Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻo Dicamba

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Nūhou hou: ʻO ka US Environmental Protection Agency i hoʻolaha ʻia ʻOkakopa 27 e ʻae ia i nā mahiʻai US e hoʻomau i ka pīpī ʻana i nā mea kanu me ka weedkiller a Bayer AG i hoʻohana ʻia ma nā kedy-resistence GMO soybeans a me ka pulupulu, me ke kauoha a ka ʻaha e pāpā ana i nā kūʻai aku. I Iune an Ua hoʻoholo ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi i kēlā "Ua hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui ʻo EPA i nā makaʻu" o ka poʻe pepehi kanaka lāʻau dicamba. Ke hoʻopiʻi nei nā haneli o nā mahiʻai a puni ka US iā Bayer (ma mua ʻo Monsanto) a me BASF i ka hoʻāʻo e hoʻopaʻa i nā ʻoihana no nā miliona o nā eka o nā hua i hōʻino ʻia e nā mea mahiʻai no ka hoʻohana ākea o ka dicamba. Ke kau nei mākou i nā palapala ʻike a me ke kālailai ʻana i nā hoʻāʻo ma kā mākou ʻAoʻao Pepa Dicamba.

Overview

ʻO Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) kahi ākea-ākea herbicide hoʻopaʻa inoa mua ʻia i ka makahiki 1967. Hoʻohana ʻia ka lāʻau make ma luna o nā mea kanu mahiʻai, ka ʻāina fallow, nā wahi hānai, ka honu a me ke kahawai. Ua hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia ʻo Dicamba no ka hoʻohana ʻole ʻana i ka mahiʻai i nā wahi noho a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe, e like me nā papa kolepa kahi e hoʻohana nui ʻia ai e kaohi i nā nāhelehele ākea e like me dandelions, chickweed, clover and ground ivy.

Ma mua o nā huahana 1,000 i kūʻai ʻia i ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻopili ana i ka dicamba, e like me ka National Pesticide Information Center. ʻO ke ʻano o ka hana a Dicamba ma ke ʻano he agonist auxin: hana ia i ka ulu hiki ʻole ke alakaʻi ʻia i ka make o nā mea kanu.

Nā Kauka pili i ke Environment 

ʻO nā mana kahiko o dicamba i ʻike e neʻe mamao aku mai kahi a lākou e noi ai, a ʻaʻole hoʻohana maʻamau ʻia i nā mahina ulu ulu ʻana ke hiki iā lākou ke pepehi i nā mea kanu a i ʻole nā ​​kumu lāʻau.

Ua ʻae ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency i ke kākau inoa ʻana o nā formamba dicamba hou ma ka 2016, eia naʻe, e ʻae ana i kahi hoʻohana hou o nā noi "over-the-top" i ka ulu ʻana o ka pulupulu dicamba-ahonui a me nā mea kanu soybean. Ua hoʻolaha ka ʻepekema i ka hoʻohana hou ʻana e hopena i ka hōʻino ʻia o dicamba drift.

ʻO ka hoʻohana hou no ka dicamba no ka ulu ʻana o ka pale ākea nāhelehele i nā lāʻau make-glyphosate, e like me ka inoa kaulana ʻo Roundup, i hoʻolauna ʻia e Monsanto i nā makahiki 1970. I nā makahiki 1990, ua hoʻolauna ʻo Monsanto i nā mea kanu ahonui-glyphosate, a paipai i nā ʻohana e hoʻohana i nā ʻōnaehana ʻoki "Roundup Ready". Hiki i nā mahiʻai ke kanu i nā ʻohana solybeans glyphosate-tolerant i hoʻomohala ʻia e Monsanto, ka kulina, ka pulupulu a me nā mea kanu ʻē aʻe, a laila e pīpī i nā lāʻau make glyphosate e like me Roundup ma luna pono o nā mea ulu e ulu nei me ka luku ʻole ʻia. Ua maʻalahi ka ʻōnaehana i ka mālama ʻana i ka nāhelehele no ka mea hiki iā lākou ke pīpī pololei i nā kemikū ma luna o kā lākou māla holoʻokoʻa i ka wā ulu, holoi i nā mauʻu i hoʻokūkū ʻia me nā mea kanu no ka momona a me ka momona o ka lepo.

ʻO ke kaulana o ka ʻōnaehana Roundup Ready i alakaʻi i kahi kūpaʻa i ka nāhelehele kūʻē, akā naʻe, e waiho ana i nā mahiʻai me nā māla o nā nāhelehele ʻoʻoleʻa e make hou ke pīpī ʻia me ka glyphosate.

