I-Aspartame ibotshelelwe ekuZuzeni ubunzima, ukuNqwenela ukutya kunye nokuTyeba kakhulu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Inzululwazi malunga nokuZuza ubunzima + Ukutyeba kakhulu Imicimbi ehambelana noko
Icandelo lezeNzululwazi
Ngaba "ukutya" kukhohlisa ukuthengisa?
Iingqinisiso zeSayensi

I-Aspartame, iswekile ethandwa kakhulu emhlabeni, ifumaneka kumawaka eswekile engenaswekile, iswekile ephantsi kunye neziselo ezibizwa ngokuba "kukutya" kunye nokutya. Nangona kunjalo ubungqina benzululwazi obuchazwe kweli phepha linxibelelana ne-aspartame ekufumaneni ubunzima, ukonyuka kokutya, isifo seswekile, isifo se-metabolic kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokukhuluphala.

Nceda wabelane ngesi sibonelelo. Jonga kwakhona iphepha eliyinyani, I-Aspartame: Iminyaka elishumi yeSayensi ibhekisa kwiingozi eziMandla zeMpilo, ngolwazi malunga nezifundo ezijongwe ngontanga ezinxibelelanisa i-aspartame nomhlaza, isifo sentliziyo, isifo se-Alzheimer, imivumbo, ukuxhuzula, ukukhulelwa okufutshane kunye neentloko.

Iinkcukacha ezikhawulezayo

  • I-Aspartame-ikwathengiswa njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin kunye neAminoSweet- yeyona nto isetyenziswayo emhlabeni njengeswiti. Ikhemikhali ifumaneka kwi amawaka okutya neziselo iimveliso, kubandakanya iDiet Coke kunye neDiet Pepsi, i-gum engenashukela, iilekese, iicondiments kunye neevithamini.
  • I-FDA inayo yatsho i-aspartame ikhuselekile kubemi ngokubanzi phantsi kweemeko ezithile. Izazinzulu ezininzi ziye zatsho Ukuvunywa kwe-FDA bekusekwe kwidatha yomrhanelwa kwaye kufuneka kujongwe kwakhona.
  • Izifundo ezininzi ezenziweyo kumashumi eminyaka amakhonkco Aspartame kwiingxaki ezinzulu zempilo.

I-Aspartame, Ukutyeba + kunye nokuTyeba kakhulu imiba enxulumene noko 

Uphengululo ezintlanu loncwadi lwenzululwazi olwenziwe ngabaswiti bacebisa ukuba abanagalelo ekunciphiseni ubunzima, endaweni yoko kunokubangela ukutyeba.

  • Uhlalutyo lweemeta zango-2017 zophando kwizithambisi ezingezizo, ezipapashwe kwi I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, akafumananga bungqina bucacileyo bokulahleka kobunzima bezinto zokuthambisa ezilungeleleneyo kuvavanyo lweklinikhi, kwaye waxela ukuba izifundo ezenziwa ngamaqela zidibanisa izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo kunye "nokunyuka kobunzima kunye nokujikeleza kwesinqe, kunye neziganeko eziphezulu zokutyeba kakhulu, uxinzelelo lwegazi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile yesifo seswekile kunye nentliziyo iziganeko. ”Bona kwakho
    • “Izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo azincedi ekunciphiseni umzimba kwaye zingakhokelela ekufumaneni iiponti,” ngu-Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
    • "Kutheni enye i-cardiologist isele ukutya kwayo kokugqibela kwesoda," nguHarlan Krumholz, Ijenali yeWall Street (9.14.2017)
    • “Le ngcali yeentliziyo ifuna ukuba usapho lwayo lunciphise i-diet soda. Ngaba eyakho ifanele ukuba nayo? ” NguDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly wabuza (9.12.2017)
  • 2013 Iindlela kwi-Endocrinology nakwiMetabolism Inqaku lokuphononongwa lifumanisa ukuba "ubungqina obuqokelelweyo bucacisa ukuba abathengi abahlala kwezi zinto zithatha indawo yeswekile banokuba semngciphekweni omkhulu wokufumana ubunzima obuninzi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile sesifo seswekile, kunye nesifo sentliziyo," kwaye "ukusetyenziswa rhoqo kwezinto ezinencasa kakhulu ukusebenza ngokuchaseneyo nokucutha ukungafani kwemetabolism. ”2
  • 2009 I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition Inqaku lokujonga kwakhona lifumanisa ukuba "ukongezwa kwe-NNS [iilekese ezingezondleki] ekudleni akubonisi sibonelelo sokwehla kwesisindo okanye ukunciphisa ukutyeba kobunzima ngaphandle kwesithintelo samandla. Kukho izinto ekudala zikho nezikhathaza ukuba ukufakwa kwe-NNS ekudleni kukhuthaza ukufunxwa kwamandla kwaye kunegalelo ekutyebeni kakhulu. ”3
  • 2010 Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine uphononongo loncwadi lwezinto zokuthambisa ezenziwe ngabom kugqiba ukuba, "uphando lubonisa ukuba iilekese ezingezizo ezenziweyo zinganegalelo ekuzuzeni ubunzima."4
  • 2010 Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yokuTyeba kakhulu kwabantwana Inqaku lokujonga kwakhona lithi, "Idatha evela kwizifundo ezinkulu, zesifo esixhasa ubukho bemanyano phakathi kokusetyenziswa kwesiselo esenziwe ngobumnandi kunye nokuzuza ubunzima kubantwana."5

