I-Chlorpyrifos: isibulala-zinambuzane esiqhelekileyo esibotshelelwe ekonakaleni kwengqondo ebantwaneni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

I-Chlorpyrifos, isibulali zinambuzane esisetyenziswa ngokubanzi, sinxibelelene kakhulu ne ukonakala kwengqondo ebantwaneni. Ezi kunye nezinye iinkxalabo zempilo zikhokelele amazwe aliqela kwaye amanye amazwe aseMelika ukuvala i-chlorpyrifos, kodwa imichiza yile isavumelekile kwizityalo zokutya e-US emva ukuphembelela ngempumelelo ngumenzi wayo.

IiChlorpyrifos ekutyeni  

IiChlorpyrifos I-insecticide yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kwizimo zezolimo. Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kumagama e-brand Dursban kunye neLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos yi-organophosphate insecticide, i-acaricide kunye ne-miticide esetyenziselwa ubukhulu becala ukulawula amagqabi kunye nezinambuzane ezibangelwa ngumhlaba kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo zokutya kunye nezityalo zokutya. Iimveliso ziza kwifom engamanzi kunye negranules, iipowder, kunye neepakethi ezinyibilikayo ngamanzi, kwaye zinokusetyenziswa ngumhlaba okanye izixhobo zomoya.

I-Chlorpyrifos isetyenziswa kwizityalo ezahlukeneyo kubandakanya ii-apile, iiorenji, istrawberry, umbona, ingqolowa, isitrasi kunye nokunye ukutya kwiintsapho kwaye abantwana bazo batya mihla le. Ii-USDA Inkqubo yeDatha yeZibulala-zinambuzane ifunyenwe intsalela ye-chlorpyrifos kwizitrasi kunye neevatala nasemva kokuvaswa nokuxobulwa. Ngokomthamo, i-chlorpyrifos isetyenziswa kakhulu kwingqolowa nakwiisoya, ngaphezulu kwesigidi seepawundi esisetyenziswa minyaka le kwisityalo ngasinye. Imichiza ayivumelekanga kwizityalo eziphilayo.

Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Iinkxalabo zempilo yoluntu

IAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana kunye noogqirha babantwana, ulumkisile ukuba Ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-chlorpyrifos kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukuvezwa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto. Izifundo eziphambili zidweliswe apha ngezantsi.

I-Chlorpyrifos ikwanxulunyaniswa netyhefu yokubulala izinambuzane kwaye inokubangela ukuxhuzula, ukukhubazeka kokuphefumla, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha, nokufa.

I-FDA ithi ukutya kunye nokusela amanzi okuveziweyo akukhuselekanga

I-Chlorpyrifos inetyhefu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu ukuthengiswa okungavumelekanga kwekhemikhali ukusukela ngoJanuwari 2020, ukufumanisa ukuba ikhona akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo. Amanye amazwe ase-US nawo awathintele ama-chlorpyrifos ekusebenziseni kwezolimo, kubandakanya California kwaye Hawaii.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow Chemical ngo-2000 yokuphelisa konke ukusetyenziswa kweeklorpyrifos ngenxa yophando lwenzululwazi olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zeentsana nabantwana abancinci. Kwakungavunyelwe ukusetyenziswa ezikolweni ngo-2012.

Ngo-Okthobha u-2015, i-EPA yathi yayiceba uku rhoxisa konke ukunyamezelana kwentsalela yokutya ye-chlorpyrifos, okuthetha ukuba akusayi kuba semthethweni ukuyisebenzisa kwezolimo. I-arhente ithe "intsalela elindelekileyo ye-chlorpyrifos kwizityalo zokutya igqithile kumgangatho wokhuseleko phantsi komthetho iFederal Food, iziyobisi, kunye noMthetho wezithambiso." Eli nyathelo laye laphendula kwisikhalazo sesibhengezo kwiBhunga lezoKhuselo lweNdalo kunye neNkqubo yokuSebenza kweZibulala-zinambuzane.

Ngo-Novemba ngo-2016, i-EPA ikhuphe ifayile ye- Uvavanyo oluhlaziyiweyo lomngcipheko wempilo yabantu kwi-chlorpyrifos eqinisekisa ukuba ayikhuselekanga ukuvumela imichiza ukuba iqhubeke isetyenziswa kwezolimo. Phakathi kwezinye izinto, i-EPA ithe konke ukuvezwa kokutya kunye nokusela kwamanzi bekungakhuselekanga, ngakumbi kubantwana abaneminyaka emi-1-2 ubudala. I-EPA ithe ukuvalwa kuya kwenzeka ngo-2017.

