Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

IBill Gates yokuKhangela ukutya

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Olu ngcelele lwamanqaku ngo UStacy Malkan kuvavanywa iBill Gates kunye nenkqubo yophuhliso lwezolimo kwiGates Foundation kunye nefuthe lezopolitiko kwiinkqubo zokutya zehlabathi. Kutheni le nto silandela iiGates? Funda iposti yethu. Kwaye nceda ubhalisele incwadana yethu yasimahla ukufumana uhlaziyo. Ungathumela iingcebiso nge-imeyile ku stacy@usrtk.org.

Matshi 9, 2021

Ngaba ukukhawulezisa kwegolide elandelayo neocolonial? Iinkqubo zokutya zaseAfrika 'yioyile entsha,' utsho amaxwebhu e-UN

Amaxwebhu ocwangciso lwengqungquthela ye-2021 yeZizwe eziManyeneyo yeeNkqubo zoKutya ikhanyisa ukukhanya kwi-ajenda engemva ingqungquthela yokutya enempikiswano ukuba amakhulu amafama kunye namaqela oluntu amalungelo aqhankqalaza. Amaqela athi umdla kwezolimo kunye neziseko ezikhethekileyo zilawula inkqubo yokuqhubela phambili kwi-ajenda eya kuthi ixhase ukuxhaphazwa kweenkqubo zokutya zehlabathi, ngakumbi i-Afrika. 

Amaxwebhu, kubandakanya a iphepha elingasemva zilungiselelwe iingxoxo zentlanganiso kunye a uyilo lomgaqo-nkqubo omfutshane yengqungquthela, yazisa "Izicwangciso zorhwebo olukhulu kwiinkqubo zokutya zaseAfrika," utshilo uMariam Mayet, umlawuli olawulayo weZiko laseAfrika leZinto ezoNgohlukeneyo (i-ACB), owanika amaxwebhu kwi-US Right to Know.

Iingxoxo "zizithulu kwaye azimfama kwiingxaki eziguqukayo zenkqubo esijamelene nazo namhlanje, kunye nengxamiseko yokucinga kwakhona ukuba ifuna njalo," I-ACB isitsho kwingxelo.

Utshintsho olukhulu

A iphepha elingasemva elungiswe yiKhomishini yezoQoqosho ye-UN ye-Afrika, iKhomishini yeMbumba yamaZwe ase-Afrika, uMbutho woKutya nezoLimo we-UN kunye namaqela angamaqabane ingxoxo yengingqi Kwiinkqubo zokutya zaseAfrika zinika iinkcukacha malunga nezicwangciso eziqhubekayo. Olu xwebhu luphawula ukuba lukhutshiwe “ngaphandle kokuhlelwa ngokusesikweni nangesiNgesi kuphela ngenxa yokungeniswa kade. ”

Iphepha litshilo, "ukushenxisa utshintsho olukhulu luyafuneka," ukushenxisa i-Afrika “ukusuka kwizibhengezo zokungeniswa kokutya okubalulekileyo okuvela ngaphandle kweAfrika.” Eli phepha libalisa imeko eyoyikekayo neya isiba mandundu e-Afrika apho izigidi ezingama-256 zabantu bathwaxwa yindlala, kwaye ngaphezulu kwesiqingatha sabantu kwiindawo ezithile zeMpuma ye-Afrika banqabile ngokutya. Ubhubhane we-Covid 19 ubhebhethekisa ukungalingani kwaye ubhengeza ukuba semngciphekweni kwenkqubo yokutya e-Afrika.

Ezi zinto zitshintshayo zidala inyanzeliso koorhulumente base-Afrika ukuba benze imeko-bume evumela ukuphuculwa kwemigaqo-nkqubo kunye notyalo-mali kwimpahla yoluntu yezolimo, ukukhulisa izisombululo zedijithali kwezolimo, kunye nokuphuhlisa iindlela zokuxhasa ngemali ngentsebenziswano phakathi kukarhulumente namashishini abucala, utshilo iphepha.  

“Kukwalixesha lokuba ubeke utyalo-mali apho lufuneka khona kakhulu; umzekelo, oorhulumente base-Afrika bahambisa izigidi zeedola ukuxhasa uluntu kutyalo-mali lwezolimo oluhambelana nemozulu… kwaye, ukomeleza ukusetyenziswa kwedatha enkulu ukuqhuba izigqibo ezikrelekrele kwinqanaba lolawulo lwamanzi, ukusetyenziswa kwesichumiso, ukuhambisa iintlobo zezityalo ezinganyangekiyo yimbalela kunye nokungena kwiimarike. ” 

Le ajenda ihambelana ngokugqibeleleyo nezicwangciso kwishishini lezolimo, i-Gates Foundation kunye nenkqubo yayo ephambili yophuhliso lwezolimo, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution e-Afrika, ekhuthaza amazwe ase-Afrika ukuba apasise imigaqo-nkqubo elungele ushishino kunye nokukhulisa iimarike zembewu enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi, izichumisi ezisisiseko se-fossil kunye nezinye izinto zokwenza imveliso abathi ziyimfuneko ukonyusa imveliso yokutya. La maqela athi ubuchwepheshe obutsha phantsi kophuhliso kunye "noqiniso oluzinzileyo" lwezolimo lweshishini yindlela eya phambili.  

Izicwangciso ezicetywayo kumaxwebhu "kukuphinda kusetyenziswe kwakhona" "izisombululo ezifanayo zobuxoki ... kunye nezibonelelo ezifanayo ezincinci ezifumaneka kwinani elincinci labadlali," utshilo i-ACB kwingxelo yayo. 

"Iinjongo azikho malunga nokuguqula ubudlelwane behlabathi nentlalo-ntle yabantu base-Afrika kunye neenkqubo zethu zezinto eziphilayo kweli ziko, kodwa kukugxininisa i-Afrika ngokuqinileyo kubudlelwane behlabathi nakwimilinganiselo yophuhliso echazwe ngokoloniyalizim kunye ne-neoliberal globalization."