Ubungqina be-Epidemiological bucebisa ukuba iilekese zokufakelwa ziyabandakanyeka ekuzuzeni ubunzima. Umzekelo:

  • The Isifundo sentliziyo saseSan Antonio “Ndibone ubudlelwane bokuthomalalisa idosi phakathi kwe-AS [iswiti engeyiyo) kunye nokusela ixesha elide.” Ngapha koko, kwafumanisa ukuba ukusebenzisa ngaphezu kwezi-21 iziselo ezinencasa ngeveki - xa kuthelekiswa nezingasetyenziswanga, "bekudityaniswa nomngcipheko ophindwe kabini" wokutyeba kakhulu okanye ukutyeba kakhulu. ”6
  • Isifundo sokusela isiselo phakathi kwabantwana nakwishumi elivisayo abaneminyaka eyi-6-19 epapashwe Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yeSayensi yoKutya kunye neSondlo ifumanise ukuba "i-BMI inxulunyaniswa nokutya iziselo ezihlwahlwazayo."7
  • Isifundo seminyaka emibini sabantwana abali-164 esapapashwa kwi Umbhalo we-American College of Nutrition ifumanise ukuba "Ukonyuka kwindlela yokutya isoda kwakukukhulu kakhulu ukutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifundo ezifumene ubunzima xa kuthelekiswa nezifundo zobunzima obuqhelekileyo. Isiseko se-BMI Z-amanqaku kunye nonyaka we-2 wokutya isoda eqikelelweyo i-83.1% yomahluko kunyaka we-2 BMI Z-amanqaku. Ikwafumanise ukuba "ukutya ukutya kwesoda yayiyeyona kuphela uhlobo lwesiselo esinxulunyaniswa nonyaka we-2 BMI Z-amanqaku, kunye nokusetyenziswa kwakukukhulu kwizifundo zokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifundo ezaye zafumana ubunzima xa kuthelekiswa nezifundo zobunzima obuqhelekileyo kwiminyaka emibini."8
  • The I-US ikhula ngoku Uhlolisiso lwabantwana abangaphezu kwe-10,000 9 abaneminyaka eli-14 ukuya kweli-XNUMX ukuya kwengama-XNUMX lubonise ukuba, kumakhwenkwe, ukutya isoda yokutya okutya "kunxulunyaniswa kakhulu nokuzuza ubunzima."9
  • Ucwaningo lwe-2016 kule I-International Journal ye-Obesity uxele ukuba ufumene izinto ezisixhenxe eziphindaphindwayo ezibonisa unxibelelwano olukhulu lokutyeba esiswini kwabasetyhini, kubandakanya nokutya i-aspartame.10
  • Abantu abadla ngokutya iilekese ezingezizo zisengozini yokufumana "ubunzima obuninzi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesibini lweswekile, kunye nesifo sentliziyo,"11 Ngokwe-2013 yokuhlaziywa kwePurdue ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-40 epapashwe ngo Iindlela eziqhubekayo kwi-Endocrinology kunye neMetabolism