I-Trump EPA ilibazisa ukuvalwa

Ukulandela unyulo lukaDonald Trump njengoMongameli wase-United States, isindululo se-chlorpyrifos sanqunyanyiswa. Ngo-Matshi 2017, ngo enye yezenzo zakhe zokuqala ezisesikweni njengegosa lesizwe kwezendalo, uMlawuli we-EPA uScott Pruitt wasikhaba isicelo ngamaqela ezendalo kwaye ukuthintela i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe kuqhubeke.

I-Associated Press ingxelo ngo-Juni 2017 ukuba uPruitt wadibana ne-CEO ye-Dow u-Andrew Liveris kwiintsuku ezingama-20 ngaphambi kokumisa ukuvalwa. Imithombo yeendaba ikwachaze ukuba uDow igalelo $ 1 yezigidi kwimisebenzi yokuvulwa kukaTrump.

NgoFebruwari ka-2018, i-EPA ifikelele kwisivumelwano esifuna iSyngenta ukuhlawula isohlwayo se- $ 150,000 kunye nokuqeqesha amafama ekusebenziseni i-pesticide emva kokuba inkampani isilele ukulumkisa abasebenzi ukuba baphephe amasimi apho kutshizwe i-chlorpyrifos kunye nabasebenzi abangena emasimini bagula kwaye ufuna unyango. I-Obama EPA ekuqaleni yayiphakamise isohlwayo phantse amaxesha asithoba amakhulu.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwihlabathi liphela, uCorteva AgriScience (eyayisakuba yiDowDuPont) yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos, kodwa ikhemikhali ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olupapashwe ngoJulayi 2020, abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga e-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika iminyaka. Uhlalutyo lwabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington luye lwathi iziphumo ezingachanekanga zisisiphumo sophando lwe-dosing olwenziwe kwii-1970s zakuqala ze-Dow.

NgoSeptemba 2020 i-EPA yakhupha eyesithathu vavanyo lo mngcipheko kwi-chlorpyrifos, isithi "ngaphandle kweminyaka eliqela yokufunda, ukuphononongwa koontanga, kunye nenkqubo yoluntu, isayensi ejongene neziphumo zophuhliso lophuhliso ihlala ingasonjululwanga," kwaye isenokusetyenziswa kwimveliso yokutya.

Isigqibo siza emva iintlanganiso ezininzi phakathi kwe-EPA kunye neCorteva.

Amaqela kunye namazwe amangalela i-EPA

Ukulandela isigqibo solawulo lukaTrump sokulibazisa nakuphi na ukuthintelwa kude kube ubuncinci ngo-2022, i-Pesticide Action Network kunye neBhunga lezoKhuselo lweNdalo ufake isimangalo ngokuchasene ne-EPA ngo-Epreli 2017, efuna ukunyanzela urhulumente ukuba alandele kunye nezindululo zolawulo luka-Obama zokuthintela i-chlorpyrifos. Nge-Agasti ka-2018, umanyano Inkundla yezibheno ifunyenwe ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetyenziswa kwe-chlorpyrifos, kwaye yayalela i-EPA ukuba iqukumbele isibhengezo sayo esicetywayo kwithuba leenyanga ezimbini. Emva koko ukulibaziseka okungakumbi, Umlawuli we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler wabhengeza ngoJulayi 2019 ukuba i-EPA ngekhe ayivimbe imichiza.

Amazwe aliqela athe amangalela i-EPA ngenxa yokusilela kwayo ukuvala ii-chlorpyrifos, kubandakanya iCalifornia, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Vermont kunye Oregon. Amazwe aphikisana namaxwebhu enkundla ukuba ii-chlorpyrifos kufuneka zithintelwe kwimveliso yokutya ngenxa yeengozi ezinxulumene nayo.

Ubulungisa bomhlaba buye bafaka isimangalo kwiNkundla yeziBheno yaseMelika kwiNkundla yesithoba yeesekethe Ukufuna ukuvalwa kwelizwe lonke egameni lamaqela athethelela ezendalo, abasebenzi basezifama kunye nabantu abakhubazekileyo ekufundeni.

Izifundo zonyango kunye nezenzululwazi

Uphuhliso lweeurotoxicity

“Izifundo zesifo esiqwalaselwe apha zichaze unxibelelwano ngokwezibalo phakathi kokuvezwa kokubeleka kwi-CPF [chlorpyrifos] kunye neengxaki zemithambo-luvo nasemva kokubeleka, ngakumbi ukusilela kwengqondo okuhambelana nokunxulunyaniswa nokuthembeka kobume bengqondo…. Amaqela ophando ahamba phambili kwihlabathi liphela abonakalise ngokungaguqukiyo ukuba i-CPF yiprojotoxicant ekhulayo. Ukuphuhliswa kwe-CPF ye-neurotoxicity, exhaswa kakuhle zizifundo ezisebenzisa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezilwanyana, iindlela zokuvezwa, izithuthi, kunye neendlela zovavanyo, zihlala zibonakaliswa kukusilela kwengqondo kunye nokuphazamiseka kwesidima sobuchopho. ” Uphuhliso lwe-neurotoxicity ye-organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: ukusuka kwiziphumo zeklinikhi ukuya kwiimodeli zangaphambi kwendlela kunye neendlela ezinokubakho. Ijenali yeNeurochemistry, 2017.

