Amaphepha eMonsanto-Iimfihlo eziBulalayo, urhwaphilizo lwendibaniselwano, kunye nokuKhangelwa kweNdoda enye kuLuntu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Incwadi entsha yoMlawuli woPhando wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam ikhutshiwe ngoku kwaye ifumana uphononongo oluqaqambileyo. Nantsi inkcazo emfutshane yencwadi evela kumpapashi Isiqithi seSiqithi:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupha alula. Eyona nto wayeyifuna yayingumsebenzi ozinzileyo kunye nekhaya elihle lenkosikazi nabantwana, into ebhetele kunobomi obunzima awayebazi bekhula. Khange ayicinge into yokuba angangumntu kumlo kaDavid-no-Goliyathi ngokuchasene nesinye sezigebenga ezinamandla zehlabathi. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yamshiya uLee efakwe kwimichiza enetyhefu kwaye ejongene nomhlaza obulalayo owabuguqula ubomi bakhe babuguqula. Kwi-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoko uLee ebethathelwe phambili kwelona dabi lomthetho lihle kwimbali yamva nje.

Amaphepha eMonsanto libali langaphakathi likaLee Johnson elimangalela uMonsanto. KuLee, ityala yayilugqatso ngokuchasene nexesha, oogqirha bexela kwangaphambili ukuba ngekhe aphile ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuba angathatha ubungqina. Kwicandelo le-eclectic labancinci, amagqwetha amele ukummela, ibingumbandela wokuzingca ngobungcali kunye nomngcipheko wobuntu, nezigidi zeedola zabo kunye negama labo elisebenze nzima emgceni.

Ngamandla okubalisa, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi emva komlo wedabi elinzima lezomthetho, ukubuyisa ikhethini kubuthathaka benkqubo yenkundla yaseMelika kunye nobude amagqwetha aya kuya kuwo ukulwa nokungalunganga kwezopolitiko kunye nokufumana ubulungisa kubathengi.

Bona ngakumbi malunga incwadi apha. Thenga incwadi nge AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqithi seSiqithi okanye abathengisi beencwadi abazimeleyo.

Reviews

"Ibali elinamandla, libaliswa kakuhle, kunye nomsebenzi ophawulekayo wobuntatheli bophando. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi enyanzelisayo ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya esiphelweni, malunga nelinye lawona madabi asemthethweni abalulekileyo kweli xesha lethu. ” -U-Lukas Reiter, umvelisi olawulayo we-TV kunye nombhali we "Uluhlu oluMnyama," "Ukuziqhelanisa," kunye ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto adibanisa inzululwazi nentlekele yabantu kwidrama yasenkundleni ngendlela kaJohn Grisham. Libali lokungaziphathi kakuhle kwezorhwebo kwinqanaba elikhulu-isityhilelo esothusayo sokubawa kwemveliso yamachiza, ukuzingca, kunye nokungakhathali kobomi babantu kunye nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kufuneka ifundwe. ” -U-Philip J. Landrigan, MD, uMlawuli, iNkqubo yezeMpilo yoLuntu yeHlabathi kunye nokuQhelekileyo kokuLungileyo, kwiKholeji yaseBoston

"Intatheli yamagqala ophando uCarey Gillam uxelela ibali likaJohnson kwincwadi yakhe yamva nje," Amaphepha eMonsanto, "ingxelo ekhawulezayo, ebandakanyekayo yendlela iMonsanto kunye neBayer ithamsanqa elitshintshe kakhulu ngexesha elifutshane. Ngaphandle komcimbi oxandileyo - inzululwazi kunye neenkqubo zomthetho- "Amaphepha eMonsanto" kukufundwa okubambekayo okunika inkcazo ekulula ukuyilandela yendlela esi simangalo esenzeka ngayo, indlela abagwebi abasifikelela ngayo isigwebo sabo nokuba kutheni iBayer ibonakala ngathi, , ngoku ndiphakamisa iflegi emhlophe. ” - ISt. Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha ityala elikholisayo lokuba iMonsanto yayinomdla wokukhusela igama lenkomo yayo kunokuthobela ubungqina benzululwazi beempawu zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeleni ngemiba entsonkothileyo yabantu abasemthethweni, nto leyo yongeza ubuntununtunu bebali likaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyazisiweyo kombutho ekubonakala ukuba awuyikhathalelanga impilo yoluntu. ” - Kirkus

“UGillam ubalisa ngomzuzu wokuthatha uxanduva kunye nequmrhu elikhulu elineemveliso ezithengiswa njengezikhuselekileyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970. Njengoluvavanyo lwezinto ezigwenxa kwezorhwebo kunye nokuziphatha okusemthethweni kwiimeko zamatyala, incwadi kaGillam ichaza isidingo sokhuseleko lwabathengi nokhuseleko. ” Uluhlu lweencwadi

“Kufundwe kakuhle, ukujika iphepha. Ndandixheleke ngenkohliso, ukugqwethwa, kunye nokuswela isimilo kwenkampani. ” -U-Linda S. Birnbaum, owayenguMlawuli, iZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi ngezeMpilo kunye neNkqubo yeSizwe yeToxicology, kunye noMfundi wase Residence, kwiDuke University.

Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto kunye nabanye ekungakhange kubanjwe ixesha elide kubo!
-UJohn Boyd Jr., uMseki kunye noMongameli, uMbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaMnyama

Malunga uMbhali

Intatheli yophando uCarey Gillam uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 enika ingxelo kwimanyano yaseMelika, kubandakanya neminyaka eli-17 esebenzela iarhente yeendaba zamanye amazwe. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iWhitewash: Ibali loMbulali wokhula, umhlaza, kunye noRhwaphilizo lwezeNzululwazi, uphumelele i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award kuMbutho Wezintatheli Zokusingqongileyo kwaye ubeyinxalenye yekharityhulamu kwizifundo zempilo zaseyunivesithi ezininzi. iinkqubo. UGillam kungoku nje nguMlawuli woPhando weqela labathengi elingenzi nzuzo e-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kwaye ubhala njengegalelo Guardian.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

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Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

I-inki ze-Bayer zijongana neenkampani ezintathu zomthetho we-Roundup zomthetho njengoko kuhlala kuqhubeka

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I-Bayer AG ifikelele kwimigqaliselo yokugqibela kunye neefemu ezintathu zomthetho ezimele amawaka abamangali abathi babhencwa kwimichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglosfosate esekwe eMonsanto yabangela ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izivumelwano ezintsha zenziwe ngokusekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law waseKentucky. Iifemu nganye nganye ifake isaziso malunga nezivumelwano kunye neNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili esiseMantla eCalifornia ngoMvulo.

Izivumelwano ziza emva kwezityholo zeefemu zamagqwetha amathathu zokuba iBayer ibuyela umva ngokweemvumelwano esele zenziwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo. Amafemu axelele inkundla ngoMvulo ukuba ngoku umntu ngamnye "unesivumelwano esenziwe ngokupheleleyo nesibophelelayo sokuHanjiswa kweMasteranto neMonsanto."

Ngokukodwa, ukujongana kuphawula inyathelo elibalulekileyo ekuziseni ukuvalwa kwesigwebo seminyaka emihlanu ubudala ngoku esiba ngaphezulu kwama-100,000 amabango aziswe ngabantu abavela e-United States abasebenzisa i-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate-based herbicides ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kokuba waba nomhlaza.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka i-bankruptcy ukuba akukho kufikelelwa kwilizwe lonke, ngokonxibelelwano oluvela kwiifemu zabamangali ukuya kubaxhasi bazo.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha zimbini kuphela iifemu ezinkulu zomthetho kwityala elitshabalalisayo elinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe kunye neBayer - iMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg, ngokutsho kwemithombo ekufutshane nengxoxo. Inkampani yaseBaum, iAndrus Wagstaff kunye neyase Moore zazineememorandam zokuqonda kodwa ingezizo izivumelwano zokugqibela, itsho imithombo.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani. I-Bayer izamile ukufumana imvume yenkundla ngesicwangciso esiya kulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha omhlaza we-Roundup iminyaka emine, kwaye ngesekwe ngamalungu amahlanu "ipaneli yesayensi" yokufumanisa ukuba ngaba i-Roundup ingadala non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo , kweliphi inqanaba elisezantsi lokuvezwa. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria walikhaba icebo,  ukuthumela iBayer emva kwibhodi yokudweba.

Bayer wayenayo utshilo uLwesine ukuba ibisenza inkqubela phambili kuphuhliso lwesicwangciso "esihlaziyiweyo" sokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho seRoundup kwixa elizayo. Iinkcukacha zesicwangciso seklasi esihlaziyiweyo ziya kugqitywa kwezi veki zizayo, ngokukaBayer.

Abamangali abaliqela abakhange bonwabe yile ndawo yokuhlala, besithi abazukufumana mali ininzi ngaphandle kweminyaka yokunyanga umhlaza obiza kakhulu kunye neentlungu eziqhubekayo kunye nokubandezeleka. Ewe, uninzi lwabamangali sele lusweleke ngelixa lilinde isisombululo.

NgoSeptemba 9, amagqwetha kaMarie Bernice Dinner kunye nomyeni wakhe uBruce Dinner bafaka inkundla ukuba uMarie oneminyaka engama-73 ubudala wasweleka ngoJuni 2 kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yena nomyeni wakhe batyholwa ukuba babangelwa kukuvezwa kwakhe ngababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto .

Amagqwetha kaBruce Dinner acele inkundla ukuba iwavumele ukuba enze izilungiso kwisikhalazo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ukongeza ibango lokufa ngokungekho mthethweni. Esi sibini sitshatile sineminyaka engama-53 kwaye sinabantwana ababini nabazukulwana abane.

“UMarie Bernice wayengumntu ongaqhelekanga. Ukusweleka kwakhe bekufanele ukuba kuthintelwe, ”litshilo igqwetha uBeth Klein, omele usapho.

Inkundla yezibheno iyayikhaba imali iMonsanto yokuphinda umiselwe ityala

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ngoLwesibini yalahla iMonsanto Umzamo wokunciphisa i-4 yezigidi ukusuka kwisixa semali esityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukusinda umhlaza ofunyenwe yijaji yabangelwa kukuvezwa komntu kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yeSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia ikwasikhaba isicelo senkampani sokuphinda umanyelwe lo mbandela. Isigqibo senkundla silandele isigwebo saso kwinyanga ephelileyo Ukubetha iMonsanto  ngokukhanyela ukomelela kobungqina bokuba ababulali bayo bokhula olusisiseko se-glyphosate babangela umhlaza. Kweso sigwebo sangoJulayi, inkundla yathi ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson unike ubungqina “obuninzi” bokuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ubangele umhlaza wakhe. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa," inkundla yezibheno yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJulayi.

