Chlorpyrifos: pesticide maʻamau i nakinaki ʻia i ka lolo i nā keiki

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ʻO Chlorpyrifos, kahi pesticide hoʻohana ākea, pili nui ʻia iā poino ka lolo i nā keiki. Ua alakaʻi ʻia kēia a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe mau ʻāina a kekahi mau mokuʻāina ʻo US e pāpā aku iā chlorpyrifos, akā ʻo ka kemikā ʻae ʻia ma nā mea kanu meaʻai i ka US ma hope lobbying kūleʻa e kāna mea hana.

ʻO Chlorpyrifos i ka meaʻai  

ʻO Chlorpyrifos hoʻolauna ʻia nā insecticides e Dow Chemical i ka makahiki 1965 a ua hoʻohana ākea ʻia i nā wahi mahiʻai. ʻO ka mea i ʻike pinepine ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i nā inoa inoa ʻo Dursban a me Lorsban, ʻo ka chlorpyrifos kahi insecticide organophosphate, acaricide a me miticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia e kaohi i nā lau a me nā meaola o ka ʻohana i lawe ʻia i ka lepo ma nā ʻano meaʻai a me nā mea kanu hānai. Hiki mai nā huahana i ke ʻano wai a me nā granula, nā pauka, a me nā ʻeke hiki ke hoʻoheheʻe ʻia i ka wai, a hoʻopili ʻia paha e ka lepo a me nā pono lewa.

Hoʻohana ʻia ʻo Chlorpyrifos ma nā ʻano mea kanu like ʻole me nā ʻoma, ʻalani, strawberry, kulina, palaoa, citrus a me nā meaʻai ʻohana a kā lākou mau keiki e ʻai nei i kēlā me kēia lā. Na USDA Polokalamu ʻIkepili Pesticide loaʻa ke koena o ka chlorpyrifos ma nā citrus a me nā melon ʻoiai ma hope o ka holoi ʻana a ihi ʻia. Ma ka leo, hoʻohana nui ʻia ʻo chlorpyrifos i ka palaoa a me ka soybeans, me ka miliona o ka paona i hoʻopili ʻia i kēlā me kēia makahiki i kēlā me kēia hua. ʻAʻole ʻae ʻia ka kemika ma nā mea kanu meaola.

Hoʻohana nā mahi ʻole mahiʻai i nā papa kolepa, ka honu, nā hale ʻōmaʻomaʻo, a me nā pono hana.

Nā hopohopo olakino kanaka

ʻO ka American Academy of Pediatrics, ʻo ia ka mea i ʻoi aku ma mua o 66,000 pediatricians a me nā kaukōkō pediatric, ua hoʻohoka ʻo ia hoʻomau i ka hoʻohana ʻana o chlorpyrifos i ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā fetus, nā pēpē, nā keiki a me nā wahine hāpai i ka makaʻu nui.

Ua ʻike nā ʻepekema ʻo ka hōʻike prenatal i ka chlorpyrifos e pili ana me ka kaumaha hānau haʻahaʻa, hoʻemi ʻia ka IQ, ka nalowale ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo hana, nā maʻi noonoo, a hoʻopaneʻe i ka hoʻomohala kaʻa. Ua helu ʻia ma lalo nā haʻawina nui.

Hoʻopili pū ʻia ʻo Chlorpyrifos i ka lāʻau make pesticide huikau a hiki ke hana i nā haunaele, ka maʻi pehu hanu, a i kekahi manawa, make.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo FDA ʻaʻole palekana ka ʻai a me ka wai inu

He meaʻawaʻawa loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos ka Mana Maluhia o ʻEulopa pāpā ʻia ke kūʻai aku ʻana i nā kemika i Ianuali 2020, ke loaʻa nei aia ʻaʻohe pae palekana. Ua pāpā aku kekahi mau mokuʻāina ʻo ʻAmelika i nā chlorpyrifos mai ka hoʻohana mahiʻai ʻana, e like me Hawaii a Hawaii.

Ua ʻaelike ka US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) me Dow Chemical i ka makahiki 2000 e kāpae i nā hoʻohana āpau o nā chlorpyrifos ma muli o ka noiʻi ʻepekema e hōʻike nei he mea weliweli ka kemikal i nā lolo e ulu ana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki liʻiliʻi. Ua pāpā ʻia ia mai ka hoʻohana a puni nā kula i ka 2012.

I ʻOkakopa 2015, ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ua hoʻolālā ʻia e kāpae i nā pale pale koena o ka meaʻai no ka chlorpyrifos, ʻo ia hoʻi ʻaʻole ia he kānāwai e hoʻohana ai ia i ka mahiʻai. Ua ʻōlelo ka ʻoihana "ʻo nā koena o chlorpyrifos i manaʻo ʻia no nā mea kanu mea ʻai i ʻoi aku ma mua o ke kūlana palekana ma lalo o ka Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." Ua hele mai kēia neʻe ʻana i ka pane ʻana i kahi palapala noi no ka pāpā ʻana mai ka ʻAoʻao Kūʻai Kūʻai Kūlohelohe a me ka Pesticide Action Network.