"Ukusukela ngo-2006, uphononongo lwe-epidemiological luye lwadwelisa ezinye ii-neurotoxicants zophuhliso ezongezelelweyo-i-manganese, i-fluoride, i-chlorpyrifos, i-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i-tetrachlorethylene, kunye ne-diphenyl ether ene-polybrominated." Iziphumo ze-Neurobehavioural yetyhefu yophuhliso. I-Lancet Neurology, ngo-2014.

I-IQ yabantwana kunye nokukhula kwengqondo

Uvavanyo lwe-longitudinal lokuzalwa kweqela loomama abaphakathi esixekweni kunye nabantwana bafumanisa ukuba "ukubonakaliswa okuphezulu kokubeleka kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], njengoko kulinganiswa ngentambo yegazi leplasma, kwakudityaniswa nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo kwii-indices ezimbini ezahlukeneyo ze-WISC-IV, kwisampulu yedolophu. abantwana abambalwa baneminyaka esixhenxe ubudala… i-Working Memory Index yayiyeyona inxulumene kakhulu nokubonakaliswa kwe-CPF kwabahlali. ” Isikolo seminyaka esixhenxe seNeurodevelopmental Scores kunye nokuBoniswa ngaphambi kokubeleka kwiChlorpyrifos, isiQinisekiso esiQhelekileyo sezoLimo.. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2011.

Isifundo seqela lokuzalwa kwiintsapho zabasebenzi basezifama ikakhulu eLatino eCalifornia ezinxulumene nemetabolite ye-organophosphate pesticides efumaneka kumchamo kubafazi abakhulelweyo abanamanqaku ahluphekayo kubantwana babo kwimemori, isantya sokulungisa, ukuqonda ngomlomo, ukuqonda okuqiqayo kunye ne-IQ. “Iziphumo zethu zicebisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwangaphambi kokubeleka kwi-OP [organophosphate] yezibulali zinambuzane, njengoko kulinganiswa nge-urap ye-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] metabolites kwabasetyhini ngexesha lokukhulelwa, kunxulunyaniswa nobuchule obuhlwempuzekileyo bokuqonda kubantwana abaneminyaka esi-7 ubudala. Abantwana abakwinqanaba eliphezulu kakhulu koxinzelelo lwe-DAP yoomama babenentsilelo yomndilili wamanqaku e-7.0 IQ xa kuthelekiswa nalawo akweyona quintile isezantsi. Unxibelelwano lwalungenanto, kwaye sasingaboni mda. ” Ukubonakaliswa ngaphambi kokubeleka kwi-Organophosphate Pesticides kunye ne-IQ yaBantwana abaneminyaka eli-7 ubudala. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2011.

Ukufundwa kweqela labasetyhini kunye nokufunyanwa kwabantwana babo "kuphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwangaphambi kokubeleka kwi-organophosphates kunxulunyaniswa kakubi nokukhula kwengqondo, ngakumbi ukuqonda okuqinisekileyo, kunye nobungqina beziphumo eziqala kwiinyanga ezili-12 kunye nokuqhubeka kubuntwana." Ukubonakaliswa ngaphambi kokuzalwa kwi-Organophosphates, iParaoxonase 1, kunye noPhuhliso lweCognitive ebuntwaneni. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2011.