'Ioyile eNtsha'

Icandelo lephepha lemvelaphi le-UN lifunda njengendawo yokuthengisa yabatyali mali kunye neemveliso zeshishini lezolimo, kodwa ngaphandle kokubonelela ngokupheleleyo ngengxaki ezi mveliso ezibangela ngamanye amaxesha. 

“Uqoqosho oluye lwaphumelela e-Afrika kule minyaka ingamashumi amane idlulileyo luye lwasetyenziswa ngokuxhaphaza ubutyebi bezimbiwa, ingakumbi i-oyile negesi ekuthiwa yi 'golide emnyama,'” licacisa. “Ngoku, ilizwekazi lihamba ngesantya esiphezulu kwicandelo lezolimo kunye noshishino lwezolimo olubangela uchulumanco ngokukhawuleza [kunye] nokugxila kubatyali zimali kunye nokubekwa phambili kutyalo-mali ukuya kwi 'oyile entsha' emiselwe ukuqhuba ilizwekazi. kwaye unikele nge I-US $ 1 trillion ngowama-2030. ” 

Icandelo elinesihloko esithi "isithembiso sedigital kunye ne-biotechnologies kunye notshintsho lweenkqubo zokutya," lixoxa "ngokubaluleka kokufumana uqoqosho olukhulu, intlalontle kunye nokusingqongileyo ekusetyenzisweni kweemveliso zebhayoloji… eNtshona Afrika, umzekelo, amafama angazuza kakhulu ukususela ekwamkelweni komqhaphu weBt. ” 

Eli phepha alibhekiseli kulingo olungaphumelelanga lwe-Bt yomqhaphu eBurkina Faso, ilizwe lokuqala e-Afrika ukwamkela isityalo esikhulu esenziwe ngemfuza kumafama amancinci. Umqhaphu wase-Bt wase-Monsanto waxhathisa izinambuzane kwaye wanikezela ngezivuno ezilungileyo, kodwa awukwazanga ukuzisa umgangatho ophezulu ofanayo nowendidi yemveli, kunye nelizwe ishiye isityalo se-GM.  

Ibali laseBurkina Faso libonisauxakeke kangako xa ujongene nemfuza, ” Ingxelo zeReuters. “Kubalimi bekotoni baseBurkina Faso, iMG yaphela njengorhwebo phakathi kobungakanani nomgangatho. Kwi-Monsanto, ene-13.5 yezigidigidi zeerandi kwimali engenayo ngo-2016 yayingaphezulu kwe-GDP yaseBurkina Faso, oko kwabonakalisa ukungabi nakuqoqosho ukuyilungisa le mveliso ngokusondeleyo kwintengiso. ”

uphononongo lweminyaka engama-20 yedatha kwikotoni ye-Bt e-India epapashwe kunyaka ophelileyo ifumanise ukuba umqhaphu wawungakhombisi kakuhle isivuno kwaye nangona ekuqaleni wawusinciphisile isidingo semithi yokubulala izitshabalalisi, "amafama ngoku achitha ngaphezulu kwi-pesticides namhlanje kunaphambi kokungeniswa kwe-Bt."

'Ilizwi elinye laseAfrika' 

"Ukwakhiwa kwakhona kweendlela zokutya zehlabathi kuya… kuya kuxhomekeka kububanzi bokusasazwa kwetekhnoloji efanelekileyo kunye nezinto ezintsha," ngokuka uyilo lomgaqo-nkqubo omfutshane yenzelwe ingqungquthela. Olu xwebhu luchaza ii-webinars ezimbini kunye nengxoxo ekwi-intanethi ejolise ekwenzeni "i-One Africa Voice" ukuya kwingqungquthela yokutya "yotshintsho oluphambili lomdlalo olufunekayo ukomeleza uphando kunye nophuhliso lwezolimo e-Afrika."   

Le nkqubo yabizwa ngokuzimeleyo kule ngqungquthela yeQonga lezoPhando lwezoLimo e-Afrika, kunye noMbutho woMdibaniso woGwayimbo lwase-Afrika, iiNkqubo zeSizwe zoPhando lwezoLimo kunye namanye amaqela ophando kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo. Iintshukumo zokutya zaseAfrika khange zibandakanyeke kwingxoxo, utshilo uMayet. 

Izitshixo zokwenza inguqu kwinkqubo yokutya, ngokomgaqo omfutshane womgaqo-nkqubo, zibandakanya ukudala "imfuno esebenzayo yesayensi, itekhnoloji kunye nokuyila" kumafama asakhasayo, kunye nokukhuthaza oorhulumente base-Afrika ukuba batyale imali eninzi kuphando lwezolimo "nakwiimveliso zalo okt ubuchwepheshe kunye nezinto ezintsha." 

Olu xwebhu luthi "kukho isidingo sokunikela ingqalelo ekuqokeleleni idatha nasekuphuhliseni izakhono zohlalutyo ezibonisa imbuyekezo" kuphando lwezolimo kuphuhliso kunye "nokuqulunqwa komgaqo-nkqubo olinganayo kunye nokuphunyezwa, okt imigaqo-nkqubo yokunyanzelisa amalungelo epropathi, kubandakanya ipropathi enomgangatho ophezulu wokuqonda. amalungelo, ukuvuza amafama ngeenkonzo ze-ikhosistim, ukuqinisekisa ukutya okukhuselekileyo okusempilweni ngamaxabiso afikelelekayo. ”

Ingxoxo “ibonakala imele enye indawo esemthethweni yokwakha imvumelwano yabantu abadala eza kuthi thaca kwiNgqungquthela ye-UN Food Systems Summit 'njengelizwi laseAfrika'… Kodwa ke, elo lizwi liyakuba kude kakhulu nelomntu oqhelekileyo waseAfrika, ”Utshilo u-ACB. "Endaweni yoko, ibonisa izinto eziphambili ngokubaluleka kwiingcali zophuhliso ezilungelelaniswe nemibono yotshintsho nenguqu eqhutywa yitekhnoloji, iinkampani zebhayoloji, ushishino ngezolimo, kunye neoliberal, ajenda yophuhliso lwehlabathi."

