Hoʻolālā nā manaʻo o Gates Foundation e hana hou i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai i ke aniau

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Na Stacy Malkan

I loko o kāna puke hou e pili ana i kahi e pale ai i kahi pōʻino o ke aniau, Billionaire mea aloha piliona Bill Gates e kūkākūkā ana i kāna mau hoʻolālā i hoʻohālikelike ʻōnaehana ʻai ʻApelika ma luna o ka "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" o India kahi i hoʻonui ai kahi mea ʻepekema mea kanu i nā hua a mālama ʻia he piliona mau ola, e like me Gates. ʻO ka mea keakea i ka hoʻokō ʻana i kahi hoʻoponopono hou like ma ʻApelika, ʻōlelo ʻo ia, ʻo ka hapa nui o nā mahiʻai ma nā ʻāina ʻilihune ʻaʻohe waiwai kālā e kūʻai ai i nā mea momona.  

"Inā hiki iā mākou ke kōkua i nā mahiʻai ʻilihuna e hoʻāla i kā lākou hua ʻai, e loaʻa kālā hou iā lākou a ʻoi aku ka nui o kā lākou mea e ʻai ai, a ʻo nā miliona o nā kānaka ma nā ʻāina ʻilihune o ka honua e hiki ke loaʻa nā meaʻai a me nā meaʻai e pono ai," ʻo Gates hoʻopau. ʻAʻole ʻo ia e noʻonoʻo i nā ʻāpana maopopo he nui o ka pōloli pōloli, e like me kona kāpae ʻana i nā mea koʻikoʻi o ka paio ʻana o ke aniau, e like me kā Bill McKibben i kuhikuhi ai i loko o ka Hōʻikeʻike ʻo New York Times o kā Gates puke Pehea e hōʻalo ai i kahi ʻinoʻino. 

ʻAʻole haʻi ʻo Gates, no ka laʻana, no ka pōloli ka mea nui ka ilihune a me ke kaulike ʻole, ʻaʻole ka nele. A me he mea lā ʻaʻole ia i ʻike i ka nui o nā makahiki he umi makahiki o ka "hoʻokahuli ʻōmaʻomaʻo" kaomi no ka mahiʻai ʻoihana i India i haʻalele i hoʻoilina hoʻoilina o ka hōʻino no nā kaiaolaola a me nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi, i noho ʻia ke kūʻē nei i nā alanui mai ka makahiki i hala.   

"Ke kākau nei nā mea kūʻē mahiʻai ma India i kā obituary o ka Green Revolution," ʻo Aniket Aga i kākau ma Scientific American i ka mahina i hala. Mau makahiki i loko o ka ʻōnaehana kipi ʻōmaʻomaʻo, "maopopo ia ua hoʻohui nā pilikia hou o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana i nā pilikia kahiko o pololi a malnutrition, "Kākau ʻo Aga. "ʻAʻohe nui o ka tinkering ma ka hopena kūʻai e hoʻoponopono ai i kahi hana hoʻohua kumu ʻole a kūpono ʻole."

Kēia k .kohu e hoʻoneʻe i nā mahiʻai i nā ʻoihana mahiʻai ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka liʻiliʻi hilinaʻi i nā pesticides a me ka hōʻino-aniau mea hoʻomomona kemika - kahi a Gates Foundation e paipai nei ma ʻApelika no 15 mau makahiki, ma luna o ke kūʻē ʻana i nā neʻe o nā meaʻai ʻApelika e ʻōlelo nei ke hoʻokau nei ke kahua i nā mea nui o nā ʻoihana agribusiness multinational i mea e pōʻino ai ko lākou kaiāulu.  

He mau haneli kaiaulu kaiāulu ke kūʻē nei nā hui nā hoʻolālā mahiʻai a ka Gates Foundation a me kāna hopena ma luna o ka UN World Summit e hiki mai ana. 'Saylelo nā Insiders kēia alakaʻi hoʻoweliweli e hoʻohoka i nā hana kūpono e hoʻololi i ka ʻōnaehana ʻai, ma kahi manawa koʻikoʻi i ka nui o ka sub-Saharan ʻApelika ʻalalā mai nā haʻalulu he nui a me ka ulu ulia pōpilikia ana ma muli o ka maʻi ahulau a me nā ʻano huliau. 

Ua ʻike ʻole ʻia kēia mau mea āpau e nā hoʻolaha pāpāho nui e ʻōwili nei i ka moena ʻulaʻula no kā Gates puke. Eia kekahi o nā kumu i ʻōlelo ai nā loiloi he maikaʻi ʻole ka papahana hoʻomohala mahiʻai ʻo Gates Foundation no ke aniau. ʻAʻole pane ka kahua i nā noi he nui no ka ʻōlelo. 

Hoʻopili hou i nā hoʻokuʻu kinoea hoʻomehana honua 

ʻAʻole hilahila ʻo Bill Gates e pili ana i kona kuko no ka mea hoʻomomona synthetic, ʻoiai ʻo ia wehewehe i kēia blog ke kuhi nei i ka mea kanu hoʻoili momona Yara ma Tanzania. Ua wehewehe ʻo Gates i ka mea hoʻomomona synthetic ma ke ʻano he "hana hoʻokalakupua i hiki ke kōkua i ka hāpai ʻana i miliona o nā kānaka mai ka ʻilihune." 

Ua wehewehe ʻo Corp Watch iā Yara ma ke ʻano “ka pilikua mea hoʻomomona e hōʻino ana i ke aniau. ” ʻO Yara ka mea kūʻai ʻoihana nui o ʻEulopa o ke kinoea kūlohelohe, nā lobbies ʻeleu no ka fracking, a he mea hana kiʻekiʻe i nā mea synthetic synthetic i ʻepekema. haʻi he kuleana no ka mea, mahuahua ka hopohopo i nā mea i hoʻokuʻu ʻia o nitrous oxide, a kinoea hoʻomehana honua he 300 mau manawa ka nui o ka mana ma mua o carbon dioxide i ka hoʻomehana ʻana i ka honua. 

E like me ka pepa Natura hou, nitrous oxide emissions i kipaku nui ʻia e ka mahiʻai e piʻi aʻe nei i kahi loop loop feedback e hoʻonui nei iā mākou ala hele hewa loa no ka hoʻololi i ke aniau.

Hoʻomaopopo ʻo Gates e hoʻopōʻino nā mea hoʻomomona synthetic i ke aniau. Ma ke ʻano he hopena, lana ka manaʻo o Gates no nā hana ʻenehana ma ka pae, me kahi papahana hoʻokolohua e genetically engineer microbes e hoʻoponopono i ka nitrogen i ka lepo. "Inā holo pono kēia mau hoʻokokoke ʻana," kākau ʻo Gates, "e hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui lākou i ka pono no ka momona a me nā emissions āpau nāna ke kuleana." 

I kēia manawa, ke kia nui o ka hoʻoikaika ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo o Gates no ʻApelika e hoʻonui nei i ka hoʻohana ʻana o ka mea hoʻomomona synthetic me ka manaʻo e hoʻonui i nā hua, ʻoiai ma laila ʻaʻole hōʻike e hōʻike ai ua kōkua ka 14 mau makahiki o kēia mau hoʻoikaika ʻana i nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi a i ʻole nā ​​ʻilihuna, a i ʻole hoʻohua i nā loaʻa nui.

Hoʻonui i nā monocultures ʻinoʻino 

Ua lilo ka Gates Foundation ma kahi o $ 4 biliona mai 2006 ia "kōkua i ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ka mahiʻai”Ma ʻApelika. ʻO ka nui o ka hele kālā i ʻimi noiʻi ʻenehana a me nā hana e hoʻololi i nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i nā ʻano mahiʻai mahiʻenehana a hoʻonui i ko lākou hiki i nā hua kalepa, nā mea hoʻomomona a me nā mea hoʻokomo. ʻ saylelo nā mea kākoʻo i kēia mau hoʻoikaika ʻana hāʻawi i nā mahiʻai i nā koho e pono ai e hoʻonui i ka hana a hapai ia lakou iho mai ka ilihune.

Kuhi ka poʻe loiloi he "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" ʻo Gates ʻinoʻino nā ʻōkuhi iā ʻApelika e ka hana ʻana ʻoi aku ka palupalu o nā kaiaolaola, ke waiho nei i nā mahiʻai i ka hōʻaiʻē, a hoʻohuli i nā kumuwaiwai lehulehu mai nā hoʻololi ʻōnaehana hohonu loa pono e kū i ke aniau a me nā pilikia pōloli. 