Ukufundwa kweqela elifunekayo labantu abaphakathi esixekweni kufumanise ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu okuvezwa yi-chlorpyrifos “bafumana, ngokomndilili, amanqaku angama-6.5 asezantsi kwi-Bayley Psychomotor Development Index kunye ne-3.3 yamanqaku asezantsi kwi-Bayley Mental Development Index kwiminyaka emi-3 ubudala nabo banamanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa. Abantwana bavelele kumanqanaba aphezulu, xa kuthelekiswa namanqanaba asezantsi e-chlorpyrifos nabo banamathuba amahle okufumana i-Psychomotor Development Index kunye nokulibaziseka kwe-Index yoPhuculo lwengqondo, iingxaki zokunaka, ukunqongophala kwengqondo / iingxaki zengxaki yokuchaphazeleka, kunye neengxaki zokukhula ezichaphazela ukukhula kwiminyaka emithathu ubudala. Iziphumo zePrenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure kwiNeurodevelopment kwiminyaka emi-3 yokuQala yoBomi phakathi kwaBantwana beSixeko. Ijenali yeAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Isifundo seqela elide lokuzalwa kwindawo yezolimo eCalifornia yandisa "iziphumo zangaphambili zemibutho phakathi kwe-PON1 genotype kunye namanqanaba e-enzyme kunye nemimandla ethile ye-neurodevelopment ukuya kubudala besikolo, ebonisa ubungqina obutsha bokuba imibutho emibi phakathi kwamanqanaba e-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kunye ne-IQ inokuba yomeleleyo kubantwana boomama abanamanqanaba asezantsi e-PON1 enzyme. ” Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate pesticide, i-PON1, kunye ne-neurodevelopment kubantwana abakwiminyaka yesikolo kwisifundo se-CHAMACOS. UPhando lwezeNdalo, 2014.

Autism kunye nezinye iingxaki ze-neurodevelopmental

Uphononongo lolawulo lwamatyala oluntu lubonisa ukuba, "Ukubeleka ngaphambi kokubeleka okanye ukusana kwabantwana kwipriori ekhethiweyo yokubulala izitshabalalisi-kubandakanya i-glyphosate, i-chlorpyrifos, i-diazinon, kunye ne-permethrin-zinxulunyaniswa namathuba okonyuka kwesifo se-autism." Ukuvezwa kokubeleka ngaphambi kokuzalwa komntwana nosana kwizibulala-zinambuzane ezijikelezayo kunye nokuphazamiseka kwengqondo kubantwana: isifundo esisekwe kuluntu. I-BMJ, 2019.

Uphononongo lokulawulwa kwamatyala oluntu "luqwalasele unxibelelwano oluqinisekileyo phakathi kwe-ASD [ukuphazamiseka kwembonakalo ye-autism] kunye nokuhlala kwindawo engekazalwa kwindawo yokuhlala kwizibulala-zinambuzane ze-organophosphate kwindawo yesibini (yechlorpyrifos) kunye neyesithathu yetrimesters (i-organophosphates iyonke)". Ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo kwi-Neurodevelopmental Disorder kunye nePrenatal Residential Residence of Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: Isifundo se-CHARGE. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2014.

Bona kwakho: Ukurhafisa ibhalansi yomngcipheko we-Autism: Iindlela ezinokubakho zokudibanisa i-Pesticides kunye ne-Autism. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2012.

Ukungafani kobuchopho

"Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba ukubeleka kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos] kokubeleka, kumanqanaba aqatshelweyo ngokusetyenziswa kwesiqhelo (ukungakhathali) nangaphantsi komqobo wayo nayiphi na imiqondiso yokuvezwa kakhulu, kunesiphumo esilinganisekayo kubume bengqondo kwisampulu yabantwana abangama-40 5.9-11.2 y of ubudala. Sifumene ukungaqheleki okubonakalayo kumanyathelo e-morphological of the cerebral surface ahambelana nokuvezwa okuphezulu kokubeleka kwe-CPF… .Ukonyuselwa kwendawo yommandla wobuchwephesha kugqityiwe kwaye babekwe kwindawo ephezulu yethutyana, esemva kwexesha eliphakathi, kunye ne-gyri yangaphambi kwexesha eliphambili, nakwi-gyrus ephezulu yangaphambili. , i-gyrus rectus, i-cuneus, kunye ne-precuneus ecaleni kodonga lwe-mesial ye-hemisphere yasekunene ”. Ukuchaphazeleka kobuchopho ebantwaneni kubhencwa ngokukhethekileyo kwimbumba yokubulala izitshabalalisi ye-organophosphate. Iinkqubo zeSizwe seSizwe seSayensi, 2012.

Ukukhula komntwana

Olu phononongo "lubone umanyano olubaluleke kakhulu oluguqulweyo phakathi kwamanqanaba e-umbilical cord chlorpyrifos kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude bokuzalwa phakathi kweentsana ezikweli qela langoku lizalwe ngaphambi komthetho we-EPA wase-US ukuphelisa ukusetyenziswa kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane." I-Biomarkers kuvavanyo lokuchazwa kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunye nefuthe ekukhuleni komntwana. I-Toxicology kunye ne-Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Okucetywayo, isifundo seqela lamaqela eentlanga ezininzi safumanisa ukuba “xa kuthathelwa ingqalelo inqanaba lomsebenzi woomama we-PON1, amanqanaba oomama be-chlorpyrifos ngaphezulu komda wokubhaqa odityaniswa nomsebenzi ophantsi woomama we-PON1 unxulunyaniswa nophungulo olubalulekileyo kodwa oluncinci kwisangqa sentloko. Ukongeza, amanqanaba e-PON1 oomama kuphela, kodwa hayi i-PON1 yemvelo polymorphisms, enxulunyaniswa nobungakanani bentloko encitshisiweyo. Ngenxa yokuba ubukhulu obuncinci bentloko bufunyaniswe buxela kwangaphambili amandla okuqonda, ezi datha zibonisa ukuba i-chlorpyrifos inokuba nefuthe elibi kuphuhliso lwe-neurodevelopment koomama ababonisa imisebenzi ephantsi ye-PON1. Ukuvezwa kwe-Utero Pesticide, Umsebenzi woomama weParaoxonase, kunye nokujikeleza kweNtloko. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, 2003.

