Pepa ʻo Glyphosate: Ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe

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ʻO Glyphosate, kahi herbicide synthetic i patentia i ka 1974 e ka Hui Monsanto a i hana ʻia a kūʻai ʻia e nā hui he nui i nā huahana he haneli, ua pili pū ʻia me ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe. ʻO Glyphosate ka mea i ʻike nui ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i nā lāʻau make inoa ʻo Roundup-branded, a me ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana ʻia me "Roundup Ready" nā meaola i hoʻoponopono maoli ʻia (GMO).

ʻO ka tolerance Herbicide ka mea i hoʻomake nui ʻia me ka GMO i hana ʻia i loko o nā mea kanu meaʻai, me kekahi 90% o ke kulina a me 94% o nā soybeans i ka US i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau make, e like me ka ʻikepili USDA. A 2017 like ʻike ʻia ua hoʻonui ʻia ka ʻike ʻana o ka poʻe ʻAmelika i ka glyphosate 500 pakeneka mai ka Roundup Ready GMO i hoʻolako ʻia i ka US ma 1996. Eia kekahi mau ʻike nui e pili ana i ka glyphosate:

Pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia

E like me ka Pepeluali Fepuari 2016, ʻo glyphosate ka ʻo ka pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia: "I ka US, ʻaʻohe pesticide i hele mai kahi kokoke i ka hoʻohana nui a hoʻolaha ākea." Loaʻa nā loaʻa ma:

  • Ua noi nā ʻAmelika i 1.8 miliona mau tona o glyphosate mai kona hoʻolauna ʻana i ka makahiki 1974.
  • Ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa 9.4 miliona mau tona o ka kemika i pīpī ʻia ma nā kahua - lawa pono e kāpīpī kokoke i ka hapalua paona o Roundup ma kēlā me kēia ʻeka e mahi ʻia ana o ka honua.
  • Ma ke ao holoʻokoʻa, ua piʻi aʻe ka hoʻohana glyphosate ma kahi o 15 mau pā mai ka hoʻopuka ʻia ʻana o nā mea kanu ʻo Roundup Ready GMO.

Nā ʻōlelo mai nā ʻepekema a me nā lawelawe mālama olakino 

Nā hopohopo maʻi ʻaʻai

ʻO nā palapala ʻepekema a me nā hopena hoʻoholo e pili ana i nā glyphosate a me nā gicphosate-based herbicides e hōʻike nei i kahi hui o nā hopena, e hana ana i ka palekana o ka lāʻau make i kumuhana i hoʻopaʻapaʻa nui ʻia. 

Ma 2015, ka ʻO ka 'Oihana Kuleana International o ka World Health Organization no ka Research on Cancer (IARC) glyphosate ʻike ʻia e like me "carcinogenic paha i nā kānaka”Ma hope o ka loiloi ʻana i nā makahiki o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana a me ka loiloi ʻia e nā hoa ʻepekema. Ua ʻike ka kime o nā ʻepekema kūwaho he hui ma waena o glyphosate a me non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Nā keʻena US: I ka manawa o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana IARC, ke alakaʻi nei ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i kahi loiloi hoʻopaʻa inoa. ʻO ke Kōmike loiloi i ka maʻi ʻaʻai e EPA (CARC) hoʻopuka i kahi hōʻike i Kepakemapa 2016 Ke hoʻopau nei i ka glyphosate "ʻaʻole ia he carcinogenic i nā kānaka" ma nā lāʻau e pili ana i ke olakino kanaka. I Kēkēmapa 2016, ua hoʻākoakoa ka EPA i kahi Panel Aʻoaʻo ʻepekema e nānā i ka hōʻike; nā lālā i mahele ʻia i kā lākou loiloi i kā EPA hana, me kekahi mau mea i loaʻa i ka EPA i hala i ke ʻano o ka loiloi ʻana i kekahi noiʻi. Hoʻohui ʻia, ua hoʻoholo ke Keʻena ʻo EPA o ka noiʻi a me ke kūkulu ʻana i ka Office of Pesticide Programs a ka EPA ʻaʻole i hahai pono i nā ʻōmole kūpono i loko o kāna loiloi o glyphosate, a ua ʻōlelo ʻia ua hiki ke manaʻo ʻia he mau kākoʻo e kākoʻo ana i kahi hōʻike "carinogen" a "a manaʻo" paha o ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka carcinogenicity. Eia naʻe ka EPA hoʻopuka ʻia kahi hōʻike kikoʻī ma glyphosate i ka lāʻo Dekemaba 2017 e hoʻomau ana i ka paʻa ʻana ʻaʻole paha he carcinogenic ka kemikala. I ʻApelila 2019, ka EPA hōʻoia hou i kona kūlana ʻaʻole pilikia kēlā glyphosate i ke olakino lehulehu. Akā ma mua o kēlā mahina, ua hōʻike ka US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) he mau loulou ma waena o glyphosate a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Wahi a ka hōʻike kikoʻī mai ATSDR, "He nui nā noiʻi i hōʻike i nā lakio pōpilikia i ʻoi aku ma mua o hoʻokahi no nā hui ma waena o ka hōʻike glyphosate a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a i ʻole myeloma lehulehu." 

