IGates Foundation iphindwe kabini kwiphulo lolwazi olungelulo eCornell njengoko iinkokheli zaseAfrika zifuna i-agroecology 

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

IBhili kunye neMilinda Gates Foundation unikwe enye i- $ 10 yezigidi Kwiveki ephelileyo kwiCornell Alliance yezeNzululwazi, a Iphulo lonxibelelwano eligcinwe eCornell oololiwe abafo eAfrika nakwezinye iindawo ukukhuthaza nokukhusela ukutya okunobugcisa bemfuza, izityalo kunye nezolimo. Isibonelelo esitsha sizisa izibonelelo zeBMGF kwiqela ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-22 zeedola.

Utyalo-mali lwe-PR luza ngexesha apho iGates Foundation iphantsi komlilo yokuchitha iibhiliyoni zeedola kwizikimu zophuhliso lwezolimo e-Afrika abathi abagxeki bazinzisa iindlela zokulima ezixhamla iinkampani ngaphezulu kwabantu. 

Iinkokeli zonqulo zibhenela kwiGates Foundation 

Nge-10 kaSeptemba, iinkokeli zonqulo eAfrika zathumela ingxelo Ileta evulekileyo eya kwiGates Foundation ukuyicela ukuba iphinde ihlole izicwangciso zayo zokwenza izibonelelo eAfrika. 

“Ngelixa sinombulelo kwiBill kunye neMelinda Gates Foundation ngokuzimisela kwayo ekoyiseni ukungabikho kokhuseleko lokutya, kwaye sivuma noncedo lolwakhiwo nolwakhiwo olunikwa oorhulumente belizwekazi lethu, sibhala ngenkxalabo enkulu ukuba inkxaso yeGates Foundation yokwandisa ushishino olunzulu lwezolimo luyenza nzulu ingxaki yoluntu, ”itsho ileta ebhalisiweyo neququzelelwa ngu IZiko lokusiNgqongileyo laseMazantsi eAfrika (SAFCEI).  

Le leta ikhankanya umanyano olukhokelwa ziiGates zoHlaziyo oluHlumayo (i-AGRA) ngenkxaso yayo "enengxaki kakhulu" yeenkqubo zembewu zorhwebo ezilawulwa ziinkampani ezinkulu, inkxaso yayo kwimithetho yokuhlengahlengisa imbewu ukukhusela imbewu eqinisekisiweyo kunye nokwenza imbewu engagunyaziswanga ukuba ibe semthethweni. Inkxaso yabathengisi bembewu abanikezela ngengcebiso emxinwa malunga neemveliso zeshishini kwiinkonzo zolwandiso ezifuneka kakhulu kwicandelo likarhulumente. 

Elona phephandaba likhulu lemihla ngemihla laseUganda linike ingxelo ngeprojekthi yokusilela kwe-AGRA

"Sibongoza iGates Foundation kunye ne-AGRA ukuba bayeke ukukhuthaza ubuchwephesha obungaphumelelanga kunye neendlela zokuphelelwa lixesha kwaye baqale ukumamela amafama aphuhlisa izisombululo ezifanelekileyo kwimeko yawo," zatsho iinkokheli zenkolo.

Ngaphandle kweebhiliyoni zeedola ezichithwe kunye neminyaka eli-14 yezithembiso, i-AGRA iye yasilela ekufezekiseni iinjongo zayo zokunciphisa intlupheko kunye nokunyusa ingeniso kumafama amancinci, ngokwe NgoJulayi kuxelwa izithembiso ezingezizo. Olu phando lwenziwe ngumdibaniso wamaqela aseAfrika nawaseJamani kwaye kubandakanya idatha evela kwi iphepha elimhlophe lakutshanje epapashwe yiTufts Global Development kunye neZiko lezeNdalo. 

IGates Foundation ayikaphenduli kwizicelo zokufaka izimvo ngeli nqaku kodwa kwi-imeyile yangaphambili, "Siyayixhasa imibutho efana ne-AGRA kuba iyasebenzisana namazwe ukuwanceda ekuphumezeni izinto eziphambili ngokubaluleka kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo equlethwe kwizicwangciso zophuhliso lwezolimo kuzwelonke."

Ukunyamalala kwezithembiso zotshintsho oluhlaza 

Isungulwe ngo-2006 yiGates kunye neRockefeller Foundations, i-AGRA kudala ithembisa ngokuphinda-phinda isivuno kunye nemivuzo yamakhaya angama-30 ezigidi ezilima eAfrika ngo-2020. Kodwa iqela lazisusa ezo njongo kwiwebhusayithi yalo ngamanye amaxesha kunyaka ophelileyo. U-Chief of Staff we-AGRA u-Andrew Cox uthe nge-imeyile ukuba eli qela alilinciphisanga iinjongo zakhe kodwa licokisa iindlela zalo kunye nokucinga kwalo malunga ne-metric. Uthe i-AGRA izakwenza uvavanyo olupheleleyo kwiziphumo zayo kunyaka olandelayo. 

