Iphepha leNqaku leGlyphosate: Umhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zeMpilo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Glyphosate, into eyenziwayo yokubulala ukhula enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wayo ngo-1974 yiNkampani iMonsanto kwaye ngoku yenziwe yaza yathengiswa ziinkampani ezininzi kumakhulu eemveliso, inxulunyaniswa nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa njengeyona nto iphambili kwi-Roundup-branded herbicides, kunye ne-herbicide esetyenziswa kwi "Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulweyo (GMOs).

Ukunyamezelana nokubulala intsholongwane lolona hlobo lwe GMO luxhaphakileyo olwenziweyo kwizityalo zokutya, malunga ne-90% yengqolowa kunye ne-94% yeembotyi zesoya e-US ezilungiselelwe ukunyamezela i-herbicides, ngokweedatha ze-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ukufumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwabantu baseMelika kwi-glyphosate kunyuke malunga 500 ekhulwini okoko i-Roundup Ready GMO izityalo zaziswa e-US ngo-1996. Nazi ezinye iinyani eziphambili malunga neglyphosate:

Uninzi lweePesticide ezisetyenziswa kakhulu

Ngokutsho NgoFebruwari 2016 isifundo, Iglyphosate yi esetyenziswa kakhulu isibulali zinambuzane: E-US, akukho sibulali zinambuzane sisondeleyo kule ndawo isetyenziswa kakhulu. ” Iziphumo zibandakanya:

  • Abantu baseMelika basebenzise i-1.8 yezigidi zeetoni ze-glyphosate okoko yaqaliswa ngo-1974.
  • Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni zekhemikhali ziye zafafazwa kumasimi-anele ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sepawundi yeRoundup kuyo yonke iakile yomhlaba elinywayo.
  • Ehlabathini jikelele, ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuye kwanda phantse kangangezihlandlo ezili-15 okoko kwaziswa izityalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Iingxelo ezivela kwizazinzulu nakubanikezeli bezempilo 

Iingxaki zomhlaza

Uncwadi lwezenzululwazi kunye nezigqibo zolawulo ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides zibonisa ukuxubana kweziphumo, okwenza ukhuseleko lwe-herbicide lube sisifundo esixoxwa kakhulu. 

Kwi-2015, i I-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Iiarhente zase-US: Ngexesha lokuhlelwa kwe-IARC, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yayiqhuba uphononongo lobhaliso. IKomiti yokuHlola uMhlaza ye-EPA (CARC) ikhuphe ingxelo ngoSeptemba 2016 Ukuqukumbela ukuba i-glyphosate "ayinakulindeleka ukuba ibe ngumhlaza ebantwini" ngeedosi ezifanelekileyo kwimpilo yabantu. NgeyoMnga yowama-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigqeba esiCebisayo ngezeNzululwazi ukuze siqwalasele ingxelo; amalungu ebekhona yahlulwe kuvavanyo lomsebenzi we-EPA, ngokufumanisa ukuba i-EPA yenze impazamo kwindlela eluvavanye ngayo uphando oluthile. Ukongeza, iOfisi ye-EPA yoPhando noPhuhliso igqibe ekubeni iOfisi yeNkqubo ye-Pesticide ye-EPA ayilandelwa iiprothokholi ezifanelekileyo kuvavanyo lwayo lwe-glyphosate, wathi ubungqina bungathathwa njengexhasa ubungqina “obunokubakho” be-carcinogenic okanye obucebisayo “bokuhlelwa kwe-carcinogenicity. Nangona kunjalo i-EPA ikhuphe ingxelo eyilwayo kwi-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuba imichiza ayinakuba ngumhlaza. Ngo-Epreli 2019, i-EPA iphinde yaqinisekisa ukuma kwayo loo glyphosate ayibeki mngcipheko kwimpilo yoluntu. Kodwa kwangoko kwakuloo nyanga, i-Arhente yase-US yeZinto ezinobungozi kunye neRegistry yeZifo (i-ATSDR) ixele ukuba kukho amakhonkco phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza. Ngokwe- Idrafti yengxelo evela kwi-ATSDR, "Uphononongo oluninzi luchaze umngcipheko omkhulu kunomnye kwimibutho phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nomngcipheko we-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma okanye i-myeloma emininzi." 

I-EPA ikhuphe i Isigqibo sokuHlola okwethutyana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi oluhlaziyiweyo malunga nokuma kwayo kwi-glyphosate. 

Udibano lwaseyurophu: The IGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu kwaye i I-arhente yeekhemikhali yaseYurophu bathe i-glyphosate ayinakubangelwa yi-carcinogenic ebantwini. A Ingxelo kaMatshi 2017 ngamaqela okusingqongileyo kunye nabathengi bathi abalawuli baxhomekeke ngokungafanelekanga kuphando olwalujolise kwaye lwenziwa ngumzi mveliso weekhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ifumanise ukuba i-Federal Institute yaseJamani yoVavanyo loMngcipheko kwi-glyphosate, engafumananga mngcipheko womhlaza, ibandakanya amacandelo okubhaliweyo echazwe kwizifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebruwari 2020, kwavela iingxelo zokuba izifundo ezingama-24 ezingeniswe kubalawuli baseJamani ukungqina ukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate zavela kwilabhoratri enkulu yaseJamani utyholwa ngobuqhetseba nokunye okungalunganga.

