Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

GMOs

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

funda Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi isikhundla sikaGMO.

Ezolimo zale mihla zenze utshintsho olukhulu ukusukela phakathi kwiminyaka yoo-1990s ngokungeniswa kwezityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli. Oku kudalwa kwe-transgenic akufani nokuzala ngokwesiko okuqhelekileyo, kubandakanya iDNA evela kwezinye iintlobo ngeendlela ezingenzeki kwindalo. IMonsanto Co, umphuhlisi ophambili wezinto ezibizwa ngokuba zii-genetic modified organisms (GMOs), wenza uluhlu lwezityalo ezinemfuza ezibenza bangabinayo i-herbicide glyphosate. Ezinye iintlobo zezityalo ze-GMO ziguqulwa ngokwemfuza ukuze zibe yityhefu kwizinambuzane ezinokuthi zizonwabele kwizityalo. Iimbotyi zesoya ze-GMO kunye nombona zimbini zeentlobo ezithandwa kakhulu zezityalo ze-GMO ezikhuliswa ngamafama.

Izityalo ze-GMO zisetyenziswa kakhulu eMelika, zilawula izigidi zeehektare zefama yase-US, kwaye ziye zaduma kwimimandla ekhulisa iimbotyi zesoya eMzantsi Melika, kodwa amanye amazwe aye acotha ukuzamkela.

Ii-GMO ziphikisana nabathengi abaninzi kumazwe amaninzi kuba, ngelixa abalawuli base-US kunye nososayensi abaninzi kunye nabaxhasi be-GMO besithi izityalo zikhuselekile, ezinye izifundo zibonise iimpembelelo zempilo ezinobungozi ebantwini nakwizilwanyana, kwaye izityalo zinxulunyaniswa neengxaki zokusingqongileyo, kubandakanya ukumelana nokhula kunye nezinambuzane, kunye nokonakaliswa kwempilo yomhlaba. Kukwakho neenkxalabo zokuba ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-glyphosate herbicide kwizityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-glyphosate GMO kushiya intsalela yezinambuzane ekutyeni okunokuphazamisa impilo yabantu abathi batye ukutya okwenziwe ngezo zivuno. Ngo-2015, uMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi wathi ubungqina obaneleyo benzululwazi buchaza i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Amazwe amaninzi anqabela ukutyalwa kwezityalo ze-GMO okanye aneemfuno ezingqongqo zokulebhelisha.

Uninzi lweevoti lubonakalisile ukuba uninzi lwabathengi baseMelika bathanda ukuphawulwa okunyanzelekileyo kokutya okwenziwe ngezithako zemfuza, kodwa uninzi lweenkampani ezinkulu zokutya zacenga kakhulu ukuthintela iilebheli ezinyanzelekileyo kwaye zathi ziya kubiza, zingafuneki kwaye zidideke kubathengi. Ingxoxo yeza entloko ngo-2016 kwidabi elaliphakathi kweSenate yase-US. ICongress ekugqibeleni idlulile, kwaye uMongameli u-Barack Obama watyikitya, umthetho ophethe ezinye iimfuno zokubhalwa kwe-GMO, ngelixa uthintela nayiphi na imithetho yelebhile ye-GMO.

Umthetho ugunyazisa ukuba uninzi lweephakeji zokutya ziphathe iilebheli zombhalo, uphawu okanye ikhowudi ye-elektroniki efundeka yi-smartphone ebonisa ukuba ukutya kuqukethe izinto eziguqulwe ngokwemfuzo. Umzi mveliso wokutya, owawuchasene neelebheli, wawuqhwabela izandla lo mthetho usayilwayo, ngelixa amagqwetha okubhalwa kweelebheli ayewugxeka kabukhali umlinganiso kuba akukho mfuneko yokuba ubukho beGMO buchazwe kwileyibhile. Abameli beelebheli bathi abathengi abaninzi abayi kuba nexesha okanye izixhobo zokuskena iilebheli ngefowuni efanelekileyo.

 

Izibonelelo ezingundoqo kwii-GMO

Ishishini leSeedy: Kukuphi ukutya okuKhulu okufihliweyo ngePhulo lalo le-PR kwi-GMOs.

