Ukunyaniseka kwezifundo eziphambili kwimvelaphi yecoronavirus ngokungathandabuzekiyo; Ijenali zesayensi eziphanda

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

NguCarey Gillam

ukusukela Ukuqhambuka kwe-COVID-19 Kwisixeko sase-China i-Wuhan ngo-Disemba ka-2019, izazinzulu zikhangele imikhondo malunga nento ekhokelele ekuveleni kwe-arhente ye-causative yayo, inoveli ye-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Ukutyhila imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 kunokuba kubalulekile ekuthinteleni uqhambuko oluzayo.

Uthotho lwe Ne phezulu profile izifundo epapashwe ebutsheni balo nyaka inike ubungqina benzululwazi kwi-hypothesis yokuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ivele kumalulwane emva koko yatsiba ebantwini ngohlobo lwendlwana ebizwa ngokuba yipangolin phakathi kwezona zilwanyana zasendle zithengiswayo. Ngelixa ithiyori ethile ezibandakanya iipangolini bezikhona ikakhulu isaphulelo, izifundo ezine ezaziwa ngokuba "ngamaphepha epangolin" ziyaqhubeka nokubonelela ngenkxaso yombono wokuba ii-coronaviruses zihambelana kakhulu ne-SARS-CoV-2 jikeleza endle, Ithetha ukuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ebangele ukuba i-COVID-19 mhlawumbi ivela kumthombo wezilwanyana zasendle. 

Ujoliso kumthombo wezilwanyana zasendle, ithiyori "yezoonotic", ibe yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwingxoxo yehlabathi malunga nentsholongwane, ikhokelela ekuqwalaselweni koluntu kude inokwenzeka intsholongwane isenokuba yavela ngaphakathi elebhu yaseburhulumenteni yaseTshayina - IZiko leWuhan leVirology.

I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi (i-USRTK) ifundile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba amaphepha amabini kwamane enza isiseko se-zoonotic ithiyori abonakala ngathi aneziphene, kwaye abahleli kwiijenali apho amaphepha apapashwa khona- Izifo ze-PLoS kwaye indalo -Baphanda idatha esisiseko ngasemva kwezifundo kunye nendlela idatha eyahlaziywa ngayo. Ezinye ezimbini ngokufanayo ziyavela jongana neziphene.

Iingxaki zamaphepha ophando ziphakamisa "imibuzo enzulu kunye neenkxalabo" malunga nokunyaniseka kwethiyoriotic yoonotic ngokubanzi, ngokwe UGqirha Sainath Suryanarayanan, isazi sebhayoloji kunye nesosayensi kwezentlalo, kunye nesosayensi yabasebenzi be-USRTK.  Izifundo azinayo idatha ethembekileyo eyaneleyo, iiseti zedatha ezizimeleyo kunye nokuphononongwa okucacileyo koontanga kunye nenkqubo yokuhlela, ngokukaGqirha Suryanarayanan. 

Jonga ii-imeyile zakhe kunye nababhali abaphezulu bamaphepha kunye nabahleli bejenali, kunye nohlalutyo: Indalo kunye ne-PLoS Iipathogens zibonakalisa ubunyani besayensi kwizifundo eziphambili ezidibanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Amagunya orhulumente waseTshayina ndiqale ngokunyusa umbono ukuba umthombo wearhente ye-causal ye-COVID-19 ebantwini uvela kwisilwanyana sasendle ngoDisemba. Izazinzulu ezixhaswe ngurhulumente waseTshayina emva koko zayixhasa loo ithiyori kwizifundo ezine ezahlukeneyo ezingeniswe kwiijenali phakathi kukaFebruwari 7 ukuya ku-18.

IQela lezeManyano lezeMpilo lase China eliphanda ngokuvela kunye nokusasazeka kwe-COVID-19 e-China Kuthethwe ngoFebruwari : "Kuba intsholongwane ye-COVID-19 ine-genome yesazisi engama-96% kwilulwane-njenge-coronavirus ye-SARS kunye ne-86% -92% kwi-pangolin SARS-efana ne-coronavirus, umthombo wezilwanyana we-COVID-19 kunokwenzeka kakhulu." 