Ezinye iintlobo zophononongo ngokufanayo zicebisa ukuba iilekese zokufakelwa azenzi igalelo ekulahlekeni kobunzima. Umzekelo, izifundo zongenelelo azixhasi umbono wokuba iilekese zokufakelwa zivelisa ukwehla kobunzima. Ngokwe- Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine uphononongo loncwadi lwenzululwazi, "ukuvumelana kwizifundo zongenelelo kubonisa ukuba iilekese ezingezizo azincedi ukunciphisa ubunzima xa zisetyenziswa zodwa."12

Olunye uphononongo lukwacebisa ukuba iilekese zokufakelwa zonyusa ukuthanda ukutya, ezinokukhuthaza ukuzuza ubunzima. Umzekelo, i Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine uphononongo lufumanise ukuba "ukulayishwa kwangoko kuvavanyo kufumanise ukuba incasa emnandi, nokuba iziswe siswekile okanye iilekese ezingezizo ezomntu, yenze umdla wokutya womntu."13

Izifundo ezisekwe kwiintonga zibonisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa kweeswiti ezingezizo kunokukhokelela ekutyeni ukutya okongezelelekileyo. Ngokwe- Ijenali yeYale yeBiology kunye noPhononongo lonyango, "Ukudibanisa okungahambelaniyo phakathi kwencasa eswiti kunye nomxholo wekhalori kungakhokelela kukutya okugqithisileyo kunye nokulinganisela kwamandla." Ukongeza, kwakweli nqaku linye, "iilekese ezenziwe ngumntu, ngenxa yokuba ziswiti, zikhuthaza ukunqwenela iswekile nokuxhomekeka kwiswekile."14

Ucwaningo lwe-2014 kule I-American Journal yeMpilo kaRhulumente bafumanise ukuba “abantu abadala abatyebe ngokugqithisileyo nabatyebe kakhulu eUnited States basela kakhulu iziselo zokutya kunabantu abadala abasempilweni, batya kakhulu iikhalori ezivela kukutya okuqinileyo — kokubini kwizidlo nakumashwamshwam — kunabantu abadala abatyebe ngokugqithiseleyo nabatyebe kakhulu abasela ii-SSB [iziselo ezineswekile). kunye nokutya izixa ezilinganayo zeekhalori njengabantu abadala abatyebe ngokugqithiseleyo nabatyebe ngokugqithiseleyo abasela ii-SSB. ”15

Isifundo se-2015 sabantu abadala kwi Ijenali yombutho waseAmerican Geriatrics Society ifunyenwe "Kubudlelwane bempendulo yethamo," "ukwanda kwe-DSI [ukutya iswekile yokutya] kunxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwesisu ..."16

Isifundo esibalulekileyo sika-2014 esapapashwa ngo indalo ifumanise ukuba "ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS esetyenziswa ngokungaqhelekanga [i-non-caloric sweetener eyenziweyo] iifomula kuqhuba ukukhula kokunganyamezeli kwe-glucose ngokungenisa utshintsho olwenziweyo nolusebenzayo kwi-microbiota yamathumbu ... iziphumo zethu zidibanisa ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS, i-dysbiosis kunye nokungaqhelekanga kwemetabolism ... Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba i-NAS kusenokwenzeka ukuba banegalelo elongezelelekileyo ekwandiseni esi sifo kanye nabo babenzelwe ukuba balwe naso. ”17