I Nowemapa 2016, ua hoʻokuʻu ka EPA i loiloi hou ʻia ka loiloi pilikia ola kanaka no chlorpyrifos e hōʻoia ana ʻaʻole palekana e ʻae i ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka kemika i ka mahiʻai. Ma waena o nā mea ʻē aʻe, ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ʻaʻole palekana nā hōʻike āpau o ka meaʻai a me ka wai inu, keu hoʻi i nā keiki 1-2 makahiki. Ua ʻōlelo ka EPA e mālama ʻia kēia pāpā ma 2017.

Hoʻolālā ʻo Trump EPA i ka pāpā

Ma hope o ke koho ʻia ʻana o Donald Trump ma ke ʻano he Pelekikena no ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, ua hoʻopaneʻe ʻia ka pāpā ʻia ʻana o chlorpyrifos. Ma Malaki 2017, i kekahi o kāna hana kūhelu mua ma ke ʻano he luna o ka nohona ma luna o ka lāhui, ʻo EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt hōʻole i ka palapala noi e nā hui kaiaulu a ʻōlelo ʻia ʻaʻole e hele i mua ka pāpā ma luna o nā chlorpyrifos.

ʻO The Associated Press i hōʻike ʻia i Iune 2017 ua hui ʻo Pruitt me Dow CEO Andrew Liveris 20 mau lā ma mua o ka hoʻopau ʻana i ka pāpā. Ua hōʻike pū kekahi ʻo Media iā Dow hāʻawi $ 1 miliona i nā hana hoʻokumu a Trump.

I Pepeluali o 2018, EPA ua hōʻea i kahi hoʻonā e koi ana iā Syngenta e uku i kahi uku $ 150,000 a hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā mahiʻai i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka pesticide ma hope o ka hōʻole ʻole ʻana o ka ʻoihana i nā limahana e hōʻalo i nā māla kahi i kāpīpī ʻia ai ʻo chlorpyrifos a me kekahi mau limahana i komo i ke kula. ua maʻi a koi ʻia ka mālama olakino. Ua hāʻawi mua ʻo Obama EPA i kahi maikaʻi kokoke ʻeiwa mau manawa ʻoi aku ka nui.

I Pepeluali 2020, ma hope o ke kaomi a ka mea kūʻai, nā hui olakino, nā ʻepekema a me ke alo o ke kāhea ʻana no nā pāpā ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Corteva AgriScience (ʻo DowDuPont ma mua) e hemo aku iecaianoaaiiie o chlorpyrifos, akā noho paʻa ke kemika no nā hui ʻē aʻe e hana a kūʻai aku ai.

Wahi a kahi kālailai i paʻi ʻia ma Iulai 2020, nā mea hoʻokele US Hilinaʻi i ka ʻikepili hoʻopunipuni i hāʻawi ʻia e Dow Chemical e ʻae i nā pae palekana o nā chlorpyrifos i loko o nā hale ʻAmelika no nā makahiki. Ua haʻi ʻia ka hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo mai nā kānaka noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona ʻo nā hopena pololei ʻole ka hopena o kahi noiʻi daphlorpyrifos dosing i hana ʻia i nā 1970 mua no Dow.

I Kepakemapa 2020 ua hoʻopuka ka EPA i kāna kolu ʻike kūpono ma luna o chlorpyrifos, e ʻōlelo ana "ʻoiai he mau makahiki o ke aʻo ʻana, ka loiloi ʻana o nā hoa, a me nā kaʻina lehulehu, ua hoʻomau ʻia ka ʻepekema e kamaʻilio nei i nā hopena ʻē aʻe," a hiki nō ke hoʻohana ʻia i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai.

Ma hope o ka hoʻoholo halawai lehulehu ma waena o ka EPA a me Corteva.

Hoʻopiʻi nā hui a me nā mokuʻāina iā EPA

Ma hope o ka hoʻoholo ʻana o ka Trump Trump e hoʻopaneʻe i kekahi pāpā a hiki i ka 2022 ma lalo, Pesticide Action Network a me ka Council Defence Resources hoʻopiʻi i ka hoʻopiʻi kū'ē iā EPA i ʻApelila 2017, e ʻimi ana e koi aku i ke aupuni e ukali me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ke aupuni a Obama e pāpā aku ai iā chlorpyrifos. I ʻAukake 2018, he pekelala ua loaʻa ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi ua haki ka EPA i ke kānāwai ma o ka hoʻomau ʻana i ka ʻae ʻana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā chlorpyrifos, a kauoha iā EPA e hoʻopau i kāna pāpā i manaʻo ʻia i loko o ʻelua mau mahina. Ma hope lohi hou, Ua hoʻolaha ʻo ka Luna Hoʻokele EPA ʻo Andrew Wheeler i Iulai 2019 e EPA ʻaʻole e pāpā i ka kemika.

Ua hoʻopiʻi kekahi mau mokuʻāina i ka EPA no ka hōʻole ʻole ʻana i nā chlorpyrifos, e like me Kaleponi, New York, Massachusetts, Wakinekona, Maryland, Vermont a me Oregon. Kūkākūkā nā mokuʻāina i nā palapala a ka ʻaha e pāpā ʻia ai ʻo chlorpyrifos i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai ma muli o nā pilikia e pili pū ana me ia.

