. - uzimele ngokwenene kwaye usebenza kuluntu? Okanye bayasebenza kwiligi kunye neenkampani kunye neefemu zonxibelelwano noluntu ukunceda ukuthengisa uluntu ibali elijikelezayo?

Ukukhangela ezi mpendulo, i-US Ilungelo lokwazi zingenise izicelo zoMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi befuna imbalelwano yoonjingalwazi abaxhaswa ngurhulumente ababhalela iGMOAnswers.com okanye basebenze kwezinye iinzame zokuphucula i-GMO. Ii-FOIA zizicelo ezimxinwa ezingafakwanga lwazi lomntu okanye ulwazi, kodwa endaweni yoko bafuna ukuqonda unxibelelwano phakathi koonjingalwazi, iinkampani zezolimo ezithengisa ii-GMOs, imibutho yazo yezorhwebo kunye ne-PR kunye neenkampani zokuphembelela eziqeshiweyo ukukhuthaza ii-GMO kunye nokulwa neelebheli. ke sigcinwa ebumnyameni ngento esiyityayo.

Landela iziphumo Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi uphando apha.

Bona yethu Umzi mveliso wePropaganda Tracker ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nabadlala phambili kwimichiza yobudlelwane noluntu.

Unganceda ukwandisa uphando lweLungelo lokwazi ngokuthi ukwenza umnikelo otsalelwa irhafu namhlanje

Iqonga labaseTyhini abazimeleyo: Iqela elixhaswe ngemali yiKoch likhusela i-Pesticide, ioyile, amaShishini oTuba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

The IQonga laBasetyhini abaMeleyo ngumbutho ongenzi nzuzo amaqabane neMonsanto, ikhusela imichiza enetyhefu ekutyeni nakwimveliso yabathengi, kwaye iphikisana nemithetho enokuthintela amandla eenkampani. Ixhaswe ikakhulu ziziseko zamaphiko asekunene ezityhala ukwaliwa kwesayensi yemozulu, IMF yaqala ngo-1991 njengenzame yokukhusela i-Supreme Court Justice (kunye negqwetha langaphambili laseMonsanto) UClarence Thomas njengoko wayejamelene nezityholo zeSexual Harassment. Kwi-2018, iqela nalo khuselwe INkundla ePhakamileyo yezoBulungisa uBrett Kavanaugh xa ejongene nezityholo zokuhlaselwa ngokwesondo, kwaye wachaza uKavanaugh njengo “Intshatsheli yabafazi."

Bona: "Dibana 'nababhinqileyo' abenza umsebenzi omdaka wabazalwana baseKoch, ” NguJoan Walsh, Isizwe 

kunye uhlahlo lwabiwo-mali malunga nezigidi ezibini zeedola ngonyaka, iQonga laBasetyhini abaMeleyo ngoku lithi lisebenzela imigaqo- nkqubo “eyandisa inkululeko.” Iinkqubo zayo zibandakanya ukuphembelela nokuthethelela ukupheliswa kwemveliso enetyhefu, kunye nokuchasa ityala lezempilo kunye nokusingqongileyo kude nokungcolisa iinkampani nakwimbopheleleko yobuqu. Ngo-2, iqela gala yonyaka eWashington DC, ebibhiyozela ilungu lebhodi ye-IWF uKellyanne Conway njengentshatsheli yabasetyhini, ibixhaswe ziinkampani zemichiza nezecuba.

Funda ngakumbi malunga ne-gala kunye nabaxhasi bayo kwi-HuffPost, "Ezopolitiko zokungachumi kunye noMhlaza, ”NguStacy Malkan. 

