Kutheni siphanda ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iilebhu ezikhuselekileyo kunye nophando lwe-GOF

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NgoJulayi 2020, i-US Right to Know yaqala ukungenisa izicelo zerekhodi zikarhulumente ekufuneni idatha evela kumaziko oluntu kumzamo wokufumanisa into eyaziwayo malunga nemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ebangela isifo Covid-19. Ukusukela oko kwaqhambuka eWuhan, i-SARS-CoV-2 ibulele ngaphezulu kwesigidi sabantu, ngelixa igulisa izigidi ezingakumbi kubhubhane wehlabathi oqhubeka nokuvela.

Sikwenza uphando ngeengozi, ukuvuza kunye nokunye ukwenzakala kwiilebhu apho kugcinwa khona izifo ezinokubangela ubhubhane kwaye ziguqulwe, kunye nemingcipheko yezempilo yoluntu yokufumana-umsebenzi (GOF) yophando, ebandakanya amalinge ukuphucula imeko yokusebenza kweentsholongwane ezibulalayo. , Njengobungakanani bentsholongwane, usulelo kunye nokusasazeka.

Uluntu kunye noluntu lwenzululwazi lwehlabathi banelungelo lokwazi ukuba yeyiphi idatha ekhoyo malunga nale micimbi. Siza kunika ingxelo apha naziphi na iziphumo eziluncedo ezinokuvela kuphando lwethu.

Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi liqela lophando eliphambili elijolise ekukhuthazeni ukungafihli kwempilo yoluntu.

Kutheni siqhuba olu phando?

Sixhalabile kukuba izixhobo zokhuseleko lukazwelonke e-United States, China nakwezinye iindawo, kunye neyunivesithi, ushishino namashishini asebenzisana nawo, azinakho ukunika umfanekiso opheleleyo nonyanisekileyo ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 kunye neengozi yophando-lomsebenzi.

Ngophando lwethu, sifuna ukuphendula imibuzo emithathu:

  • Yintoni eyaziwayo malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2?
  • Ngaba zikhona iingozi okanye iingozi ezithe zenzeka kwi-biosafety okanye kumaziko ophando e-GOF angakhange axelwe?
  • Ngaba kukho iinkxalabo malunga nomngcipheko oqhubekayo wokhuseleko lweelebhu zokukhusela izilwanyana okanye uphando lwe-GOF olungakhange luxelwe?

Yintoni imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2?

Ekupheleni kukaDisemba 2019, kwisixeko saseWuhan, e-China, kwavela iindaba ngesifo esosulelayo esibulalayo esibizwa ngokuba yi-COVID-19, ebangelwa yi-SARS-CoV-2, inoveli coronavirus eyayingaziwa ngaphambili. Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 ayaziwa. Zimbini iingcinga eziphambili.

Abaphandi kuthungelwano lobungcali olunxulunyaniswa ne IZiko leNzululwazi yeWuhan (WIV) kunye Umanyano lwe-EcoHealth, i-US engenzi nzuzo ine Izigidi zeerandi zifumene kwizibonelelo ezihlawulwa ngumhlawuli werhafu ukuba sebenzisana no I-WIV kuphando lwe-coronavirus, unayo Bha liweyo ukuba intsholongwane yenoveli kunokwenzeka ukuba ivele ngokhetho lwendalo kwimikhosi yezilwanyana, nge indawo yokugcina izilwanyana. lo "Zoonotic" imvelaphi I-hypothesis yomelezwa ngakumbi ngu mabango Ukuqhambuka kwe-coronavirus entsha kuqale "Izilwanyana zasendle" kwimarike eWuhan, the Imarike yokutya kwaselwandle yaseHuanan, apho kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuthengiswe izilwanyana ezinokosuleleka. (Nangona kunjalo, ubuncinci isinye kwisithathu seqela lokuqala lezigulana ezosulelekileyo, kubandakanya imeko yokuqala yokwasuleleka ukusukela nge-1 kuDisemba ngo-2019, babengenalo nqo ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngokungathanga ngqo kwimarike yokutya kwaselwandle yabantu kunye nezilwanyana.)