Ua waiho pū ʻo Earthjustice i ka hoʻopiʻi ma ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo ʻAmelika no ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo Kaapuni ʻeiwa ke ʻimi nei i kahi kapu lāhui ma ka ʻaoʻao o nā hui e kākoʻo nei no nā mea hana kaiapuni, nā mea mahiʻai a me nā poʻe me ke kino kīnā ʻole.

ʻImi lapaʻau a me ʻepekema

ʻO neurotoxicity ulu

"ʻO nā noiʻi epidemiological i nānā ʻia ma aneʻi ua hōʻike i nā pilina koʻikoʻi ma waena o ka hōʻike prenatal i ka CPF [chlorpyrifos] a me nā pilikia neurological postnatal, ʻo ia hoʻi nā hemahema o ka naʻau i pili pū me ka hoʻohaunaele ʻana o ka pono o ka lolo .... Ua hōʻike mau nā ʻano ʻimi noiʻi preclinical a puni ka honua i ka CPF kahi neurotoxicant ulu. ʻO ka neurotoxicity CPF hoʻomohala, i kākoʻo maikaʻi ʻia e nā noiʻi ʻana e hoʻohana ana i nā ʻano holoholona like ʻole, nā ala o ka hōʻike ʻana, nā kaʻa, a me nā ʻano hoʻokolohua, ʻike ʻia e nā hemahema o ka ʻike a me ka hoʻohaunaele ʻana o ka pono o ka lolo. " ʻO ka neurotoxicity ulu o ka meaola insecticide chlorpyrifos: mai nā hopena maʻi i nā hiʻohiʻona preclinical a me nā ʻano hiki.. Ka Nūpepa o Neurochemistry, 2017.

"Mai ka 2006, ua kākau ʻia i nā noiʻi epidemiological ʻeono mau neurotoxicant ulu hou - manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachlorethylene, a me nā polyethic diphenyl ether." Nā hopena Neurobehavioural o ka hoʻomohala hoʻomohala. Lancet Neurology, 2014.

Childrens 'IQ & hoʻomohala ʻike

Ua ʻike ʻia ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻia ʻana o nā makuahine o loko a me nā keiki ʻo "prenatal CPF [chlorpyrifos] kiʻekiʻe, e like me ke ana ʻana i ka umbilical cord blood plasma, ua pili pū ʻia me ka emi ʻana o ka hana naʻau ma nā ʻikepili ʻelua WISC-IV. nā kamaliʻi liʻiliʻi ma 7 mau makahiki ... ʻo ka Working Memory Index ka mea i pili ikaika loa me ka hōʻike ʻana o ka CPF i kēia heluna kanaka. ” ʻEhiku mau makahiki Neurodevelopmental Scores a me ka Prenatal Exposure iā Chlorpyrifos, kahi Pesticide Mahiʻai Maʻa mau.. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Ke aʻo ʻana o ka cohort hānau o nā ʻohana mahiʻai Latino ma Kaleponi i pili i kahi metabolite o nā pesticides organophosphate i loaʻa i ka mimi i nā wahine hāpai me nā helu ʻilihune i kā lākou mau keiki no ka hoʻomanaʻo, ka wikiwiki o ka hana, ka hoʻomaopopo waha, ka noʻonoʻo manaʻo a me ka IQ. "Hōʻike kā mākou ʻike i ka hōʻike prenatal i nā pesticides OP [organophosphate], e ana ʻia e ka urinary DAP [dialkyl phosphate] metabolites i nā wahine i ka wā hāpai, e pili ana me nā mākau ʻike maikaʻi ʻole i nā keiki ma 7 mau makahiki. ʻO nā keiki i ka quintile kiʻekiʻe o nā mākua DAP concentrations he awelika deficit o 7.0 mau helu IQ i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea i ka quintile haʻahaʻa. He laina nā hui, a ʻaʻole mākou i nānā i kahi paepae. " Hōʻike Prenatal i nā Pesticides Pōhaku a me IQ i nā Keiki 7 makahiki. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

ʻO ka noi ʻana o ka cohort prospect o nā wahine a me kā lākou mau keiki i nā hopena "manaʻo ʻia e pili maikaʻi ʻole ka prenatal i nā organophosphates me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka noʻonoʻo, ʻo ia hoʻi ka noʻonoʻo manaʻo, me nā hōʻike o nā hopena e hoʻomaka ana ma 12 mau mahina a hoʻomau i ka wā kamaliʻi." ʻO Prenatal Exposure i nā Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, a me ka hoʻomohala Cognitive i ke kamaliʻi. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

