Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

IZENZO ZONYANGO

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

Imvelaphi: IDicamba ibisetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo1960 kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude nalapho itshizwe khona. Xa imveliso yokhula yokubulala ukhula eMonsanto, efana neRoundup, yaqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza kwayo ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa imbewu enganyamezelaniyo ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.