"Hāpai ka Gates Foundation i kahi hiʻohiʻona o ka mahiʻai mahiʻai monoculture a me ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai e kākoʻo ʻole ai i ko mākou poʻe," kahi hui o nā alakaʻi manaʻoʻiʻo mai ʻApelika i kākau i kahi leka i ka hāʻule hope loa, ke hāpai nei i nā hopohopo no ke kākoʻo o ke kahua no ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana ikaika e hoʻonui ana i ka pilikia kanaka. 

ʻO ke kahua, ʻōlelo lākou, "Paipai i nā mahiʻai ʻApelika e hoʻohana i kahi ala hoʻokomo kiʻekiʻe – kiʻekiʻe i hoʻokumu ʻia ma kahi ʻano ʻoihana i hoʻomohala ʻia i kahi hoʻonohonoho Komohana" a "kau kaomi i nā mahiʻai e ulu wale i hoʻokahi a i ʻole kekahi mau mea kanu e pili ana i ka hana kiʻekiʻe a me nā genetically GM) mau hua. "

ʻO ka papahana mahiʻai hae ʻo Gates, ka Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), hoʻokele i nā mahiʻai i ka maize a me nā mea ulu nui me ka pahuhopu e hoʻonui i nā hua. Wahi a AGRA's hoʻolālā hana no Uganda (ke koʻikoʻi nei i kā lākou):

  • Hoʻomaopopo ʻia ka hoʻololi ahupuaʻa a ke kaʻina hana a nā mahiʻai e neʻe ai mai ka ʻokoʻa loa, ka hana i hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia i ka hana i hana nui ʻia kū i ka mākeke a i ʻole nā ​​ʻōnaehana o ka hoʻololi, e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi nui ʻana i ka ʻōnaehana hoʻokomo a me ka hoʻopuka ʻana a hoʻonui i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ka mahiʻai me nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe o nā ʻoihana kūloko a me ka honua.

Ua hoʻolilo ʻo AGRA ma kahi o $ 524 miliona, ma ka hapanui o nā papahana e hoʻonui i ka hiki ʻana o nā mahiʻai i nā ʻanoano kalepa a me nā mea hoʻomomona. Kākoʻo hou ʻia kēia ʻenehana ʻenehana ʻōuli e $ 1 biliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki i nā kōkua mai nā aupuni ʻApelika, e like me noiʻi i paʻi ʻia i ka makahiki i hala ma ka ʻO Tufts Global Development and Environment Institute a me kahi hōʻike pili e Nā pūʻulu ʻApelika a me Kelemania

ʻAʻole i loaʻa i nā mea noiʻi kahi hōʻailona o kahi boom hoʻonui huahana; Hōʻike ka ʻikepili i nā loaʻa haʻahaʻa o 18% no nā mea kanu nui i nā ʻāina i kūlia i ka AGRA, ʻoiai nā stagnated stagnated a me nā mea ʻai i hoʻomāhuahua, me ka nui o ka poʻe pōloli a me nā mea ʻai ʻole 30%. AGRA hoʻopaʻapaʻa i ka noiʻi akā ʻaʻole i hāʻawi i ka hōʻike kikoʻī o kāna mau hopena ma mua o 15 mau makahiki. Ua haʻi mai kahi mea haʻi ʻōlelo AGRA iā mākou i kahi hōʻike e hiki mai ana i ʻApelila.

ʻO nā kānaka noiʻi kūʻokoʻa kekahi ua hōʻike i ka emi ʻana o nā mea kanu kuʻuna, e like me ka mila, ʻo ia ke kūpaʻa i ke aniau a hoi kahi kumu waiwai nui o nā micronutrients no nā miliona o ka poʻe.

"ʻO ke ʻano AGRA i hoʻokau ʻia ma ka mahiʻai ʻana ma Rwanda ma mua ʻokoʻa a ʻaneʻane hoʻi e hoʻohiehie i kāna mau mea kanu mahiʻai mahiʻai kuʻuna, "Jomo Kwame Sundaram, ke kākau ʻōlelo kōkua mua o ka UN no ka hoʻomohala waiwai, i kākau i loko o kahi ʻatikala e wehewehe ana i ka noiʻi.  ʻO ka pūʻulu AGRA, kākau ʻo ia, ua "hoʻokau ʻia me he lima kaumaha "ma Rwanda, me" ke aupuni i hōʻike ʻia e pāpā ana i ka mahi ʻana i kekahi mau mea ulu i loko o kekahi mau wahi. "  

Hoʻololi i nā kumuwaiwai mai agroecology 

"Inā lilo nā ʻōnaehana o ka honua āpau i mea hoʻomau, pono e lilo nā monocultures hua nui a me nā mea hānai pālākiō i mea lapuwale. hoʻopiʻi i ka Gates Foundation.

ʻOiaʻiʻo, he nui ʻōlelo nā loea a pono ka hoʻololi paradigm, mai ʻaʻano like, ʻōnaehana hoʻoulu monoculture i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa, agroecological kokoke i kēlā hiki ke hoʻoponopono i nā pilikia a me nā palena o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana me nā kaulike ʻole, hoʻonui i ka ilihune, hana maikaʻi ʻole a me ka hōʻino ʻana o ke kaiaola.  

ʻO Rupa Marya, MD, he loea pili no ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma UCSF, e kūkākūkā i ka agroecology ma ka hālāwai kūkā 2021 EcoFarm

He Hui Hoʻolālā Meaʻai a UN hōʻike papa loea e pili ana i ka agroecology kāhea maopopo i ka neʻe ʻana mai ke kumu hoʻohālikelike ahupuaʻa ʻo "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" a i nā hana agroecological i hōʻike ʻia e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā mea kanu meaʻai, hoʻemi i nā kumukūʻai a kūkulu i ke kū hou o ke aniau. 

Akā pōloli nā polokalamu e hoʻonui i ka agroecology no ke kālā ke lilo nā piliona i ke kōkua a hele nā ​​kōkua e hāpai i nā ʻano mahiʻai mahiʻai. 

ʻO nā makemake Donor no ka loaʻa kālā, scalability a me nā hopena pōkole e kāohi ana i nā hoʻopukapuka i ka agroecology, e like me ka hōʻike 2020 mai ka International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food). No 85% o ka Gates Foundation i hoʻolako kālā ʻia nā papahana no ʻApelika i nā makahiki i hala iho nei i kaupalena ʻia i ke kākoʻo ʻana i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana, i ʻōlelo ʻia ka hōʻike, ʻoiai ʻo 3% wale nō o nā papahana i loaʻa nā mea o ka hoʻoponopono hou agroecological.

ʻO nā mea noiʻi kahakaha, "ʻaʻole agroecology ʻaʻole kūpono i loko o nā ʻano hana hoʻopukapuka e kū nei. E like me nā mea hāʻawi manawaleʻa he nui, nānā ka BMGF [Bill a me Melinda Gates Foundation] no ka hoʻihoʻi wikiwiki ʻana o ke kālā hoʻopukapuka, a no laila makemake i nā hopena ʻenehana. ” 

Kaupaona kēia mau makemake i nā hoʻoholo e pili ana i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ʻana o nā kālā noiʻi no nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai o ka honua. ʻO ka mea loaʻa nui o ʻO ke kālā mahiʻai a Gates Foundation ʻo CGIAR, kahi consortium o 15 mau kikowaena noiʻi e hoʻohana ana i nā kaukukū ʻepekema a me ka mālama ʻana iā 11 o nā panakō nui o ka honua.

I nā makahiki i hala iho nei, ua hana kekahi mau kikowaena CGIAR i nā ala e pili ana i ka ʻōnaehana ʻōnaehana a me nā pono e pili ana i nā pono. akā ʻo kahi hoʻolālā hoʻolālā i hāpai ʻia e hana i "One CGIAR" me kahi papa hoʻokahi a me nā mana hoʻonohonoho hoʻonohonoho hou e hāpai ana i nā hopohopo. Wahi a ka meaʻai IPES, ka noi hoʻoponopono hou hoʻoweliweli e "hōʻemi i ka mana kūʻokoʻa o nā papahana noiʻi āpana a hoʻoikaika i ka paʻa o nā mea hāʻawi mana nui loa," e like me ka Gates Foundation, ka mea "makemake e haʻalele i nā hoʻolālā ʻōmaʻomaʻo kipi."

ka hoʻoponopono hana hou alakaʻi ʻia e ka ʻelele Gates Foundation a me ke alakaʻi mua o ka Syngenta Foundation, “AUa hoʻokau ʻia ʻo ppears i mua ma ke ʻano koi, "i ʻōlelo ʻo IPES," me ke kūʻai liʻiliʻi mai nā mea e pono ai nā pōmaikaʻi ma ka Hema o ka honua, me ka lawa ʻole o ka like ʻole ma waena o ka pōʻaiapuni o loko o nā mea hoʻoponopono, a me ka noʻonoʻo ʻole ʻole i ke ʻano e pono ai. neʻe i ka ʻōnaehana meaʻai. "

I kēia manawa, ʻo ka Gates Foundation kiki ʻia i $ 310 miliona hou aʻe iā CGIAR e "kōkua iā 300 miliona mau mahiʻai liʻiliʻi e hoʻomaʻa i ka loli." 