ʻImi ʻia nā cohort prospect o kahi heluna o ke kūlanakauhale kūloko i loaʻa i nā keiki me nā kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā chlorpyrifos "i ka helu, ma ka awelika, 6.5 mau kiko i lalo o ka Bayley Psychomotor Development Index a me nā helu 3.3 ma lalo o ka Bayley Mental Development Index ma 3 makahiki me kēlā me nā pae haʻahaʻa o ka hōʻike. Ua ʻike ʻia nā keiki i ke kiʻekiʻe, ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā pae o lalo, chlorpyrifos a ʻoi aku paha ka ʻike ʻana i ka Index Psychomotor Development Index a me ka hoʻopaneʻe ʻana o ka Mental Development Index, nā pilikia no ka nānā ʻana, nā pilikia ma ka deficit attention / defact hyperactivity, a me nā pilikia o ka ulu ulu ākea ma 3 mau makahiki. " Ka hopena o ka Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure ma Neurodevelopment i nā makahiki 3 mua o ke ola ma waena o nā keiki o loko.. Pai o ka American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Hoʻonui ʻia ke aʻo ʻana o ka cohort hānau lōʻihi ma kahi ʻāina mahiʻai o Kaleponi i "ʻike mua ʻia o nā hui ma waena o PON1 genotype a me nā pae enzyme a me kekahi mau kikowaena o ke neurodevelopment ma o ke kula mua, e hōʻike nei i nā hōʻike hou e pili ana nā hui maikaʻi ʻole ma waena o DAP. i nā keiki a nā makuahine me nā pae haʻahaʻa o ka PON1 enzyme. ” ʻO ka hoʻowalewale pesticide Organophosphate, PON1, a me neurodevelopment i nā keiki o ke kula mai ka CHAMACOS hoʻopaʻa.. ʻImi Kūlohelohe, 2014.

ʻO Autism a me nā maʻi neurodevelopmental ʻē aʻe

Ua ʻike ʻia ka noiʻi ʻana i ka hihia hihia e pili ana i ka hihia, "Prenatal a i ʻole ka hānai pēpē ʻana i nā pesticides i wae ʻia priori - e like me glyphosate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, a me permethrin - i pili me ka hoʻonui ʻia o nā pilikia o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā ʻano maʻi autism." ʻO ka Prenatal a me ke keiki hānai i nā pesticides ambient a me ka maʻi autism spectrum i nā keiki: ka nānā ʻana i ka hihia-ka nānā ʻana i ka hihia. BMJ, 2019.

ʻO ka nānā ʻana i ka hihia hihia pili i ka heluna kanaka "ʻike i nā hui maikaʻi ma waena o ASD [autism spectrum disorders] a me ka noho mua prenatal i nā pesticides organophosphate i ka lua (no ka chlorpyrifos) a me nā trimesters ʻekolu (organophosphates holoʻokoʻa). Nā maʻi Neurodevelopmental a me kahi kokoke o ka noho ʻana o Prenatal i nā Pesticides Mahiʻai: Ke aʻo CHARGE. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

E nānā i kekahi: Ke kuʻi ʻana i ke kaulike o ka ʻike autism: nā hana kūpono e pili ana i nā pesticides a me Autism. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Nā anomalies o ka lolo

"ʻO kā mākou ʻike i hōʻike ʻia ka hōʻike ʻia ʻana o ka CPF prenatal [chlorpyrifos], ma nā pae i ʻike ʻia me ka hana maʻamau (nonoccupational) a ma lalo o ka paepae no nā hōʻailona o ka hōʻike ākea, he hopena i ana ʻia i ka hanana lolo i kahi laʻana o 40 keiki 5.9-11.2 y o makahiki. Ua ʻike mākou i nā mea kūpono ʻole i nā ana morphological o ka ʻaoʻao cerebral e pili ana me ka hōʻike CPF prenatal kiʻekiʻe aʻe .... Ua hoʻonui ʻia nā hoʻonui ākea o ka ʻaoʻao cerebral a ua loaʻa i loko o ka manawa kiʻekiʻe, waena waena o ke kino, a me ka haʻahaʻa postcentral gyri bilaterally, a me ka gyrus mua kiʻekiʻe. , gyrus rectus, cuneus, a me precuneus ma ka paia mesial o ka hemisphere ʻākau ”. ʻO nā anomalies o ka lolo i nā keiki e hōʻike prenatally i kahi pesticide organophosphate maʻamau. Nā hana o ka National Academy of Science, 2012.

