Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

Iimeyile zangaphakathi ze-FDA: Weedkiller efumaneka eGranola nakwiCrackers

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Eli nqaku lalipapashwe ekuqaleni kwi Umgcini.

NguCarey Gillam

Oososayensi bakarhulumente baseMelika bafumanise umntu okhula kokhula onxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa kakhulu, ii-imeyile ezifunyenwe ngenkululeko yokucela ulwazi.

Ulawulo lwezoKutya kunye noLawulo lweziyobisi (FDA) uvavanyo iisampulu zokutya kwintsalela ye-glyphosate, eyona nto isebenzayo kumakhulu eemveliso ezisetyenziswa kakhulu zokutshabalalisa ukhula, isithuba seminyaka emibini, kodwa ingekazivezi iziphumo ezisemthethweni.

Kodwa amaxwebhu angaphakathi afunyenwe nguMlondolozi abonisa ukuba i-FDA ibinengxaki yokufumana nakuphi na ukutya okungahambisi mkhondo wesibulala-zinambuzane.

"Ndizise abaqhekezi bengqolowa, igranola cereal kunye nomgubo wengqolowa ovela ekhaya kwaye kukho isixa esifanelekileyo kuzo zonke," usokhemisi we-FDA URichard Thompson wabhala koogxa kwi-imeyile kulo nyaka uphelileyo ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate. UThompson, ozinze kwilabhoratri yengingqi ye-FDA e-Arkansas, wabhala ukuba i-broccoli yayikukuphela kokutya "awayenakho" akufumanisileyo kungenayo i-glyphosate.

Le imeyile yangaphakathi ye-FDA, yomhla kaJanuwari 2017, iyinxalenye ye- umtya wonxibelelwano lwe-FDA Iinkcukacha zeenzame zearhente zokuqinisekisa ukuba ungakanani umlingo weedkiller odumileyo oboniswayo kukutya kwaseMelika. Iimvavanyo ziphawula uviwo lokuqala lwe-arhente.

“Abantu bayakhathala malunga nokuba zeziphi na izinto ezingcolisayo ezikukutya kwabo. Ukuba kukho ulwazi lwenzululwazi malunga nale ntsalela ekutyeni, i-FDA kufuneka ikhuphe, ”utshilo uTracey Woodruff, unjingalwazi kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia eSan Francisco School of Medicine. “Inceda abantu bathathe izigqibo benolwazi. Abarhafi bahlawulele urhulumente ukwenza lo msebenzi, kufuneka babone ulwazi. ”

I-FDA ihlawuliswa rhoqo ngonyaka kuvavanya iisampulu zokutya kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ukubeka esweni amanqanaba entsalela ngokungekho semthethweni. Inyani yokuba iarhente kutsha nje iqale ukuvavanya i-glyphosate, ikhemikhali esetyenziswe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-40 kwimveliso yokutya, ikhokelele kugxekwa kumaqela abathengi kunye neOfisi yoXanduva kaRhulumente (i-GAO). Iifowuni zovavanyo zikhule emva kwe-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) yahlulahlula i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-2015.

IGlyphosate yaziwa njengeyona nto iphambili kuMonsanto Co's Roundup brand. Ngaphezulu kweepawundi ezingama-200m zisetyenziswa minyaka le yi-US abalimi kumasimi abo. I-weedkiller ifafazwa ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo ezithile, kubandakanya umbona, iimbotyi zesoya, ingqolowa kunye ne-oats. Abalimi abaninzi bayayisebenzisa emasimini ngaphambi kwexesha lokukhula, kubandakanya abalimi besipinatshi kunye nabavelisi beamangile.

Ukufunyanwa kuka-Thompson kwe-glyphosate kwenziwa njengoko wayeqinisekisa iindlela zakhe zohlalutyo, oko kuthetha ukuba ezo ntsalela ngekhe zibandakanywe kuyo nayiphi na ingxelo esemthethweni.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-FDA chemist uNarong Chamkasem wafunyanwa "Ukunyamezelana ngaphezulu" kwamanqanaba e-glyphosate kumbona, ifunyenwe kwii-6.5 iinxalenye kwisigidi, i-imeyile ye-FDA ithi. Umda osemthethweni ngu-5.0 ppm. Inqanaba elingekho mthethweni lingaxelwa kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA), kodwa umphathi we-FDA ubhalele igosa le-EPA ukuba umbona awuthathwa njenge "sampuli esemthethweni".