Kweso sigqibo ukusukela kwinyanga ephelileyo, inkundla yezibheno yenze njalo, isike isinxephezelo somonakalo esityala uJohnson, eyalela uMonsanto ukuba ahlawule i-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, ezantsi ukusuka kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa ngumgwebi wetyala kwaye yehla kwi-289 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa yijaji eyagqiba isigqibo sikaJohnson Ityala ngo-Agasti 2018.

Ukongeza kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iMonsanto etyala uJohnson, inkampani iyalelwa ukuba ihlawule i-519,000 yeedola kwiindleko.

IMonsanto, eyayithengwe nguBayer AG kwi2018, yayinayo ibongoza inkundla ukusika ibhaso kuJohnson ukuya kwi- $ 16.5 yezigidi.

Isigqibo seDicamba simi ngokunjalo

Isigqibo senkundla yangoLwesibini silandele a Isigqibo esikhutshwe ngoMvulo yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba iphika ukuphinda kuqhutywe isigqibo senkundla kaJuni shiya imvume yemveliso yokubulala ukhula esekwe dicamba Bayer ezuzwe njengelifa kwiMonsanto. Isigwebo sikaJuni sikwaphelise ngokufanelekileyo i-dicamba-based herbicides eyenziwe yi-BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience.

Iinkampani zaye zacela iqela elibanzi leejaji kwiijaji zesekethe zeThoba ukuba liziqhelanise neli tyala, zisithi isigqibo sokurhoxisa ukwamkelwa kolawulo lweemveliso sasingalunganga. Kodwa inkundla yasikhaba ngaw 'omane eso sicelo.

Kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni, iSekethe yethoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

Isigqibo senkundla sokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani sabangela isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa yiMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba iinkampani ezintathu. Ngokufana ne "Roundup Ready" izityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo, izityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba zivumela amafama ukuba afafaze i-dicamba ngaphezulu kwamasimi abo ukubulala ukhula ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo.

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni.

I-Bayer icela inkundla yezibheno ukuba iphinde isike umvuzo we-Roundup onetyala kumgcini wezizathu wase-California onomhlaza

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U-Bayer ucela inkundla yezibheno yase-California ukuba inciphise i-4 yezigidi zeedola kwimali eyityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukuba aphile umhlaza owafunyanwa yinkundla yetyala ibangelwa kukuvezwa kwale ndoda kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Kwi "uxwebhu lwesikhalazo”Bafaka ngoMvulo kwiNkundla yezibheno kwiSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia, amagqwetha eMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG bacele inkundla ukuba isike kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iye kwi-16.5 yezigidi zeerandi ngomonakalo owanikwa uDewayne“ Lee ”Johnson.

Inkundla yezibheno "yafikelela kwisigqibo esingalunganga esisekwe kwimpazamo yomthetho," ngokufayilwa nguMonsanto. Umcimbi ujika ekubeni kulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elingakanani uJohnson. Kuba ubungqina kwityala ufumene ukuba uJohnson wayekulindelwe ukuba aphile "kungadluli kwiminyaka emibini," akufuneki afumane imali yeentlungu ezizayo kunye nokubandezeleka okwabiweyo ixesha elingaphezulu kweminyaka emibini- ngaphandle kwento yokuba uyaqhubeka nokuphila uqikelelo, inkampani iyaphikisana.

Ngaphantsi kokubala okucelwe nguMonsanto, inkundla kufuneka isike kwi-4 yezigidi ukuya kwi-2 yezigidi isixa-mali esi-odolwe kumonakalo ongekho kwezoqoqosho, (iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka.) Oko kuya kunciphisa ukonakala kwembuyekezo (eyadlulayo neyexesha elizayo) ukuya kwi- $ 8,253,209. Ngelixa isanyanzelisa ukuba akufuneki ukuba ibenetyala lokohlwaywa, ukuba ngaba isohlwayo somonakalo sihlawulisiwe kufuneka sibekwe ngaphezulu kwe-1-to-1 ratio ngokuchasene nembuyekezo, ukuzisa itotali kwi-16,506,418 yeedola, uMonsanto uxoxa ngokugcwalisa kwayo.

Ekuqaleni uJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola nge-Agasti ka-Agasti 2018, emenza ukuba abe ngummangali wokuqala ukuba aphumelele kwinqanaba lokuvavanywa kwamabango okuba ukubhencwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela ukuba kungabikho iHodgkin lymphoma kwaye iMonsanto ifihle umngcipheko. Ijaji yetyala lehlise ibhaso laya kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola. IMonsanto ibhenele ukufuna ityala elitsha okanye ibhaso elincitshisiweyo. UJohnson wenza isibheno efuna ukubuyiselwa kumvuzo wakhe opheleleyo.

Inkundla yezibheno Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson. Kwaye inkundla yafumanisa ukuba "bekukho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson ubandezelekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Kodwa inkundla ithe umonakalo kufuneka wehliswe ufike kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola ngenxa yemeko yobomi obufutshane bukaJohnson.