Isifo seswekile kunye nokuDanjiswa kweMetabolic

I-Aspartame yehla ngokwenxalenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa isenzo se-enzyme emathunjini e-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebonakaliswe ngaphambili ukuthintela isifo se-metabolic syndrome, eli liqela leempawu ezinxulunyaniswa nohlobo lwesibini lweswekile kunye nesifo sentliziyo. Ngokophando lwe-2 kwi I-Physiology esetyenzisiweyo, isondlo kunye neMetabolism, iimpuku ezifumana i-aspartame emanzini okusela ziye zafumana ubunzima ngakumbi kwaye zavelisa ezinye iimpawu zesifo se-metabolic syndrome kunezilwanyana ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Uphononongo luqukumbela ngelithi, "Iziphumo zokhuselo ze-IAP ngokubhekisele kwisifo se-metabolic syndrome zinokuthintelwa yi-phenylalanine, imetabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbi ichaza ukunqongophala kokulindeleka kobunzima kunye nokuphuculwa kwemetabolism okunxulunyaniswa neziselo zokutya."18

  • Bona kwakho: Ukukhutshwa kweMedia General kwisifundo, "I-Aspartame inokuthintela, ingakhuthazi, ukunciphisa umzimba ngokuthintela umsebenzi we-enzyme yamathumbu"

Abantu abahlala besitya iilekese ezingezizo ezomngcipheko basemngciphekweni omkhulu wokufumana ubunzima obuninzi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile sesifo seswekile, kunye nesifo sentliziyo, ngokutsho kovavanyo lwe-2 yePurdue ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-2013 epapashwe Iindlela eziqhubekayo kwi-Endocrinology kunye neMetabolism.19

Kuphononongo olulandele abafazi abangama-66,118 ngaphezulu kweminyaka eli-14, zombini iziselo ezineswekile kunye neziselo ezinencasa ezinxulumene nobungozi zinxulunyaniswa nomngcipheko wohlobo lwe-2 lweswekile. "Ukomelela okunamandla kumngcipheko we-T2D kuye kwabonwa nakwizinto ezisetyenziswayo kuzo zombini iindidi zesiselo… Akukho mbutho wabonwa nge-100% yokusetyenziswa kwejusi yeziqhamo," ingxelo yo-2013 yapapashwa kwi I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.20

I-Dysbiosis yangaphakathi, ukuDanjiswa kweMetabolic kunye nokuTyeba kakhulu

Izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo ezenziweyo zinokubangela ukunganyamezelani kweswekile ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokwe-a Uphononongo luka-2014 kwiNdalo. Abaphandi babhale, "iziphumo zethu zidibanisa ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS [non-caloric sweetener], ukusetyenziswa kwesifo se-dysbiosis kunye nokungaqheleki kokutya emzimbeni, ngokwenza njalo kucelwa ukuba kuphononongwe ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS enkulu… Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba i-NAS inokuba negalelo elithe ngqo ekwandiseni ubhubhane [ukutyeba] ukuba bona bebenzelwe ukulwa. ”21

  • Bona kwakho: “Izinto ezenza iincumfisi ezingezizo ezenziweyo zingatshintsha i-Gut Bacteria kwiindlela ezinobungozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, Inzululwazi yaseMelika (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwe-2016 I-Physiology esetyenzisiweyo Isondlo kunye neMetabolism uxele, "Ukutya kwe-Aspartame kube nefuthe elibalulekileyo kunxibelelwano phakathi kwesalathiso somzimba (BMI) kunye nokunyamezelana kweswekile ... ukusetyenziswa kwe-aspartame kunxulunyaniswa nokukhubazeka okunxulumene nokukhuluphala ekunyamezelweni kweswekile."22

Ngokwe-2014 rat rat kwi PLoS ONE, "I-aspartame inyuse amanqanaba eswekile yokuzila kunye novavanyo lokunyamezelwa kwe-insulin ibonakalise i-aspartame ukuphazamisa ukulahlwa kwe-glucose ekhuthazwa yi-insulin ...23

Icandelo lezeNzululwazi

Ayizizo zonke izifundo zamva nje ezifumana ikhonkco phakathi kwezinto zokuthambisa kunye nokuzuza ubunzima. Izifundo ezibini ezixhaswa ngemali ngumzi-mveliso azikhange.