Uphononongo lweqela elifunekayo loomama abambalwa kunye neentsana zabo ezisanda kuzalwa "ziqinisekisa iziphumo zethu zangaphambili zonxibelelwano olungenanto phakathi kwamanqanaba e-chlorpyrifos kwi-umbilical cord plasma kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude… Ngapha koko, ubudlelwane bempendulo yedosi buye babonwa kwisifundo esikhoyo. Ngokukodwa, unxibelelwano phakathi kwentambo ye-plasma chlorpyrifos kunye nokwehla kobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude kwafunyanwa ikakhulu kubantwana abasandul 'ukuzalwa benamaqondo aphezulu okuvezwa. ” Ukuvezwa kokubulala izinambuzane ngaphambi kokubeleka kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude phakathi kweQela eliNcinci laseDolophini. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2004.

Umhlaza wemiphunga  

Kuvavanyo lwabangaphezulu kwama-54,000 abafaka izicelo zezibulali zinambuzane kwiSifundo seMpilo sezoLimo, oososayensi kwiNational Cancer Institute baxele ukuba izehlo zomhlaza wemiphunga zinxulunyaniswa nokuvezwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. "Kolu hlalutyo lweziganeko zomhlaza phakathi kwe-chlorpyrifos-eveze isicelo se-pesticides eNorth Carolina nase-Iowa, safumana imeko ebonakalayo yokwanda komngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga, kodwa hayi kuwo nawuphi na omnye umhlaza ovavanyiweyo, ngokunyuka kwe-chlorpyrifos." Iziganeko zomhlaza phakathi kwabafaki zicelo zezibulali-zinambuzane ezivezwe kwiiChlorpyrifos kwisifundo seMpilo yezoLimo. Ijenali yeZiko loMhlaza leSizwe, 2004.

Isifo sikaParkinson

Uhlolisiso lolawulo lwamatyala lwabantu abahlala kwiCentral Valley yaseCalifornia baxela ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungagungqiyo kwi-36 ye-organophosphate pesticides ngokwahlukeneyo kwandisa umngcipheko wokuba nesifo sika-Parkinson. Uphononongo "longeza ubungqina obuqinileyo" bokuthi i-organophosphate pesticides "iyanyanzeliswa" kwi-etiology yesifo se-idiopathic Parkinson. Umanyano phakathi kokuvezwa okukuko kwi-organophosphates kunye nomngcipheko wesifo sika-Parkinson. Umsebenzi kunye noNyango lokusiNgqongileyo, 2014.

Iziphumo zokuzalwa

Iqela labazali abahlukeneyo abakhulelweyo kunye neentsana zifumene ukuba i-chlorpyrifos “yayanyaniswa nokwehla kobunzima bokuzalwa kunye nobude bokuzalwa ngokubanzi (p = 0.01 kunye p = 0.003, ngokulandelanayo) kunye nobunzima bokuzalwa obuncinci phakathi kwama-Afrika aseMelika (p = 0.04) kunye nobude obuncitshisiweyo bokuzalwa eDominican (p <0.001) ". Iziphumo zokuBonakaliswa kweTransplacental ekungcoleni kwendalo esingqongileyo kwiziphumo zokuzalwa kubemi abahlukeneyo. Iimbono zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, ngo-2003.

Ukuphazamiseka kwe-Neuroendocrine

"Ngokuhlalutya kweendlela zokuziphatha zesini-dimorphic ezinzima sibonisa ukuba imisebenzi ye-neurotoxic kunye ne-endocrine ephazamisa imisebenzi ye-CPF [chlorpyrifos] iyadibana. Le ntsholongwane isasazeke ngokubanzi kwi-organophosphorus ye-pesticide inokuthi ithathelwe ingqalelo njengesiphazamiso se-neuroendocrine ekunokwenzeka ukuba sibeke umngcipheko wokuphazamiseka kwesini kubantwana. ” Isimilo sokuziphatha kwe-dimorphic njengophawu lokuphazamiseka kwe-neuroendocrine ngamachiza okusingqongileyo: Ityala le-chlorpyrifos. NeuroToxicology, 2012.