Kunye nemfuno yayo yokuncitshiswa komonakalo, iMonsanto icela inkundla yezibheno ukuba inike isimangalo sokulungisa "uhlalutyo lwayo" kwaye "isijike isigwebo ngemiyalelo yokungena kwisigwebo.
IMonsanto okanye, ubuncinci, phuma kuwongwa ngembuyekezo yokohlwaya. ”

Ityala likaJohnson laligqunywe ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka iliso kwimizamo kaMonsanto yokusebenzisa irekhodi lesayensi kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup kunye neenzame zayo zokuthula abagxeki kunye nefuthe labalawuli. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

Izenzo zikaBayer zokunciphisa amabhaso omonakalo ngenxa yokulahleka kwetyala likaMonsanto liza njengoko inkampani ifuna ukuhlala kufutshane ne-100,000 Roundup amabango omhlaza asalinde i-United States kwiinkundla ezahlukeneyo. Abanye abamangali abonwabanga ngokuhlala ngokwemiqathango, kwaye besoyikisela ukungavumi kwintengiselwano.

Intshukumo kwisibheno sePilliod

Kwisenzo esahlukileyo sesibheno esimalunga nokumangalelwa ngeRoundup, kwiveki ephelileyo amagqwetha eAlva naseAlberta Pilliod wafaka ingxelo emfutshane ucela inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ukuba iyalele umonakalo kumabhaso atshatileyo efikelela kwi-575 yezigidi zeedola. Esi sibini sikhulileyo- bobabini babethwa ngumhlaza odakisayo ababekek 'ityala ekuvezeni iRoundup- baphumelela ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi xa kuvavanywa ityala, kodwa ijaji yetyala emva koko wehlisa ibhaso lejaji ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-87 zeedola.

Ukuchithwa kwebhaso lomonakalo kwakugqithisile, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha amele esi sibini, kwaye akamohlwayi ngokwaneleyo uMonsanto ngesenzo sakhe esingalunganga.

"Amajaji amathathu aseCalifornia, iijaji zetyala ezine, kunye neejaji ezintathu zezibheno eziye zajonga ukungaziphathi kakuhle kukaMonsanto bavumile ngamxhelo-mnye ukuba" kukho ubungqina obubambekayo bokuba uMonsanto wenza ngokungakhathali ngabom nangolwazelelelo ngokhuseleko lwabanye, "Isishwankathelo sePilliod sithi. "Ibango likaMonsanto lokuba lixhoba" lokungabikho kokusesikweni "kule meko liya lisiba lilize ngenxa yezi ngxelo zifunyenwe ngamxhelomnye."

Amagqwetha acela inkundla ukuba inikezele nge-10-to-1 ratio yomonakalo owohlwaywayo kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo.

"Amaxhoba okwenyani kokungabikho kokusesikweni kule meko ziiPilliods, eziye zanesifo esibuhlungu nesenzakalisayo ngenxa yesifo seMonsanto," lishwankathela. "Ijaji, ekumiseleni ukuba abemi abahloniphekileyo akufuneki bayinyamezele isimilo esibi sikaMonsanto, bagqiba kwelokuba ngumonakalo omkhulu kuphela onokumohlwaya kwaye uthintele iMonsanto."

Inkundla yezibheno ixhasa izizathu zovavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup ophumelele iMonsanto

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngenye ilahleko yenkundla kumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, inkundla yezibheno yala umzamo wenkampani wokubhukuqa uloyiso lwetyala olungafakwanga ngumgcini wesikolo saseCalifornia otyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane eMonsanto yabangela ukuba abe nomhlaza, nangona inkundla yathi umonakalo kufuneka ube yinqumle kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Inkundla yeziBheno yesiThili sokuqala seZibheno eCalifornia utshilo uMvulo ukuba iimpikiswano zikaMonsanto zazingacacanga kwaye uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayenelungelo lokuqokelela i-10.25 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye nezinye i-10.25 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayo. Oko kuhla kwisimbuku se-78 yezigidi zeedola ijaji yetyala ivumelekile.

"Ngokokubona kwethu, uJohnson wabonisa ubungqina obuninzi-kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo bukhulu- bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza wakhe," yatsho inkundla. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa."

Inkundla iphinde yaqaphela ukuba "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson wabandezeleka, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Inkundla yathi impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuba iziphumo zesayensi malunga nokunxibelelana kwe-glyphosate nomhlaza zenza "umbono omncinci" awuxhaswanga.

Ngokukodwa, inkundla yezibheno yongeze ukuba isohlwayo somonakalo sasikhona ngenxa yokuba kwakukhona ubungqina obaneleyo bokuba uMonsanto wenza "ngabom nangokungakhathaleli ukhuseleko lwabanye."

UMike Miller, ogama lakhe laseVirginia lalimela uJohnson etyaleni kunye neBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles, wathi wayevuyiswa kukuqinisekiswa kwenkundla ukuba uJohnson uhlaselwe ngumhlaza ekusebenziseni kwakhe iRoundup kwaye inkundla iqinisekisile imbasa yesohlwayo. umonakalo ngenxa “yokuziphatha gwenxa ngabom kukaMonsanto.”