Intlanganiso edibeneyo ye-WHO / FAO kwiiNtsalela zeziBulala-zinambuzane misele Kwi-2016 ukuba i-glyphosate yayingenakulindeleka ukuba ibangele umngcipheko we-carcinogenic ebantwini ekuvezweni kukutya, kodwa oku kufunyaniswa kwaphazanyiswa ukugqubana kwemidla inkxalabo emva kokuvela ukuba usihlalo kunye nosihlalo weqela bakwizikhundla zobunkokheli kunye IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi, iqela elixhaswe ngemali yinxalenye yeMonsanto kunye nenye yemibutho yokucela inkxaso.

California OEHHA: Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesibhozo ku-Matshi ngo-28, iOfisi yeArhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo eCalifornia yoVavanyo lweNgozi yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo yaqinisekisa ukuba iya kuba njalo yongeza i-glyphosate Isindululo saseCalifornia uluhlu lwama-65 lweekhemikhali ezaziwa ngokubangela umhlaza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba isenzo kodwa ityala lachithwa. Kwityala elahlukileyo, inkundla yafumanisa ukuba iCalifornia ayinakufuna izilumkiso zomhlaza kwiimveliso eziqukethe i-glyphosate. Nge-12 kaJuni ka-2018, iNkundla yeSithili sase-US yasikhaba isicelo se-Attorney General sase-California sokuba inkundla iphinde isijonge isigqibo. Inkundla yafumanisa ukuba iCalifornia inokufuna kuphela intetho yentengiso echaze "ulwazi oluyinyani nolungenakuphikiswa," kwaye inzululwazi ejikeleze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayiboniswanga.

Isifundo seMpilo yezoLimo: Isifundo sexesha elide esixhaswa ngurhulumente wase-US esineqela elixhasayo ngeentsapho zasezifama e-Iowa nase-North Carolina khange lifumane nxu lumano phakathi kokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abaphandi baxela ukuba "phakathi kwezicelo ezikwindawo ephezulu yokuvezwa, bekukho umngcipheko okhulayo we-myeloid leukemia (AML) xa kuthelekiswa nabantu abangazange basebenzise… ”Olona hlaziyo lupapashiweyo kutsha nje kuphando yenziwa esidlangalaleni ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zamva nje zokudibanisa i-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza kunye nezinye iingxaki zempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazamiseka kwe-Endocrine, ukuchuma kunye neenkxalabo zokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Uphononongo lwango-2017 olunxulumene nokuchasana okungapheliyo, kwinqanaba eliphantsi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingatyebanga kwiigundane. Ngokutsho kwabaphandi, iziphumo "zithetha ukuba ukusetyenziswa okungapheliyo kwamanqanaba asezantsi kakhulu e-GBH formulation (Roundup), kwindawo eyamkelekileyo yokulingana kwe-glyphosate, zinxulunyaniswa notshintsho oluphawuliweyo lweproteome yesibindi kunye nemetabolome," ii-biomarkers ze-NAFLD.

Ukuphazamiseka kweMicrobiome 

  • Novemba 2020 iphepha kwiJenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi uxela ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo kwi-gut gut microbiome "ezinokuthi zivelele" kwi-glyphosate. Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeebhaktiriya ezisemathunjini ezinokuthi zichaphazeleke kwi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo. 
  • 2020 uphononongo loncwadi lweziphumo zeglyphosate kwi-gut microbiome Uqukumbela ngelithi, "intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni inokubangela i-dysbiosis, ngenxa yokuba ii-pathogen ezinamathuba amelana ne-glyphosate xa kuthelekiswa ne-bacteria." Eli phepha liqhuba lithi, “IGlyphosate ingangunobangela obalulekileyo kwindalo esingqongileyo kwizifo ezininzi ezinxulunyaniswa nesifo se-dysbiosis, kubandakanya isifo se-celiac, isifo sokukrala kwamathumbu kunye nesifo samathumbu. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate kunokuba nemiphumo kwimpilo yengqondo, kubandakanya uxinzelelo kunye noxinzelelo, ngokutshintsha kwegciwane le-microbiome. ”
  • Uphononongo lwe-2018 lweerat oluqhutywa yiRamazzini Institute luxele ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweedosi ezisezantsi kwiRoundup kumanqanaba athathwa njengokukhuselekileyo utshintshe i-gut microbiota kwezinye iinjana zeempuku.
  • Olunye uphononongo lwe-2018 luxele ukuba amanqanaba aphezulu e-glyphosate alawulwa kwiimpuku aphazamisa i-gut microbiota kunye kubangele uxinzelelo kunye nokuziphatha okufana nokudakumba.

Iimpembelelo ezinobungozi iinyosi kunye namabhabhathane e monarch.