Ua hoʻopuka ka EPA i kahi Hoʻoholo Manaʻo Manaʻo Kākoʻo Kūmau i Ianuali 2020 me ka ʻike hou e pili ana i kona kūlana ma glyphosate. 

Hui PūʻAina: ka ʻO ka Mana palekana palekana Kai ʻEulopa a me ka Ka Hui Kūmole Europa ua ʻōlelo ʻaʻole paha he gākana kino ka glyphosate i kānaka. A Hōʻike 2017 e nā hui kaiapuni a me nā mea kūʻai aku i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i ka hilinaʻi kūpono ʻole o nā mea hoʻokele i ka noiʻi i kuhikuhi ʻia a hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana kemika. A 2019 like ua ʻike ʻo Kelemania Federal Institute no ka hōʻike loiloi ʻikepili ma glyphosate, ka mea i loaʻa ʻole kahi pilikia o ka maʻi ʻaʻai, me nā ʻāpana o ka ʻōlelo plagiarized mai nā noi a Monsanto. I Pepeluali 2020, ua hōʻike ʻia nā hōʻike ʻepekema 24 i waiho ʻia i nā luna hoʻomalu Kelemania e hōʻoia i ka palekana o glyphosate mai kahi keʻena nui Kelemania ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hoʻopunipuni a me nā hana hewa ʻē aʻe.

ʻO ka hui hui ʻana o WHO / FAO ma nā koena Pesticide i hoʻoholo i ka 2016 ʻaʻole hiki i kēlā glyphosate ke waiho i kahi makaʻi kanesa i nā kānaka mai ka hōʻike ʻana ma o ka papaʻai, akā ua hōʻino ʻia kēia ʻike e kipi o ka hoihoi hopohopo ma hope o ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o ka noho a me ka luna noho o ka hui i paʻa i nā kūlana alakaʻi me ka Ke KeʻenaʻEpekema Ola Ola International, kahi hui i kālā kālā ʻia e Monsanto a me kekahi o kāna hui lobbying.

Kaleponi OEHHA: Ma Malaki 28, 2017, ua hōʻoia ka Office of Protection Environmental Protection Agency o Kaleponi e hana ia hoʻohui glyphosate i ka Palapala Kauoha Kaleponi 65 papa inoa o nā kemika i ʻike ʻia e lilo ai ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Monsanto e pale i ka hana akā ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka hihia. I kekahi hihia ʻokoʻa, ua ʻike ka ʻaha ʻaʻole hiki i Kaleponi ke koi aku i nā ʻōlelo a ka maʻi ʻaʻai no nā huahana i loaʻa ka glyphosate. Ma Iune 12, 2018, ua hōʻole kahi ʻaha ʻĀpana o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i ka noi a ka Loio Kuhina Kaleponi no ka ʻaha e noonoo hou i ka hoʻoholo. Ua ʻike ka ʻaha he hiki wale iā Kaleponi ke koi aku i ka haʻiʻōlelo kalepa e hōʻike ana i ka "ʻike maoli a me ka pili ʻole o ka ʻike," a ʻaʻole i hōʻoia ʻia ka ʻepekema e pili ana i ka carcinogenicity glyphosate.

Ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai: Ua loaʻa i kahi aupuni lōʻihi o US i kākoʻo ʻia e ka cohort prospective cohort no nā ʻohana mahiʻai ma Iowa a me North Carolina ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi pilina ma waena o ka hoʻohana glyphosate a me ka non-Hodgkin lymphoma, akā ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi "ma waena o nā mea noi i ka quartile hōʻike kiʻekiʻe loa, aia kekahi hoʻonui i ka makaʻu o ka myeloid leukemia (AML) i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea hoʻohana ʻole… ” i hoʻolaha ʻia i ka hopena o 2017.