Ugxininiso oluqaliswe ngamaTshayina kwimithombo yezilwanyana zasendle lwanceda ukuphola iifowuni uphando malunga IZiko leNzululwazi yeWuhan, apho i-coronaviruses yezilwanyana igcinwe khona ixesha elide kunye nokusetyenziswa kwemfuza. Endaweni yoko, izibonelelo kunye nemizamo yoluntu yezenzululwazi kunye nokwenza imigaqo-nkqubo yelizwe kuye kwaba njalo ixhaswe Ukuqonda izinto ezakha unxibelelwano phakathi kwabantu kunye nezilwanyana zasendle. 

La maphepha mane kuthethwa ngawo Liu okqhubekayo., Xiao okqhubekayo. , Lam kunye al. kwaye UZhang et al. Ezi zimbini ziphandwa ngoku ngabahleli bejenali nguLiu et al noXiao okqhubekayo. Kunxibelelwano nababhali kunye nabahleli bejenali yala maphepha mabini, i-USRTK ifundile ngeengxaki ezinzulu ngokupapashwa kwezi zifundo, kubandakanya oku kulandelayo:    

  • Liu okqhubekayo. Khange apapashe okanye abelane (xa kubuzwa) idatha eluhlaza kunye / okanye elahlekileyo enokuvumela iingcali ukuba ziqinisekise ngokuzimeleyo uhlalutyo lwe-genomic.
  • Abahleli kuzo zombini indalo kwaye Izifo ze-PLoSKunye noNjingalwazi Stanley Perlman, umhleli ka-Liu et al., bavumile kunxibelelwano lwe-imeyile ukuba bayayazi imiba enzulu ngala maphepha kwaye iijenali ziyabaphanda. Nangona kunjalo, abakhange babhengeze esidlangalaleni iingxaki ezinokubakho ngamaphepha.  

Ukuthula kwamaphephancwadi malunga nophando lwabo oluqhubekayo kuthetha ukuba uluntu ngokubanzi lwenzululwazi, abenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo kunye noluntu oluchatshazelwe yi-COVID-19 abazi ngezingxaki zinxulumene namaphepha ophando, utshilo uGqirha Suryanarayanan. 

"Sikholelwa ekubeni le micimbi ibalulekile, kuba inokubumba indlela amaziko asabela ngayo kwindyikityha yokufa eye yachaphazela ubomi babantu ngendlela engathethekiyo," utshilo.

Amakhonkco kwezi imeyile anokufumaneka apha: 

NgoJulayi ka-2020, Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi laqala ukungenisa izicelo zeerekhodi zoluntu ngokulandela idatha kumaziko oluntu kumzamo wokufumanisa into eyaziwayo malunga nemvelaphi yenoveli ye-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ebangela isifo iCovid-19. Ukusukela oko kwaqhambuka eWuhan, i-SARS-CoV-2 ibulele ngaphezulu kwesigidi sabantu, ngelixa igulisa izigidi ezingakumbi kubhubhane wehlabathi oqhubeka nokuvela.

Ngomhla kaNovemba 5, Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukufaka isimangalo ngokuchasene namaZiko ezeMpilo kaZwelonke (NIH) ngokwaphula umthetho woMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi. Umgwebo, efakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili e-US eWashington, DC, ifuna imbalelwano kunye okanye malunga nemibutho efana neWuhan Institute of Virology kunye neZiko laseWuhan loLawulo lweZifo noThintelo, kunye ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene ne-Wuhan Institute. Intsholongwane.

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi liqela lophando elingenzi nzuzo elijolise ekukhuthazeni ukubonakala kwempilo yoluntu. Unga Xhasa uphando lwethu kunye nokwenza ingxelo ngokunikela apha.