Ukuxhaswa ngemali ngamaphiko amabhiliyoni kunye neenkampani

Uninzi lwabanikeli abaziwayo beQonga laBasetyhini abaZimeleyo ngamadoda, njengoLisa Graves ixelwe iZiko leMithombo yeendaba kunye neDemokhrasi. I-IWF ifumene ngaphezulu kwe- $ 15 yezigidi kwiziseko zamaphiko asekunene ezikhuthaza ukupheliswa kwemithetho kunye nokulawulwa ngokukhululekileyo kwenkampani, ngokwe idatha eqokelelwe yiGreenpeace USA. Abanegalelo abakhokelayo be-IWF, ngaphezulu kwe- $ 5 yezigidi kwiminikelo, yi-Donors Trust kunye ne-Donors Capital Funds, iimali eziyimfihlo "zemali emnyama" edibene nee-moguls zeoyile UCharles noDavid Koch. Ezi mali zesiteshi semali ezivela kubanikeli abangaziwayo, kubandakanya neenkampani, ukuya amaqela eqela lesithathu alwela iimfuno zomdibaniso.

Umxhasi ophezulu we-IWF: imali emnyama evela kubaxhasi abangachazwanga

Iziseko zosapho zakwaKoch ziye zanegalelo ngqo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 844,115 kwaye abanye abaxhasi abaphambili babandakanya uSarah Isiseko seScaife, i Isiseko seBradley, Isiseko seRandolph (ihlumelo le Isiseko seRichardson), Kunye ISearle Freedom Trust -Bonke abaxhasi abaphambili be ukwala kwemozulu-inzululwazi iinzame namaphulo okuba khusela izibulali zinambuzane kwaye uzigcine zingalawulwa. 

ExxonMobil kwaye UFilipu Morris ndifumene inkxaso-mali kwi-IWF, kunye nefemu ethengisa icuba ebizwa IWF kuluhlu lwe "izalathiso ezinokubakho zomntu wesithathu"Kwaye"abo bahlonela iimbono zethu. ” URush Limbaugh unikele okungenani ngekota yesigidi kwi-IWF, ethi "Uyamthethelela nanini na xa engena kwisondo, ”Ngokwenqaku lika-Eli Clifton kwiThe Nation.

Iinkokeli ze-IWF

UHeather Richardson Higgins, USihlalo weBhodi ye-IWF kunye ne-CEO yeLizwi laBafazi elizimeleyo, ingalo yokubambela ye-IWF, ibambe izikhundla eziphezulu kwiziseko ezininzi zamaphiko asekunene, kubandakanya Isiseko seRandolph, i Isiseko sikaSmith Richardson kwaye i Ububele obujikelezayo.

UKellyanne Conway, Umcebisi we-White House kunye nomphathi wephulo likaTrump, ngu Ilungu lebhodi ye-IWF. Abalawuli I-Emeritae zibandakanya U-Lynne V. Cheny, Umfazi kaDick Cheney kunye UKimberly O. Dennis, umongameli webhodi yabalawuli be Abaxhasi beTrust kunye nomongameli kunye neCEO ye ISearle Freedom Trust.

UNancy M. Pfotenhauer, owayesakuba lilungu le-Koch Industries lobbyist, washiya iiKoch Industries ukuba zibe Umongameli we-IWF ngo-2001 kwaye kamva wasebenza njengoSekela Sihlalo weBhodi yaBalawuli ye-IWF. Unembali ende ukukhuthaza amandla amdaka kunye nokunyanzeliswa kokucinywa kwemizi-mveliso engcolisayo.

I-ajenda ye-IWF ilandela ngokusondeleyo i-ajenda yokuphembelela nokuthumela imiyalezo yecuba, ioyile kunye nomdla kumzi mveliso. Nantsi eminye yemizekelo:

Ikhanyela inzululwazi yemozulu

2019 tweet kunye nenqaku Ukusuka kwiQonga laBafazi abaZimeleyo bancoma uMongameli uTrump “ngobugwenxa” ngokungenzi nto ukuthintela utshintsho lwemozulu. 

Uxolo oluluhlaza Ichaza i-IWF njenge "Iqela leeKoch lokuLawulwa kweMozulu" ethe "yasasaza ulwazi olungeyonyani kwisayensi yemozulu kwaye ichaphazela umsebenzi wabakhanyela imozulu." 