Xa ebuzwa malunga ne-imeyile kunye nokuvavanywa kwe-arhente, isithethi se-FDA sathi kuphela ukuba i-FDA ayifumananga nawaphi na amanqanaba angekho mthethweni kumbona, isoya, ubisi okanye amaqanda, izinto ezine ezijonga njengenxalenye ye-glyphosate "isabelo esikhethekileyo". Khange ajongane neziphumo ezingekho mthethweni ezivezwe kwii-imeyile.

Iziphumo ezisemthethweni ze-FDA kufuneka zikhutshwe kamva kulo nyaka okanye ekuqaleni kuka-2019 njengenxalenye yengxelo yayo yonyaka ye-2016. Iingxelo ngesiqhelo ziyakhululwa Kwiminyaka emibini ukuya kwemibini enesiqingatha emva kokuba idatha iqokelelwe.

Kunye ne-glyphosate, iarhente ibikhona ukuzama ukulinganisa intsalela yemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula i-2,4-D kunye ne-dicamba ngenxa yokuqikelelwa kokusetyenziswa kokhula kokhula kwizityalo ezitsha zemfuza. Isithethi se-FDA sathi i-arhente "yandise amandla" okuvavanya ukutya kokutya kwezi zitshabalalisi zonyaka.

Ezinye iziphumo zichaziwe kumaxwebhu e-FDA abonisa ukuba kwi-2016 Chamkasem ifumene i-glyphosate in iisampulu ezininzi zobusi. I-Chamkasem ikwafumene i-glyphosate kwiimveliso ze-oatmeal. I-FDA yamisa okwexeshana kuvavanyo emva kwezo zinto zifunyanisiweyo, kwaye ilebhu kaChamkasem "yabelwa ezinye iinkqubo", amaxwebhu e-FDA abonisa. I-FDA ithe ezo mvavanyo zazingeyonxalenye yesabelo sayo esisemthethweni se-glyphosate residue.

Ukuvezwa kweyeza lokubulala izinambuzane ngokutya kuthathwa njengomngcipheko wezempilo. Abalawuli, IMonsanto kunye nomdla kumzi mveliso we-agrochemical uthi intsalela ye-pesticide ekutyeni ayinabungozi ukuba iphantsi komda osemthethweni. Kodwa izazinzulu ezininzi ziyayiphikisa loo nto, zisithi ukutya ixesha elide ekudibaniseni indibaniselwano zinokubulala.

Ugqirha wezobisi uLinda Birnbaum, ongumlawuli we-US National Institute of Environmental impilo IiNzululwazi (i-NIEHS), zithe uhlalutyo lwangoku lolawulo lweengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi alunikeli ngxelo ngamanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa kokutya.

"Nokuba amanqanaba asezantsi amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi, sichanabeke kuninzi kwaye asiyibali inyani yokuba sivelisiwe," utshilo uBirnbaum.

ISebe lezoLimo laseMelika laliza kuqala ukuvavanya ukutya kokutya kweentsalela zeglyphosate kwi2017 kodwa ulahle isicwangciso.

Ukunqongophala kwedatha yentsalela kurhulumente kuza njengoko iMonsanto izama ukuthintela ubungqina malunga nentsalela yokutya ekungenisweni kwinkundla apho inkampani ikhona ukulwa izityholo iimveliso zayo zeRoundup zibangela umhlaza.

Kwityala elimiselwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngomhla we-18 kweyeSilimela, kutshanje u-Curtis Karnow, ijaji yenkundla ephakamileyo usikhanyele isicelo senkampani ukugcina ijaji ingeva malunga nentsalela ekutyeni. Ijaji yathi nangona iMonsanto ikhathaza ulwazi "luya kulitshisa ijaji ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngokusekwe kukoyika ukuba banokuthi babhencwe", olo lwazi "akufuneki lubekelwe bucala".