Neonicotinoids: kahi ulu e ulu nei

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Ma Ianuali 10, ua paʻi ka The Guardian kēia moʻolelo e pili ana i kahi kaiāulu liʻiliʻi ʻo Nebraska kaiāulu e hakakā nei no ʻelua mau makahiki me ka haumia i nakinaki ʻia i nā hua kulina i uhi ʻia me neonicotinoid. ʻO ke kumuwaiwai kahi eranol mea kanu i kūʻai aku iā ia iho me he manuahi lā “Hana hou” kahi no nā ʻoihana hua e like me Bayer, Syngenta a me nā mea ʻē aʻe e pono ai kahi e hemo ai i nā lako i ʻoi aku o kēia mau lāʻau hua kanu pesticide. ʻO ka hopena, wahi a nā kamaʻāina, he ʻāina i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o nā koena neonicotinoid, a lākou i ʻōlelo ai ua hoʻomaka nā maʻi i nā kānaka a me nā holoholona. Makaʻu lākou i ko lākou ʻāina a me ka wai i kēia manawa ua haumia ʻole.

Ua hoʻopaʻa nā luna hoʻomalu o ka mokuʻāina i nā pae o nā neonicotinoids ma a haʻohaʻo ia i nā ʻāpana 427,000 i kēlā me kēia piliona (ppb) i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i kekahi o nā puʻu nui o nā ʻōpala ma ka pūnaewele o ka waiwai o ka mea kanu ethanol. Hoʻohālikelike ia i nā pae hoʻohālikelike e kuhikuhi ana i nā pae ma lalo o 70 ppb e manaʻo ʻia he palekana.

ike keia palapala no nā kikoʻī a me nā palapala hou aku.

ʻO ka moʻolelo o ka nui o ke kaiāulu ma Mead, Nebraska, akā ʻo ia ka hōʻailona hou loa e pono e hoʻoikaika ʻia ka mālama aupuni ʻana a me ka pekelala o nā neonicotinoids, e like me nā mea kākoʻo i ke kaiapuni a me nā mea noiʻi mai nā kula nui o US.

ʻO nā insecticides i hoʻohana nui ʻia

ʻO ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ma luna o ka papa o nā insecticides i kapa ʻia he neonicotinoids, a neonicot, e ulu nei i nā makahiki i hala aku nei a ua lilo i hakakā ma waena o nā behemoth ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā neonics a me nā hui a me nā hui mea kūʻai aku e ʻōlelo nei he kuleana nā insecticides no ka nui o ka nohona a me ke olakino kanaka. hana ʻino.

Mai ka wā i hoʻolauna ʻia i nā makahiki 1990, ua lilo nā neonicotinoids i ka papa o nā mea nui i hoʻohana nui ʻia ma ka honua, kūʻai ʻia ma 120 mau ʻāina e kōkua i ka mālama ʻana i nā mea ʻinoʻino a pale i ka hana mahiʻai. ʻAʻole kāpīpī wale nā ​​insecticides i nā mea kanu akā uhi ʻia nō hoʻi i nā ʻanoʻano. Hoʻohana ʻia nā Neonicotinoids i ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano mea kanu like ʻole, e laʻa me ka laiki, ka pulupulu, ka palaoa, kaʻuala a me ka soybeans. E like me ka 2014, neonicotinoids i hōʻike ma mua o 25 pākēneka o ka pesticide honua mākeke, e like me ka mea noiʻi.

Ma loko o ka papa, ʻo clothianidin a me imidacloprid ka mea i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia ma United States, e like me kahi pepa 2019 i paʻi ʻia i ka puke pai. Ka Ola Ola.

I Ianuali 2020, ua hoʻokuʻu ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency i ua hoʻoholo ʻia i nā koho no ka acetamiprid, ka lole lole, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, a me thiamethoxam, insecticides kikoʻī i loko o ka papa neonicotinoid. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ke hana nei ia e hōʻemi i ka nui i hoʻohana ʻia ma nā mea kanu i pili i nā "pōpilikia kaiaola" hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia nā pesticides i nā mea ulu.

Hoʻopili ʻia i ka make ʻana o ka pi

Ke hōʻike nei kahi kino o nā hōʻike ʻepekema e ulu nei he neonicotinoids kekahi mea i hoʻolaha ʻia maʻi kīpē koloni, ʻo ia nā mea pono pollinators i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai. ʻIke ʻia lākou ma ka liʻiliʻi i ka ʻāhewa no ka "Apocalypse insect.". Hoʻopili pū ʻia nā insecticides i nā kīnā koʻikoʻi i nā dia huelo keʻokeʻo, ka hohonu o nā hopohopo no ka hiki o ka kemika e hōʻeha i nā māmela nunui, me nā kānaka.

Ua pāpā ka European Union i ka hoʻohana waho o neonics loleianidin, imidacloprid a me thiamethoxam i ka makahiki 2018, a me ka ʻLelo ʻo United Nations weliweli loa ka neonics e "kapu loa" lākou. Akā ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, hoʻohana mau ʻia nā neonics.