Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

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Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

IGlyphosate kwimbungu yenkukhu esetyenziswa njengesichumiso yonakalisa imveliso yokutya, abaphandi bathi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Izazinzulu zizise ezinye iindaba ezimbi ngokubhekisele kwi-herbicide glyphosate, eyaziwa ngokuba yiRoundup, kwiphepha elitsha lophando elipapashwe kule nyanga.

Abaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland ityhilwe ephepheni papashwe kwincwadi  Inzululwazi Yendalo Engqongileyo iyonke ukuba umgquba ovela kwiinkuku ezisetyenziswa njengesichumisi unganciphisa isivuno sezityalo xa umgquba uqukethe iintsalela zemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglyphosate, efana neRoundup. Izichumisi zenzelwe ukonyusa imveliso yezityalo, ke ubungqina bokuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuba neziphumo ezichaseneyo zibalulekile.

Inkunkuma yenkukhu, njengoko ibizwa njalo umgquba, ihlala isetyenziswa njengesichumisi, kubandakanywa nezolimo eziphilayo, kuba ithathwa njengezityebile kwizakhamzimba eziyimfuneko. Ukusetyenziswa kwenkunkuma yenkuku njengesichumisi bekukhula kokubini kwezolimo kunye nokulima kunye nezitiya zasekhaya.

Ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kukhula, “umngcipheko onokubakho onxulunyaniswa nokuqokelelwa kwe-agrochemicals kumgquba weenkukhu usahoywa kakhulu,” balumkisa abaphandi baseFinland.

Amafama e-organic aye akhula exhalabile malunga nomkhondo we-glyphosate kwisichumiso somgquba esivunyelwe kwimveliso yezinto eziphilayo, kodwa uninzi kolu shishino aluthandabuzi ukwazisa lo mbandela.

Amafama atshiza i-glyphosate ngokuthe ngqo kwinani lezityalo ezikhuliswe kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya iimbotyi zesoya, umbona, umqhaphu, i-canola kunye nezinye izityalo ezenzelwe ufuzo ukumelana nonyango lwe-glyphosate. Bahlala betshiza ngokuthe ngqo izityalo ezifana nengqolowa kunye ne-oats, ezingafakwanga ngokwemfuza- kwakamsinya phambi kokuvuna ukomisa izityalo.

Ngenxa yemiyinge yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate-based esetyenziselwa ukunyanga izityalo ezisetyenziswa ekutyeni kwezilwanyana, kunye nomthamo womgquba osetyenziswayo njengesichumisi, "kufanele ukuba siyazi ukuba olu hlobo lomngcipheko lukhona," utshilo omnye wababhali. yokufunda, u-Anne Muola.

Akukho mntu ubonakala enomdla wokuthetha kakhulu malunga nayo. ” Muola uqaphele.

Ukusetyenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate herbicides ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo zokutya kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto - ngoku iyunithi yeBayer AG - ukusukela nge1990s, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuxhaphake kangangokuba iintsalela zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni, emanzini nakwiisampulu zomoya.

Kuba kukho iintsalela zeglyphosate kukutya kwabantu nakwizilwanyana, amanqanaba e-glyphosate anokufunyanwa kumchamo womntu nakwimanyolo yezilwanyana.

Ezi ntsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumiso ziyingxaki kubalimi ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi, ngokutsho kwabaphandi baseFinland.

"Sifumanise ukuba umgquba weenkukhu unokuqokelela intsalela ephezulu (ye-glyphosate-based herbicides), unciphise ukukhula kwezityalo kunye nokuzala, kwaye ke kuthintele ukukhula okunyusa ukukhula komgquba xa usetyenziswa njengesichumiso," latsho iphepha. "Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba intsalela idlula kwinkqubo yokuhlafunisisa kweentaka, kwaye okona kubaluleke kakhulu, iyaqhubeka isichumiso ixesha elide."

Abaphandi bathi iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuqhubeka kwiinkqubo zendalo, zichaphazela izinto ezininzi ekungajoliswanga kuzo kwiminyaka emininzi.

Iziphumo, bathi, zibandakanya ukunciphisa ukusebenza komgquba njengesichumisi; ukungcoliseka kweherbicide esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwimijikelezo yezolimo; Ungcoliseko "olungalawulwayo" lweglyphosate yemimandla engajoliswanga kuyo; ukwanda kwesoyikiso "kwizinto ezisemngciphekweni ekungajoliswanga kuzo," kunye nomngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhathisa okuvela kwi-glyphosate.

Abaphandi bathi kufuneka kwenziwe uphando oluninzi ukuveza ubungakanani bokungcoliseka kwe-glyphosate kwizichumiso zezinto eziphilayo kunye nendlela echaphazela ngayo uzinzo.

Uphando lwaseFinland longeza kubungqina bobungozi bezintsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumisi, ngokweengcali zezolimo.

"Iimpembelelo zentsalela ye-glyphosate ethe yaqokelelwa kwilindle leenkuku yindawo engakhathalelwanga," utshilo isazinzulu somhlaba iRodale Institute, uGqirha Yichao Rui. “Kodwa oluphi uphando olwenziweyo lubonakalisile ukuba ezo ntsalela zinganefuthe elibi kwizityalo, ukuba umgquba weenkukhu wawusetyenziswa njengesichumiso. Intsalela yeGlyphosate kwizichumisi ibonakalisiwe ukuba ineziphumo ezibi kwizityalo, ii-microbiomes zomhlaba, kunye neentsholongwane ezinxulunyaniswa nezityalo kunye nezilwanyana kubandakanya nabantu kwikhonkco lokutya. Xa olu tshintsho lusasazwa ngabom ngesichumiso, lubeka uxinzelelo olukhulu kwimisebenzi nakwiinkonzo zendalo. ”

Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni yeglyphosate Utshiziwe emasimini- ngokwaneleyo ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sephawundi yeRoundup kuwo onke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.

Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amashumi amawaka abantu eUnited States abaphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ndimangalele uMonsanto, kwaye kwizilingo ezintathu ezigcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, amajaji afumanise ukuba inkampani ye-glyphosate herbicides ibekwasizathu sokubangela umhlaza.

Ukongeza, i Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana kukhutshwa kweli hlobo kubonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeze ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.