Ma 2011 ua hoʻolaha ʻo Monsanto i kēlā glyphosate, ua "I hilinaʻi nui ʻia e ia iho" a ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia e hoʻolālā e hana pū me BASF a hoʻomohala i kahi ʻōnaehana cropping o nā mea kanu ʻenekini e ʻae i ka pīpī ʻana me ka dicamba. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻolauna i kahi ʻano lāʻau hou o dicamba herbicide ʻaʻole e neʻe mamao aku mai nā māla kahi i pīpī ʻia.

Mai ka hoʻolauna ʻana o ka ʻōnaehana hou, ua piʻi aʻe nā hoʻopiʻi e pili ana i ka hōʻino dramba dramba i nā moku'āina he nui, e like me nā hoʻopiʻi he haneli mai Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri a me Arkansas.

I loko o kahi hōʻike i hoʻopaʻa ʻia ma Nowemapa 1, 2017, ua ʻōlelo ka EPA ua piʻi aʻe ia i kahi 2,708 kūhelu e pili ana i ka dicamba i nā ʻimi noiʻi ʻeha mea kanu (e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia e nā keʻena mahiʻai o ka mokuʻāina). Ua ʻōlelo ka ʻoihana i ʻoi aku ma mua o 3.6 miliona mau ʻeka o nā soya i hoʻopili ʻia i kēlā manawa. ʻO nā mea kanu i hoʻopilikia ʻia, ʻo ia nā tōmato, watermelon, cantaloupe, māla waina, ʻumeke, nā mea kanu, paka, nā māla noho, nā lāʻau a me nā kumulāʻau.

I ka mahina ʻo Iulai 2017, ua hoʻopuka iki ka Keʻena ʻoihana mahiʻai ʻo Missouri no "Stop Sale, Use or Removal Order," ma nā huahana dicamba a pau ma Missouri. Ua hāpai ka mokuʻāina i ke kauoha i Kepakemapa 2017.

Eia kekahi mau huahana dicamba:

Ma ʻOkakopa 31, 2018, ua hoʻolaha ka US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i ka hoʻolōʻihi ʻia ʻana o nā kākau inoa o Engenia, XtendiMax a me FeXapan ma o ka makahiki 2020 no ka hoʻohana "over-the-top" i ka pulupulu tolerant dicamba-tolerant a me nā ʻāina soybean. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ua hoʻonui ia i nā lepili o mua a kau i nā palekana hou aʻe i kahi hana e hoʻonui i ka kūleʻa a me ka hoʻohana palekana o ka huahana i ka māla.

Kūpono ka papa inoa ʻelua makahiki a hiki i Kēkēmapa 20, 2020. Ua ʻōlelo ka EPA i kēia mau mea aʻe:

  • ʻO nā mea noi palapala hōʻoia wale nō e noi i dicamba ma luna (ʻo ka poʻe e hana ana ma lalo o ka nānā a kahi mea noi i hōʻoia ʻia ʻaʻole e hana hou i nā noi)
  • Pāpā i ka noi ʻoi loa o ka dicamba ma ka soybeans 45 mau lā ma hope o ke kanu ʻana a i ʻole a hiki i ka wā ulu R1 (mohala mua), ʻo kēlā me kēia mea e hele mua.
  • Pāpā i ka noi over-the-top o dicamba ma ka pulupulu 60 mau lā ma hope o ke kanu ʻana
  • No ka pulupulu, e kaupalena i ka helu o nā noi ʻoi loa mai ʻehā a ʻelua
  • No ka soybeans, koe ka helu o nā noi ʻoi loa i ʻelua
  • E ʻae ʻia nā noi ʻana mai hoʻokahi hola ma hope o ka puka ʻana o ka lā a i ʻelua mau hola ma mua o ka napoʻo ʻana o ka lā
  • I nā kalana kahi e noho ai nā lāhulu ʻaneʻane pau, e waiho ka buffer downwind ma 110 kapuai a aia kahi buffer 57 kapuaʻi hou a puni nā ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe o ke kula (pili ka buffer downwind 110-foot i nā noi āpau, ʻaʻole wale ma nā kalana kahi aia paha nā ʻano mea ʻaneʻane e make)
  • Nā ʻōkuhi hoʻomaʻemaʻe hoʻomaʻemaʻe pahu wai hoʻonui no ka ʻōnaehana holoʻokoʻa
  • ʻO ka lepili hoʻonui e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka ʻike o ka mea hoʻopili i ka hopena o ka haʻahaʻa o ka pH ma ka hiki ʻole o ka dicamba
  • Hoʻomaʻemaʻe ka lepili a me ke kūlike e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka hoʻokō a me ka hoʻokō