  • 2014 I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition Uhlalutyo lweemeta luqukumbele ngelithi “Iziphumo ezifunyenwe kwizifundo zokuqwalaselwa zibonise ukuba akukho manyano phakathi kwe-LCS [i-low-calorie sweetener] yokutya kunye nobunzima bomzimba okanye ubunzima bamafutha kunye nonxibelelwano oluncinci oluqinisekileyo ne-BMI [isalathiso sobunzima bomzimba]; Nangona kunjalo, idatha evela kwii-RCTs [izilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe], ezibonelela ngowona mgangatho uphakamileyo wobungqina bokuvavanya iziphumo ezinokubangelwa kukutya kwe-LCS, zibonisa ukuba ukufaka endaweni ye-LCS ukhetho kwiinguqulelo zabo zekhalori rhoqo kukhokelela ekunciphiseni ukuthoba umzimba kwaye kunokuba luncedo izixhobo zokutya ukuphucula ukuthotyelwa kobunzima okanye izicwangciso zokugcina ubunzima. ” Ababhali "bafumene inkxaso-mali yokwenza olu phando kwiCandelo laseMntla Melika kwiZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI)."24

IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi laMazwe ngaMazwe, elingenzi nzuzo elivelisa inzululwazi kushishino lokutya, liyimpikiswano phakathi kweengcali zempilo yoluntu ngenxa yenkxaso-mali yayo evela kwinkampani yemichiza, yokutya kunye neyemithi kunye nokungqubana okunokubakho kwimidla, ngokwe Inqaku lika-2010 kwiNdalo.25 Bona kwakho: I-US Ilungelo lokwazi Uxwebhu lwenyani malunga neZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi.

A uthotho lwamabali apapashwa kwi-UPI ngo-1987 ngumnxibelelanisi ophandayo uGreg Gordon uchaza ukubandakanyeka kwe-ILSI ekwenziweni kophando kwi-aspartame kwizifundo ezinokuxhasa ukhuseleko lweswiti.

  • Ucwaningo lwe-2014 kule Ijenali Ukutyeba kuvavanywe amanzi ngokuchasene neziselo ezinencasa ezenziwe ngenkqubo ye-12 yeeveki zokunciphisa umzimba, kufunyaniswa ukuba "amanzi awadluli kwi-NNS [iziyobisi ezingenasondlo] zokunciphisa umzimba ngexesha lenkqubo ebanzi yokwehla kobunzima." Olu phando “luxhaswe ngokupheleleyo nguMbutho woTywala baseMelika,”26 leliphi iqela eliphambili lokucela imveliso kushishino lwesoda.

Kukho ubungqina obomeleleyo bokuba izifundo ezixhaswa ngemali ngumzi-mveliso kuphando lwezinto eziphilayo azithembeki kangako kunezo zixhaswa ngokuzimeleyo. A Uphononongo luka-2016 kwi-PLOS One nguDaniele Mandrioli, uCristin Kearns kunye noLisa Bero bavavanya ubudlelwane phakathi kweziphumo zophando kunye nomngcipheko wokhetho, inkxaso-mali yokufunda kunye nombhali ukungqubana kwezemali komdla kuphononongo lweziphumo zotywala obenziwe ngobumnandi kwiziphumo zobunzima.27 Abaphandi baqukumbele ngelithi, "Ushishino olumnandi lokuzenzela iswiti uphononongo oluthe lwaxhaswa lwalunokuba neziphumo ezilungileyo kunophononongo olungaxhasiwanga lweshishini… kunye nezigqibo ezifanelekileyo." Ungquzulwano lwezezimali lomdla aluzange lubhengezwe kwi-42% yohlolo, kunye novavanyo olwenziwe ngababhali abaneengxabano zemali ezinomdla kushishino lokutya (nokuba zichaziwe okanye akunjalo) babenethuba lokufikelela kwizigqibo ezifanelekileyo kumzi-mveliso kunophononongo olwenziwe ngababhali ngaphandle ungquzulwano lwemidla. 