Ke kuhi nei i nā hoʻohana hou no nā mea kanu pesticide GMO

ʻO ka leka lawe a Bill Gates puke hou kēlā nā holomua ʻenehana hiki ke hānai i ka honua a hoʻoponopono i ke aniau, inā hiki iā mākou ke hiki hoʻopukapuka lawa lawa i kēia mau mea hou. Ke hoʻolaha nei nā ʻoihana pesticide / seed nui loa o ka honua i ke kumumanaʻo like, ke kau hou ʻana iā lākou iho mai ka poʻe hōʻole i ke aniau i nā mea hoʻoponopono pilikia: ʻO ka holomua i ka mahiʻai uila, ʻo ka mahiʻai pono a me ka hana ʻenekini e hōʻemi i ka wāwae o ka mahiʻai a "hoʻoikaika i ka 100 miliona mau mahiʻai liʻiliʻi" e hoʻomaʻa i ka loli, "āpau i ka makahiki 2030," e like me ʻO Bayer CropSensya.

ʻO ka Gates Foundation a me ka ʻoihana kemika ʻo “ke kūʻai aku nei i ka wā i hala ma ke ʻano he mea hou i ʻApelika, "Hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo Timothy Wise, kahi hoa noiʻi me ka Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, i ka pepa hou no Tufts GDAE. "ʻO ka hana hou maoli," wahi a Wise, "ke hana nei i nā māla mahiʻai i kā lākou hana pū ʻana me nā ʻepekema e hoʻonui i ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano mea kanu o nā meaʻai, hoʻemi i nā kumukūʻai, a kūkulu i ke kūpaʻa o ke aniau ma o ka ʻae ʻana i nā hana agroecological." 

Ma ke ʻano he harbinger o nā ʻenehana breakthroughs e hiki mai ana, kuhikuhi ʻo Gates i kāna puke i ka Impossible Burger. Ma kahi mokuna i kapa ʻia "Pehea mākou e ulu ai i nā mea," wehewehe ʻo Gates i kona ʻoluʻolu me ka burger veggie toto (i ka ʻo ia ka mea hoʻopukapuka nui) a lana kona manaʻo ʻo nā burger-based burger a me nā iʻa pūnaewele ka hopena nui no ka hoʻololi i ke aniau. 

Pololei ʻo ia, ʻo ka neʻe ʻana mai kaʻiʻo i mahi ʻia i ka hale hana he mea nui ia no ke aniau. Akā he hopena paʻa ka Impossible Burger, a i ʻole he ala kūʻai wale ʻia e hoʻohuli i nā mea kanu i hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana nā huahana meaʻai pāloloAs Anna Lappe wehewehe, Nā Mea ʻai hiki ʻole "Ke hele nei i loko o ka GM soy," ʻaʻole wale ma ke ʻano o ka burger akā ʻo ke kumuhana o ka ʻo ka hoʻomau paʻa ʻana o ka ʻoihana.  

No 30 mau makahiki, ua hoʻohiki ka ʻoihana kemika i nā hua GMO e hoʻonui i nā hua, e hōʻemi i nā pesticides a hānai hānai ʻia ka honua, akā ʻaʻole naʻe pēlā. E like me kā Danny Hakim i hōʻike ai ma ka New York Times, ʻAʻole i hoʻohua nā hua GMO i nā hua i ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi,  a hoʻohele lākou i ka hoʻohana i nā lāʻau make, ʻo ia hoʻi ka glyphosate, pili i ka maʻi ʻaʻai i waena o nā olakino ʻē aʻe a me nā pilikia kaiapuni. I ka lilo ʻana o ka mauʻu i mea ulu, ua ulu ka ʻoihana i nā ʻanoʻano me nā pale kemika hou. ʻO Bayer, no ka laʻana, ke hoʻouka nei i mua me nā hua GMO ʻenekinia e ola i nā mea kanu ʻelima.

Ua hoʻolaha aku nei ʻo Mekiko hoʻolālā e pāpā i ka lawe mai ʻana mai o GMO i ka palaoa, e haʻi nei i nā mea kanu "ʻaʻole makemake ʻia" a "ʻaʻole pono."

Ma ʻApelika Hema, ʻo kekahi o nā ʻāina ʻApelika e ʻae i ka mahi ʻana i nā mea kanu GMO, ʻoi aku 85% o ka maize a me ka soy ʻenekini, a ʻo ka hapa nui ua kāpīpī ʻia me ka glyphosate. mahiʻai, nā hui kaiaulu, nā alakaʻi kālai'āina a ke hāpai nei nā kauka i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka piʻi ʻana o nā helu maʻi ʻaʻai. A me food palekana ke piʻi nei hoʻi.  ʻO ka ʻike ʻo ʻApelika Hema me nā GMO ʻo “23 mau makahiki o ka holo pono ʻole ʻana, ka pohō o nā mea ola a me ka pōloli nui, "E like me ka ʻApelika Waena Center for Biodiversity.

ʻO ka ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo no ʻApelika, wahi a ka mea hoʻokumu o ka hui ʻo Mariam Mayet, kahi "hopena make" e alakaʻi ana i "ke emi nei ke olakino o ka lepo, ka nalowale ʻana o nā meaola mahiʻai, ka nalowale ʻana o ka noho aliʻi mahiʻai, a me ka laka ʻana o nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i kahi ʻōnaehana i hoʻolālā ʻole ʻia no ko lākou pono, akā no ka waiwai o nā hui multinational ʻĀkau nui. " 

"He mea nui ia i kēia manawa, i kēia manawa nui o ka mōʻaukala," wahi a ka ʻApelika Waena ʻAmelika no ka Biodiversity, "e hoʻololi mākou i ke ala hele, e hoʻopau ana i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana a hoʻololi i kahi ʻōnaehana mahiʻai a me ka meaʻai kūpono."  

Ke mālama nei ʻo Stacy Malkan i ka hoʻoponopono a me ka mea hoʻokumu o US Right to Know, kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi e kia ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu. E kau inoa no ka nūpepa Kākau e ʻike no nā mea hou hou.

 

No ke aha mākou e nānā nei i kā Bill Gates mau hoʻolālā e hana hou i kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai

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Kūʻē nā haneli o nā hui i ka hoʻonui ʻia a alakaʻi ʻia e Gates o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana kemika ma ʻApelika i ke alakaʻi ʻana i ka UN World Food Summit 

ka ʻO Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ua lilo ma kahi o $ 4 biliona ma kāna mau hoʻāʻo e hoʻololi i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai ma Aferika, me waihona kālā ʻo ia “manaʻo e kōkua i nā miliona o nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi e hāpai iā lākou iho mai ka pōloli a me ka ʻilihune. " Ke ʻōlelo nei kahi papa loiloi o nā loiloi e ulu nei i nā hoʻolālā hoʻomohala mahiʻai o ke kahua. mamuli o ka ʻO ke kumu hoʻohālikelike "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" o ka hoʻonui ʻana ʻoihana - ua hala ka wā, hoʻopilikia a pale i nā loli e pono ai e hānai i ka honua a hoʻoponopono i ke aniau.

Ke hoʻomaka nei ke kaua no nā makahiki he XNUMX a ʻoi i ke kūʻē ʻana o ka neʻe ʻana o ka meaʻai ma ʻApelika i ka paakiki no ka mahiʻai kemika a me nā mea kākoʻo i hoʻohua ʻia e pono ai. hāʻawi i nā mahiʻai i nā koho a hoʻonui i ka hanaʻai. ʻO kahi hiʻohiʻona ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, i ʻōlelo ai nā neʻe o ka meaʻai, hiki ke loaʻa i nā papahana mahiʻai kaiaola i e hoʻonui ana i ka hana me nā kumu kūʻai haʻahaʻa a me nā loaʻa kiʻekiʻe no nā mahiʻai.

Ma ka 2019, a pae kiʻekiʻe o nā loea no nā Aupuni Hui Pū ʻIa ua kāhea ʻia no kahi hoʻololi paradigm mai ka mahiʻai hānai kūpono ʻole a i nā hana agroecological 'ōlelo lākou hiki ke hana i nā ʻano mea kanu o nā meaʻai a ke kūkulu nei hoʻi i ke kūpaʻa o ke aniau.

ʻO ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa e pili ana i ka wā e hiki mai ana o nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai ke hele nei i kahi hōʻike ma ka 2021 UN World Summit Pahu. Ma mua o ka ukali ʻana i ka ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a kā lākou papa loea ponoʻī, ua hoʻonohonoho ka UN i kahi pāʻani mana agribusiness ʻoihana alakaʻi ʻia e nā kumu Gates a me Rockefeller a me ka World Economic Forum.  

