I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Isifundiswa saseYunivesithi yaseNebraska uJudy Wu-Smart ubhale phantsi inkxalabo kunye nobungqina bokuchaphazeleka okubonakalayo kokungcoliseka kwendalo yendawo, kubandakanya iinyosi kunye nezinye izilwanyana zasendle. ephepheniUkhe wabelana nabanye abafundi.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

"Benza itoni yokwenzakalisa kwaye ngokucacileyo bayayinyala loo nto, 'utshilo uSarah Hoyle, ojolise kwimicimbi yokubulala izitshabalalisi kwi-Xerces Society, umbutho wolondolozo osekwe e-Oregon.

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.