A Isifundo seyeza ngo-2007 sePLOS kwinkxaso yemizi-mveliso yophando lwezinto eziphilayo zafumanisa ukuba “Inkxaso mali kumzi-mveliso yamanqaku enzululwazi anxulumene nesondlo inokuthi ithathe isigqibo ngokuxhasa iimveliso zabaxhasi, ezinokubangela ukuba kube nempembelelo enkulu kwimpilo yoluntu… amanqaku ezenzululwazi malunga neziselo ezisetyenziswa rhoqo ezixhaswa ngemali lushishino bezimalunga nesine ukuya kwesibhozo. amaxesha kunokwenzeka ukuba athande umdla wemali wabaxhasi kunamanqaku ngaphandle Inkxaso mali enxulumene nomzi mveliso. Eyona nto inika umdla, akukho nasinye kwizifundo zongenelelo ngoncedo nenkxaso yemizi-mveliso esibe nesigqibo esibi… ”28

Ngaba "ukutya" kukhohlisa ukuthengisa?

Ngo-Epreli 2015, i-US Ilungelo Lokwazi yacela Federal Trade Commission (FTC) kunye Ukutya kunye noLawulo lweeMithi (FDA) ukuphanda intengiso kunye nentengiso yeemveliso "zokutya" eziqukethe ikhemikhali enxulunyaniswe nokuzuza ubunzima.

Sathi igama elithi "ukutya" libonakala ngathi liyakhohlisa, libubuxoki kwaye liyalahlekisa ngokwaphula icandelo lesi-5 lomThetho weKhomishini yoRhwebo kunye necandelo lama-403 lomThetho wokutya, iziyobisi kunye neCosmetic Act. Iiarhente ukuza kuthi ga ngoku zenqabile ukwenza into ngokuchaza ukunqongophala kwezixhobo kunye nezinye izinto eziphambili (bona FDA kwaye FTC iimpendulo).

“Kulusizi ukuba i-FTC ayizukuthatha amanyathelo okuthintela ishishini lesoda 'lokutya'. Ubungqina obuninzi bezenzululwazi bunxibelelanisa izinto eziswiti ezenziwe ngumntu kunye nokuzuza ubunzima, hayi ukwehla kobunzima, ”utshilo uGary Ruskin, umlawuli-mlawuli we-US Right to Know. "Ndiyakholelwa ukuba isoda 'yokutya' iya kungena kwimbali yase-US njengenye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo ngobuqhetseba kubathengi."

Ukusasazwa kweendaba:

Ukushicilelwa kwe-USRTK kunye nezithuba:

Iingqinisiso zeSayensi 

[1] UAzad, uMeghan B., et al. Izithambisi ezingondlekanga kunye nempilo ye-cardiometabolic: uphononongo olucwangcisiweyo kunye nohlalutyo lweemeta zovavanyo olulawulwa ngokungenamthetho kunye nezifundo ezinokubakho zeqela. CMAJ Julayi 17, 2017 flight. 189 hayi. 28 ikhonkco: Umnxeba: 10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (eqikelelwayo / inqaku)

[2] I-Swithers SE, "Iiswiti ezingezizo ezenziweyo zivelisa umphumo wokuphikisa ukuphembelela ukungasebenzi kakuhle kwemetabolism." Iindlela eziqhubekayo kwi-Endocrinology nakwiMetabolism, ngoJulayi 10, 2013. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431-41. IINKCUKACHA:eqikelelwayo / inqaku)

[3] UMatt RD, uPopkin BM, "Ukusetyenziswa kwesinenciphi esingondlekanga ebantwini: Iziphumo zokutya kunye nokutya kunye neendlela zabo zokubeka." Ijenali yaseMelika yoNyango lweKlinikhi, ngoDisemba 3, 2008. 2009 Jan; 89 (1): 1-14. IINKCUKACHA:inqaku)

[4] Yang Q, "Zuza ubunzima ngokuthi 'Uhambe ngokutya?' Izinto zeeSwiti ezingezizo ezokwenziwa kunye neNeurobiology yeShukela. ” Ijenali yeYale ye-Biology kunye neyeza, i-2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. IINKCUKACHA:inqaku)

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