UJane Mayer uxele INew Yorker Ngo-2010: “Abazalwana (bakaKoch) banikele ngemali kumaqela angacacanga, afana ne-Independent Women's Forum, ekuchasayo ukuboniswa kobushushu behlabathi njengenyaniso kwezenzululwazi kwizikolo zikarhulumente zaseMerika. Kude kube ngo-2008, eli qela beliqhutywa nguNancy Pfotenhauer, owayesakuba ngumamkeli weefektri zeKoch Industries. UMary Beth Jarvis, usekela-mongameli wenkxaso-mali yaseKoch, ukwibhodi yeqela. ”

Uchasene nokufundisa inzululwazi yemozulu ezikolweni

The KwiDenver Post ngo-2010 i-IWF “icinga ukuba ukufudumala kwehlabathi 'yinto nje engekhoyo' kwaye ukuyifundisa kuyabothusa abantwana besikolo ngokungeyomfuneko.” Ngomkhankaso obizwa ngokuba "nguLwazi oLungeleleneyo woMntu wonke," i-IWF yayichasa imfundo yesayensi yemozulu ezikolweni, elo iqela ichazwe njenge “Ukothuswa kukufudumeza ubushushu emhlabeni jikelele.”

UMongameli we-IWF uCarrie Lucas ubhala malunga "ukwanda kwamathandabuzo malunga notshintsho lwemozulu" kwaye uthi "uluntu lunokuhlawula kakhulu ngenxa yolu hlaselo."

Amaqabane neMonsanto

Ngo-Epreli 21, 2016 Isindululo kuMonsanto, IWF icele iMonsanto ukuba igalele i-43,300 yeedola kwimicimbi ye "Super Women of Science" eyilelwe ukuxhasa inkxaso yezopolitiko kwiProposition 65, umthetho waseCalifornia othintela iinkampani ekukhutshweni kweekhemikhali ezinobungozi kwiindlela zamanzi kwaye ifuna ukuba zazise abathengi malunga nokuvezwa kwemichiza enetyhefu. Imisitho ecetywayo ibiyinxalenye yeprojekthi ye-IWF ye “Culture of Alarmism” eyadalelwa ukuba "yenze umxholo weendaba malunga nemingcipheko abajamelana nayo abantu baseMelika kwimveliso esiyisebenzisayo, ukutya esikutyayo kunye nokusingqongileyo okujikeleze iintsapho zethu." 

NgoFebruwari 2017, uMonsanto wabambisana ne-IWF kumsitho owawubizwa ngokuba “kukutya noloyiko: Ungazifumana njani iinyani kwiNkcubeko yanamhlanje yeAlarmism,” kunye I-podcast ye-IWF Kwinyanga leyo kwaxoxwa ngayo "Indlela iMonsanto evuselelwa ngayo ngabaVuseleli."

IWF ityhala amanqaku athethayo eMonsanto kunye nomzi mveliso weekhemikhali: ukukhuthaza ii-GMO kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, ukuhlasela ishishini lezinto eziphilayo kunye noomama abakhetha ukutya okuphilayo, kunye nokuchasana nokungafihli kwelebheli zokutya. Imizekelo ibandakanya:

  • Umthetho obhaliweyo weVermont we-GMO usisidenge. (Umbonisi)
  • Ukuphawula iilebheli ze-GMO kuya kwenza ukuba iindleko zokutya zikhuphuke. (IMF)
  • I-anti-GMO hype yeyona nto isisongelo kwimpilo yeentsapho. (Uhlolo lweSizwe)
  • Oomama abanengqiqo kufuneka batyhalele emva kwihlazo lomama kunye netyala lokukhubeka ibali lokutya okuphilayo. (I-podcast ye-IWF)
  • Abagxeki be-GMO bakhohlakele, bayinto engento, abantu abakumgangatho ophezulu kwaye bafuna ukukhanyela abo basweleyo. (Post New York)

Iprojekthi "yeNkcubeko yeAlarmism", esele ibizwa ngokuba yi "Project for Progress and Innovation," iqhutywa nguJulie Gunlock, obhala ii-blog rhoqo eziphikisana nokhuselo lwempilo yoluntu kunye ukukhusela iinkampani. Uchaze “ukwala kwe-FDA ukwazisa nge-e-cigarettes” njengo “ingxaki yezempilo yoluntu.