“I-Afrika kufuneka izibuze ngentsingiselo yemveliso, kunye nobudlelwane kwezentlalo apho amafama asakhasayo angafumana khona imveliso ebonakalayo ngokubhekisele kwimpilo yezoqoqosho nakwezobulungisa kwezentlalo nakwezendalo.”

I-CGIAR enye

Idabi lomgaqo-nkqubo eliguqukayo kwiNgqungquthela ye-2021 yeeNkqubo zokutya lisongela "ukunyanzelisa ukondla inkqubo yezokutya engaphumelelanga kwicandelo likarhulumente nakwezolimo zehlabathi, zibophelela oorhulumente kwi-ajenda yecandelo elijongela phantsi amafama, imibutho yoluntu, imibutho yezentlalo kunye ne-agroecology," a NgoFebruwari 2020 ingxelo evela kwiQela le-ETC Echaze amandla okudlala edibaneni lengqungquthela. 

Elinye idabi eliphambili lichaphazela ikamva le-CGIAR, umanyano lwamaziko ophando kwezolimo ali-15 nangaphezulu kwe-10,000 izazinzulu kunye noochwephesha kumvuzo wabo kunye ne-800,000 yeentlobo zezityalo kwiibhanki zayo ze-11. Ummeli weGates Foundation kunye nenkokheli yangaphambili yeSyngenta Foundation baya phambili icebo lokuhlengahlengisa icebo lokudibanisa uthungelwano lube yi "One CGIAR" kunye nebhodi enye enegunya elitsha lokuseta i-ajenda.

Uhlengahlengiso olucetywayo, ngokwencwadi kaJulayi Ukusuka kwiPhaneli yamaZwe ngamaZwe kwiiNkqubo zokutya eziZinzileyo, babeya "Ukunciphisa ukuzimela kwee-ajenda zophando zengingqi kwaye uqinise ukubanjwa kwabona banikeli banamandla-uninzi lwabo aluthandabuzi ukuphambuka kwindlela ye-Green Revolution." 

The inquboI-IPES ithe, "kubonakala ngathi iqhutyelwe phambili ngendlela yokunyanzelwa, kungathengwa nto kancinane kubantu ekucingelwa ukuba bangabaxhamli kuMazantsi ehlabathi, ngokungafaniyo okwaneleyo phakathi kwesangqa sabahlaziyi, nangaphandle kokuqwalaselwa ngokufanelekileyo ukutshintsha kwendlela yokutya. ”

Iingcali ezininzi zithi a Ukutshintsha kweparadigm kubalulekile kude ne ezolimo kwimizi-mveliso nakwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zolimo enokujongana neengxaki kunye nokusikelwa umda kwimodeli yangoku yezorhwebo, kubandakanya ukungalingani, ukwanda kwendlala, ukungondleki kunye nokonakaliswa kwenkqubo yezinto eziphilayo. 

Kwi-2019, a Iphaneli ekumgangatho ophezulu yeengcali kukhuseleko lokutya kunye nesondlo I-UN icebisa ukutshintshela kwiinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokutya, ukulungisa ukungalingani kwamandla kwiinkqubo zokutya, kunye notyalo-mali kwiinkqubo zophando ezixhasa i-agroecology njengendlela eya phambili. 

amaxwebhu 

Ingxoxo Yommandla: Iiseshoni Zesixhenxe Zenkqubo Yokutya e-Afrika kwiQonga leNgingqi lase-Afrika kuPhuhliso oluZinzileyo 4 kweyoKwindla 2021, eBrazzaville, eCongo, ECA, AUC, FAO, AUDA-NEPAD, WEP, UNICEF, IFAD, AfDB, Akademiya2063, RUFORUM (2021)  

Ingxoxo yommandla: Iinkqubo zokutya zaseAfrika (i-ajenda 9), Ngolwesine nge-4 Matshi, kwi-UN Economic and Social Council

UMgaqo-nkqubo omfutshane, Ukomeleza uPhando lwezoLimo lwaseAfrika kunye noPhuhliso olujolise kwiNkqubo yokuPhucula iAfrika yokutya, "Ilizwi elinye le-Afrika" ukuya kwiNgqungquthela ye-UN ye-2021 yeeNkqubo zokutya, i-FARA, imibutho yoPhando yeNgingqi, i-NARS, i-AFAAS, i-AGRA, i-FANRPAN

Ukuphendula kwe-ACB kwiNgxoxo yeNgingqi kwiinkqubo zokutya zaseAfrikaLe ndibano ibibanjwe kwiNdibano yesiXhenxe yeQonga leNgingqi lase-Afrika loPhuhliso oluZinzileyo, ngomhla we-4 kweyoKwindla ngo-2021

Februwari 26, 2021

Kutheni silanda izicwangciso zeBill Gates zokuphinda sisebenzise iinkqubo zethu zokutya

Ukuhlaziywa ngoMatshi 4

The Isiseko seBill & Melinda Gates uchithe ngaphezulu kwe-5 yezigidigidi zeedola kwimizamo yakhe Ukuguqula iinkqubo zokutya eAfrika, kunye utyalo ezo zizenzelwe ukunceda izigidi zamafama amancinci ukuzikhupha kwindlala nobuhlwempu. ” Ingoma ekhulayo yabagxeki ithi isiseko sophuhliso lwezolimo - sekelwe kwi Imodeli "yenguqu eluhlaza" yokwandiswa kwemizi-mveliso -Ziphelelwe lixesha, ziyingozi kwaye zithintela utshintsho oluyimfuneko ukondla umhlaba kunye nokulungisa imozulu.

Idabi beliqhubeka ngaphezulu kweshumi leminyaka njengoko intshukumo yolawulo lokutya e-Afrika iye yaxhathisa inyanzeliso yezolimo olunzulu ngamachiza kunye nembewu enegunya lobunikazi abaxhasi abathi ziyimfuneko ukunika amafama ukhetho kunye nokukhuthaza imveliso yokutya.

