Amaphepha eParaquat

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amatyala amaninzi alindelwe e-United States etyhola nge-parquat yeekhemikhali yokubulala ukhula ibangela isifo sika-Parkinson, kwaye ityala lokuqala ukuya enkundleni malunga nezityholo ezichasene ne-Syngenta ngaphezulu kweparaquat kunye ne-Parkinson ekuqaleni yayihlelelwe u-Epreli 12 kodwa yacwangciselwa umhla we-10 kuMeyi eSt.Clair Inkundla yeSekethe yeNqila e-Illinois. Ulingo kulindeleke ukuba lubambezeleke ngenxa yezilumkiso ezinxulumene nentsholongwane ye-Covid-19.

Ityala lase-Illinois - IHoffman V. Syngenta -Linye lamatyala ali-14 aphela ngokuchasene neSyngenta atyhola ukuba iimveliso zeparaquat yenkampani zibangela isifo sikaParkinson. Ityala likaHoffman likwabiza i-DRM Phillips Chemical Co kunye ne-Growmark Inc. njengabatyholwa. I-DRM isasazwa kwaye ithengise imveliso ye-Gramoxone paraquat e-United States kwisivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe nge-paraquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yayinelungelo lokwenza, ukusebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

Amagqwetha ajikeleze i-United States ayabhengeza kubamangali, efuna ukuzoba kumawakawaka abantu abaye bavezwa yiparaquat kwaye ngoku banengxaki kaParkinson.

Amanye amatyala asandula ukufakwa aziswa kwiinkundla zomdibaniso eCalifornia naseIllinois. Phakathi kwala matyala URakoczy V. Syngenta,  UDurbin V. Syngenta kunye I-Kearns V. Syngenta.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi zinxibelelanise iparaquat neParkinson's, kubandakanya Isifundo esikhulu sabalimi baseMelika ngokudibeneyo jongwa ziiarhente zikarhulumente ezininzi zase-US Amafama asebenzisa iparaquat kwimveliso yezityalo ezininzi, kubandakanya umbona, isoya kunye nomqhaphu. Uphononongo lwezeMpilo yezoLimo (AHS) luthi lufumanise ukuba “ukubhencwa kwizitshabalalisi zolimo kungonyusa umngcipheko wokuba nesifo sikaParkinson.” Ngo-2011, abaphandi be-AHS baxela ukuba “abathathi-nxaxheba abasebenzisa iparaquat okanye i-rotenone basengozini ephindwe kabini yokufumana isifo sika-Parkinson njengabantu abangayisebenzisanga le michiza.”

Okunye iphepha la kutshanje Ukusuka kubaphandi be-AHS bathi "Uncwadi oluninzi lubonisa umanyano phakathi kokusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye nesifo sikaParkinson (PD). Nangona kunjalo, ngaphandle kwemibandela embalwa, kuncinci okwaziwayo malunga nokudibana phakathi kwezibulali zinambuzane ezithile kunye nePD. ”

Isifo sikaParkinson sisifo esinganyangekiyo esihamba nenkqubo yovalo esinciphisa amandla omntu okulawula intshukumo, ebangela ukungcangcazela, ukuphulukana nokulingana kwaye ekugqibeleni uhlala eshiya amaxhoba ebhedini kunye / okanye ebotshelelwe kwisitulo esinamavili. Esi sifo asibulali kodwa siba buthathaka kakhulu.

Ugqirha wengqondo waseDatshi uBastiaan Bloem, ngubani osandula ukubhala incwadi malunga neParkinson's, etyhola ukubhencwa ngokubanzi kumayeza abulala ukhula anje ngeparquat, kunye nezinye iikhemikhali eziyityhefu ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo nakwimveliso, ekusasazeni isifo.

Ngokuqinisekileyo ityhefu 

Kunye noloyiko malunga nokunxibelelana phakathi kweparaquat kunye neParkinson's, iparaquat ikwayaziwa njengeyona khemikhali inetyhefu eyoyikisayo enokubulala ngokukhawuleza abantu abangena izixa ezincinci. EYurophu, ukuthengiswa kweparaquat kuyekisiwe ukusukela ngo-2007, kodwa e-United States iyeza lokubulala izinambuzane lithengiswa njenge- “Restricted Use Pesticide” ngenxa "Ityhefu ebukhali."

Njengenxalenye yokufumanisa isimangalo sikaParkinson, amagqwetha afumene iirekhodi zangaphakathi eSyngenta nakwimibutho eyandulelayo eyabakho kwiminyaka yoo-1960. Uninzi lwala maxwebhu litywinwe, kodwa amanye aqale ukuvela.

Amaxwebhu okufumanisa okungatywinwanga, aquka iikopi zeeleta, imizuzu yeentlanganiso, isishwankathelo sokufunda, kunye ne-imeyile, ziyafumaneka kweli phepha.

Uninzi lwamaxwebhu angatywinwanga ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ajongana neengxoxo ezihlangeneyo malunga nendlela yokugcina iparaquat herbicides kwintengiso ngaphandle kokubhubha kwayo, ngamanyathelo ayilelwe ukunciphisa iityhefu zengozi. Ngokukodwa, uninzi lwamaxwebhu aneenkcukacha zomzabalazo wangaphakathi wokudibanisa ukongeza i-emetic, iarhente yokuphembisa ukugabha, kwiimveliso zeparaquat. Namhlanje, zonke iimveliso ezineparaquat yaseSyngenta zibandakanya i-emetic ebizwa ngokuba yi "PP796." Ulwelo olune-paraquat equlathe iSyngenta ikwabandakanya iarhente enukayo yokuvelisa ivumba elibi, kunye nedayi eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ukwahlula i-herbicide enemibala emnyama kwiti okanye ikola okanye ezinye iziselo.

Uphengululo lwe-EPA 

IParaquat kungoku nje iqhubeka kwinkqubo yokuphononongwa kobhaliso lwe-EPA, kwaye nge-Okt. 23, 2020, iarhente ikhuphe Isigqibo sethutyana (PID) separaquat, ephakamisa amanyathelo okunciphisa ukunciphisa impilo yabantu kunye nemingcipheko yendalo echongiweyo kuyilo lwearhente yowama-2019 impilo yoluntu kwaye Umngcipheko wendalo iimvavanyo.

I-EPA ithe ngentsebenziswano kunye Inkqubo yeSizwe yetyhefu kwiZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi yezeMpilo, iarhente igqibe "uphononongo olunzulu" lwenzululwazi yolwazi malunga neparquat kunye nesifo sikaParkinson kwaye yagqiba ukuba ubunzima bobungqina abonelanga ukudibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson. Iarhente ipapashe le “Ukuphononongwa ngokuchanekileyo koNcwadi ukuVavanya ubudlelwane phakathi kweParaquat Dichloride Exhibition kunye nezifo zikaParkinson. "

I-USRTK iya kongeza amaxwebhu kweli phepha njengoko zifumaneka.