Iingxoxo 'zePhilips Morris PR'

Ngo-Agasti 2017, IWF Ukunyanzelwa kwe-FDA ukwamkela uPhilip Morris ' Imidiza ye-IQOS, bephikisa ukuba abafazi bafuna iimveliso ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukeneyo zebhayoloji ukubanceda bayeke ukutshaya iisigarethi zabo rhoqo.

Ngokucacileyo, i-FDA ayizimiselanga ukohlwaya abantu basetyhini, ngenxa yesini sabo. Okwangoku, yiyo kanye into eza kwenzeka ukuba abantu ababhinqileyo banqunyelwe kwimveliso yokuyeka ukutshaya engenakukwazi ukubanikeza ngoncedo abaludingayo lokuba bayeke imidiza yabo yesiqhelo, ”wabhala u-IWF.

Ekuphenduleni ileta ye-IWF, uStanton Glantz, PhD, uNjingalwazi wezoNyango kwiziko le-UCSF loPhando loLawulo lweCuba kunye neMfundo, uthe: “Lo ngumgangatho oqhelekileyo ka-Philip Morris PR. Akukho siqinisekiso sizimeleyo sokuba i-IQOS ikhuselekile kunemidiza okanye iyabanceda abantu bayeke ukutshaya. ”

Iintshatsheli "zokutya inkululeko"

I-IWF ihlasela i-US Food and Drug Administration “njengoonesi bakarhulumente,” umzekelo bechaza iarhente njenge “ukutya Marxists"Kwaye"ngokupheleleyo ngaphandle kolawulo”Yokukhutshwa isikhokelo ngokuzithandela kubavelisi bokutya ukusika amanqanaba esodium.

Umsitho we-IWF kaJuni ka-2017 uzame ukoyikisa uloyiko malunga nezikhokelo zempilo yoluntu

Ngo-2012, IWF yaphehlelela “Abafazi ngenkululeko yokutya"Iprojekthi" yokutyhala umva kwimeko ye-nanny kunye nokukhuthaza uxanduva lomntu "kukhetho lokutya. I-ajenda yayiquka "imigaqo yokutya, isoda kunye neerhafu zokutya, i-junk science kunye nokutya kunye nemveliso yekhaya, ulwazi olungelulo malunga nokukhuluphala kunye nendlala, kunye nezinye iinkqubo zokutya, kuquka ukutya kwesikolo."

Ukutyeba kakhulu, i-IWF izama ukushenxisa ingqalelo kude noxanduva lwenkampani nakukhetho lomntu ngamnye. Kule Udliwanondlebe noThom HartmannU-Julie Gunlock we-IWF uthi iinkampani azibekeki tyala kule ngxaki yokukhuluphala eMelika kodwa “abantu benza ukhetho olubi kwaye ndicinga ukuba abazali bajonga ngokupheleleyo.” Isisombululo, utshilo, kukuba abazali bapheke ngakumbi, ngakumbi abazali abahluphekileyo kuba banengxaki yokutya kakhulu.

Uhlasela oomama ngokuzama ukunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwezibulali zinambuzane

I-IWF ityhala imiyalezo yemizi-mveliso, isebenzisa iindlela ezifihlakeleyo, ukuzama ukubakhuphela ngaphandle oomama abaxhalabileyo malunga nezibulala-zinambuzane; umzekelo ophambili yile 2014 New York Post inqaku, "Ubuzwilakhe be-Organic Mommy Mafia" nguNaomi Schafer Riley. Ngaphantsi kwesikhalazo sokukhalaza malunga "neentloni zomama," uRiley-ngubani Umntu we-IWF kodwa khange ayichaze loo nto kubafundi-iinzame zokuba neentloni kunye nokusola oomama abakhetha ukutya okuphilayo. Inqaku likaRiley lafunyanwa ngokupheleleyo ngamaqela angaphambili emizi-mveliso kunye nemithombo awayeyibonisa ngobuxoki njengezizimeleyo, kubandakanya Uphengululo lwezifundo, iqela eliphambili leMonsanto; i Umanyano lokutya kunye nokulima kunye noJulie Gunlock we-IWF's “Culture of Alarmism Project,” naye ongachazwanga kweli nqaku njengomqeshwa we-IWF. Ngakumbi malunga nesi sihloko, bona "Uhlaselo kwiOrganic: Ukungahoyi isayensi ukwenza imeko yezolimo ngamachiza”(I-FAIR, 2014).