I-AGRA yenqabile ukubonelela ngedatha okanye ukuphendula imibuzo ebalulekileyo evela kubaphandi bengxelo yeZithembiso eziNgamanga, ababhali bayo bathi. Abameli abavela eBIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia naseHOMEF eNigeria bathumele a ileta eya ku-Cox Sept. 7 becela impendulo kwiziphumo zophando lwabo. Cox waphendula uSeptemba 15 Oko omnye umphengululi wakuchaza “njengamaphepha amathathu ePR.” (Jonga ngokupheleleyo imbalelwano apha kubandakanya impendulo yeBIBA yango-Okthobha 7.)

“Amafama ase-Afrika afanele ukuphendulwa ngu-AGRA,” yatsho ileta isiya ku-Cox ivela ku-Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima no-Ngimmo Bassay.  “Ngokunjalo nabanikeli becandelo likarhulumente be-AGRA, abanokubonakala befumana imbuyekezo embi kakhulu kutyalo-mali lwabo. Oorhulumente base-Afrika nabo kufuneka banike ingxelo ecacileyo ngeempembelelo zohlahlo-lwabiwo mali lwabo oluxhasa iinkqubo zeGreen Revolution. ”

Oorhulumente base-Afrika bachitha malunga ne- $ 1 yezigidigidi ngonyaka kwinkxaso-mali ukuxhasa imbewu yorhwebo kunye nezolimo. Ngaphandle kotyalo-mali olukhulu kwimveliso yezolimo, indlala inyuke ngamashumi amathathu eepesenti ngexesha le-AGRA, ngokwengxelo yeZithembiso Zobuxoki.

Utyalomali lweGates Foundation lunefuthe elibonakalayo kwindlela iinkqubo zokutya ezakhiwe ngayo e-Afrika, ngokwe-Juni Ingxelo evela kwiQela lamaZwe ngamaZwe kwiiNkqubo zokutya eziZinzileyo (IPES). Eli qela linike ingxelo yokuba iibhiliyoni zeedola kwizibonelelo zeGates Foundation zikhuthaze ulimo lwamashishini eAfrika kwaye zabuyisa utyalo-mali kwiinkqubo zokutya ezizinzileyo, ezilinganayo.  

"I-BMGF ijonge imbuyekezo ekhawulezayo, ebonakalayo kutyalo-mali, kwaye ngenxa yoko ithatha ingqalelo kwizisombululo zeteknoloji," yatsho i-IPES.

Abavelisi bendawo kunye nokutya okufutshane 

Inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwezolimo kwiGates Foundation yokwakha iimarike ezinkulu, izibonelelo zorhwebo eziphezulu kuyibeka ngokuchasene nokucinga okuvelayo malunga nendlela yokujongana neemeko ezingazinzanga ezibangelwe ngamawele eenguqu zemozulu kunye nobhubhane weCovid-19.

NgoSeptemba, i Ukutya neZolimo Umbutho we-UN utshilo kubalulekile ukwakha iindlela zokutya ezomeleleyo njengoko ubhubhane "ubeke iinkqubo zokutya zasekuhlaleni emngciphekweni wokuphazamiseka kulo lonke ukutya." Ingxelo ibhala ngemiceli mngeni enxulumene nobhubhane kunye nezifundo ezivela kuvavanyo lwehlabathi olwenziwe ngo-Epreli nangoMeyi olwafumana iimpendulo ezingama-860. 

“Umyalezo ocacileyo ngowokuba, ukuze kujongwane nezothuso ezinje nge-COVID-19, izixeko ezineemeko ezifanelekileyo kwezentlalo nezoqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kufuneka zamkele imigaqo-nkqubo kunye neenkqubo zokuxhobisa abavelisi balapha ekulimeni ukutya, kwaye bakhuthaze ukutya okufutshane ukwenza ukuba abemi basezidolophini ukufikelela kwiimveliso zokutya, ”iqukumbele ngelitshoyo ingxelo. "Izixeko kufuneka zisebenzise ukutya kunye nemithombo yazo, zisomeleza iindawo apho kufanelekileyo, kodwa ngaphandle kokuvala ubonelelo lukazwelonke nolwehlabathi."