Ma kahi o 500 mau hui kaiaulu ke kūʻē nei i ka ʻO ke alakaʻi ʻana o Summit a me ke koho ʻia ʻana o Agnes Kailibata, pelekikena o Gates i uku kālā ʻia no kahi Green Revolution ma ʻApelika (AGRA), ma ke ʻano he Elele Kuikawa i ka luna o ke alakaʻi ʻōkuhi. I ka a Ua kuhikuhi aku ka leka iā UN Secretary General António Guterres i Pepeluali i hala, ua noi nā hui 176 mai nā ʻāina he 83 iā ia e hōʻole i ko Kalibata koho ʻana.

ʻO kā AGRA mau kālā, a me nā hana fossil-fuel i hoʻokumu ʻia i nā hoʻolālā mahiʻai, i ʻōlelo lākou, ʻaʻole "hiki ke hoʻomau ʻia ma mua o ke kōkua mau." Eia kahi wahi o ka leka: 

I ka mahina i hala aku nei, ʻo UN Rapporteur Kūpono no ka Pono o ka Meaʻai ʻo Michael Fakhri, he loea loio ma ke Kulanui o Oregon, ua kākau i kahi hoʻopiʻi i kā AGRA Kalibata e wehewehe nei i kāna mau manaʻo hopohopo e pili ana i ke ʻaoʻao o ka Summit āna e alakaʻi nei. Ua wehewehe ʻo Fakhri i kona huhū i kēia wikiō Uiui:

"ʻO ia ka hui kaiaulu a me nā kuleana kanaka i ka wā mua i kāpae ʻia a laila lawe ʻia mai a hoʻopilikia ʻia," wahi a Fakri. "Ma kahi o hoʻokahi makahiki ka lōʻihi o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā pono kanaka ma ka papahana. No ka Summit Pūnaewele Mea ʻAi e puka mai ana mai ke keʻena o ke Kuhina Nui o UN, ua hala ka makahiki e wehewehe, aʻo a hoʻomaopopo i ke alakaʻi o ka Summit he mea nui nā kuleana kanaka. ”

E hoʻolohe iā Professor Michael Fakri e wehewehe nei i ka mea i pili i ka UN World Food Summit a me ke kumu o nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai i ʻāpana o ka pilikia a me kahi hopena nui i ka loli.  

Ma kahi o nā ʻatikala e hoʻomaka nei i kēia lā, ʻo US Right to Know e nānā pono loa iā Bill Gates a me nā hoʻolālā a ka Gates Foundation e hana hou i kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai.

No ke aha mākou e nānā nei iā Bill Gates? He mana nui loa ʻo Gates ma luna o kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai, a ke hoʻohana nei ʻo ia.  ʻO Gates ka nona ka ʻāina nui loa o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa. ʻO ia kekahi o nā alakaʻi o ka honua nā mea hoʻopukapuka kālā i ka biotechnology nā ʻoihana e hoʻopili i ke ola a me ka meaʻai. Ke hoʻokau nei ka Gates Foundation i ka mana nui ma luna o ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai i ka Global South, a ma luna o nā kūkākūkā politika a me nā papahana noiʻi e pili ana i nā meaʻai a mākou e ulu a ʻai ai.

E ʻike i kā mākou hōʻike ʻana ma Bill Gates a me ke aniau: Hoʻolālā nā manaʻo o Gates Foundation e hana hou i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai i ke aniau 

E kau inoa no kā mākou leka pepa manuahi e hāhai i nā mea hou.

ʻO US Right to Know kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi noiʻi ʻole nonprofit e kia ana i ka paepae ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu. Ke hana nei mākou ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa e hōʻike i nā hewa o nā ʻoihana a me nā hemahema o ke aupuni e hoʻoweliweli i ka pono o kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai, ko mākou kaiapuni a me ko mākou olakino.

Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety.

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ʻO US kuleana e ʻike ke ʻimi nei i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2, a me nā makaʻu o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a me ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila., ka mea e manaʻo ai e hoʻonui i ka infectivity a i ʻole ka make ʻana o nā maʻi maʻi pandemia. Kau mākou i nā mea hou a me nā ʻike hou ma mākou Blog Biohazards.

Hoʻopiʻi FOI ma ka hoʻokolokolo biohazards

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Ua waiho ʻo US Right to Know, kahi pūʻulu olakino noiʻi noiʻi nonprofit, i ʻekolu mau hoʻopiʻi e kūʻē i nā keʻena pekelala no ka ʻaihue ʻana i nā ʻikepili o ke Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). ʻO nā hoʻopiʻi ka ʻāpana o kā mākou mau hoʻāʻo e wehe i ka mea i ʻike e pili ana i ke kumu o ka novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, nā kulu a i ʻole nā ​​pōpilikia ma nā labs biosafety, a me nā pilikia o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana e ʻimi nei e hoʻonui i ka infectivity a i ʻole ka make ʻana o nā maʻi maʻi ahulau kūpono paha.

Mai Iulai, ua faila mākou i nā palapala 48 mokuʻāina, pekelala, a me nā palapala ākea ākea e noi ana i ka ʻikepili e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, a me nā pilikia o nā labs biosafety a me ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila.

E heluhelu hou e pili ana kā mākou ʻike i kēia manawa, no ke aha mākou e hana nei i kēia hoʻokolokolo, heluhelu paipai ʻia a nā palapala i loaʻa iā mākou.

Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia nā hoʻopiʻi FOI

(1) Hoʻolālā ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa a me US: Ma Pepeluali 4, 2021, USRTK ua waiho i kahi hoʻokolokolo kūʻē i ka US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) no ka ʻaihue ʻana i nā ʻāpana o FOIA.  ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi, i waiho ʻia ma ka ʻĀpana ʻĀpana o US no ka ʻĀkau ʻĀkau o Kaleponi, e ʻimi nei i nā palapala a me nā leka e pili ana a e pili ana paha i ka Wuhan Institute of Virology o Kina, ka Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevent, a me ka EcoHealth Alliance, ka mea i hana pakanā me ke kālā ʻo Wuhan Institute. o Virology, i waena o nā kumuhana ʻē aʻe.

(2) Ke KeʻenaʻOihana Hoʻonaʻauao o US: Ma Kekemapa 17, 2020 USRTK ua waiho i kahi hoʻokolokolo kūʻē i ka US Department of Education no ka ʻaihue ʻana i nā mea o FOIA. ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi, i waiho ʻia i ka ʻĀpana ʻĀpana o US no ka ʻĀkau ʻĀkau o Kaleponi, e ʻimi nei i nā palapala a ke Keʻena ʻOihana Hoʻonaʻau i noi mai ke Kula Lapaʻau ʻo Ke Kulanui o Texas ma Galveston e pili ana i kāna ʻaelike kālā a me ka ʻepekema a me / a me ka hana noiʻi ʻana me Kina Wuhan Institute of Virology.

(3) Keʻena Moku'āinaʻo US: Ma Nowemapa 30, 2020 USRTK ua waiho i kahi hoʻokolokolo kūʻē i ka US Department of State no ka ʻaihue ʻana i nā mea o FOIA. ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi, i waiho ʻia ma ka ʻĀpana ʻĀpana o US no ka ʻĀkau ʻĀkau o Kaleponi, e ʻimi nei i nā palapala a me nā leka e pili ana a e pili ana paha i ka Wuhan Institute of Virology o Kina, ka Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevent, a me ka EcoHealth Alliance, ka mea i hui pū me a kālā kālā ʻo Wuhan Institute. o Virology, i waena o nā kumuhana ʻē aʻe. E ʻike hoʻokuʻu puke.

(4) Nā Kula Nui o ke Aupuni: Ma Nowemapa 5, 2020 Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo USRTK i ka hoʻopiʻi kūʻē iā National Institutes of Health (NIH) no ka ʻaihue ʻana i nā ʻaoʻao o FOIA. ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi, i waiho ʻia ma ka ʻĀpana ʻĀpana ʻo US ma Wakinekona, DC, e ʻimi nei i nā leka me a i ʻole e pili ana i nā hui e like me Wuhan Institute of Virology a me ka Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevent, a me ka EcoHealth Alliance, ka mea i hui pū me a kākoʻo kālā iā Wuhan. Ke Kula Nui o Virology. E ʻike hoʻokuʻu puke.

ʻO US Right to Know kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi e kia ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu. No ka ʻike hou aku e pili ana i nā hoʻopiʻi FOI a mākou i faila ai e hōʻoia i ka pono o ka lehulehu e ʻike, e ʻike i kā mākou ʻAoʻao hoʻopiʻi ʻo FOIA.