Imodeli ebhetele, intshukumo yokutya ithi, inokufumaneka kwiiprojekthi zezolimo ukwanda kwemveliso ngeendleko eziphantsi kunye nemivuzo ephezulu yamafama. A Iphaneli yenqanaba eliphezulu leengcali kuba iZizwe Ezimanyeneyo ziye ndibize utshintsho lweparadigm kude kwezolimo olungazinzanga lweshishini kunye nase iinkqubo zezolimo bathi zinokuvelisa ukwahluka kwezityalo zokutya ngelixa zisakha ukomelela kwemozulu.

Ingxoxo-mpikiswano ikhokelela kumdlalo weqonga Ingqungquthela yokutya yokutya yehlabathi ye-UN. Endaweni yokulandela ingcebiso yeqela labo lobuchwephesha, iZizwe Ezimanyeneyo zibonakala zilungiselela ushishino Ukudlala ngamandla kwezolimo khokelwa ngu iziseko zeGates kunye neRockefeller kunye neQonga lezoQoqosho leHlabathi (i-WEF).  Ngaphezulu kwamaqela oluntu angama-500 are uqhankqalaza ulwalathiso lwengqungquthela aUkuqeshwa kuka-Agnes Kailibata, umongameli we-Gates exhaswa ngemali yi-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Umthunywa okhethekileyo ophethe ulwalathiso lobuchule. La maqela afuna i-UN irhoxe kwi-UN-WEF pUbugcisa babo bathi "kuyanceda ukumisela 'ubungxowa-nkulu babachaphazelekayo' njengomzekelo wolawulo lweplanethi yonke.”

Kwi Ileta ebhekiswe kuNobhala Jikelele we-UN u-António Guterres kuFebruwari ophelileyo, imibutho eyi-176 evela kumazwe angama-83 inyanzelise ukuba arhoxise ukuqeshwa kukaKalibata kwaye ayeke imodeli "yotshintsho oluluhlaza" yokwandiswa kwezolimo kwezolimo. Izicwangciso zezolimo ze-AGRA ezifuna imali eninzi, ezisebenzisa iifosili, bathi, "azizinziswa ngaphandle kwenkxaso rhoqo." Nantsi ingcaphuno evela kwileta: 

Ngo-Matshi, i UMbutho woLuntu kunye neNkqubo yoLuntu lwaBemi Umanyano lwamaqela oluntu angaphezu kwama-500 anamalungu angaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-300- xelele uThe Guardian Banokuyiduba ingqungquthela kwaye babeke intlanganiso efanayo.  “Asinakutsibela kuloliwe ohamba ngendlela engeyiyo. Sithandabuza ukuba semthethweni kwale ngqungquthela. Thina uthumele ileta kunyaka ophelileyo kunobhala jikelele malunga neenkxalabo zethu. Khange iphendulwe. Sithumele enye kwinyanga ephelileyo, nayo engaphendulwanga, utshilo uSofía Monsalve Suárez, intloko ye Fian International. "Le ngqungquthela ibonakala inekhethe kakhulu ikwacebisa abadlali abafanayo abebekhe bajongana nengxaki yokutya."

NgoJanuwari, i-UN Special Repporteur kwiLungelo lokutya uMichael Fakhri, uprofesa wezomthetho kwiYunivesithi yase-Oregon, Ubhale isibheno ku-Kalibata ka-AGRA Ukuchaza inkxalabo yakhe enzulu malunga nesikhokelo seNgqungquthela.

UFakhri uchaze ukukhathazeka kwakhe kwi ividiyo ezimbini Udliwano-ndlebe:  "Yile nto yokuba uluntu lwasekuhlaleni kunye namalungelo oluntu ekuqaleni ayekhutshelwa ngaphandle emva koko angeniswa kwaye abekelwa bucala," utshilo uFakri. “Kusithathe phantse unyaka wonke ukufumana amalungelo oluntu kwi-ajenda. KwiNgqungquthela yeeNkqubo zoKutya ephuma kwi-ofisi kaNobhala Jikelele we-UN, kusithathe unyaka ukucacisa, ukufundisa nokuqinisekisa iinkokheli zeNgqungquthela ukuba amalungelo abantu abalulekile. ”

Yiva uNjingalwazi uMichael Fakhri Chaza ukuba yintoni emngciphekweni kwiNgqungquthela ye-UN yezoKutya yokutya kunye nokuba kutheni iinkqubo zokutya ziyingxaki enkulu kunye nesisombululo esiphambili sokutshintsha kwemozulu.

Kuluhlu lwamanqaku aqala namhlanje, i-US Right to Know izakuphanda iBill Gates kunye nezicwangciso zeGates Foundation zokuphucula inkqubo yethu yokutya.

Kutheni le nto sigxile kuBill Gates? Amasango anamandla amakhulu ngokungaqhelekanga kwiinkqubo zethu zokutya, kwaye uyayisebenzisa.  Amasango yi oyena mnini mkhulu weefama eMelika. Ukwangomnye ophambili kwihlabathi abatyali mali kwi-biotechnology iinkampani ezinelungelo lobunikazi kunye nokutya. IGates Foundation inefuthe elikhulu kwindlela iinkqubo zokutya ezikhula ngayo kuMazantsi oLuntu, nakuthethathethwano lwezopolitiko kwihlabathi liphela kunye nee-ajenda zophando ezichaphazela ukutya esikutyayo nesikutyayo.

Idilesi ehambelana nayo: Izicwangciso zeGates Foundation zokuphinda zenze iinkqubo zokutya ziya kuyonakalisa imozulu

sayina kwincwadana yethu yasimahla ukulandela uhlaziyo.

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi liqela lophando elingenzi nzuzo elijolise ekukhuthazeni ukubonakala kwempilo yoluntu. Sisebenza kwihlabathi liphela ukubhengeza ukungalunganga komdibaniso nokusilela kukarhulumente okubeka emngciphekweni isidima senkqubo yethu yokutya, okusingqongileyo kunye nempilo yethu.