Njengokuba ubhubhane usongela uluntu lwasezifama esele lusokoliswa kukutshintsha kwemozulu, i-Afrika isendleleni, wabhala uMillion Belay, umququzeleli woMbutho woLawulo lokutya e-Afrika, noTimothy Wise, umphandi ophambili wohlalutyo lweTufts lwe-AGRA, kwi NgoSeptemba 23 op-ed. “Ngaba abantu noorhulumente babo bazakuqhubeka nokuzama ukuphinda-phinda imifuziselo yezolimo ezikhuthazwa ngamazwe aphuhlileyo? Okanye ngaba baya kuhamba ngenkalipho baye kwikamva elingaqinisekanga, besamkela ulimo lwendalo? ”

U-Belay no-Wise bachaze iindaba ezimnandi ezivela kuphando lwakutsha nje; "Amazwe amabini e-AGRA anciphise inani kunye nesabelo sabantu abangondlekanga- iTiyopiya neMali - bakwenzile oko ngenxa yemigaqo-nkqubo exhasa ezolimo."

Elona bali likhulu lempumelelo, iMali, labona indlala yehla ukusuka kwi-14% ukuya kwi-5% ukusukela ngo-2006 Iingxelo zezithembiso ezingeyonyani, "Inkqubela-phambili ayizanga ngenxa ye-AGRA kodwa ngenxa yokuba urhulumente kunye nemibutho yamafama bekuchasile ukuphunyezwa kwayo," uBelay noWise babhala, bekhomba kwimithetho yomhlaba kunye nembewu eqinisekisa amalungelo amafama okuzikhethela izityalo kunye neendlela zokulima, kunye neenkqubo zikarhulumente Ungakhuthazi nje umbona kodwa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo zokutya.

"Lixesha lokuba oorhulumente base-Afrika babuye umva kwi-Green Revolution engaphumeleliyo kwaye bathathe inkqubo entsha yokutya ehlonipha amasiko kunye noluntu ngokwazisa ngendleko eziphantsi, nezolimo olunengeniso ephantsi," babhala. 

Ukuphinda kabini phantsi iphulo le-PR eligcinwe eCornell 

Ngokuchasene nale meko ingemva, iGates Foundation iphinda phindwe kabini kutyalo-mali lwayo kwiCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), umkhankaso wobudlelwane noluntu ophehlelelwe ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates kwaye uthembisa "ukuyiphelisa ingxoxo" malunga neeGMOs. Ngezigidi ezili-10 zeedola, Izicwangciso ze-CAS zokwandisa ukugxila kwayo "Ukulwa iingcamango zelenqe kunye nemikhankaso yokuchazwa kwegama ethintela inkqubela phambili kutshintsho lwemozulu, i-biology eyenziweyo, ezolimo ezintsha." 

Kodwa umanyano lweCornell Alliance lwezeNzululwazi luye lwangumbutho ophembelelayo kunye nomthombo wolwazi olungeyonyani njengoko luqeqesha abanye abantu kwihlabathi liphela ukukhuthaza nokugaya izityalo ezingene kwimfuza kumazwe abo, uninzi lwabo luseAfrika. 

Uninzi lwezifundiswa, amaqela okutya kunye neengcali zomgaqo-nkqubo ziye zabiza iqela Imiyalezo engachanekanga nelahlekisayo. Amaqela oluntu asebenzela ukulawula izitshabalalisi kunye ne-biosafety ityhola i-CAS usebenzisa amaqhinga okuxhaphaza eHawaii kwaye ukuxhaphaza abalimi eAfrika kwimikhankaso yayo yokukhuthaza kunye nokuphembelela.  

A Julayi 30 Ngu-Mark Lynas, umntu o tyelele uCornell osebenzela i-CAS, ukhanyisa impikiswano malunga nemiyalezo yeqela. Ukucaphula kutshanje uhlalutyo lweemeta kwezolimo lolondolozo, utshilo uLynas,  "I-agro-ecology isemngciphekweni wokonzakalisa amahlwempu kunye nokwanda kokulingana ngokwesini e-Afrika." Uhlalutyo lwakhe lwalugcinwe ngokubanzi ziingcali kwicandelo.

UMarc Corbeels, i-agronomist eyabhala uhlalutyo lweemeta, lithe inqaku lenze "ukwenziwa ngokubanzi. ” Abanye abafundi baye bachaza inqaku likaLynas njengo “inesiphene ngokwenene, ""ngokungathandabuzekiyo, ""idemagogic kunye non-science, ”Impixano ephosakeleyo etsibela kwi"izigqibo zasendle, ”Kunye “Ihlazo umntu ofuna ukubanga ukuba uyinzululwazi. ”

I nqaku kufuneka irhoxiswe, utshilo uMarci Branski, owayesakuba yingcali kutshintsho lwemozulu eUSDA kwaye UMarcus Taylor, ingcali yezendalo kwezopolitiko kwiYunivesithi yaseQueen.