Ukugubha

"Iziphumo ezikhoyo zibonisa ukuba abantwana abasesichengeni sokukhulelwa ngaphambi kwexesha kokubeleka kwii-chlorpyrifos babesengozini yokubonisa ukungcangcazela okuphakathi okanye okuphakathi kwingalo enye okanye zozibini xa kuvavanywa phakathi kweminyaka eyi-9 ne-13.9 yeminyaka yobudala…. Sidibene kunye, ubungqina obukhulayo bubonisa ukuba ukuba sesichengeni kokubeleka ngaphambi kokubeleka kwi-CPF [i-chlorpyrifos], kumanqanaba asetyenziswayo ngoku, kunxulunyaniswa nothotho lweengxaki ezingapheliyo kunye neziphathelene nophuhliso. ” Ukuvezwa komntwana ngaphambi kokubeleka kwi-organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos kunye nokunyikima kwabantwana. NeuroToxicology, 2015.

Iindleko ze-chlorpyrifos

Uqikelelo lweendleko zokuvezwa kweekhemikhali ezonakalisa i-endocrine kwi-European Union zifumanise ukuba "ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate kunxulunyaniswa nesigidi se-13.0 (uhlalutyo lobuntununtunu, i-4.24 yezigidi ukuya kwi-17.1 yezigidi) ilahle amanqaku e-IQ kunye nama-59 300 (uhlalutyo lobuntununtunu, i-16 500 ukuya kuma-84 400) amatyala ukukhubazeka ngokwasengqondweni, ngexabiso le- € 146 yezigidigidi (uhlalutyo lobuntununtunu, i-46.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi- € 194 yezigidigidi). ” Ukusilela kwe-Neurobehaisheral, Izifo, kunye neNdleko eziHlangeneyo zokuBhengeza i-Endocrine-Ukuphazamisa iiKhemikhali kwi-European Union.. Ijenali ye-Clinical Endocrinology kunye neMetabolism, 2015.

Idlala lengqula kwiimpuku

"Uphononongo lwangoku lubonakalise ukuba ukubhencwa kweempuku ze-CD1, ngexesha leefestile ezibalulekileyo zangaphambi kokubeleka naphambi kokubeleka, kwi-CPF [chlorpyrifos] kumanqanaba edosi angaphantsi kwalawo athintela ubuchopho be-AchE, kunokubangela utshintsho kwidlala lengqula." Ukuvezwa koPhuculo lweChlorpyrifos kukhuthaza ukuTshintsha kweNqanaba leTyroid kunye neeHormone zeHormone ngaphandle kwezinye Iimpawu zeTyhefu kwiCd1 iimpuku. Inzululwazi yeTyhefu, ngo-2009.

Iingxaki ngezifundo zeshishini

“Ngo-Matshi 1972, uFrederick Coulston kunye nabalingane bakhe eAlbany Medical College banike ingxelo ngeziphumo ze-chlorpyrifos dosing study kumxhasi wesifundo, i-Dow Chemical Company. Ingxelo yabo iqukumbele ngelithi i-0.03 mg / kg-imini yayiyinqanaba elingapheliyo elingalindelwanga-inqanaba lesiphumo (NOAEL) se-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Sibonisa apha ukuba uhlalutyo olululo lwendlela yoqobo yeenkcukacha-manani bekufanele ukuba lufumene i-NOAEL esezantsi (i-0.014 mg / kg-day), kwaye ukusetyenziswa kweendlela zobalo ezifumaneka okokuqala kwi-1982 bekuya kubonisa ukuba nelona dosi lisezantsi kuphononongo isiphumo sonyango. Uhlalutyo lwantlandlolo, olwenziwe ngabasebenzi beenkcukacha-manani abaqeshwe nguDow, khange baphonononge oontanga ngokusesikweni; Nangona kunjalo, i-EPA ikhankanye isifundo saseCoulston njengophando oluthembekileyo kwaye yagcina ingxelo yayo NOAEL njengendawo yokuhamba kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's. Ngeli xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliswe kwiindawo zokuhlala ezininzi ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali-zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kunokubeka uluntu engozini ngokungeyomfuneko. ” Uhlalutyo olungalunganga lwesifundo sedosi esenziwe ngabom kunye nefuthe laso kuvavanyo lomngcipheko we-chlorpyrifos. Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, 2020.