Februwari 25, 2021

Izicwangciso zikaBill Gates zokuphinda zisebenzise iinkqubo zokutya ziya kuyonakalisa imozulu

NguStacy Malkan

Kwincwadi yakhe entsha malunga nendlela yokuphepha intlekele yemozulu, uBilionea owaphilisayo uBill Gates uxoxa ngezicwangciso zakhe zoku imifuziselo yeenkqubo zokutya zaseAfrika "Inguquko eluhlaza" yaseIndiya, apho usosayensi wezityalo enyuse isivuno kwaye wasindisa ubomi beebhiliyoni, ngokukaGates. Uthi, umqobo ekuphumezeni ukulungiswa okufanayo e-Afrika kukuba amafama amaninzi kumazwe ahluphekileyo awanayo imali yokuthenga izichumisi.  

"Ukuba singanceda amafama ahluphekileyo anyuse isivuno sabo, bazakufumana imali eninzi kwaye bazokutya okuninzi, kwaye izigidi zabantu kwamanye amazwe ahlwempuzekileyo emhlabeni bazokwazi ukufumana ukutya okuninzi kunye nezondlo abazifunayo," utshilo uGates. uqukumbela. Akathatheli ingqalelo imiba emininzi ebonakalayo yendlala, kanye njengokuba esiba izinto ezibalulekileyo kwingxoxo yemozulu, njengoko uBill McKibben esitsho Uhlaziyo lweNew York Times kwincwadi kaGates Ungayiphepha Njani Intlekele Yemozulu. 

Amasango ayasilela ukukhankanya, umzekelo, ukuba indlala ubukhulu becala ibangelwa indlala nokungalingani, hayi ukunqongophala. Kwaye ubonakala engazi ukuba amashumi eminyaka "uguquko oluhlaza" lutyhala kwezolimo kwimizi-mveliso eIndiya lushiye a Ilifa elibi lokonzakala kuzo zombini i-ikhosistim kunye namafama asakhasayo, athe abakho beqhankqalaza ezitratweni ukusukela kunyaka ophelileyo.   

Uqhankqalazo lwamafama eIndiya lubhala ibali likaGuquko kwiGreen Revolution, "u-Aniket Aga ubhale kwi-Scientific American kwinyanga ephelileyo. Kumashumi eminyaka kwisicwangciso-qhinga sokuguqula imeko eluhlaza, “kuyacaca ukuba iingxaki ezintsha zolimo lwamashishini zongeze kwiingxaki zakudala ze indlala kwaye ukungondleki, ”Ubhala watsho u-Aga. "Akukho sixa sithembisayo kwisiphelo sentengiso esiya kulungisa imodeli yemveliso ejijekileyo nengazinzanga."

Lo mzekelo ethi ihambise amafama kwimisebenzi yokulima ekhula ngakumbi nengafaniyo kangako thembela kwizibulali zinambuzane kunye nokonakaliswa kwemozulu izichumisi zemichiza - yenye yeGates Foundation ebikhuthaza e-Afrika kangangeminyaka eli-15, ngaphezulu kwenkcaso yemibutho yokutya yase-Afrika abathi isiseko sityhala izinto eziphambili ngokubaluleka kwimibutho yezamashishini ezolimo kwilizwe lonke ukuba yonakalise uluntu lwayo.  

Amakhulu amaqela oluntu aqhankqalaza Isiseko seGates Izicwangciso-qhinga zezolimo kunye nefuthe lazo kwiNgqungquthela ye-UN yokutya yeHlabathi. Abangaphakathi bathi obu bunkokheli busoyikisa ukuphazamisa imizamo ebonakalayo yokuguqula inkqubo yokutya, e Umzuzu obalulekileyo xa uninzi lwe-Afrika esemazantsi eSahara Ukuyibuyisela kumothuko oluninzi kunye a ukukhula kwengxaki yendlala ngenxa yobhubhane kunye neemeko zokutshintsha kwemozulu. 

Konke oku kuye kwaqatshelwa yimithombo yeendaba ephambili ekhupha ikhaphethi ebomvu kwincwadi kaGates. Nazi ezinye zezizathu zokuba abagxeki bathi Inkqubo yophuhliso lwezolimo yeGates Foundation ayilunganga kwimozulu. Isiseko asiphendulanga kwizicelo ezininzi zokubeka izimvo. 

Idilesi ehambelana nayo: Kutheni silanda izicwangciso zeBill Gates zokuphinda zisebenzise inkqubo yokutya 

Ukulungelelanisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi eluhlaza

Amasango akanazintloni malunga nomnqweno wakhe wesichumiso esenziwe njengaye icacisa kule bhlog ngotyelelo lwakhe kwi Indawo yokuhambisa isichumiso yaseYara eDar es Salaam, eTanzania. Isityalo esitsha sesona sikhulu salo hlobo eMpuma Afrika. Isichumisi “sisixhobo somlingo esinokunceda ukuphakamisa izigidi zabantu kwindlala,” ubhala watsho uGates. "Ukubukela abasebenzi kugcwalisa iibhegi ngeepellets ezincinci ezimhlophe eziqukethe initrogen, iphosphorus, kunye nezinye izondlo zezityalo yayisisikhumbuzo esinamandla sendlela nganye yesichumiso enokubutshintsha ngayo ubomi eAfrika."

ICop Watch ichaza uYara njengo “isichumisi esikhulu esibangela intlekele yemozulu. ” U-Yara ngoyena mthengi mkhulu waseYurophu kumashishini erhasi yendalo, ulbbies ngokusebenzayo, kwaye ungumvelisi ophezulu wezichumisi zokwenziwa zizazinzulu. bathi banoxanduva kuba ukukhathazeka kuyanda ukukhutshwa kwe-nitrous oxide. Inkqubo ye- igesi yendlu eluhlaza Amaxesha angama-300 anamandla ngakumbi kune-carbon dioxide ekufudumaleni umhlaba. Ngokutsho iphepha leNdalo lakutshanje, Ukukhutshwa kwe-nitrous oxide eqhutywa ubukhulu becala kwezolimo kuyanda ngokwanda kwengxelo enika impendulo Eyona meko imbi yokutshintsha kwemozulu.