ʻO International Institute of Science Institute (ILSI) kahi ʻoihana Lobby ʻoihana ʻona

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ʻO ka International Life Science Institute (ILSI) kahi hui nonprofit i hoʻolako kālā ʻia i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Wakinekona DC, me 17 mokuna pili a puni ka honua. ILSI hōʻike iā ia iho ma ke ʻano he hui e alakaʻi i ka "ʻepekema no ka pono lehulehu" a "hoʻomaikaʻi i ke olakino a me ke olakino kanaka a palekana i ke kaiapuni." Eia nō naʻe, ua hōʻike ʻia nā noiʻi ʻana e nā poʻe kālaiʻike, nā mea nūpepa a me nā mea noiʻi hoihoi i ka lehulehu he hui lobby ia e pale ana i nā pono o ka ʻoihana meaʻai, ʻaʻole ke olakino lehulehu.

Nūhou hou:

  • Ua uhaʻi ʻo Coca-Cola i kona mau pilina lōʻihi me ILSI. ʻO kēia neʻe "kahi hahau i ka ʻoihana meaʻai ikaika i ʻike ʻia no kāna noiʻi pro-kō a me nā kulekele," Hōʻikeʻiaʻo Bloomberg i Ianuali 2021.  
  • Ua kōkua ʻo ILSI i ka hui ʻo Coca-Cola i ka hoʻolālā ʻana i ka kulekele momona ma Kina, e like me kahi noiʻi o Kepakemapa 2020 i ka Ka Nūpepa o nā politika politika, nā kulekele a me nā kānāwai na Harvard Polofesa ʻo Susan Greenhalgh. "Ma lalo o ka haʻiʻōlelo a ka lehulehu o ka ʻepekema kaulike ʻole o ILSI a ʻaʻohe mea e pili ana i ke kulekele e waiho i kahi maze o nā ʻoihana huna huna ʻia i hoʻohana ʻia e holomua i ko lākou mau pono. Ke hana nei ma waena o kēlā mau kahawai, ua hoʻohuli ʻo Coca Cola i ka ʻepekema a me ka hana ʻana a Kina i kēlā me kēia pae i ke kaʻina kulekele, mai ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i nā pilikia a hiki i ka hoʻolālā ʻana i nā kulekele kūhelu, "pau ka pepa.

  • Loaʻa nā palapala i loaʻa iā US Right to Know e hoʻohui i nā hōʻike hou aʻe ʻo ILSI kahi hui ʻoihana meaʻai mua. A Mei 2020 hoʻopaʻa i ka Nutr Health Health ma muli o nā palapala i hōʻike ʻia "kahi ʻano o ka hana a ILSI i ʻimi ai e hoʻohana i ka hilinaʻi o nā ʻepekema a me nā kālaiʻike e hoʻoikaika i nā kūlana ʻoihana a hoʻonui i nā ʻike i hoʻolālā ʻia e ka ʻoihana i loko o kāna mau hālāwai, puke pai, a me nā hana ʻē aʻe." E ʻike i ka uhi ʻana ma The BMJ, Ua ʻimi ka ʻoihana meaʻai a me nā mea inu e hoʻohuli i nā ʻepekema a me nā kālaihana, hōʻike ʻia nā leka uila  (5.22.20)

  • ʻO ka hōʻike hōʻike moʻokalaleo ʻo ʻApelila 2020 ninaninau pehea i hoʻohana ai nā ʻoihana meaʻai a me nā mea inu i ka ILSI e komo i loko o ke Kōmike Aʻoaʻo Kālā Alakaʻi US, a holomua i ke kulekele ʻai pono a puni ka honua. E ʻike i ka uhi ʻana ma The BMJ, ʻOi aku ka mana o ka ʻoihana meaʻai a me nā mea inu momona ma luna o nā kulekele papaʻai US, wahi a ka hōʻike (4.24.20) 

  • Ke noiʻi nei ʻo New York Times na Andrew Jacobs e hōʻike nei i kahi kahu o ka ʻoihana hoʻopukapuka ʻole ILSI aʻoaʻo i ke aupuni India e kūʻē i ka hele mua ʻana me nā lepili hōʻailona no nā meaʻai pono ʻole. Ka Manawa ho'ākāka 'ia ILSI ma ke ʻano he "ʻoihana ʻoihana malu" a "ʻo ka hui ʻoihana meaʻai ikaika loa āu i lohe ʻole ai." (9.16.19) ʻO ka Times i kuhikuhi ʻia a Iune hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Globalization a me Health i kākau ʻia e Gary Ruskin o US Right to Know e hōʻike nei e hana ana ʻo ILSI ma ke ʻano he lobby arm no kāna mea kālā a me nā mea kōkua kālā pesticide.

  • ka Hōʻike ʻo New York Times ʻo ka pili ILSI i hōʻike ʻole ʻia o Bradley C. Johnston, kahi mea kākau o ʻelima mau noi hou e koi ana i ka ʻulaʻula a me kaʻiʻo i hana ʻia ʻaʻole pilikia pilikia olakino. Ua hoʻohana ʻo Johnston i nā ʻano hana like i loko o kahi noi i kālā kālā ʻia e ILSI e koi ai i ka kō ʻaʻole pilikia. (10.4.19)

  • ʻO kā blog blog politika a Marion Nestle, ILSI: hōʻike ʻia nā kala maoli (10.3.19)

Pili ʻo ILSI iā Coca-Cola 

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo ILSI ma 1978 e Alex Malaspina, he pelekikena hope poʻokela ma Coca-Cola i hana no Coke mai 1969-2001. Ua mālama paʻa ʻo Coca-Cola i ka pilina me ILSI. ʻO Michael Ernest Knowles, ka VP a Coca-Cola o ka ʻepekema a me nā hana hoʻoponopono honua mai 2008-2013, i pelekikena o ILSI mai 2009-2011. I 2015, Peresidena o ILSI ʻO Rhona Applebaum, ʻo wai ua hoʻomaha loa mai kāna hana ma ke ʻano he luna olakino a ʻepekema hoʻi ʻo Coca-Cola (a mai ILSI) i ka 2015 ma hope o ka New York Times a hui pu Press ua hōʻike ʻo Coke i kālā kālā no ka nonprofit Global Energy Balance Network e kōkua i ka hoʻohuli i ka hōʻino no ka momona mai nā mea inu momona.  

Kālā kālā 

Hāʻawi kālā ʻia ʻo ILSI e kāna nā lālā ʻoihana a me nā kākoʻo o ka ʻoihana, me ke alakaʻi ʻana i nā ʻoihana meaʻai a me nā kemika. Hoʻomaopopo ʻo ILSI i ka loaʻa kālā ʻana mai ka ʻoihana akā ʻaʻole ia e hōʻike ākea i ka poʻe nāna e hāʻawi a i ka nui o kā lākou hāʻawi. Hōʻike kā mākou noiʻi:

  • Nā hāʻawi ʻoihana i ka ILSI Global i $ 2.4 miliona i ka makahiki 2012. Ua komo pū kēia me $ 528,500 mai CropLife International, kahi $ 500,000 hāʻawi mai Monsanto a $ 163,500 mai Coca-Cola.
  • A draft 2013 hoʻihoʻi ʻauhau ILSI hōʻike iā ILSI i loaʻa iā $ 337,000 mai Coca-Cola a ʻoi aku ma mua o $ 100,000 i kēlā me kēia mea mai Monsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience a me BASF.
  • A draft 2016 hoʻihoʻi ʻauhau ʻo ILSI ʻAmelika Hema hōʻike i kahi hāʻawi $ 317,827 mai PepsiCo, nā hāʻawi i ʻoi aku ma mua o $ 200,000 mai Mars, Coca-Cola, a me Mondelez, a me nā hāʻawi i ʻoi aku ma mua o $ 100,000 mai General Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Uniliver lāua ʻo Campbell Soup.  

Hōʻike nā leka uila i ka ʻimi ʻana o ILSI e hoʻohuli i ke kulekele e hoʻolaha i nā ʻike ʻoihana 

A Mei 2020 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina i ka Nutr Health Health hoʻohui i hōʻike i ka ILSI kahi hui ʻoihana meaʻai mua. ʻO ke aʻo ʻana, e pili ana i nā palapala i loaʻa i ka US Right to Know ma o nā noi palapala lehulehu o ka mokuʻāina, e hōʻike ana i ka paipai ʻana o ka ILSI i nā makemake o nā ʻoihana meaʻai a me nā ʻoihana mahiʻai, e like me ko ILSI kuleana i ka pale ʻana i nā mea hana kontroversial a me ke kāohi ʻana i nā manaʻo maikaʻi ʻole i ka ʻoihana. hiki i nā ʻoihana e like me Coca-Cola ke hāʻawi i nā kōkua i ka ILSI no nā papahana kikoʻī. a, pehea e hoʻohana aiʻo ILSI i nā kālaihana no kā lākou mana akā eʻae i ka mana hūnāʻia o kaʻoihana i kā lākou puke pai.