I-zoonosis hypothesis okwangoku yeyona nto ixhaphakileyo yemvelaphi. Nangona kunjalo, imvelaphi ye-zoonotic ye-SARS-CoV-2 inayo okwangoku iya kusekwa ngokuqinisekileyo, kwaye abanye abaphandi baxele ukuba ixhomekeke ephikisanayo izimvo ukuba zifuna ukuqhubeka kophando.

Ukuqhubeka kokufunda kwezi zihloko, jonga uluhlu lwethu lokufunda: Yintoni imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2? Yeyiphi imingcipheko yophando lomsebenzi?

Ezinye izazinzulu ziphakamise umbono ohlukileyo wemvelaphi; Bacinga ukuba i-SARS-CoV-2 sisiphumo se ngengozi ukukhutshwa kohlobo lwasendle okanye ilab-modified ubunzima bento enxulumene ngokusondeleyo Intsholongwane efana ne-SARS ebigcinwe kumaziko akhusela izinto eziphilayo eqhuba uphando lwe-coronavirus eWuhan, njenge-WIV okanye iZiko laseWuhan loLawulo noKuthintela izifo.

Ngokubalulekileyo, imeko yemvelaphi yelabhoratri ayikhupheli ngaphandle i-zoonosis hypothesis kuba i-SARS-CoV-2 inokuba sisiphumo sokulungiswa kwebhu okwenziwe kwiinguqulelo ezingachazwanga ze-bat coronaviruses ezingafunekiyo zigcinwe kwi-WIV, okanye ukuqokelelwa kunye nokugcinwa kwezi coronaviruses. abahlalutyi Iimvelaphi zelebhu-yemvelaphi ziye zayichitha le mibono njenge Iingqikelelo ezingenabungqina kwaye iingcamango zobuqhetseba.

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, kukho hayi ngokwaneleyo ubungqina ukwala ngokuqinisekileyo nayiphi na imvelaphi yezoonotic okanye imvelaphi yeelebhu-imvelaphi. Siyazi, ngokusekwe kumanqaku ophando apapashiweyo kunye Izibonelelo zikarhulumente wase-US kwi-EcoHealth Alliance yokuxhasa ngemali uphando lwe-coronavirus ye-WIV, ukuba i-WIV zigcinwe Amakhulu e-SARS anokuba yingozi njenge-coronaviruses, kwaye ayenziwa Uvavanyo lwe-GOF kwii-coronaviruses ngokubambisana neeyunivesithi zase-US, kwaye zazikho iinkxalabo malunga nokukhuseleka kunye Ilebhu ye-WIV ye-BSL-4.

Kodwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, akukabikho phicotho-zincwadi luzimeleyo lweerekhodi kunye noovimba beenkcukacha ze-WIV, kwaye ulwazi oluncinci lukhona malunga nokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweWIV. I-WIV isusile kulwazi lwewebhusayithi njenge utyelelo lowama-2018 loonozakuzaku besayensi baseMelika, yaye ivale ukufikelela kwidathabheyisi yayo yentsholongwane kwaye Iirekhodi zaselebhu kuvavanyo lwe-coronavirus oluqhutywa ngoososayensi be-WIV.

Ukuqonda imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 kunefuthe elibalulekileyo lomgaqo-nkqubo kwimpilo yoluntu kunye neenkqubo zokutya. Imvelaphi ye-zoonotic yemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 inyusa imiba malunga nemigaqo-nkqubo ekhuthaza ukwanda kokufama kwemizi-mveliso kunye nemisebenzi yemfuyo, enokuba zezona zinto ziqhuba ukuvela kwenoveli kunye neentsholongwane ezibangela izifo, ukugawulwa kwamahlathi, ukulahleka kwezinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo kunye nokungenelela kwendawo yokuhlala. Inkqubo ye- kwenzeka ukuba i-SARS-CoV-2 inokuthi ivele kwilabhoratri ye-biodefense imiba malunga nokuba besifanele unala maziko, apho kugcinwa khona kwaye kuguqulwe izilingo ze-microbial pathogen ezifumaneka endle.