“Umnumzana Johnson usaqhubekeka nokugula. Siyazingca ngokulwela uMnu Johnson nokulandela kwakhe ubulungisa, ”utshilo uMiller.

IMonsanto ityala inzala yonyaka kwinqanaba leepesenti ezili-10 ukusuka ngo-Epreli we-2018 de ihlawule isigwebo sokugqibela.

Ukuncitshiswa komonakalo kubotshelelwe kwinxalenye yokuba oogqirha baxelele uJohnson ukuba umhlaza wakhe awupheli kwaye akalindelwe ukuba aphile ixesha elide. Inkundla ivumile noMonsanto ukuba ngenxa yomonakalo owenzelwayo wenzelwe ukubuyekeza iintlungu ezizayo, ukubandezeleka ngokwasengqondweni, ukuphulukana nokonwaba kobomi, ukukhubazeka emzimbeni, njlnjl .. Ixesha elifutshane lokuphila kukaJohnson ngokusemthethweni lithetha ngomonakalo "ongekho kwezoqoqosho" wexesha elizayo owanikwa yinkundla yamatyala. kufuneka icuthwe.

U-Brent Wisner, elinye lamagqwetha kaJohnson, wathi ukwehliswa komonakalo sisiphumo "sesona siphoso sinzulu somthetho waseCalifornia."

"Ngokusisiseko, umthetho waseCalifornia awumvumeli ummangali ukuba afumane ithuba elifutshane lokuphila," utshilo uWisner. “Oku kuvuza ngokufanelekileyo ummangalelwa ngokubulala ummangali, ngokuchasene nokwenzakala nje kwakhe. Yimpambano. ”

Ukujongwa kokuziphatha kukaMonsanto

Kwakuyinyanga nje ezimbini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto, ngo-Agasti 2018, ukuba ijaji enye wanika uJohnson i-289 yezigidi zeedola, kubandakanya i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo, ukufumanisa ukuba ayenzanga kuphela imichiza yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto ibangele ukuba uJohnson avelise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa ukuba inkampani iyayazi ingozi yomhlaza kwaye yasilela ukulumkisa uJohnson. Ityala elalibandakanya iMonsanto glyphosate ezimbini zeemveliso zokutshabalalisa ukhula - iRoundup kunye neRanger Pro.

Ijaji yetyala lasithoba isigwebo esiyi- $ 78 yezigidi kodwa uMonsanto wabhenela kwisixa esincitshisiweyo. Umnqamlezo uJohnson ubhenele ekubuyiseleni isigwebo se-289 yezigidi.

Ityala likaJohnson lagutyungelwa ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka ukuqaqanjelwa kokuziphatha okungathandabuzekiyo kweMonsanto. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amaxwebhu angaphakathi akwabonisa ukuba iMonsanto ilindele ukuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza ihlukanise i-glyphosate njengento enokwenzeka okanye enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu ngo-Matshi ka-2015. bakhupha udidi lwabo.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

NgoJuni, iBayer yathi ifikelele kwi-  isivumelwano sokuhlala kunye namagqwetha amele iipesenti ezingama-75 ze-125,000 ezifakiweyo kwaye ziseza kufakwa amabango aqalwe ngabamangali baseMelika abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. U-Bayer uthe uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo. Kodwa amagqwetha amele ngaphezulu kwe-20,000 XNUMX yabamangali abathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesigwebo senkundla, uBayer uthe umi ngasemva kukhuseleko lweRoundup: Isigqibo senkundla yesibheno sokunciphisa umonakalo kunye nezohlwayo linyathelo eliya kwicala elilungileyo, kodwa siyaqhubeka nokukholelwa ekubeni isigwebo sejaji kunye nomonakalo Amabhaso awuhambelani nobungqina ekuxoxweni kwetyala nasemthethweni. IMonsanto iza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwayo lwezomthetho, kubandakanya nokufaka isibheno kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia. ”

I-Bayer ibuya kude nesicwangciso sokuqulatha amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uyarhoxa kwisicwangciso sokuqulatha amabango omhlaza weRoundup kwikamva emva kokuba ijaji yomanyano icacise ukuba ayizukusivuma esi sikimu, esinokulibazisa izilingo ezintsha kunye nokunciphisa izigqibo zokugweba.

Isicwangciso senziwe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha lafakwa kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia njengenxalenye yeenzame zikaBayer zokuphelisa ukutshutshiswa kwezimangalo esele zikhokelele kwilahleko kathathu kumatyala amatyala amathathu, okumangalisa ukohlwaywa komonakalo kunye nokungoneliseki kwabanini zabelo. Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukubonakaliswa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye ukuba iMonsanto kudala yazi malunga nokugubungela umngcipheko womhlaza.

NgoMvulo uJaji Vince Chhabria ikhuphe iodolo ukuseta ukumanyelwa kwetyala ngoJulayi 24 kwaye ayicacise ayizukuvuma isicwangciso sokuhlawula. "Wayengathandabuzi malunga nokuchaneka kunye nokuchaneka kwale ndawo icetywayo," u-Chhabria wabhala ngokulandelelana.

Phambi komyalelo wejaji, amaqela amaninzi afaka izaziso zokuphikisana nesicwangciso seBayer; ecaphula "ukuphambuka okukhulu kuqheliselo oluqhelekileyo" kumenyiwe kule ndawo yokuhlala icetywayo.