Hōʻike ka noiʻi i nā kikoʻī hou e pili ana i kahi kālā e hoʻolako kālā ai iā ILSI a me kāna mau lālā, me nā haneli he mau kaukani kālā i nā hāʻawi i hoʻopaʻa ʻia mai ke alakaʻi ʻana i nā mea ʻai, soda a me nā hui kemika

A Iune 2019 pepa ma Globalization a me ke olakino hāʻawi i kekahi mau laʻana o ka holomua o ka ILSI i nā makemake o ka ʻoihana meaʻai, keu hoʻi e ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka ʻepekema ʻoluʻolu ʻoihana a me nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa i nā mea hana politika. Hoʻokumu ʻia ke aʻo ʻana ma nā palapala i kiʻi ʻia e US Right to Know ma o nā kānāwai moolelo lehulehu lehulehu.  

Ua hoʻopau nā mea noiʻi: "ʻImi ʻo ILSI i ka hoʻohuli ʻana i nā kanaka, nā kūlana, a me nā kulekele, ma ka pae ʻāina a me ka honua, a me kāna mau lālā ʻoihana e hoʻolilo iā ia i mea hana e paipai i ko lākou mau pono āpau. Mālama ko mākou kālailai ʻana o ka ILSI i ka poʻe e pili ana i ka noho olakino olakino e makaʻala i nā hui noiʻi kūʻokoʻa kūʻokoʻa, a e hoʻomaʻamaʻa pono ma mua o ka hilinaʻi ʻana i kā lākou noi kālā kālā ʻia a / a i ʻole ke komo ʻana i ka pilina me ia mau hui. "   

Ua hōʻino ʻo ILSI i ka hakakā momona ma Kina

I Ianuali 2019, ʻelua mau pepa e ʻO Harvard Professor Susan Greenhalgh ua hōʻike i ko ILSI mana nui i ke aupuni Kina e pili ana i nā pilikia e pili ana i ka momona. Palapala nā pepa i ka hana ʻana a Coca-Cola a me nā hui ʻē aʻe ma o ka lālā Kina o ILSI e hoʻohuli ai i nā makahiki he 2 o ka ʻepekema Kina a me nā kulekele lehulehu e pili ana i ka momona a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka papaʻai e like me Type XNUMX diabetes a me hypertension. Heluhelu i nā pepa:

Ua hoʻonohonoho maikaʻi ʻia ʻo ILSI ma Kina e hana ia mai loko mai o ka Center o ke aupuni no ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi a me ka pale ʻana ma Beijing.

Ua kākau nā pepa a Professor Geenhalgh i ke ʻano o ke kōkua ʻana o Coca-Cola a me nā mea nui ʻē aʻe o ke komohana a me nā mea inu mea inu "i ke kōkua ʻana i nā makahiki he umi o ka ʻepekema Kina a me nā kulekele lehulehu e pili ana i ka momona a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka papaʻai" e ka hana ʻana ma o ILSI e mahi i nā luna nui Kina "i ka hoʻāʻo e kāpae i ka ke neʻe nei ka neʻe no ka hoʻoponopono meaʻai a me nā ʻauhau soda i hala i ke komohana, "i hōʻike ʻia e ka New York Times.  

Nā noiʻi noiʻi hou aʻe mai US Right to Know e pili ana iā ILSI 

Ua pau ka UCSF ʻoihana Paka ʻOihana Paka 6,800 palapala e pili ana iā ILSI.  

Ke aʻo ʻana i ke kō ILSI “mai loko mai o ka puke pāʻani ʻoihana paka”

Hoʻāhewa nā loea olakino lehulehu i kākoʻo kālā ʻia e ILSI hoʻopaʻa haʻawina kō i paʻi ʻia i loko o kahi puke pai lapaʻau koʻikoʻi i ka makahiki 2016 kahi "hōʻeha hōʻeha i nā ʻōlelo aʻo olakino honua e ʻai i ke kō," ua hōʻike ʻo Anahad O'Connor ma The New York Times. Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa ka noiʻi i kākoʻo kālā ʻia e ILSI e pili ana nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e hōʻoki i ke kō i nā hōʻike nāwaliwali a ʻaʻole hiki ke hilinaʻi ʻia.  

ʻO ka moʻolelo Times i haʻi ʻia ʻo Marion Nestle, he polofesa ma ke Kulanui o New York nāna i aʻo i nā hakakā o ka hoihoi i ka noiʻi meaʻai, ma ke aʻo ʻana a ILSI: "He laʻana maʻamau kēia o ka pehea e kākoʻo ai ke kākoʻo kālā i nā ʻoihana. He mea hoʻohilahila. ” 

Ua hoʻohana nā ʻoihana paka i ka ILSI e kāpae i ke kulekele 

ʻO kahi hōʻike o Iulai 2000 e kahi kōmike kūʻokoʻa o ka World Health Organization i hōʻike ʻia i kekahi mau ala a kahi ʻoihana paka i hoʻāʻo ai e hōʻino i nā hana kūpaʻa WHO, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pūʻulu ʻepekema e hoʻohuli i ka hoʻoholo ʻana a WHO a me ka hoʻopili ʻana i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema e pili ana i nā hopena olakino. o ka paka. Ua hana nui ʻo ILSI i kēia mau hoʻoikaika ʻana, e like me kahi hōʻike hihia ma ILSI i hele pū me ka hōʻike. "Hōʻike nā mea i ʻike ʻia ua hoʻohana ʻia ʻo ILSI e kekahi mau ʻoihana paka e keakea i nā kulekele mālama paka. Ua pili pololei nā mea lawe keʻena kiʻekiʻe ma ILSI i kēia mau hana, ”e like me ka hōʻike hihia. E nānā: 

Aia i ka UCSF ʻoihana Paka ʻoihana Paka ma mua o 6,800 palapala e pili ana iā ILSI

Ua kōkua nā alakaʻi o ILSI i ka pale ʻana i ka glyphosate ma ke ʻano he mau noho o ka panela kī 

I ka Mei 2016, ua nānā ʻia ʻo ILSI ma hope o nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana i ka pelekikena hope o ILSI ʻEulopa, ʻo Professor Alan Boobis, he luna hoʻomalu nō hoʻi no ka papa UN no ka loaʻa ʻana o ka kemikala o Monsanto. Glyphosate ʻaʻole paha e kū i kahi maʻi ʻaʻai ma o ka papaʻai. ʻO ka luna noho o ka UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), ʻo Professor Angelo Moretto, he lālā o ka hui ʻo ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. ʻAʻole kekahi o nā noho JMPR i hōʻike i ko lākou alakaʻi alakaʻi ILSI ma ke ʻano he hakakā o ka hoihoi, ʻoiai ka nā hāʻawi kālā koʻikoʻi i loaʻa i ka ILSI mai Monsanto a me ka hui kālepa ʻoihana pesticide. E nānā: 

Nā pilina ʻoluʻolu a ILSI ma nā Kikowaena ʻAmelika no ka Mōʻī a me ka Kāohi ʻana i ka maʻi  

I ka mahinaʻo Iune 2016, Ua hōʻike ʻo US Right to Know ʻo Kauka Barbara Bowman, ka luna o kahi mahele CDC i hoʻopiʻi ʻia me ka pale ʻana i nā maʻi puʻuwai a me ka hahau, ua hoʻāʻo e kōkua i ka mea hoʻokumu a ILSI ʻo Alex Malaspina e hoʻohuli i nā luna o ka World Health Organization e kāpae i nā kulekele e hoʻemi i ka ʻai kō. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Bowman i ka poʻe a me nā hui no Malaspina e kamaʻilio pū, a noi i kāna mau manaʻo e pili ana i kekahi hōʻuluʻulu o nā hōʻike a CDC, hōʻike ʻia nā leka uila. (Bowman hele i lalo ma hope o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana o kā mākou ʻatikala mua e hōʻike nei i kēia pili.)

Kēia Ianuali 2019 hoʻopaʻa i ka Milbank Quarterly wehewehe i nā leka uila nui o Malaspina e ʻoluʻolu ana iā Dr. Bowman. No ka hōʻike hou aku e pili ana i kēia kumuhana, e nānā: 

Hoʻolaha ʻo ILSI ma ke Kōmike Aʻoaʻo Kālā Alakaʻi US

hōʻike e ka hui ʻāpono ʻole Hui Pūʻali palapala e pili ana i ka mana o ka ILSI ma luna o nā kulekele papaʻaiʻai US ma o ke komo ʻana o ke Kōmike Aʻoaʻo Kūkā Alakaʻi ʻAmelika. Nānā ka hōʻike i ka hoʻopili politika nui o nā transnationals meaʻai a me nā mea inu e like me Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, a me PepsiCo, a pehea i hoʻonui ai kēia mau ʻoihana i ka International Life Science Institute e hōʻino i ka holomua ma ke kulekele meaʻai ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa.