ʻO nā noiʻi hou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe 

Cancer

Ka hoʻohaunaele Endocrine, ka momona a me nā hopohopo hānau 

ʻO ka maʻi maʻi 

  • ʻO kahi noi 2017 e pili ana i nā hōʻike glyphosate mau loa, haʻahaʻa loa maʻi maʻi ʻona ʻona ʻona ʻole i nāʻiole. Wahi a nā kānaka noiʻi, ʻo nā hopena "hōʻike ʻia ka ʻai mau ʻana o nā pae haʻahaʻa loa o kahi GBH formulate (Roundup), ma nā ʻano like glyphosate e like me ia, e pili ana i nā hoʻololi o ka proteome ate a me ka metabolome," nā biomarkers no NAFLD.

Hoʻohaunaele Microbiome 

  • November 2020 ka pepa i ka Pai no e hopohopo hōʻike e pili ana i ka 54 pākēneka o nā laha i ke kumu o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka i "hiki ke maʻalahi" i ka glyphosate. Me kahi "mahele nui" o nā koʻohune i loko o ka ʻōpū microbiome i maʻalahi ʻia i ka glyphosate, ʻo ka lawe ʻana o glyphosate "e loli loa i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka," i ʻōlelo nā mea kākau i kā lākou pepa. 
  • A 2020 Nānā moʻokalaleo o nā hopena o glyphosate ma ka ʻōpū microbiome Panina ia, "ʻO ke koena glyphosate ma luna o ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke kumu i ka dysbiosis, no ka mea ʻoi aku ke kūpaʻa o nā pathogens oportunistic i ka glyphosate ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka bacteria bacteria." Ke hoʻomau nei ka pepa, "ʻO Glyphosate kahi mea hoʻonāukiuki kūpilikiʻi loa i ka etiology o kekahi mau mokuʻāina e pili ana i ka dysbiosis, e like me ka maʻi celiac, ka maʻi ʻōpū a me ka maʻi hanu huhū. He hopena paha kā Glyphosate no ke olakino noʻonoʻo, e like me ka hopohopo a me ke kaumaha, ma o ka loli ʻana i ka microbiome ʻōpū.
  • Ua mālama ʻia kahi noi no ka ʻiole 2018 e ka Ramazzini Institute e hōʻike ana i nā hōʻike haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa i Roundup ma nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he palekana loa ua hoʻololi i ka microbiota ʻōpū i kekahi o nā ʻīlio ʻiole.
  • Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ʻē aʻe ma 2018 i ke kiʻekiʻe o nā glyphosate kiʻekiʻe i lawelawe ʻia i nā ʻiole i hoʻohaunaele i ka ʻōpū microbiota a hana i nā ʻano hopohopo a me ke kaumaha.

Nā hopena piʻina ʻino a me nā butterflies mōʻī.

ʻO nā hoʻopiʻi kanesa

Ma mua o ka 42,000 poʻe i waiho i ka hoʻopiʻi kūʻē iā Monsanto Company (ʻo Bayer i kēia manawa) e ʻōlelo nei i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka lāʻau make i Roundup i mea iā lākou a i ʻole nā ​​mea aloha e hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin (NHL), a ua uhi ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia. Ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka hana ʻike, ua huli ʻo Monsanto i mau miliona o nā ʻaoʻao o nā moʻolelo kūloko. O mākou ke kau nei i kēia mau pepa Monsanto i ka wā e loaʻa ai. No nā nūhou a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e pili ana i ke kānāwai e hoʻomau nei, e ʻike iā Carey Gillam's Pūnaewele Hoʻokolohua Roundup. ʻO nā hoʻokolokolo mua ʻekolu i pau i nā makana nui i nā mea hoʻopiʻi no ke kuleana a me nā pohō, me nā jure e hoʻoholo ana he mea kōkua nui ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele a Monsanto i mea e hoʻomohala iā NHL. Hoʻopiʻi ʻo Bayer i nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo. 