Ulu Fetal

Ua ʻike kēia noiʻi "i kahi hui kūwili nui loa ma waena o ka pae umbilical cord chlorpyrifos a me ka hānau hānau a me ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻana ma waena o nā pēpē i ka cohort o kēia manawa i hānau ʻia ma mua o ka US EPA mau hana hoʻomalu e kāpae i ka hoʻohana noho ʻana o ka insecticide." ʻO Biomarkers i ka nānā ʻana i nā hōʻike insecticide noho i ka wā hāpai a me nā hopena i ka ulu ʻana o ka fetal. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Ua ʻike ʻia ka noiʻi ʻana o ka cohort multethnic "i ka manawa i lawe ʻia ai ka pae o ka hana PON1 makuahine, nā pae makuahine o chlorpyrifos ma luna o ka palena o ka ʻike me nā hana PON1 haahaa e pili ana me ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui akā ka liʻiliʻi o ke anapuni o ke poʻo. Hoʻohui ʻia, nā pae PON1 makuahine wale nō, akā ʻaʻole pili i nā polymorphism genetic PON1, i hoʻopili ʻia me ka nui o ka nui o ke poʻo. Ma muli o ka ʻike ʻia o ka nui o ke poʻo liʻiliʻi e wānana i ka hiki ke noʻonoʻo ma hope, hōʻike kēia mau ʻike i ka hopena maikaʻi ʻole o ka chlorpyrifos i ka neurodevelopment fetal ma waena o nā makuahine e hōʻike nei i ka hana PON1 haʻahaʻa. " I ka hōʻike Utero Pesticide Exposure, Maternal Paraoxonase Haʻawina, a me ke poʻo o ke poʻo. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Ke hoʻopaʻa ʻia nei kahi cohort prospect o nā makuahine liʻiliʻi a me kā lākou mau keiki hānau hou. ʻO ke kikoʻī, ʻo ka hui ma waena o ka cord plasma chlorpyrifos a me ka hoʻēmi ʻia ʻana o ke kaumaha a me ka lōʻihi i ʻike nui ʻia ma waena o nā keiki hānau me 25% kiʻekiʻe o nā pae hōʻike. ʻO Prenatal Insecticide Exposures a me ka hānau ʻana o ke Kaumaha a me ka lōʻihi ma waena o kahi Cohort Urban Minority. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Lung Cancer  

I loko o kahi loiloi o nā mea hoʻohana pesticide he 54,000 i ka Haʻawina Ola Ola, ua hōʻike nā ʻepekema o ka National Cancer Institute e pili ana ka hopena o ka maʻi ʻaʻa maʻi me ka hōʻike ʻana o chlorpyrifos. "Ma kēia kālailai ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma waena o nā mea noi pesticide laikini i hōʻike ʻia i nā lāʻau pākī līlū ma North Carolina a me Iowa, ua ʻike mākou i kahi hanana helu o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka makaʻu o ka maʻi ʻaʻa maʻi, akā ʻaʻole kekahi o nā maʻi ʻaʻai ʻē aʻe i nānā ʻia, me ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o ka chlorpyrifos." Loaʻa ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma waena o nā mea hoʻohana Pesticide i Chlorpyrifos i ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai. Ka Nūpepa o ka National Cancer Institute, 2004.

ʻO ka maʻi o Parkinson

Ua hōʻike ka hoʻopaʻa hihia hihia o nā poʻe e noho ana ma Kalepona Waena ʻo Kaleponi i hōʻike ākea e pili ana i nā pesticides he 36 i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i ka maʻi maʻi Parkinson. ʻO ke aʻo ʻana "hoʻohui i nā hōʻike ikaika" e hoʻopili ʻia nā pesticides organophosphate i loko o ka etiology o ka maʻi idiopathic Parkinson. ʻO ka hui ma waena o ka hōʻike ākea i nā organophosphates a me ka pilikia o ka maʻi maʻi Parkinson. ʻO ka lāʻau lapaʻau hana & kaiapuni, 2014.

Nā hopena hānau

Ua ʻike ʻo Multiethnic makua cohort o nā wahine hāpai a me nā keiki hānau hou ua pili ʻo chlorpyrifos i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha o ka hānau a me ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻana (p = 0.01 a p = 0.003, pakahi) a me ke kaupaona hānau haʻahaʻa ma waena o ʻAmelika ʻAmelika.p = 0.04) a hoʻemi i ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻana ma Dominicans (p <0.001) ”. Nā hopena o ka Transplacental Exposure i nā Pollutants Environmental ma nā hopena hānau ma kahi lehulehu. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Ka hoʻohaunaele Neuroendocrine

"Ma o ke kālailai ʻana i nā ʻano maʻamau o ka moekolohe-dimorphic hōʻike mākou i ka neurotoxic a me ka endocrine hoʻohaunaele i nā hana o CPF [chlorpyrifos] overlap. No laila e noʻonoʻo ʻia kēia pesticide organophosphorus hoʻolaha ākea e like me kahi disruptor neuroendocrine paha e hōʻike ana i kahi kumu weliweli no nā maʻi neurodevelopmental bias i ka wahine i nā keiki. " Nā hana dimorphic moekolohe e like me nā māka o ka neuroendocrine hoʻohaunaele e nā meaola o ke kaiapuni: ka hihia o chlorpyrifos. NeuroToxicology, 2012.

ʻO Tremor

"Hōʻike nā mea i loaʻa i kēia manawa ʻo nā keiki me ka hōʻike prenatal kiʻekiʻe i nā chlorpyrifos e hōʻike maʻalahi ana i ka haʻalulu a haʻahaʻa paha i hoʻokahi a ʻelua paha mau lima ke loiloi ʻia ma waena o nā makahiki o 9 a me 13.9 mau makahiki .... pili kēlā prenatal i ka CPF [chlorpyrifos], i nā pae hoʻohana maʻamau o kēia manawa, e hoʻopili ʻia me nā ʻano o nā pilikia hoʻomohala hoʻomau a pili pū kekahi. Hōʻike Prenatal i ka chlorophyros pesticide pesticide a me ka haʻalulu o ke kamaliʻi. NeuroToxicology, 2015.