Ka mana ILSI ma India 

Ua hōʻike ka New York Times e pili ana i ka mana o ILSI ma India ma kāna ʻatikala i kapa ʻia, "ʻO kahi hui ʻoihana Shadowy e hoʻohālikelike i nā kulekele ʻai a puni ka honua. "

He pilina pili loa ko ILSI i kekahi mau luna aupuni ʻInia a, e like me Kina, ua hoʻokau ka mea kōkua ʻole i nā leka like a me nā noi kulekele e like me Coca-Cola - hoʻoliʻiliʻi i ke kuleana o ke kō a me ka papaʻai ma ke kumu o ka momona, a me ka paipai ʻana i ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka hoʻoikaika kino ʻana ma ke ʻano he hopena. , e like me ka India Resource Center. 

ʻO nā lālā o ka papa kahu o ka hui ʻo ILSI India e pili pū ana me kā Coca-Cola India luna hoʻokele a me nā ʻelele mai Nestlé a me Ajinomoto, kahi hui hoʻohui meaʻai, me nā luna aupuni e lawelawe ana i nā ʻepekema ʻepekema e hana ʻia me ka hoʻoholo ʻana e pili ana i nā pilikia palekana meaʻai.  

Nā hopohopo lōʻihi e pili ana iā ILSI 

Koi ʻo ILSI ʻaʻole ia he hui lobby ʻoihana, akā lōʻihi nā hopohopo a me nā hoʻopiʻi e pili ana i nā kūlana pro-ʻoihana o ka hui a me nā hakakā o ka hoihoi i waena o nā alakaʻi o ka hui. E ʻike, no ka laʻana:

Hoʻoponopono i nā ʻoihana ʻoihana meaʻai, Nā Lapaʻau Kūlohelohe (2019)

Hōʻole ka ʻoihana meaʻai i ka hoʻopiʻi hoʻopiʻi-of-interest. Akā ʻo ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i nā pilina ʻoihana e hōʻino paha i ka hanohano o ke kino o ʻEulopa, Kūlohelohe (2010)

Nā Meaʻai Nui vs. ʻO Tim Noakes: Ke Kaua Hope loa, Mālama i ke Kānāwai Kino, na Russ Greene (1.5.17) 

Mea ʻai maoli ma ka hoʻāʻo, na Kauka Tim Noakes lāua ʻo Marika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Ua wehewehe ka puke "i ka hoʻopiʻi mua ʻole ʻia a me ka hoʻomaʻau ʻia o Professor Tim Noakes, he ʻepekema hanohano a me ke kauka lapaʻau, i kahi hihia nui miliona i hoʻonui ʻia ma mua o ʻehā mau makahiki. ʻO nā mea a pau no kahi leka hoʻokahi e hāʻawi ana i kona manaʻo no ka meaʻai. "

Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi

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Moʻolelo Lōʻihi o nā hopohopo
Nā ʻepekema ʻepekema nui ma Aspartame
ʻO nā hana PR ʻoihana
Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

Nā mea nui e pili ana i ka Diet Soda Chemical 

He aha ka Aspartame?

  • ʻO Aspartame ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni hoʻohana nui ʻia o ka honua. Kūʻai ʻia aku ʻo ia e like me NutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin a me AminoSweet.
  • Aia ʻo Aspartame ma mua o 6,000 huahana, me Diet Coke a me Diet Pepsi, Kool Aid, Crystal Light, Tango a me nā mea inu ʻono noʻeau ʻē aʻe; nā huahana Jell-O manuahi kō ʻole; Trident, Dentyne a me nā mana ʻē aʻe o ka gum-free sugar; nā candies ʻoʻoleʻa kō; nā mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a ʻaʻ ʻole kō e like me nā ketchup a me nā ʻaʻahu; nā kauka lāʻau a nā keiki, nā wikamina a me nā kulu hā.
  • ʻO Aspartame kahi kemika synthetic i haku ʻia o nā amino acid phenylalanine a me aspartic acid, me kahi ester methyl. Ke hoʻopau ʻia, haki ka methyl ester i methanol, a hiki ke hoʻolilo ʻia i formaldehyde.

Hāpai nā Kūkākūkā he mau makahiki e pili ana iā Aspartame

Ma muli o ka ʻae ʻia ʻana o aspartame ma 1974, ua hāpai nā ʻepekema ʻelua o ka FDA a me nā ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā hopena olakino hiki a me nā hemahema i ka ʻepekema i waiho ʻia i ka FDA e ka mea hana, ʻo GD Searle. (Ua kūʻai ʻo Monsanto iā Searle i ka makahiki 1984).

I ka 1987, ua paʻi ʻo UPI i kahi mau ʻatikala noiʻi na Gregory Gordon e hōʻike nei e pili ana i kēia mau hopohopo, e like me nā noiʻi mua e pili ana i ka aspartame i nā pilikia olakino, ka maikaʻi maikaʻi ʻole o ka noiʻi kālā i loaʻa i ka ʻoihana e alakaʻi ai i kāna ʻae ʻia, a me nā pilina pili puka ma waena o nā luna o FDA a me ka ʻoihana meaʻai. ʻO Gordon's series kahi waiwai nui no kēlā me kēia e ʻimi nei e hoʻomaopopo i ka mōʻaukala o aspartame / NutraSweet:

Flaws i ka loiloi ʻana o ka Mana Maluhia o ʻEulopa

Ma Iulai 2019 pepa ma ka Waihona Palapala Ola, ua hāʻawi nā kānaka noiʻi ma ke Kulanui o Sussex i kahi anamanaʻo kikoʻī o ka loiloi palekana EFSA's 2013 o aspartame a ua ʻike ʻia ua hōʻemi ʻia ka panela me he mea lā ʻaʻole hiki ke hilinaʻi ʻia i kēlā me kēia 73 o nā haʻawina i hōʻike i ka ʻino, a hoʻohana i nā pae lax ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi e ʻae he 84% kūpono o nā noi ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi hōʻike o ka hōʻino. "Hāʻawi ʻia i nā hemahema o kā EFSA hōʻike loiloi weliweli o ka aspartame, a me nā hemahema o nā loiloi kūpilikiʻi kūpilikiʻi kūlohelohe mua o aspartame, he mea maʻa mau loa ka hoʻopau ʻana e ʻae ʻia ka palekana," hoʻopau ʻia ke aʻo ʻana.

ike Ka pane a EFSA a me ka ukali e nā mea noiʻi ʻo Erik Paul Millstone lāua ʻo Elizabeth Dawson i ka waihona o ka Health Public, No ke aha i hoʻoliʻiliʻi ai ʻo EFSA i kāna ADI no aspartame a paipai paha e hoʻohana hou ʻole ʻia kāna hoʻohana? Hōʻike hou:

  • "Pono e pāpā ʻia nā mea hoʻonaninani kaulana loa o ka honua, i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā loea. Ua kāhea nā mea loea palekana i ka meaʻai no ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni i hoʻohana nui ʻia, aspartame, e pāpā ʻia ma UK a me nā nīnau no ke aha i manaʻo ʻia he ʻoluʻolu ia i ka mua. Nūpepa Mea Hou Meaʻai (11.11.2020) 
  • "'E kāpae ʻia ke kūʻai aku ʻana o aspartame': hoʻopiʻi ʻia ʻo EFSA no ka bias i ka loiloi palekana," na Katy Askew, Mea Hoʻokele Meaʻai (7.27.2019)

Nā hopena olakino a me nā noi nui ma Aspartame 

ʻOiai nā noiʻi he nui, ua kākoʻo kekahi o lākou ʻoihana, ʻaʻohe pilikia me ka aspartame, he nui o nā noiʻi kūʻokoʻa i mālama ʻia i loko o nā makahiki he nui i hoʻopili i ka aspartame i kahi papa inoa lōʻihi o nā pilikia olakino, e like me:

Cancer

I loko o ka noiʻi maʻi ʻaʻai piha loa i kēia lā ma aspartame, ʻekolu mau aʻo ola i mālama ʻia e ka Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center o ka Ramazzini Institute, hāʻawi mau i ka hōʻike o ka carcinogenicity i nā rodents i hōʻike ʻia i ka lāʻau.