Ka mana o Monsanto i ka noiʻi: I Malaki 2017, ua wehe ka luna kānāwai pekelala i kekahi o nā palapala Monsanto kūloko hāpai i nā nīnau hou e pili ana i kā Monsanto mana i ka hana EPA a pili i nā mea hoʻokele noiʻi e hilinaʻi ai. Hōʻike nā palapala i nā hoʻopiʻi lōʻihi a Monsanto e pili ana i ka palekana o glyphosate a me Roundup mai hilinaʻi pono i ka ʻepekema kani e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka ʻoihana, akā naʻe nā hana e hoʻopololei i ka ʻepekema

Nā ʻike hou aʻe e pili ana i ka hoʻopilikia ʻepekema:

Ua hāʻawi ʻia nā ʻepekema ʻo Sri Lankan i kahi makana no ke kūʻokoʻa AAAS no ka noiʻi maʻi maʻi ʻōpū

Ua hāʻawi aku ka AAAS i ʻelua ʻepekema Lankan, ʻo Dr. ʻO Channa Jayasumana lāua ʻo Sarath Gunatilake, ka ʻO ka makana 2019 no ke kūʻokoʻa ʻepekema a me ke kuleana no kā lākou hana e "ʻimi i ka pilina ma waena o glyphosate a me nā maʻi puʻuwai maʻi ma lalo o nā pilikia." Ua hōʻike nā ʻepekema he hana nui ka glyphosate i ka lawe ʻana i nā metala kaumaha i nā puʻupaʻa o ka poʻe e inu ana i ka wai i hoʻohaumia ʻia, a hiki i ka nui o nā maʻi maʻi maʻi ma nā kaiāulu mahiʻai. ʻIke pepa i loko  ʻO SpringerPlus (2015), ʻO BMC Nefrology (2015), Ka Ola Ola (2015), International Journal of Environmental Research a me Health Health (2014). ʻO ka makana AAAS i hala hoʻokuʻuʻia ma waena o kahi hoʻoulu kūʻē kūʻē mai nā mea kōkua pesticide e hoʻohaʻahaʻa i ka hana a ka ʻepekema. Ma hope o ka loiloi, ʻo ka AAAS hoʻihoʻi hou i ka makana

Desiccation: kahi kumu hou aʻe o ka hōʻike papaʻai 

Hoʻohana kekahi mau mahiʻai i ka glyphosate ma nā mea kanu ʻole GMO e like me ka palaoa, ka bale, ka ʻoka, a me ka lihi e hoʻomaloʻo i ka hua i mua o ka ʻohi ʻana i mea e wikiwiki ai ka ʻohi. Kēia hana, ʻike ʻia ʻo desiccation, paha he kumu waiwai nui o ka hōʻike papaʻai i glyphosate.

ʻO Glyphosate i ka meaʻai: Huki ʻo US i kona mau wāwae i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana

Ua hoʻokuʻu mālie ka USDA i kahi hoʻolālā e hoʻomaka e hoʻāʻo i nā meaʻai no nā koena o glyphosate ma 2017. ʻO nā palapala kūloko kūloko i loaʻa ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike ana ua hoʻolālā ke keʻena e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana ma kahi o 300 mau laʻana o ka syrup kānana no glyphosate i ʻApelila 2017. Akā ua pepehi ka ʻoihana i ka papahana ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana. Ua hoʻomaka ka US Food and Drug Administration i kahi papahana hoʻāʻo palena palena i ka 2016, akā piha ka hana me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a me nā pilikia kūloko a ʻo ka papahana ka hoʻomaha ʻia i Kepakemapa 2016. Loaʻa i nā ʻoihana ʻelua i nā papahana e hoʻāʻo i kēlā me kēia makahiki i nā meaʻai no nā koena pesticide akā ua haʻalele pinepine lāua i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana no ka glyphosate.

Ma mua o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana, loaʻa kahi chemist o FDA pae weliweli o glyphosate i nā laʻana he nui o ka meli US, nā pae i kū ʻole i ke ʻenehana no ka mea ʻaʻohe ʻae i hoʻokumu ʻia no ka meli e ka EPA. Eia kahi recap o nā nūhou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i loaʻa i ka meaʻai.

Nā pesticides i kā mākou meaʻai: Aia i hea ka ʻike palekana?

Hōʻike kaʻikepili USDA mai 2016 i nā pae pesticide i hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma 85% o ʻoi aku ma mua o 10,000 mau meaʻai i laʻana, nā mea āpau mai nā ʻalalā i nā hua waina i nā pīni ʻōmaʻomaʻo. Wahi a ke aupuni ʻaʻohe mea iki e pili ana i ke ola olakino, akā ʻōlelo kekahi ʻepekema ʻaʻohe mea iki e kākoʻo ai i kēlā hoʻopiʻi. E nānā “Nā kemika i kā mākou meaʻai: Inā ʻaʻole palekana ʻo "palekana": ʻImi ʻepekema o ke koena pesticide i nā meaʻai e ulu; nīnau ʻia nā pale hoʻomalu, ”Na Carey Gillam (11/2018).