Ukuphendula, ngolwe-Lwesithathu iqela lamagqwetha elalicwangcise isivumelwano neBayer wafaka isaziso sokurhoxa yesicwangciso sabo.

Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa esindululweyo samatyala ezenzo zodidi lwexesha elizayo sahlukile kwisivumelwano sokuhlawula iBayer esenziwe namagqwetha kubamangali abasele bagcwalise amatyala kwaye ayilelwe ukunceda iBayer ukuba igcine kwaye ilawule uxanduva lwexa elizayo. Ngaphantsi kolwakhiwo oludityaniswe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha abamangaleli ukuhlawulwa kwamanyathelo eklasi bekuya kusebenza kuye nakubani na ovezwe kwi-Roundup ongakhange afake isimangalo okanye agcine igqwetha ngoJuni 24, 2020, nokuba uyayenza okanye hayi Umntu sele efunyaniswe enomhlaza bakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup.

Esi sicwangciso besinokulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha kangangeminyaka emine, kwaye sifuna ukuba kusekwe amalungu amahlanu "ephaneli yesayensi" eya kuthi ithathe naziphi na iziphumo eziza kubakho kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji. Endaweni yoko, "iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi" inokumiselwa ukumisela ukuba ngaba iRoundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, kweliphi inqanaba lokuvezwa. I-Bayer iya kuthi inyule amalungu amabini kwiphaneli ezintlanu. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kumabango anjalo.

Ujaji Chhabria uthathe umba ngalo lonke uluvo lwephaneli yesayensi. Ngokomyalelo wakhe, ijaji yabhala:

"Kwindawo apho inzululwazi inokuthi iguquke khona, kufanelekile njani ukuba sitshixe kwisigqibo esivela kwiphaneli yesayensi kuwo onke amatyala exesha elizayo? Ukuvavanya, cinga ukuba iphaneli ithathe isigqibo kwi-2023 ukuba i-Roundup ayinakho ukubangela umhlaza. Emva koko khawufane ucinge ukuba isifundo esitsha esithembekileyo sipapashiwe ngo-2028 esisingela phantsi kakhulu isigqibo sepaneli. Ukuba umsebenzisi we-Roundup ufunyaniswe ene-NHL ngo-2030, kufanelekile ukubaxelela ukuba babotshiwe sisigqibo sango-2023 sephaneli kuba bengakhange baphume kwisivumelwano ngo-2020? ”

U-Bayer uthe uzakubeka bucala i-1.25 yezigidigidi kulungiselelo. Imali yayiza kusetyenziselwa ukubuyekeza amalungu eklasi afunyaniswe ene-NHL "ngeziphumo zokulibaziseka" kwizimangalo, kunye nokuxhasa ngezimali uphando malunga nokufunyaniswa nokunyangwa kwe-NHL, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Amagqwetha abamangali ababeka isicwangciso kunye neBayer bema ukwenza ngaphezulu kwe- $ 150 yezigidi kwimirhumo ehlawulwa yiBayer. Ayizizo iifemu zomthetho ezifanayo ezikhokelele isimangalo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Eli qela leefemu zomthetho libandakanya uLieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein; Uphicotho-zincwadi kunye namaqabane; Ifemi yoMthetho eDugan; kunye negqwetha uSamuel Issacharoff, uNjingalwazi kaReiss woMthetho woMgaqo-siseko kwiSikolo soMthetho kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele izilingo ezintathu zomhlaza weRoundup ayasichasa isicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi, esithi iya kuhlutha amalungelo abamangali ngeli xesha ityebisa amanye amagqwetha angazange abekho ngaphambili kwityala leRoundup.

Akucaci ukuba ukurhoxiswa kwesi sicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi kunokuchaphazela njani ukuhlawulwa okukhulu kwamabango akhoyo. Bayer kwinyanga edlulileyo izakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula iipesenti ezingama-75 zamabango akhoyo ngoku kwaye iya kuqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa ezinye. Oko kuhlawulwa akufuneki kuvunywe yinkundla.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo ngolwe-Lwesithathu esithi uhlala "ezimisele kakhulu kwisisombululo esijongana nesimangalo sangoku ngendlela efanelekileyo kunye nesisombululo esisebenzayo sokulawula nokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo."

Inkundla iyakhwankqisa isigqibo seBayer esicetywayo sokulungisa isenzo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ijaji yomanyano ngoMvulo ibinamagama arhabaxa ngesicwangciso sikaBayer AG sokulibazisa amatyala omhlaza eRoundup anokubakho kunye nokuthintela uvavanyo lwejury, egxeka isindululo esingaqhelekanga esenziwe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha njengabangenakho ukungangqinelani nomgaqo-siseko.

“Inkundla iyathandabuza ukufaneleka nokulunga kwesi sindululo sicetywayo, kwaye inomdla wokungasamkeli isindululo,” ufunda umyalelo wokuqala owakhutshwa nguMgwebi uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US yesithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Isikhundla sejaji sibonakala siyinto ebukhali kwiBayer nakwinzame zenkampani ukusombulula ilifa lesimangalo esixhonywe eMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwiminyaka emibini edlulileyo.

Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukubhengezwa kwi-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye ukuba iMonsanto kudala yazi malunga nokugubungela umngcipheko womhlaza.

Izilingo ezintathu zamajaji ziye zabanjwa kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo kwaye iMonsanto yaphulukana nazo zontathu iijuri zinikezela ngaphezulu kwe-2 yezigidigidi kumonakalo. Onke la matyala ngoku afakwe kwisibheno kwaye iBayer ibisenza amatile ukuthintela ukulingwa kwejaji elizayo.

Kwinyanga ephelileyo uBayer uthe wayenayo kufikelelwe kwizivumelwano ukusombulula uninzi lwamatyala afakiweyo ngoku kwaye ayila isicwangciso sokusingatha amatyala anokuthi afakwe kwixa elizayo. Ukujongana nesimangalo sangoku uBayer uthe uzakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula malunga neepesenti ezingama-75 zamabango akhoyo kwaye uya kuqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa ezinye.

Kwisicwangciso sokusingatha iimeko ezinokubakho zexesha elizayo, U-Bayer uthe bekusebenza neqela elincinci lamagqwetha amangileyo abaza kwenza ngaphezulu kwe-150 yezigidi zeerandi kwimali yokuvuma ukuvuma "ukuma" kweminyaka emine kumatyala okugcwalisa. Esi sicwangciso siza kusebenza kubantu abanokuthi bafunyaniswe kwikamva nge-NHL abakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup. Ngokuchasene nokuhlaliswa kweMonsanto yamatyala asalindelwe ngokuchasene nayo, ukuhlawulwa kwale nyathelo "lekamva" elitsha kufuna inkundla yamkelwe.

Ukongeza kulibaziseko lwezilingo ezingaphezulu, isivumelwano sifuna ukuba kusekwe amalungu "ezenzululwazi" amalungu amahlanu anokuthatha naziphi na iziphumo eziza kubakho kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji. Endaweni yoko, "iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeeklasi" iya kumiselwa ukumisela ukuba ngaba iRoundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, kweliphi inqanaba lokuvezwa. I-Bayer iya kuthi inyule amalungu amabini kwiphaneli ezintlanu. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kwixesha elizayo.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele izilingo ezintathu zomhlaza weRoundup ayasichasa isicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi, esithi iya kuhlutha amalungelo abamangali ngeli xesha ityebisa abambalwa bamagqwetha abangazange babephambili kwityala leRoundup.

Isicwangciso sifuna ukuvunywa nguJaji Chhabria, kodwa umyalelo okhutshwe ngoMvulo ubonakalisile ukuba akacwangcisi kunika imvume.

"Kwindawo apho isayensi inokuthi iguquke khona, kufanelekile njani ukuba utshixe
isigqibo seqela lezazinzulu kuwo onke amatyala exesha elizayo? ” ijaji ibuze ngolandelelwano lwayo.

Ijaji ithe izakubamba isimangalo ngoJulayi 24 ngesindululo sokuqala semvume yetyala. Wabhala wathi: “Ngenxa yokungaqiniseki kwale Nkundla, kungangqubana nomdla wakhe wonke umntu ukulibazisa ukumanyelwa kwetyala,” ubhale watsho.

Apha ngezantsi kukho isicatshulwa somyalelo wejaji:

Umceli mngeni ojolise kwisicwangciso sokwenza iklasi kwindawo yokuhlala yaseBayer Roundup

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Isicwangciso sokulibazisa naliphi na ibango lomhlaza we-Roundup kangangeminyaka kwaye sitshintshe umbuzo ophambili wokuba ingaba umbulali wokhula ubangela umhlaza kwi-jury ukuya kwipaneli ekhethwe ngoososayensi ejongene nenkcaso evela kwamanye amagqwetha abamangali aqala kwaye akhokelela Ubunzima bobundlobongela obuchasene nomenzi we-Roundup uMonsanto, imithombo ekufutshane nesimangalo ithe.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele amatyala amathathu kwamathathu ebeka abaguli abanomhlaza ngokuchasene neMonsanto bacinga ngokucela umngeni kwimigqaliselo yesindululo "sezenzo zodidi" ekuxoxiswene ngaso phakathi komnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha angazange umphambili wetyala leRoundup, itsho imithombo.

Isindululo sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi yinto ye sUkulila i-10 yezigidigidi zeedola Ukuhlawulwa kwamatyala eRoundup eBayer kubhengeze nge-24 kaJuni.

Kuvavanyo ngalunye olugcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, iijaji zafumanisa ukuba ubunzima bobungqina benzululwazi bubonakalisile ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweRoundup kubangele ukuba abamangali baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye iMonsanto igubungele umngcipheko. Kodwa phantsi kwesindululo loo mbuzo uza kuya kumalungu amahlanu "kwipaneli yesayensi," hayi ijaji.

"Ngokusisiseko kuhlutha ummangali ilungelo labo lomgaqo-siseko lokuxoxwa kwetyala," utshilo omnye umthombo osondele kwisimangalo.

I pindawo yokuhlala eklasini unokufaka isicelo nakubani na ovezwe kwi-Roundup owayengazange afake isimangalo okanye agcine igqwetha ngoJuni 24, 2020, nokuba umntu sele efumene ukuba unomdlavuza na bakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup.