Na ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻopiʻi i ka 9th Circuit Ruling 

Ma Iune 3, 2020. ua ʻōlelo ʻia e ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo no ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa no ka huakaʻi Kaapuni ʻĀiwa ua hana hewa ka ʻĀina Hoʻomalu Kūlohelohe i ke kānāwai i ka ʻae ʻana i nā lāʻau make dicamba a Bayer, BASF a me Corteva Agrisciences. ʻO ka ʻaha ua hoʻokahuli i ka ʻae ʻana o ka ʻoihana o nā lāʻau herbicides hoʻokumu ʻia dicamba i hana ʻia e nā pilikua ʻekolu. Ua pāpā ʻia ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo no ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka huahana.

Akā ua hoʻopiʻi ka EPA i ka ʻaha i hoʻoholo ʻia, e hāʻawi ana i kahi leka hoʻomaopopo ma Iune 8 i ʻōlelo ʻia hiki i nā mea kanu ke hoʻomau i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā lāʻau make lāʻau dicamba a hiki i Iulai 31, ʻoiai ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka ʻaha i ʻōlelo kikoʻī ʻia i kāna kauoha ʻaʻole makemake ia e hoʻopaneʻe i ka waiho ʻana i kēlā mau ʻae ʻia. Ua hōʻike ka ʻaha i ka hōʻino i hana ʻia e dicamba e hoʻohana ai i nā kauwela i hala i nā miliona o nā eka o nā mea kanu, nā māla a me nā mea kanu i nā ʻāina mahiʻai o US.

Ma ka Iune 11, 2020, na mea hoopii i ka hihia waiho i kahi noi ulia pōpilikia e ʻimi nei e hoʻokō i ka ʻōlelo a ka ʻaha a e hoʻowahāwahā ʻia ka EPA.

Hiki ke ʻike hou aʻe i nā kikoʻī Loaʻa maʻaneʻi.

Nā koena ʻai 

E like me nā noi glyphosate i nā māla mahiʻai i loaʻa e waiho i nā koena o ka glyphosate ma a i nā meaʻai i hoʻopau ʻia, e like me ka oatmeal, nā berena, nā palaʻai, a pēlā aku, e waiho ana nā koena dicamba i nā koena i ka meaʻai. ʻO nā mahiʻai nona nā huahana i hoʻohaumia ʻia me nā koena dicamba ma o ka ʻauheʻe, ua hōʻike lākou i nā hopohopo no ka hōʻole ʻia ʻana o kā lākou huahana a i ʻole hana ʻino ʻia ma ke ʻano kālepa no ka hopena koena.

Ua hoʻonohonoho ka EPA i nā pae hoʻomanawanui no ka dicamba kekahi mau hua a no ka ʻiʻo o nā holoholona e ʻai i nā hua, akā ʻaʻole no nā ʻano huaʻai a me nā mea kanu. Hoʻonohonoho ʻia kahi hoʻomanawanui no ka dicamba i ka soybeans ma 10 mau ʻāpana no ka miliona, no ka mea, ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, a me kahi ʻāpana 2 no ka palaoa palaoa. Hiki ke ahonui e ʻike ʻia ma aneʻi. 

Ua hoʻopuka ka EPA kēia pane e pili ana i nā koena dicamba i ka meaʻai: "Ua hana ʻo EPA i ka hoʻokalakupua e koi ʻia e ka Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) a ua hoʻoholo ʻia he" palekana "nā koena i ka meaʻai - ʻo ia hoʻi he ʻike kūpono ʻole e hōʻeha ʻole i ka poʻe, me nā mea āpau ʻike ʻia nā subpopulation hiki ke ʻike ʻia, e like me nā pēpē a me nā keiki, mai ka papaʻai a me nā hana ʻē aʻe ʻē aʻe i ka dicamba. "

Kanesa a me Hypothyroidism 

Wahi a ka EPA ʻaʻole hiki ke carcinogenic i ka dicamba, akā ua ʻike kekahi mau noiʻi i ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka maka maʻi ʻaʻai no nā mea hoʻohana i ka dicamba.