Amasango ayavuma ukuba izichumisi zokwenziwa ziyayonakalisa imozulu. Njengesisombululo, uGates unethemba lokuyilwa kwetekhnoloji elundini phaya, kubandakanya neprojekthi yokulinga iinjineli zemfuza ukulungisa initrogen emhlabeni. "Ukuba ezi ndlela ziyasebenza," u-Gates ubhala, "bayakunciphisa ngokumangalisayo isidingo sesichumiso kunye nazo zonke izinto ezikhutshwayo." 

Okwangoku, eyona nto kugxilwe kuyo kwiinzame zeGates zenguqu eluhlaza e-Afrika kukhulisa ukusetyenziswa kwesichumisi esenziwe ngenjongo yokunyusa isivuno, nangona kukho abukho ubungqina bokubonisa Iminyaka eli-14 yale mizamo incede amafama amancinci okanye amahlwempu, okanye ivelise isivuno esikhulu.

Ukwandisa monocultures eyonakalisa imozulu 

IGates Foundation ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 5 yezigidigidi ukusukela ngo-2006 ukuba "ukunceda ukuqhuba inguqu kwezolimo”EAfrika. Ubuninzi be Inkxaso mali iya uphando lobuchwephesha kunye neenzame zokutshintsha amafama aseAfrika kwiindlela zolimo zolimo kunye nokwandisa ukufikelela kwabo kwimbewu yorhwebo, isichumiso kunye nezinye izinto. Abaxhasi bathi le migudu nika abalimi ukhetho abaludingayo ukonyusa imveliso kunye bazikhuphe kwindlala. Abagxeki bathi "uguquko oluhlaza" lukaGates amacebo ayonakalisa iAfrika ngokwenza Iinkqubo zendalo zibuthathaka ngakumbi, ukufaka amafama ematyaleni, yaye Ukuphambukisa oovimba boluntu ku utshintsho olunzulu lwenkqubo kufuneka ijongane nemozulu kunye nendlala. 

"IGates Foundation ikhuthaza umzekelo wokulima izilwanyana zodwa kunye nokulungiswa kokutya okungabondli abantu bethu," iqela leenkokheli zokholo ezivela e-Afrika ubhale kwi Ileta eya kwisiseko, ukuphakamisa inkxalabo yokuba isiseko "senkxaso yokwandiswa kwezolimo olunzulu kwimizi-mveliso senza nzulu ingxaki yoluntu." 

Isiseko, bathi, "Ikhuthaza abalimi baseAfrika ukuba basebenzise igalelo eliphezulu-indlela yokuvelisa ephezulu esekwe kwimodeli yeshishini ephuhliswe kwindawo yaseNtshona" kwaye "ibeka uxinzelelo kumafama ukuba akhule isityalo esinye okanye ezimbalwa ezisekwe kwintengiso ephezulu okanye ehlengahlengisiweyo yemfuza ( GM) iimbewu. ”

Inkqubo yezolimo yeGates, uManyano lweNguquko kwiGreen e-Afrika (i-AGRA), ikhokhelela abalimi kumbona nakwezinye izityalo eziyintloko ngenjongo yokunyusa isivuno. Ngokwe-AGRA's Isicwangciso sokusebenza kweUganda (ugxininiso lwabo):

  • Inguqu kwezolimo ichazwa njenge Inkqubo apho amafama atshintshela kwimveliso eyahluka-hlukeneyo, ejolise ekulungiseleleni ukutya aye kwimveliso ekhethekileyo ejolise kwimarike okanye ezinye iinkqubo zotshintshiselwano, kubandakanya ukuthembela okukhulu kwiinkqubo zokunikezelwa kunye neziphumo kunye nokwanda komdibaniso wezolimo namanye amacandelo oqoqosho lwasekhaya nolwamanye amazwe.

Eyona njongo iphambili ye-AGRA ziinkqubo zoku ukwandisa ukufikelela kwamafama kwimbewu yorhwebo kunye nezichumisi zokukhulisa umbona kunye nezinye izityalo ezimbalwa. Le phakheji yeteknoloji "yokuguqula okuluhlaza" ixhaswa ngakumbi yi- $ 1 yezigidigidi ngonyaka kwinkxaso-mali evela koorhulumente base-Afrika, ngokuka Uphando olupapashwe kulo nyaka uphelileyo nge ITufts yoPhuhliso lweHlabathi kunye neZiko lezeNdalo kwaye ingxelo ngu Amaqela aseAfrika nawaseJamani

Abaphandi abafumananga phawu lwentsebenzo yemveliso; Idatha ibonisa ukuzuza okulinganiselweyo kwe-18% kwizityalo ezisisiseko kumazwe ekujoliswe kuwo yi-AGRA, ngelixa ingeniso imile kwaye ukhuseleko lokutya luye lubi, ngenani labantu abalambileyo nabangondlekanga lifikelela kuma-30%. I-AGRA uphikisana nophando kodwa khange anike ngxelo ineenkcukacha ngeziphumo zayo kwisithuba seminyaka eli-15. Isithethi se-AGRA sixelele ukuba ingxelo izakuvela ngo-Epreli.

Abaphandi abazimeleyo nabo uxele ukwehla kwezityalo zesintu, njengamazimba, leyo ikwazi ukumelana nemozulu kwaye kwakhona Umthombo obalulekileyo wee-micronutrients kwizigidi zabantu.

"Imodeli ye-AGRA eyanyanzeliswa kulimo lwaseRwanda olwahlukileyo ngaphambili ngokuqinisekileyo yayisingela phantsi iindlela zokulima zemveli ezinesondlo nezinzileyo, ”utshilo uJomo Kwame Sundaram, owayesakuba ngusekela Nobhala Jikelele woPhuhliso lwezoqoqosho, Ubhale kwinqaku elichaza uphando.  Iphakheji ye-AGRA, uyaphawula, 'wamiselwa Isandla esinzima ”eRwanda, urhulumente esithi akavumeli ukulinywa kwezinye izityalo ezixhaphakileyo kwezinye iindawo.  