Nokuba i-SARS-CoV-2 iguqulwe kwilebhu okanye akunjalo, uphando lwelebhu-yemvelaphi-yabaphengululi iphakamisa imibuzo ebalulekileyo malunga nokusilela ekuhleni malunga nophando malunga nezifo ezosulelayo, kunye nezigunyaziso kunye nabadlali abadala ukwanda kwezixhobo zokuthintela ukhuseleko apho iintsholongwane ziyingozi igcinwe kwaye iguqulwe yabenza babulala ngakumbi.

Ngaba inzuzo yokufumana umsebenzi ilungile emngciphekweni?

Kukho into ebalulekileyo ubungqina ukuba iilabhoratri zokukhuseleka zininzi iingozi, ulwaphulo, yaye ukusilela kokuqulatha, kwaye ukuba izibonelelo ezinokubakho zophando-lomsebenzi UCanzibe ungafaneleki le ingozi Yokubangela ubhubhane olunokubakho.

Uphando lwe-GOF lwenkxalabo luguqula kwaye luvavanye izifo ezinobungozi ezinjenge-Ebola, intsholongwane ye-H1N1 yomkhuhlane, kunye ne-coronaviruses ezinxulumene ne-SARS phantsi kwerubriki yokuphuhlisa amanyathelo okulwa namayeza (afana nezitofu zokugonya). Kananjalo, inomdla hayi kuphela i-biotechnology kunye noshishino lwamachiza kodwa nakwi Icandelo lezinto eziphilayo, ejongene nosetyenziso olunokubakho lophando lwe-GOF kwizenzo ze-biowarfare.

Uphando lwe-GOF malunga nezifo ezibulalayo yi ezinkulu kawonke wonke inkxalabo yezempilo. iingxelo yokuvuza ngengozi kunye nokophulwa kwezinto eziphilayo kwiindawo zophando ze-GOF aziqhelekanga. Emva kokuba iqela owaziwayo virologists yapapasha engxamisekileyo Isiteyitimenti sokuvumelana ngoJulayi 14, 2014 ebiza ukumiswa kophando lwe-GOF lokuxhalaba, urhulumente wase-US phantsi kolawulo luka-Mongameli u-Barack Obama wanyanzelisa  "Ikhefu lezezimali" kuvavanyo lwe-GOF olubandakanya ii-pathogen eziyingozi, kubandakanya ii-coronaviruses kunye neentsholongwane zomkhuhlane.

Inkxaso-mali yomanyano kuphando lwe-GOF lokuxhalaba lwaphakanyiswa ngo-2017 emva kwexesha urhulumente wase-US awathatha ngalo uthotho lweengxoxo ukuvavanya izibonelelo kunye nobungozi enxulunyaniswa nezifundo ezibandakanya uphando lwe-GOF lwenkxalabo.

Ukufuna elubala

Sinenkxalabo yokuba idatha ebaluleke kakhulu kumgaqo-nkqubo wezempilo woluntu malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kunye neengozi zeelabhoratri zokukhusela izilwanyana kunye nophando lomsebenzi, zinokufihlwa ngaphakathi kwenethiwekhi ye-biodefense yezixhobo zokhuseleko lwesizwe e-United. Amazwe, iTshayina, nakwezinye iindawo.

Siza kuzama ukunika ukukhanya kule micimbi ngokusetyenziswa kwezicelo zeerekhodi zoluntu. Mhlawumbi siya kuphumelela. Sinokusilela ngokulula. Siza kunika ingxelo ngayo nayiphi na into eluncedo esinokuyifumana.

USainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, sisazinzulu kwezabasebenzi e-US Right to Know nombhali-mbhali wencwadi, "Ukulahleka kweenyosi: iNzululwazi, ezepolitiko kunye neMpilo yobusi”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).