ʻO ke kumukūʻai o chlorpyrifos

ʻO nā kuhi kumukūʻai no ka hōʻike ʻana i nā kemika hoʻohaunaele endocrine i loko o ka European Union ua ʻike ʻia "ua hoʻopili ʻia nā hōʻike Organophosphate me 13.0 miliona (anamanaʻo noʻonoʻo, 4.24 miliona a i 17.1 miliona) i nalo nā helu IQ a me 59 300 (ka noʻonoʻo ʻike, 16 500 a 84 400) mau hihia. o ke kīnā ʻole o ka ʻike, ma nā koina o € 146 biliona (ka noʻonoʻo ʻana, € 46.8 biliona a i € 194 biliona). " Nā Neurobeh behavioral Deficits, Nā maʻi, a me nā kumukūʻai pili i ka hōʻike i ka Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals i ka European Union.. Ka Nūpepa o Endocrinology Clinical & Metabolism, 2015.

ʻO thyroid i nāʻiole

"Ua hōʻike ka noiʻi i kēia manawa i ka hōʻike ʻia ʻana o nāʻiole CD1, i ka wā o nā puka aniani koʻikoʻi o ka prenatal a me ka hoʻolālā postnatal, ma CPF [chlorpyrifos] pae pae ma lalo o nā mea e kāohi ana i ka lolo AchE, hiki ke hoʻoulu i nā hoʻololi i ka thyroid." Hōʻike Hoʻomohala i ka Chlorpyrifos Induces Alterations i ka pae thyroid a me ka thyroid Hormone pae me ka ʻole o nā hōʻailona ʻino ma Cd1 Mice.. ʻEpekema Toxicological, 2009.

Nā pilikia me nā ʻike ʻoihana

"Ma Malaki 1972, ua hōʻike ʻo Frederick Coulston a me nā hoa hana ma ke Kulanui Lapaʻau ʻo Albany i nā hopena o kahi noiʻi duke chlorpyrifos i manaʻo ʻia i ke kākoʻo o ka noi, ʻo Dow Chemical Company. Ua hoʻoholo kā lākou hōʻike 0.03 mg / kg-lā ka maʻi maʻamau i nānā ʻole ʻia-hopena-hopena (NOAEL) no nā chlorpyrifos i loko o nā kānaka. Hōʻike mākou ma aneʻi i kahi kālailai kūpono e ke ʻano helu kūmole i loaʻa i kahi NOAEL haʻahaʻa (0.014 mg / kg-lā), a me ka hoʻohana ʻana o nā hana helu i loaʻa mua i ka makahiki 1982 e hōʻike ana ʻo ka hapa haʻahaʻa loa i loko o ke aʻo ʻana he hopena lapaʻau koʻikoʻi. ʻO ka loiloi kumu, alakaʻi ʻia e nā statisticians ʻo Dow-hana, ʻaʻole i hana i ka loiloi pakanā ʻia; akā naʻe, ua kuhikuhi ʻo EPA i ka noiʻi Coulston ma ke ʻano he noiʻi kūpono a mālama ʻia i ka hōʻike ʻia ʻo NOAEL ma ke ʻano he wahi haʻalele no nā loiloi weliweli ma nā makahiki 1980 a me 1990. I loko o kēlā manawa, ʻae ʻo EPA i nā chlorpyrifos e hoʻopaʻa inoa no nā hoʻohana he nui i hoʻopau ʻia e hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā hopena olakino hiki i nā keiki a me nā pēpē. Inā ua hoʻohana ʻia nā anamanaʻo kūpono i ka loiloi o kēia noi, malia paha ʻaʻole i ʻae ʻia e ka EPA ka hapa nui o kēlā mau hoʻohana i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia o nā chlorpyrifos. Hōʻike kēia hana i ka hilinaʻi ʻia e nā mea hoʻoponopono pesticide i nā hopena noiʻi ʻaʻole i nānā pono ʻia e nā hoa a he mea pono ʻole ia e hoʻoweliweli i ka lehulehu. " Ka nānā ʻana i ka nānā ʻana o kahi noi dosing kanaka i manaʻo ʻia a me kona hopena ma nā loiloi pōpilikia chlorpyrifos. Ka Honua International, 2020.

"I kā mākou loiloi i ka ʻike maka e pili ana i kahi pesticide kaulana, chlorpyrifos, a me kahi hui e pili ana, ua ʻike ʻia nā mea like ʻole ma waena o nā ʻike maoli a me nā hopena i huki ʻia e ka hale hōʻike hoʻokolohua i ka hōʻike i waiho ʻia no ka ʻae ʻana i ka pesticide." Ka palekana o ka palekana palekana o ka Pesticides: neurotoxicity ulu o chlorpyrifos a me chlorpyrifos-methyl. Ke olakino kaiapuni, 2018.