Ukuhambisa izibonelelo kwi-agroecology 

"Ukuba iinkqubo zokutya zehlabathi zizakugcinwa, izityalo ezingena nzulu kwizityalo kunye nendawo zokutya kufuneka ziphelelwe lixesha," iinkokheli zonqulo zaseAfrika zibhale isibheno kwiGates Foundation.

Ewe, zininzi iingcali zithi a Ukutshintsha kweparadigm kubalulekile, kude ne iyunifomu, iinkqubo zokutyala izilwanyana zodwa kwiindlela ezohlukeneyo, ezolimo nezichasayo inokujongana neengxaki kunye nokusikelwa umda kwezolimo kwimizi-mveliso kubandakanya ukungalingani, ukwanda kwendlala, ukungondleki kunye nokuthotywa kwendalo.

The Ingxelo yowama-2019 yeQela loorhulumente kuTshintsho lweMozulu (IPCC) ilumkisa ngokuchasene neziphumo zokuxhamla monocropping, kwaye iphakamise ukubaluleka kwe-agroecology, ethe iphaneli ithi ingaphucula “uzinzo kunye nokomelela kweenkqubo zezolimo ngokunqanda imeko ezibi zemozulu, ukunciphisa ukuthotywa kwemihlaba, nokubuyisela umva ekusetyenzisweni kwezixhobo; kwaye ngenxa yoko sandise isivuno ngaphandle kokonakalisa iintlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo. ”

URupa Marya, MD, unjingalwazi onxulumene namayeza e-UCSF, uxoxa nge-agroecology kwinkomfa ye-EcoFarm yowama-2021.

Umbutho wezokutya nezolimo weUN Ingxelo yephaneli yengcali kwi-agroecology icacisa gca ukuba kufuneke kususwe umfuziselo "wolimo oluhlaza" kumfuziselo wezolimo kwimizi-mveliso nakwindlela yezolimo ebonakalise ukwandisa ukwahluka kwezityalo zokutya, ukunciphisa iindleko kunye nokwakha ukomelela kwemozulu. 

Kodwa iinkqubo zokunyusa i-agroecology zilambele inkxaso-mali njengoko iibhiliyoni zoncedo kunye neenkxaso-mali ziya kuxhasa imifuziselo yezolimo. Izithintelo eziphambili ekubambeni utyalo-mali kwi-agroecology zibandakanya dukhetho olukhethekileyo lwenzuzo, ukungahambi kakuhle kunye neziphumo zexesha elifutshane, Ngokwengxelo yowama-2020 Ukusuka kwiPhaneli lamaZwe ngamaZwe kwiiNkqubo zokutya eziZinzileyo (IPES-Ukutya).

Iipesenti ezingama-85 zeGates Foundation ezixhaswe ngemali ziiprojekthi zophando lwezolimo e-Afrika kule minyaka idlulileyo bezinqunyelwe "ekuxhaseni ezolimo kwimizi-mveliso kunye / okanye ekonyuseni ukusebenza kwayo ngeendlela ekujoliswe kuzo njengokuphuculwa kwendlela yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iyeza lokugonya imfuyo okanye ukunciphisa iilahleko zasemva kokuvuna, ”Yatsho ingxelo. Kuphela yi-3% yeeprojekthi ezibandakanya imiba yoyilo ngokutsha lwe-agroecological.

Abaphandi Qaphela, "i-agroecology ayi azilungelanga iindlela ezikhoyo zotyalo-mali. Njengabaninzi abanikela ngezipho, i-BMGF [iBill kunye neMelinda Gates Foundation] ijonge imbuyekezo ekhawulezileyo, ebonakalayo kutyalo-mali, kwaye ngenxa yoko ithanda izisombululo ekujoliswe kuzo. ” 

Olu khetho lunobunzima kwizigqibo malunga nokuba uphando lukhula njani kwiinkqubo zokutya zehlabathi. Oyena mntu wamkelayo Inkxaso-mali yezolimo yeGates Foundation yi-CGIAR, umanyano lwamaziko ophando ali-15 aqeshe amawaka ezenzululwazi kwaye alawula i-11 yeebhanki zemfuza ezibaluleke kakhulu. Amaziko ngokwembali ayejolise ekuphuhliseni iseti emxinwa yezityalo ezinokuthi ziveliswe ngobuninzi ngoncedo lokufakwa kweekhemikhali. 

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, amanye amaziko e-CGIAR athathe amanyathelo ngokubhekisele kwinkqubo yenkqubo kunye namalungelo, kodwa isicwangciso esicetywayo sokuhlengahlengisa ukudala "i-CGIAR enye" ​​ngebhodi enye kunye namandla amatsha okuseta i-ajenda iphakamisa iinkxalabo. Ngokokutya kwe-IPESIsindululo sohlengahlengiso isoyikisa "ukunciphisa ukuzimela kwee-ajenda zophando zengingqi kunye nokuqinisa ukubanjwa kwabona banikeli banamandla," njengeGates Foundation, "abathandabuzayo ukuphambuka kwindlela ye-Green Revolution."

The inkqubo yohlengahlengiso ekhokelwa ngummeli weGates Foundation kunye nenkokheli yangaphambili yeSyngenta Foundation, "AIippears kufuneka ziqhutyelwe phambili ngendlela yokunyanzelwa, "yatsho i-IPES," kukuthenga okuncinci kubantu ekucingelwa ukuba bangabaxhamli kuMazantsi ehlabathi, ngokungafaniyo okwaneleyo phakathi kwesangqa sabahlaziyi, nangaphandle kokuqwalaselwa kweparadigm efuneka ngokungxamisekileyo utshintsho kwindlela yokutya. ”

Ngeli xesha, iGates Foundation inayo ukukhaba kwenye i-310 yezigidi zeedola kwi-CGIAR “ukunceda amafama asakhasayo azizigidi ezingama-300 ukuziqhelanisa notshintsho lwemozulu.” 