Amacala omhlaza

Ngaphezulu kwabantu abangama-42,000 abafake isimangalo ngokuchasene neNkampani iMonsanto (ngoku eyiBayer) betyhola ukuba ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye iMonsanto yagquma ubungozi. Njengengxenye yenkqubo yokufumanisa, iMonsanto kuye kwafuneka iguqulwe kwizigidi zamaphepha eerekhodi zangaphakathi. Singo ukuthumela la maPhepha eMonsanto njengoko ezifumaneka. Ukufumana iindaba kunye neengcebiso malunga nomthetho oqhubekayo, jonga uCarey Gillam's Umjongi weTrial Rounder. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaye zaphelela kumabhaso amakhulu kubamangali ngenxa yoxanduva kunye nomonakalo, ngamajaji agweba ukuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba negalelo elibangela ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL. I-Bayer ibhengeza isigwebo. 

Impembelelo yeMonsanto kuphando: Ngo-Matshi 2017, ijaji yenkundla yomanyano yavula amanye amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto iphakamise imibuzo emitsha malunga nefuthe likaMonsanto kwinkqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bophando abathembele kuyo. Amaxwebhu abonisa ukuba amabango akudala kaMonsanto malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ungaxhomekeki kwisayensi elungileyo njengoko inkampani iqinisekisa, kodwa ivulwe iinzame zokusebenzisa inzululwazi

Olunye ulwazi malunga nokuphazamiseka kwesayensi:

Izazinzulu zaseSri Lankan zinike ibhaso lenkululeko le-AAAS kuphando lwesifo sezintso

I-AAAS inikezele ngoososayensi ababini baseSri Lankan, uGqr. UChanna Jayasumana kunye noSarath Gunatilake, Imbasa ye-2019 yeNkululeko yeSayensi kunye noXanduva Umsebenzi wabo "wokuphanda unxibelelwano olunokubakho phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nesifo sezintso ezingapheliyo phantsi kweemeko ezinzima." Oososayensi baxele ukuba i-glyphosate idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuthutheni isinyithi esinzulu kwizintso zalabo basela amanzi angcolileyo, ekhokelela kwizinga eliphezulu lesifo sezintso ezingapheliyo kuluntu lwasezifama. Jonga amaphepha kwi  I-SpringerPlus (2015) IBMC yeNephrology (2015) LeMpilo yeNdalo (2015) Ijenali yehlabathi yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu (2014). Ibhaso le-AAAS belikhona kumiswa phakathi kwephulo eliphikisayo eliphikisayo ngamanyano eshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi ukujongela phantsi umsebenzi woososayensi. Emva koqwalaselo, iAAAS ubuyisele ibhaso

Ukuchithwa: omnye umthombo wokuvezwa kokutya 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate kwizityalo ezingezo-GMO ezifana nengqolowa, irhasi, i-oats, kunye neelentile ukomisa isityalo ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kukhawuleziswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-desiccation, inokuba ngumthombo obalulekileyo wokuvezwa kokutya kwi-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekutyeni: I-US irhuqa iinyawo zayo kuvavanyo

I-USDA ithe cwaka yalahla isicwangciso sokuqala ukuvavanya ukutya kwentsalela ye-glyphosate ngo-2017. Amaxwebhu e-arhente angaphakathi afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know abonisa ukuba i-arhente icwangcise ukuqala ukuvavanya ngaphezulu kweesampulu ezingama-300 zesiraphu yengqolowa ye-glyphosate ngo-Epreli ka-2017. Iarhente ibulale iprojekthi ngaphambi kokuba iqale. I-US Food and Drug Administration yaqala inkqubo yovavanyo encinci ngo-2016, kodwa iinzame zazigcwele impikiswano kunye nobunzima bangaphakathi kwaye inkqubo yayi kumiswa ngoSeptemba 2016. Zombini ezi arhente zineenkqubo ezivavanya ukutya rhoqo ngonyaka kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kodwa zombini ziye zayeka ukuvavanywa kwe-glyphosate.

Phambi kokumiswa, kwafunyanwa ikhemesti enye ye-FDA Amanqanaba othusayo e-glyphosate Kwiisampulu ezininzi zobusi baseMelika, amanqanaba awayengekho semthethweni ngenxa yokuba kungakhange kubekho manqanaba avumelekileyo enzelwe ubusi yi-EPA. Nalu uphinda lweendaba malunga ne-glyphosate efumaneka kukutya:

Amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni kwethu: Iphi idatha yokhuseleko?

Idatha ye-USDA ukusuka ngo-2016 ibonisa amanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi kwi-85% yokutya okungaphezulu kwe-10,000 kwisampuli, yonke into isuka kumakhowa ukuya kwiidiliya ukuya kwiimbotyi eziluhlaza. Urhulumente uthi akukho nto inokubeka impilo emngciphekweni, kodwa ezinye izazinzulu zithi akukho lwazi luninzi lokuxhasa eli bango. Jonga "Iikhemikhali ekutyeni kwethu: Xa "kukhuselekile" kusenokungakhuseleki ngokwenyani: Uvavanyo lwezenzululwazi lwentsalela yezinambuzane ekutyeni iyakhula; ukhuseleko lolawulo lubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).