Nā pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo

Ke Kula Nuiʻo Harvard Kennedy Shorenstein: ʻO kahi insecticide pepehi kanaka controversial a me kona hopena i ka ulu ʻana o ka lolo: ʻImi a me nā kumuwaiwai

Kula Nui ʻo Harvard: ʻO ka Pesticide Hoʻohana ākea loa, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope

Honua: Chlorpyrifos: ʻO ka pesticide pesticide e hoʻopōʻino nei i kā mākou keiki a me ke kaiapuni

Ke Kalapu ʻo Sierra: Nā keiki a me Chlorpyrifos

Ka Nūpepa a me ka Manaʻo

Kiʻi na Bradley Peterson, ma o Ke kaʻina hana o ka National Academy of Science; New York Times

Ka Hoʻoilina o Trump: Nā lolo i hōʻino ʻia, na Nicholas Kristof, New York Times. "ʻO ka pesticide, kahi o nā papa o nā kemika i hoʻomohala ʻia ma ke ʻano he kinoea nerve i hana ʻia e Nazi Kelemania, i kēia manawa e loaʻa i ka meaʻai, ka ea a me ka wai inu. Hōʻike nā haʻawina kanaka a me nā holoholona e hōʻino ia i ka lolo a hoʻēmi i nā IQ i ka wā e haʻalulu ai i waena o nā keiki. "

Palekana i ka lolo o kā mākou keiki, na Sharon Lerner, New York Times. "ʻO ka hoʻohana ākea o ka chlorpyrifos e kuhikuhi i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻaʻole ia ke ʻano o ka kemika e hōʻino i nā poʻe āpau e launa pū me ia - a i ʻole ke kumu e hāʻule make ai lākou i ka hopena. Akā, ke hōʻike nei ka noiʻi e hoʻonui i ka makaʻu o nā pilikia hoʻomōhala, ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hana, he mea weliweli hoʻi, hoʻomanawanui. "

ʻO ka huaʻawaʻawa: makemake ʻo Dow Chemical i nā mahiʻai e hoʻomau i ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi Pesticide i pili iā Autism a me ADHD, na Sharon Lerner, ka Intercept. "ʻO Dow, ka hui kemika nunui nāna i patent chlorpyrifos a ke hana nei i ka hapa nui o nā huahana i loaʻa iā ia, ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa mau i nā hōʻike ʻepekema e piʻi nei e hōʻino ana kāna kemika blockbuster i nā keiki. Akā ua hoʻomaopopo ka hōʻike a ke aupuni ua ʻae ka EPA i kēia manawa i ka ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa e hōʻike ana i ka pesticide e ulu nei i ka nui o kā mākou meaʻai ʻaʻole palekana. "

Ke lawa ʻole ka ʻikepili e hana i ke kulekele: Ka holo pono ʻole ʻana e pāpā i nā chlorpyrifos, na Leonardo Trasande, PLOS Biology. "He kuleana ko ka ʻepekema e ʻōlelo i ka wā e ʻae ʻole ai nā mea hana politika i ka ʻikepili ʻepekema. Pono lākou e hōʻike koʻikoʻi i nā hopena o nā holomua o nā kulekele, ʻoiai inā ʻaʻole paʻa kekahi o nā kumu ʻepekema. "

Pehea i pāpā ʻole ʻia ai kēia lāʻau make? e ka papa hoʻoponopono o The New York Times. "ʻO ka pesticide i kapa ʻia ʻo chlorpyrifos he mea weliweli ʻelua a hoʻohana ākea loa. ʻIke ʻia e hele maʻalahi mai ka makuahine a i ka fetus a ua hoʻopili ʻia i ka nui o nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi, e like me ka ulu ʻana o ka maʻi, ka maʻi ʻo Parkinson a me kekahi ʻano o ka maʻi ʻaʻai. ʻAʻole ia he pūʻiwa. Ua hoʻomohala mua ʻia nā kemika e Nazis i ka wā o ke Kaua Honua II no ka hoʻohana ʻana e like me ke kinoea nerve. Eia ka mea kupaianaha: ke kāpīpī ʻia nei nā iona o nā pesticide ma nā miliona o ka ʻeka o nā ʻāina mahiʻai o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i kēlā me kēia makahiki, kokoke i ʻelima mau makahiki ma hope o ka hoʻoholo ʻana o ka ʻĀina Hoʻomalu Pono e pāpā. "

Pili loa kēia pesticide i nā ʻāʻī nerve i hoʻohana ʻia i ke Kaua Honua II. ʻAʻole mālama ʻo EPA o Trump, na Joseph G. Allen, Wakinekona Post. "He mea weliweli ka mea a mākou e ʻike ai e pili ana i nā chlorpyrifos. ʻO kahi aʻo kaulana paha i hana ʻia e nā mea noiʻi ma ke Kulanui o Columbia nāna i hana ke kiʻi ʻana o ka lolo i nā keiki ʻōpio me ke kiʻekiʻe o ka chlorpyrifos. Kupaianaha nā hopena a maopopo ʻole hoʻi. I nā huaʻōlelo a nā kānaka noiʻi: "Hōʻike kēia noiʻi i nā hui nui o ka prenatal exposed i kahi neurotoxicant kaiapuni i hoʻohana ākea ʻia, ma nā pae hoʻohana maʻamau, me nā hoʻololi o ke kūkulu ʻana i ka lolo kanaka."