E ʻike i kēia mau noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā hopena olakino kanaka o dicamba:

Hoʻohana a Dicamba a me nā hanana maʻi ʻaʻai i ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai: kahi loiloi hou International Journal of Epidemiology (05.01.2020) "Ma waena o 49 922 mea noi, 26 412 (52.9%) hoʻohana dicamba. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea noi e hōʻike nei i ka hoʻohana ʻole ʻia o dicamba, ʻo ka poʻe o ka quartile kiʻekiʻe loa o ka hōʻike ʻana ua hoʻonui ʻia ka makaʻu o ke akepaʻa a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai intrahepatic bile a me ka leukemia lymphocytic mau a hoʻemi i ka makaʻu o ka leukemia myeloid. "

Hoʻohana Pesticide a me ka Hypothyroidism hanana i nā mea hoʻohana Pesticide i ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino (9.26.18)
"I loko o kēia cohort prospective nui o nā mahiʻai i hōʻike hewa ʻia i nā pesticides, ua ʻike mākou i ka hoʻohana mau ʻia ʻana o ʻehā mau insecticides organochlorine (aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, a me lindane), ʻehā mau insecticides organophosphate (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, a me malathion), a ʻekolu mau lāʻau make (dicamba, glyphosate, a me 2,4-D) i pili me ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka pilikia o ka hypothyroidism. "

Hoʻohana ka hypothyroidism a me ka pesticide ma waena o nā kāne a me nā mea hoʻohana pesticide pilikino pilikino i ka noiʻi olakino mahiʻai. Ka Nūpepa o ka Medicine Environmental Occupational (10.1.14)
"ʻO nā lāʻau herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-TP, alachlor, dicamba, a me ka aila ʻaila i hoʻopili ʻia me ka piʻi ʻana o ka hypothyroidism"

He loiloi i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā pesticide a me nā maʻi ʻaʻai i loko o ka cohort Study Health Agricultural. Nānaina Heath Environmental (8.1.10)
"Ua loiloi mākou i nā noi he 28; ʻo ka hapa nui o nā pesticides 32 i nānā ʻia ʻaʻole i pili ikaika i ka maʻi ʻaʻai i nā mea hoʻohana pesticide. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia nā lakio hoʻonui (a i ʻole nā ​​helu kaulike) a me nā hōʻike maikaʻi – no nā pesticides he 12 i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia ma Kanada a me / a i ʻole ʻo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). "

Loaʻa ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma waena o nā mea hoʻohana Pesticide i Dicamba i ke olakino Mahiʻai Hoʻoikaika. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino (7.13.06)
"ʻAʻole pili ka hōʻike ʻana me nā hanana maʻi ʻaʻai āpau a ʻaʻohe hui ikaika me kekahi ʻano maʻi ʻaʻai. I ka hui ʻana o ka hui kūloko me nā mea noi haʻahaʻa i hōʻike ʻole ʻia, ua ʻike mākou i kahi hanana maikaʻi i ka makaʻu ma waena o nā lā e hōʻike ana i ke ola a me ka maʻi ʻaʻa maʻi (p = 0.02), akā ʻaʻole kekahi o nā kuhi kikoʻī i hāpai nui ʻia. Ua ʻike pū mākou i nā loina nui o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka makaʻu no ka maʻi ʻaʻai kolone no nā lā hōʻike i ke ola āpau a me nā lā lōʻihi o ke kaumaha o ke ola, ʻoiai kēia mau hopena ma muli o ka piʻina kiʻekiʻe ma ka pae kiʻekiʻe loa.

ʻO Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin a me nā hōʻike pesticide kikoʻī i nā kāne: ʻO CroKe aʻo ʻo Kanada-Kanada i nā Pesticides a me ke olakino. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers a me Kāohi ʻana (11.01)
"Ma waena o kēlā me kēia hui, i nā kālailai multivariate, ua hoʻonui nui ʻia ka makaʻu o ka NHL e ka hōʻike ʻana i nā lāʻau make… dicamba (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); .... I nā hiʻohiʻona multivariate hou aʻe, i hoʻopili ʻia i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā papa kemika nui ʻē aʻe a i ʻole nā ​​pesticides pākahi, ka maʻi ʻaʻai antecedent pilikino, kahi moʻolelo o ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma waena o nā ʻohana pili kekelē mua, a me ka hōʻike ʻana i nā hoʻohuihui i loaʻa me ka dicamba (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40– 2.75)… he mau wānana kūʻokoʻa koʻikoʻi i ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka makaʻu no ka NHL ”

Litigation 

ʻO ka hopohopo no ka hōʻino ʻia dicamba ua hoʻāla ʻia ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana mai nā mahiʻai ma nā mokuʻāina he nui o US. Nā kikoʻī e pili ana i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana hiki ke loaʻa maʻaneʻi.