Intshukumo yoKhuseleko loKutya ikhula inde. URalph Nader, IHotff Post, UJuni 20, 2014.

Akukho Mvumelwano yeSayensi malunga noKhuseleko lwe-GMOIzeNzululwazi ngezeNdalo eYurophu, KuJanuwari 24, 2015.

Izizathu zokuPhawulwa kokutya kweNzululwazi yemfuza. UMichael Hansen, uManyano lwaBathengi, ngoMatshi 19, 2012.

Intlekele yokutya ezayo. UDavid Schubert, CNN, ngoJanuwari 28, 2015.

Kutheni Sifuna Iilebhile zeGMO. UDavid Schubert, CNN, Februwari 3, 2014.

IMonsanto GM Soy iyoyikeka ngakumbi kunendlela ocinga ngayo. UTom Philpott, UMama Jones, UEpreli 23, 2014.

Phantse Isiqingatha Sazo Zonke Iifama Zase-US Ngoku Zinama-superweeds. UTom Philpott, UMama Jones, Februwari 6, 2013.

Ezinye ii-Cheerleader ze-GMO ziyayiphika inguquko yemozulu. UTom Philpott, UMama Jones, Oktobha 15, 2012.

Iinkampani ze-US GMO zoLimo ziphindwe kabini kwiinzame zokulwa neelebheli. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, Julayi 29. 2014.

Votela itheko lesidlo sangokuhlwa. UMichael Pollan, ENew York Times, Oktobha 10, 2012.

I-Superweeds, Superpests: Ilifa lezibulala-zinambuzane. UJosie Garthwaite, ENew York Times, Oktobha 5, 2012.

Abaphandi: Izityalo ze-GM zibulala ii-butterfly, emva kwayo yonke into. UMama Jones, Matshi 21, 2012.

Isityalo seMbewu yeMonsanto Ukuphulukana nenkcaso ye-Bug. UScott Kilman, Wall Street Journal, Agasti 29, 2011.

Ii-GMO's: Masibhale i-Em. UMark Bittman, ENew York Times, Septemba 16, 2012.

Ngaba iinkampani zembewu zilawula uphando lwezityalo? Scientific American, Agasti, 2009.

Abalimi baseMiddle East base-US balwa nokuqhushumba kwe 'Superweeds'. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, Julayi 23, 2014.

Abahlaseli abahlaseli baseMelika baseMaphandleni, ukuNciphisa i-Herbicides. UMichael Wines, ENew York Times, Agasti 11, 2014.

I-Superweeds, Superbugs, kunye ne-Superbusiness. UBrian DeVore, Utne Reader, Septemba 25, 2013.

Iqela le-GMO liPhakamisa amajelo eendaba oLuntu kuLwamkelo lwaBathengi baseMelika. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, Februwari 11, 2014.

Ukutya oku-Organic kunye namaQela aseFama acele u-Obama ukuba afune iilebheli zokutya ze-GMO. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, KuJanuwari 16, 2014.

Umbona weGMO Uyasilela Ekukhuseleni Amasimi kwizitshabalalisi –Ngxelo. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, Agasti 28, 2013.

Ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali-zinambuzane kulungiswa njenge-GMO Crop Technology Backfires: Study. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, Oktobha 1, 2012.

Ukhula olukhulu alunakulungiswa ngokulula kwiiNgcali zezoLimo zase-US. UCarey Gillam, Reuters, NgoMeyi 10, 2012.

Isicwangciso esiliQili seShishini sokuFumana amaFidi ukubulala ukuPhawulwa kweGMO kuwo onke amazwe. UMichele Simon, IHotff PostNge-8 kaNovemba ka-2013.

IiShill eziKhulu zoTuba Ukuzama ukuMisa ukuPhawulwa kweGMO eCarlifonia. UMichele Simon, IHotff Post, Agasti 14. 2012.

Fumana ilungelo lokwazi uphononongo

Bhalisa kwincwadana yethu yokwaphula iindaba ezivela kuphando lweLungelo loKwazi, eyona ntatheli yezempilo ilungileyo kunye neendaba ezingakumbi zempilo yethu.