ʻO kahi hihia ikaika e kūʻē i kahi Pesticide ʻAʻole Faze EPA ma lalo o ke kani, na Roni Caryn Robin, New York Times. "ʻO ka loiloi olakino olakino kanaka i hōʻuluʻulu ʻia e ka EPA i Nowemapa i ʻike ʻia e pili ana nā pilikia olakino ma nā pae haʻahaʻa o ka hōʻike ma mua o ka mea i manaʻo ʻia he pōʻino. Hōʻike ʻia nā pēpē, nā keiki, nā kaikamahine ʻōpio a me nā wahine i nā pae weliweli o nā chlorpyrifos ma o kaʻai wale nō, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka ʻoihana. Hōʻike ʻia nā keiki i nā pae a i ka 140 manawa o ka palena palekana. ”

ʻOi aku ka nui o nā pēpē ma hope o ka pāpā ma nā pesticides 2, nā ʻike i loaʻa, na Richard Pérez-Peña, New York Times. "ʻO nā wahine hāpai ma Manhattan luna i hōʻike nui ʻia i ʻelua mau insecticides maʻamau i loaʻa nā pēpē liʻiliʻi ma mua o ko lākou mau hoanoho, akā ʻo nā kaohi o kēia mau mea ʻelua i hoʻohaʻahaʻa koke i ka hōʻike a hoʻonui i ka nui o nā pēpē, e like me kahi noiʻi i paʻi ʻia i kēia lā."

ʻO mākou nā mea ʻino, na Timothy Egan, New York Times. "Ke nahu ʻoe i kahi ʻāpana o nā hua, he ʻoluʻolu noʻonoʻo ʻole ia. ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole like ke kūpono o kēlā strawberry-nānā strawberry me kahi niho keʻokeʻo-keʻokeʻo keʻokeʻo e hoʻomaka. Akā ʻaʻole pono ʻoe e noʻonoʻo e pili ana i ka ulu ʻana o ka lolo kamaliʻi ke kau ʻana ia ma luna o kāu cereal. ʻO ka Trump administration, i ka waiho ʻana i nā toadies ʻoihana kemika ma waena o kā mākou meaʻai a me ka palekana o ka lehulehu, ua koi ʻo ia i kahi loiloi hou o ka ʻaina kakahiaka a me nā hana ʻē aʻe i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ʻaʻole weliweli. "

Ma kāu pāʻina ʻaina a i kou kino: ʻo ka pesticide weliweli loa āu i lohe ʻole ai, na Staffan Dahllöf, Hōʻike Haumāna Denmark. "ʻAʻole hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻia ka hopena ʻino o nā chlorpyrifos i nā mea kolo. ʻO ka nīnau i hoʻoholo ʻole ʻia i ka nui o ka weliweli o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka chlorpyrifos i nā meaola āpau e like me ka iʻa i loko o nā wai kokoke a i ʻole nā ​​limahana mahiʻai ma nā kula, a i ʻole kekahi e ʻai ana i nā huahana i mālama ʻia. "

Nā Neurotoxins ma kā broccoli o kāu keiki: ʻo ia ke ola ma lalo o Trump, na Carey Gillam, ke Kahu. “ʻEhia ke kumu ola o kāu keiki? ʻO ka pane e hele mai ana mai ke alakaʻi o ka US Environmental Protection Agency: ʻaʻole ia he nui… No laila, eia mākou - me nā hopohopo ʻepekema no ka palekana o kā mākou keiki hala ʻole a palupalu ma kekahi ʻaoʻao a me nā mea pāʻani ʻoihana ʻoihana waiwai kekahi. Ua hōʻike aku ko mākou alakaʻi alakaʻi kālaiʻāina a me nā luna hoʻokele i nā mea makemake nui ʻia e lākou. "

Hiki i nā Insecticide Maʻamau ke hōʻino i ka lolo o nā keikikāne ma mua o nā kaikamahine, na Brett Israel, Nā Nūhou Ola Ola. "I nā keikikāne, pili ka pili ʻana i nā chlorpyrifos i ka ʻōpū nā helu liʻiliʻi ma nā hoʻāʻo hoʻomanaʻo wā pōkole hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā kaikamahine i hōʻike ʻia i nā nui like. "

ʻO nā pepa ʻepekema hou aʻe e pili ana i nā kemikona i kā mākou meaʻai 

E ʻike hou aʻe i ko ʻAmelika kuleana e ʻike i nā pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo:

Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi

Pepa ʻo Glyphosate: Ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe

Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻo Dicamba 

ʻO US Right to Know kahi pūʻulu olakino lehulehu noiʻi e hana nei ma ka honua āpau e hōʻike i nā hewa o nā ʻoihana a me nā hemahema aupuni e hoʻoweliweli i ka pono o kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai, ko mākou kaiapuni a me ko mākou olakino.  Hiki iā ʻoe hāʻawi ma aneʻi i kā mākou mau hoʻokolokolo a kau inoa no kā mākou leka pepa o kēlā me kēia pule.