Abalingani kunye namaqela angaphambili kumashishini amachiza

Amaqabane e-IWF namanye amaqela angaphambili enkampani anje nge Ibhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo, umkhuseli ophambili weekhemikhali eziyityhefu ixhaswe nguMonsanto kwaye ISyngenta, kunye nezinye imichiza, amayeza kunye necuba iinkampani kunye namaqela oshishino.

  • NgoFebruwari 2017 I-IWF podcast, I-ACSH kunye ne-IWF "yenze uloyiko lukaRachel Carson kwimichiza enetyhefu"
  • I-ACSH “ibisemva ngokupheleleyo” kwe-IWF'sinkcubeko yeleta yobungqongqo”Iinzame ezichaseneyo zokususa iikhemikhali eziyingozi kwiimveliso zabathengi.
  • Iziganeko ze-IWF ezihlasela oomama abaxhalabile malunga neekhemikhali eziyityhefu, ezinje ngale "hazmat parenting" si ganeko, eziziimbalasane I-ACSH kaJosh Bloom kunye nomzi mveliso weekhemikhali umbhali wonxibelelwano noluntu UTrevor Butterworth.

Ukuqhubeka kokufunda

Ukuthintela, "IiKoch Brothers Operatives Gcwalisa iZikhundla eziPhezulu zeNdlu yeWhite House," nguLee Fang (4/4/2017)

Wesizwe, "Dibana 'nababhinqileyo' abenza umsebenzi omdaka wabazalwana bakaKoch,” nguJoan Walsh (8/18/2016)

Iziko leMidiya kunye neDemokhrasi, "Abona baNikeli baDumileyo kwiQonga laBasetyhini abaZimeleyo ngaMadoda," nguLisa Graves (8/24/2016)

Iziko leMidiya kunye neDemokhrasi, "Isiqinisekiso: iQonga labaseTyhini elizimeleyo lazalwa liKhusela uClarence Thomas kunye neLungelo lasekunene," nguLisa Graves noCalvin Sloan (4/21/2016)

Slate, "IsiQinisekiso sokuKhetha: Njani 'Abafazi boMgwebi uThomas' bajika baba ligunya elinamandla,” nguBarbara Spindel (4/7/2016)

Inyaniso, "Iqonga labaseTyhini abazimeleyo lisebenzisa uphawu lokulahlekisa ukutyhala iAjenda yamaphiko asekunene," nguLisa Graves, uCalvin Sloan noKim Haddow (8/19/2016)

Ngaphakathi Ububele,"Imali Exhasa Amaqela Abasetyhini Abagcina Imfazwe Basalwa Nemfazwe Yenkcubeko," ngu-Philip Rojc (9/13/2016)

Wesizwe, ”Qikelela ukuba leliphi iqela labaseTyhini eliRush Limbaugh elinikele ngamakhulu amawaka eeDola? Inqaku: lelona limthethelelayo nanini na engena kwisondo, ”ngu-Eli Clifton (6/12/2014)

INew Yorker, "I-Koch Brothers Covert Operations," nguJane Mayer (8/30/2010)

I-Oxford University Press, "UkuLwela ubuNina: Abasetyhini abaLondolozayo kunye nezoPolitiko zaseMelika," nguRonnee Schreiber (2008)

Ngaphakathi Ububele, "Jonga Ngubani Oxhasa ngemali eli Qela laBasetyhini baQinisekayo," nguJoan Shipps (11/26/2014)

Ukulingana nokuchaneka kokuBika, “Abasetyhini abaQinisekayo baLungele iMedia Media; Imithombo yeendaba ekugqibeleni ifumene abanye abantu basetyhini ukuba babathande, ”ebhalwe nguLaura Flanders (3/1/1996)

iposwe kuqala ngo-Okthobha 6, 2018 kwaye ihlaziywa ngoFebruwari 2020