"Kuphononongo lwethu lwedatha ekrwada yesibulala-zinambuzane, i-chlorpyrifos, kunye nenye into ehambelana nayo, kuye kwafunyanwa ukungangqinelani phakathi kokuqwalaselweyo kunye nezigqibo ezenziweyo luvavanyo lwengxelo kwingxelo engenisiweyo yokugunyazisa isibulali zinambuzane." Ukhuseleko kuVandlakanyo loKhuseleko lwee-Pesticides: ukukhula kwe-neurotoxicity ye-chlorpyrifos kunye ne-chlorpyrifos-methyl. IMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo, i-2018.

Amanye amaphepha enyaniso

Iziko laseHarvard Kennedy School eShorenstein: Isinambuzane esiphikisayo kunye nefuthe laso ekukhuleni kwengqondo: Uphando kunye nezixhobo

IYunivesithi yaseHarvard: Eyona yezibulala-zinambuzane isetyenziswa ngokubanzi, emva konyaka omnye

Umhlaba: I-Chlorpyrifos: Isibulala-zinambuzane esinetyhefu esenzakalisa abantwana bethu kunye nokusingqongileyo

Iqela leSierra: Abantwana kunye neChlorpyrifos

Ubuntatheli kunye neMbono

Ukucingwa nguBradley Peterson, ngokuQhubeka kweZiko leSayensi leSizwe; ENew York Times

Ilifa likaTrump: Iingqondo ezonakalisiweyo, nguNicholas Kristof, ENew York Times. “Isibulali zinambuzane, esisodidi lweekhemikhali eziveliswe njengegesi yemithambo-luvo eyenziwe yiJamani yamaNazi, ngoku zifumaneka ekutyeni, emoyeni nasemanzini okusela. Izifundo zabantu nezilwanyana zibonisa ukuba zonakalisa ingqondo kwaye zinciphisa ii-IQ ngelixa zibangela ukungcangcazela kwabantwana. ”

Khusela iingqondo zabantwana bethu, nguSharon Lerner, ENew York Times. Ukusetyenziswa okuxhaphakileyo kwe-chlorpyrifos kukhomba kwinto yokuba ayilulo uhlobo lweekhemikhali olonzakalisa wonke umntu odibana nalo- okanye olubangela ukuba bawe phantsi. Endaweni yoko, uphando lubonisa ukwanda komngcipheko wokubandezeleka ngenxa yeengxaki ezithile zophuhliso ezithi, nangona zingabalulekanga kangako, zikwanyamezele.

Isiqhamo seTyhefu: IDow Chemical ifuna amafama ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenzisa i-Pesticide edityaniswe ne-Autism kunye ne-ADHD, NguSharon Lerner, uMmiselo. “IDow, inkampani enkulu yemichiza enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi lechlorpyrifos kwaye isenza uninzi lweemveliso ezinayo, ibuphikisile ubungqina bezenzululwazi obandayo bokuba i-blockbuster chemical iyabenzakalisa abantwana. Kodwa ingxelo karhulumente ikubeke kwacaca ukuba i-EPA ngoku iyayamkela inzululwazi ezimeleyo ebonisa ukuba iyeza lokubulala izinambuzane elalisetyenziselwa ukukhulisa ukutya kwethu okuninzi alikhuselekanga. ”

Xa idatha eyaneleyo ingonelanga ukwenza umgaqo-nkqubo: Ukusilela ukunqanda i-chlorpyrifos, NguLeonardo Trasande, PLOS Biology. “Izazinzulu zinoxanduva lokuthetha xa abenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo besilela ukwamkela idatha yesayensi. Kufuneka bachaze ngokucacileyo ukusilela kwemigaqo-nkqubo, nokuba ezinye zezinto ezisisiseko zenzululwazi zihlala zingaqinisekanga. ”

Kungavalwanga Njani Ukuthintelwa kwezi zinambuzane? yibhodi yabahleli yeThe New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuba yi-chlorpyrifos ngokuqinisekileyo siyingozi kwaye sisetyenziswa kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ukuba kudlula ngokulula ukusuka kumama kuye emntwaneni kwaye kunxulunyaniswe kuluhlu olubanzi lweengxaki zonyango ezinzulu, kubandakanya nokukhula kakuhle, isifo sikaParkinson kunye nezinye iindlela zomhlaza. Ayothusi loo nto. Iikhemikhali yaveliswa ekuqaleni ngamaNazi ngexesha leMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi ukuze isetyenziswe njengegesi yovalo. Nantsi into eyothusayo: Iitoni zesibulali zinambuzane zisafafazwa kwizigidi zeehektare zase-United States minyaka le, phantse iminyaka emihlanu emva kokuba i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo ifanele ivalwe. ”