Isicwangciso sahlanganiswa yiBayer kunye neefemu zomthetho zikaLieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein; Uphicotho-zincwadi kunye namaqabane; Ifemi yoMthetho eDugan; kunye negqwetha uSamuel Issacharoff, uNjingalwazi kaReiss woMthetho woMgaqo-siseko kwiSikolo soMthetho kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York.

Isivumelwano kufikelelwe kuso emva konyaka omnye "weenzame ezingapheliyo" zothethathethwano, igqwetha u-Elizabeth Cabraser utshilo kwisibhengezo Kwinkundla exhasa ukuhlaliswa okucetywayo.

Inokubeka "ixesha lokuma" apho abamangali eklasini abanakho ukufaka isimangalo esitsha esimalunga neRoundup. Kwaye ifuna amalungu eklasi ukuba akhulule "nawaphi na amabango ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa yomonakalo owohlwayayo kunye noqwalaselo lonyango olunxulumene nokuvezwa kweRoundup kunye ne-NHL."

Ngokuqaphelekayo, esi sicwangciso sichaza ukuba endaweni yokuqhubela phambili nolunye uvavanyo lwejaji, iqela lenzululwazi liza kuqala ukumiselwa ukumisela "impendulo eyiyo" "kumda wokubuza" wokuba ingaba ikhona na ikhonkco phakathi kweRoundup neNHL .

Isicwangciso ubiza iBayer ukuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-150 yezigidi zeedola kwimirhumo kunye neendleko zamagqwetha abandakanyekayo kunye "namabhaso abamele iinkonzo zodidi" ukuya kuthi ga kwi-25,000 yeedola kumntu ngamnye okanye kwi-100,000 yeedola.

Ngokubanzi, iBayer ithe izakubeka bucala i-1.25 yezigidigidi kulungiselelo. Imali yayiza kusetyenziselwa ukubuyekeza amalungu eklasi afunyaniswe ene-NHL "ngeziphumo zokulibaziseka" kwezimangalo, kunye nokuxhasa ngezimali uphando malunga nokufunyaniswa nokunyangwa kwe-NHL, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Isindululo sokufuna imvume yokuqala yokuhlawulwa kweklasi safakwa ngolwesiThathu kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US ukuba iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia siphathwe nguJaji Vince Chhabria. I-Chhabria iye yajonga amatyala amaninzi e-Roundup adityaniswe ndawonye njengezimangalo ezininzi. Ekwaluseni inani elikhulu lamatyala asele efayilisiwe, uChhabria wajongana nolunye lovavanyo lweRoundup, kunye nento eyaziwayo njengendlebe ethi "Daubert", apho weva khona iintsuku zobungqina besayensi kuwo omabini amacala emva koko wagqiba kwelokuba zanele ezenzululwazi. ubungqina bokubangela ukuba isimangalo siqhubeke.

Isindululo sokuhlaliswa kwabantu eklasini kwaxoxwa ngaso ngokwahlukeneyo kwesahlulo esiphambili esenziwe neenkampani zomthetho ezikhokelayo.

Kwi eyona ndawo yokuhlala, U-Bayer uvumile ukubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula malunga neepesenti ezingama-75 zama-125,000 ezifakiweyo kunye nezingagcwaliswanga ezibangelwe ngabamangali abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Amagqwetha abamele ngaphezulu kwama-20,000 XNUMX abamangali bathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Nangona iMonsanto yaphulukana nesinye sezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, iBayer igcina izigqibo zejaji zinempazamo kwaye zisekwe kwiimvakalelo kwaye hayi kwisayensi elungileyo.

Ukukhethwa kwePaneli yeSayensi

U-Bayer kunye namagqwetha eklasi ecetywayo bazakusebenza kunye ukukhetha oososayensi abahlanu ukuba bahlale kwiphaneli engathathi cala, ezimeleyo, ngokwesicwangciso. Ukuba abanakho ukuvumelana ngokwenziwa kwepaneli icala ngalinye liya kukhetha amalungu amabini kwaye loo malungu mane aya kukhetha elesihlanu.

Akukho sazinzulu esisebenze njengengcali kumdibaniso we-Roundup litigation of federal oya kuvunyelwa ukuba abe kwiqela lenjongo. Ngokukodwa, akukho namnye "othe wanxibelelana nayo nayiphi ingcali" kwisimangalo malunga nomxholo.

Iphaneli iya kuba neminyaka emine yokuphonononga ubungqina besayensi kodwa inokufaka isicelo sokongezwa kwexesha ukuba kukho imfuneko. Ukuzimisela kuya kubopha macala omabini, esi sicwangciso sitsho. Ukuba iphaneli igqiba ekubeni kukho unxibelelwano olunokubangela phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-NHL, abamangali bangaqhubeka ukuya kufuna izilingo zamabango abo.

"Ulwazi lunamandla kwaye oku kuhlaliswa kuxhobisa amalungu eklasi ukuba abambe iMonsanto ukuba baphendule ngokwenzakala kwabo ukuba kwaye xa iSigqeba seNzululwazi sigqiba ukuba imeko iyoneliseka," sitsho esi sicwangciso.

Ukugcwaliswa kwenkundla yomdibaniso kucela ukuvunywa kwetyala lokuqala kwintsuku ezingama-30.