Ukungenisa ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwezivuno ze-GMO

Umyalezo wokuthatha weGates incwadi entsha yile inkqubela kwezobuchwephesha Ungalondla ihlabathi kwaye ulungise imozulu, ukuba nje sinako tyala imali eyaneleyo Ngokubhekisele kwezi zinto zintsha. Ezona zinambuzane zibulala zinambuzane / imbewu zikhuthaza umxholo ofanayo, Ukuziphindaphinda kwabo baphikayo kwimozulu ukuya kusombulula iingxaki: Inkqubela phambili kwezolimo lwedijithali, ezolimo ezichanekileyo kunye nobunjineli bemfuza kuzonciphisa imeko yezolimo kunye "nokuxhobisa amafama asakhasayo ayi-100 yezigidi" ukuziqhelanisa notshintsho lwemozulu, “konke ngonyaka ka-2030,” ngokwe Isityalo seBayer.

IGates Foundation kunye nomzi mveliso weekhemikhali “Ukuthengisa elidlulileyo njengotshintsho eAfrika, ”Uxoxa atsho uTimothy Wise, ophanda naye kwi-Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, kwi iphepha elitsha leTufts GDAE. U-Wise uthe: "Eyona nto intsha yokwenziwa kwezinto, iyenzeka kumafama njengoko besebenza nezazinzulu ukwandisa imveliso yezityalo ezahlukeneyo, ukunciphisa iindleko, kunye nokwakha ukomelela kwemozulu ngokwamkela inkqubo yezolimo." 

Njengengxelo yokuphumelela kwezobuchwephesha okuzayo, uGates walatha kwincwadi yakhe kwi-Impossible Burger. Kwisahluko esinesihloko esithi "Sizikhulisa njani izinto," uGates uchaza ukoneliseka kwakhe yile veggie burger yophayo (kwi eyona nto ayityala imali enkulu) kunye nethemba lakhe lokuba i-burger esekwe kwizityalo kunye nenyama esekwe kwiseli ziya kuba zizisombululo eziphambili zotshintsho lwemozulu. 

Unyanisile, ewe, ukuba ukushenxa kwimveliso yefama yefama kubalulekile kwimozulu. Kodwa ngaba i-Impossible Burger isisombululo esigcinekileyo, okanye yindlela nje yokuthengisa yokuguqula izityalo eziveliswe kwimizi-mveliso iimveliso zokutya ezinelungelo elilodwa lomenziNjengoAnna Lappe Ichaza, Ukutya okungenakwenzeka "Kungena konke kwi-GMO soy," hayi kuphela njengeyona nto iphambili ye-burger kodwa ikwangumxholo we uphawu lokuzinziswa kwenkampani.  

Kwiminyaka engama-30, imboni yamachiza ithembise ukuba izityalo ze-GMO ziya kukhulisa isivuno, zinciphise i-pesticides kwaye zondle umhlaba ngokuzinzileyo, kodwa khange kwenzeke njalo. Njengoko uDanny Hakim uxele kwiNew York Times, Izityalo zeGMO azivelisanga sivuno sibhetele. Izityalo zeGMO nazo yaqhuba ukusetyenziswa kwemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula, ngakumbi i-glyphosate, enxulunyaniswa nomhlaza phakathi kwezinye impilo neengxaki zokusingqongileyo. Njengokuba ukhula lwalunganyangeki, ishishini lenza imbewu ngokunyamezelana kwemichiza. I-Bayer, umzekelo, iqhubela phambili ngezityalo ze-GMO zenzelwe ukuba zisinde ezintlanu.

UMexico usandula ukubhengeza Izicwangciso zokunqanda ukungeniswa kombona we-GMO, besithi izityalo 'azithandeki' kwaye 'azifuneki.'

EMzantsi Afrika, elinye lamazwe ambalwa ase-Afrika avumela ukulinywa kwezolimo kwezityalo ze-GMO, ngaphezulu kwe- I-85% yombona kunye nesoy ngoku yenziwe, kwaye uninzi lutshizwa nge-glyphosate. amafama, amaqela oluntu, iinkokheli zopolitiko kwaye oogqirha baphakamisa iinkxalabo malunga nokunyuka kwamazinga omhlaza. Kwaye fukungazithembi nge-ood iyenyuka, nayo.  Amava oMzantsi Afrika kwii-GMO abe “Iminyaka engama-23 yokusilela, ilahleko yendalo kunye nokwanda kwendlala, ”Ngokutsho kwe-African Centre for Biodiversity.

Utshintsho olwenziweyo e-Afrika, utshilo umseki weli qela uMariam Mayet, "isiphelo" esikhokelela "ekunciphiseni impilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwendalo yezolimo, ukuphulukana nolawulo lwabalimi, kunye nokutshixwa kwamafama aseAfrika kwinkqubo engayenzelwanga Uncedo lwabo, kodwa inzuzo yabo yinkampani yamazwe amaninzi eMntla. ” 

Iziko lase-Afrika lezinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo lithi, "Kubalulekile ukuba ngoku, kweli xesha libalulekileyo embalini," ukuba siguqule indlela, siphelise ulimo lwamashishini kunye notshintsho lwenkqubo yezolimo kunye nokutya okufanelekileyo. "  

UStacy Malkan ulawula umhleli kunye nomseki-mbumba wase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi, iqela lophando elijolise ekukhuthazeni ukungafihli kwempilo yoluntu. Bhalisela iphepha leLungelo lokwazi uhlaziyo rhoqo.

Related: Funda malunga nezigidi ezingama-50 zeedola zikaCargill Indawo yokuvelisa injineli yemfuza uStevia, Isityalo esinexabiso eliphezulu nesikhuliswe ngokuzinzileyo exhomekeke kumafama amaninzi kwi-Global South.

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