Ingxoxo mpikiswano agroecology kushushu

Impikiswano iphinde yavela kule veki ngaphezulu kwewebhu ye-CAS ibamba NgoLwesine u-Okthobha u-1 ngesihloko se-agroecology. Ukucacisa inkxalabo yokuba iqela elisekwe eCornell "alikho nzulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba bangabandakanyeka kwingxoxo evulekileyo, engakhethi cala", iingcali zenkqubo yokutya ezimbini zarhoxa kwi-webinar ekuqaleni kwale veki.

Oososayensi ababini bathi bavumile ukuthatha inxaxheba kwi-webinar emva kokubona amagama omnye komnye phakathi kweepaneli; "Oko kwakwanele kuthi sobabini ukuba sithembe nombutho emva komsitho," ubhale watsho UPablo Tittonell, PhD, iNzululwazi ePhambili yeNzululwazi kwiBhunga leSayensi neThekhinoloji laseArgentina (i-CONICET) kunye Sieglinde Snapp, PhD, uNjingalwazi woMhlaba kunye neNkqubo yokuCandwa kweNdalo kwiYunivesithi yaseMichigan State, kwimodareyitha yephaneli uJoan Conrow, umhleli weCAS. 

“Kodwa ndifunda ezinye zeebhloko kunye nezimvo ezikhutshwe yi-Alliance, iimpapasho zabanye abaphathi bephaneli, ukufunda ngamabango acalucalulo nongaziyo ngokuchasene ne-agroecology. IConrow.

"Ke ngoko siyarhoxa kule mpikiswano." IConrow ayiphendulanga kwizicelo zokubeka izimvo.

 Iwebhu iya kuhamba phambili Nassib Mugwanya, 2015 wobunkokeli behlabathi be-CAS kunye nomfundi ogqirha kwiYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina State, naye otyholwa ngokwenza uhlaselo olungenabulungisa kwi-agroecology. Kwi Inqaku le-2019 Kwiziko laseBreakthrough Institute, uMugwanya wathi, "iinkqubo zesintu zezolimo azinakho ukuguqula ezolimo eAfrika." 

Inqaku libonisa imiyalezo yemizi-mveliso ye-biotech: ukuveza izityalo ze-GMO njenge “pro-science” ngeli xesha kupeyintwa “ezinye iindlela zophuhliso lwezolimo njenge 'anti-science,' engenamhlaba kwaye iyingozi,” ngokokuhlalutya ngoMbutho woLuntu wase-Seattle woBulungisa beLizwe.

Eli qela lathi, “Eyona nto ibalulekileyo kweli nqaku zizinto ezisebenzisa izikweko (umz.

UTittonell noSnapp bakhuphe uluhlu lwewebhu ngoLwesine, uMugwanya uzokuzimanya noPamela Ronald, unjingalwazi wezifo zezityalo kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis. ubudlelwane kumaqonga eshishini lokubulala izitshabalalisi, yaye UFrédéric Baudron, Isazinzulu esiphezulu kwiZiko loPhuculo loMbona noNgqolowa kwiZiko (i-CIMMYT), iGates Iqela elixhaswa ngemali sisiseko. 

Ukucela 'umlo olungileyo'

UMariam Mayet, umlawuli olawulayo weZiko laseAfrika leZinto Ezahlukeneyo Zezinto, ubona amaphulo e-PR axineneyo "njengobungqina bokungazithembi" ukuba "abanakulifumana kwilizwekazi." 

Iqela lakhe linayo iminyaka ibhala “Iinzame zokusasaza i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, kunye neziphelo eziya kuthi zikhokelele: ekunciphiseni impilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwendalo yezolimo, ukuphulukana nolawulo lwabalimi, kunye nokutshixwa kwamafama aseAfrika kwinkqubo engayenzelwanga inzuzo yabo , kodwa ngenxa yenzuzo yamashishini amakhulu aseMntla. ”

Umbutho weCornell Alliance weSayensi kufuneka ulawulwe, utshilo uMayet kwi-webinar ka-Agasti malunga nefuthe leGates Foundation e-Afrika, "ngenxa yolwazi olungelulo (kunye) nendlela abangathembeki ngayo nabangeyonyani." Ubuze, "Kutheni ungalwi nathi?"

UStacy Malkan ungumseki-ntatheli kunye nentatheli ye-US Right to Know, iqela lophando elingenzi nzuzo elijolise kwimicimbi yezempilo yoluntu. Ungumbhali wencwadi ka-2007 ethi, “Hayi Ubuso nje obuhle: Icala elibi leShishini loBuhle.” Mlandele kwi-Twitter @StacyMalkan