Esi sibulali zinambuzane sisondele kakhulu kwiiarhente zemithambo-luvo ezisetyenziswe kwiMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi. I-EPA kaTrump ayikhathali, NguJoseph G. Allen, Washington Post. Into esiyaziyo nge-chlorpyrifos iyothusa. Mhlawumbi esona sifundo saziwa kakhulu sesinye senziwe ngabaphandi kwiYunivesithi yaseColumbia abenze ingqondo yokucinga ngengqondo yabantwana abancinci abanesifo esiphezulu se-chlorpyrifos. Iziphumo ziyothusa kwaye azicacanga. Ngokwamagama abaphengululi: "Olu phononongo luchaza imibutho ebalulekileyo yokuchaphazeleka kokubeleka kokubeleka kwindawo esetyenziswa ngokubanzi ye-neurotoxicant, kumanqanaba okusetyenziswa okuqhelekileyo, notshintsho kulwakhiwo kwingqondo yomntu ekhulayo."

Ityala elomeleleyo ngokuchasene neyeza lokubulala izinambuzane alinakuthintela i-EPA phantsi kweTrump, NguRoni Caryn Robin, New York Times. Uvavanyo oluhlaziyiweyo lomngcipheko wempilo yabantu oluqulunqwe yi-EPA ngo-Novemba lufumanise ukuba iingxaki zempilo bezisenzeka kumanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa kunokuba bekukholelwa ukuba kuyingozi. Iintsana, abantwana, amantombazana amancinci kunye nabasetyhini bavezwa kwinqanaba eliyingozi le-chlorpyrifos ngokutya kuphela, itsho iarhente. Abantwana bachanabeke kumanqanaba okufikelela kuma-140 umda wokhuseleko. ”

Iintsana zikhulu emva kokuvalwa kwe-2 yezibulali zinambuzane, uPhononongo ufumanisa, NguRichard Pérez-Peña, ENew York Times. "Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo kumantla eManhattan ababesengozini yokubulawa ziintsholongwane ezibini eziqhelekileyo babeneentsana ezincinci kunabamelwane babo, kodwa izithintelo zakutshanje kwezi zinto zimbini zanciphisa ukubhencwa kunye nokwandisa ubungakanani beentsana, ngokophando olupapashiweyo namhlanje."

Ityhefu Yithi, nguTimothy Egan, New York Times. “Xa uluma kwisiqwengana sesiqhamo, kufanele ukuba kube kukuzonwabisa okungenangqondo. Ngokuqinisekileyo, loo sitrobheli ijongeka njenge-steroidal ene-toothpaste-emhlophe yangaphakathi ayibonakali ilungile ukuqala. Kodwa akufuneki ucinge malunga nokukhula kwengqondo yobuntwana xa uyibeka kwisiriyeli yakho. Ulawulo lukaTrump, ngokubeka iicadies zeshishini leekhemikhali phakathi kokutya kunye nokhuseleko loluntu, lunyanzelise uvavanyo olutsha lesidlo sakusasa kunye nezinye iindlela ezingafanelekanga ukuba zoyike. ”

Kwisitya sakho sokutya kunye nasemzimbeni wakho: Eyona nto iyingozi kakhulu yokubulala izinambuzane ongazange uve ngayo, Ngu-Staffan Dahllöf, Uphando lweNgxelo eDenmark. Isiphumo esinetyhefu se-chlorpyrifos kwizinambuzane asiphikiswa. Umbuzo ongasonjululwanga kukuba ingaba ukusebenzisa ichlorpyrifos kuyingozi kangakanani kuyo yonke into ephilayo efana neentlanzi ezikufuphi namanzi okanye abasebenzi basezifama emasimini, okanye kuye nakubani na otya iimveliso ezinyangiweyo. ”

I-Neurotoxins kwi-broccoli yomntwana wakho: bubomi obuphantsi kukaTrump, NguCarey Gillam, uMgcini. “Ixabiseke kangakanani impilo yomntwana wakho? Impendulo evela kubunkokheli be-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US yile: ayisiyonto ingako… Ke ngoku silapha-sinenkxalabo yezenzululwazi ngokhuseleko lwabantwana bethu abamsulwa nabasesichengeni kwelinye icala kwaye benamandla, bezizityebi abadlala inxaxheba kwelinye. Iinkokheli zethu zopolitiko nezolawulo zibonise ukuba zeziphi ezona zinto bazithandayo. ”

Inambuzane eQhelekileyo inokuchaphazela amaBongo amaKhwenkwe kunamantombazana, Ngu-Brett Israel, Iindaba zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo. “Kumakhwenkwe, ukubhencwa kwi-chlorpyrifos esibelekweni kwakuyanyaniswa amanqaku asezantsi kwiimvavanyo zeememori zexesha elifutshane xa kuthelekiswa namantombazana abekwe kwizixa ezifanayo.

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