  • ʻO Aspartame "kahi māhoe carcinogenic multipotential, ʻoiai ma kahi o kēlā me kēia lā o ka… ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o ka lawe ʻia o kēlā me kēia lā," e like me ka 2006 i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka ʻiole ola i Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.1
  • Ua loaʻa kahi noiʻi ukali i ka makahiki 2007 i ka piʻi ʻana o ka maʻi maʻi i loko o kekahi o nā ʻiole. "Nā hualoaʻa ... hōʻoia a hoʻokūpaʻa i ka hōʻike hoʻokolohua mua loa o ka [aspartame] multipotential carcinogenicity ma kahi pae ma kahi kokoke i ka ʻai o kēlā me kēia lā no nā kānaka ... ke hoʻomaka ke ola ʻana i ke ola i ka wā o ke fetal life, ua hoʻonui ʻia nā hopena carcinogenic," i kākau nā mea noiʻi. i loko o Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.2
  • ʻO nā hopena o kahi noiʻi ola 2010 "e hōʻoia i ka [aspartame] kahi mea hana carcinogenic i nā pūnaewele he nui i nā rodents, a ua hoʻokomo ʻia kēia hopena i nā ʻano ʻelua, nā ʻiole (kāne a wahine) a me nāʻiole (kāne)," i hōʻike ʻia e ka poʻe noiʻi. Ka Nupepa ʻAmelika o ka Lapaʻau Hana.3

Ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi Harvard ma 2012 i kahi hui maikaʻi ma waena o ka lawe ʻana o aspartame a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka pilikia o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a me nā myeloma he nui i nā kāne, a no ka leukemia i nā kāne a me nā wahine. ʻO nā hopena "mālama i ka hopena o kahi hopena maikaʻi ʻole ... ma nā maʻi ʻūlū koho" akā "ʻaʻole e ʻae i ka hoʻoholo ʻana ma waho o kahi manawa he wehewehe," i kākau nā mea noiʻi i ka Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.4

I loko o kahi manaʻo 2014 i Ka Nupepa ʻAmelika o ka Lapaʻau Hana, ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi ʻo Maltoni Center i nā noiʻi i waiho ʻia e GD Searle no ka ʻae ʻia o ka mākeke “ʻaʻole e hāʻawi i ke kākoʻo ʻepekema kūpono no ka palekana [aspartame]. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, nā hopena hou o ke ola ʻana o ke ola kino olaola i nāʻiole a me nāʻiole i paʻi ʻia i loko o nā puke pai i nānā ʻia e nā hoa, a me kahi noiʻi epidemiological e hiki mai ana, e hāʻawi i nā hōʻike kūpaʻa o ka hiki i ka carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ma ke kumu o nā hōʻike e pili ana i nā hopena carcinogenic kūpono… a me ka loiloi hou ʻana i ke kūlana o nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho kūwaho e pono ai e noʻonoʻo ʻia he mea nui o ke olakino lehulehu. "5

Brain hikoko

I ka makahiki 1996, ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi i ka Ka Nupepa o Neuropathology & Neurology Hoʻokolohua ma nā hōʻike epidemiological e pili ana i ka hoʻolauna ʻana o aspartame i ka hoʻonui ʻana i kahi ʻano kūpikipiki o nā tumors lolo malignant. "Hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuwaiwai ʻē aʻe e pili pili ana i nā tumors lolo, ʻo ka aspartame mea hoʻonaninani he moho hoʻohiki e wehewehe i ka piʻi hou ʻana o ka hanana a me ke ʻano o ka maʻi ʻōpū o ka lolo.6

  • Ua haʻi ʻia e Neuros Scientist ʻo Kauka John Olney, ka mea kākau o ke aʻo ʻana 60 mau minuke i ka makahiki 1996: "Ua nui ka piʻi ʻana o ka hanana o nā puʻuwai lolo malignant (i loko o ʻekolu a ʻelima mau makahiki ma hope o ka ʻae ʻia o ka aspartame) ... lawa pono ke kumu e manaʻo ai i ka aspartame e pono e hōʻoia hou ʻia. Pono ʻo FDA e hoʻoponopono hou iā ia, a i kēia manawa, pono e hana ʻo FDA. ”

Ua loaʻa nā ʻike mua i ka aspartame i nā makahiki 1970 i ka ʻike o nā tumors lolo i loko o nā holoholona laboratory, akā ʻo kēlā mau noiʻi ʻaʻole i ukali ʻia.

ʻO ka maʻi Cardiovascular 

A 2017 meta-analysis o ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana, i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka PepaʻAiā Leka o ka Huilepaʻiʻo Canada, ʻaʻohe hōʻike maopopo e pili ana i nā pono pohō kaumaha no nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻowalewale i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia, a ua hōʻike ʻia e pili ana nā loiloi cohort i nā mea ʻono hana me ka "hoʻonui i ke kaupaona a me ka pūhaka, a me nā hanana kiʻekiʻe o ka momona, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes a me ka maʻi puʻuwai hanana. ”7 E nānā i kekahi:

  • "ʻAʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonanea i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha a alakaʻi ʻia i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā paona," na Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "No ke aha i inu ai kahi mea maʻi puʻuwai i kāna sodaʻai hope loa," na Harlan Krumholz, Puka Puka Puka (9.14.2017)
  • "Makemake kēia cardiologist i kona ʻohana e ʻokiʻoki i ka sodaʻai. E pono anei i kāu? na David Becker, MD, Philly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 He pepa 2016 ma Physiology & Hana ua hōʻike ʻia, "aia kahi hui like ʻana ma waena o nā hopena mai ka noiʻi holoholona a me nā helu nui o ka nānā ʻana i nā wā lōʻihi i nā kānaka, i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka hoʻonui nui ʻana o ke kaupaona, adiposity, incidence of obesity, cardiometabolic risk, a me ka make paha ma waena o nā kānaka me ka maʻi mau, hōʻike i kēlā me kēia lā i nā mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa calorie haʻahaʻa - a pīhoihoi kēia mau hopena. "8

ʻO nā wahine i ʻai i nā mea inu iʻoi aku ma mua o ʻelua mau inu inu i kēlā me kēia lā "ua ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hopena o ka hanana [maʻi maʻi maʻi] ... Ka Buke Helu o ke Olakino Lapaʻau Launa.9

Hahau, Dementia a ʻO ka maʻi o Alzheimer

ʻO ka poʻe e inu nei i ka soda ʻai i kēlā me kēia lā ʻaneʻane ʻekolu mau manawa e hoʻomohala i ka hahau a me ka dementia e like me ka poʻe i ʻai ia pule i kēlā me kēia pule a ʻoi iki paha. Ua komo kēia i kahi kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻi ischemic stroke, kahi i ʻauʻa ʻia ai nā kīʻaha koko i loko o ka lolo, a ʻo Alzheimer ka maʻi dementia, ke ʻano maʻamau o ka dementia, i hōʻike ʻia 2017 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Stroke.10

  • E nānā i kekahi: Ke Kula Kaiapuni Kula Nui o Boston o ke aʻo ʻana e ka neurologist ʻo Matthew Pase, "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana i kēlā me kēia lā ʻo Sodas, nā wai huaʻai a me nā Sodas sweetening ʻona e hoʻopili i ka lolo."
  • "Loulou nā loulou i ka sodaʻai i mea e ʻoi aku ai ke kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻi ahulau, dementia," na Fred Barbash, ʻO Washington Post (4.21.2017)

I ke kino, ka methyl ester i aspartame metabolize i loko metanola a laila hiki ke hoʻohuli ʻia i formaldehyde, i pili i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer. Ua aʻo ʻia kahi ʻaoʻao ʻelua i ka makahiki 2014 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka maʻiʻo Alzheimer hoʻohui i ka methanol mau loa i ka nalowale hoʻomanaʻo ʻana a me nā ʻōuli o ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer i nāʻiole a me nā mōʻī.

  • "Ua hōʻike ʻia nā ʻiole ʻai like ʻole me ka ethanol [M] me nā ʻōuli AD-like… Ua hoʻohui kēia mau mea i ka nui o nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka formaldehyde i ka maʻi o [Alzheimer] maʻi." (Part 1)11
  • "ʻO ka hānai ʻana o ka etanol ka mea i hana i nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe lōʻihi a hoʻomau e pili ana i ka maʻi o [Alzheimer]… Kākoʻo kēia mau hopena i kahi kino e ulu nei i nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka methanol a me kāna metabolite formaldehyde i [ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer]." (Part 2)12

Ka hopu

"Aspartame ʻike ʻia e hoʻonui i ka nui o ka nalu ʻo EEG spike i nā keiki me ka hopu ʻole ʻia. Pono e aʻo hou e hoʻokumu inā loaʻa kēia hopena ma nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me nā ʻano hopu ʻē aʻe, "e like me kahi noiʻi 1992 i ʻO ke olakino.13

ʻO Aspartame "kahi hana e hāpai ana i ka hopu ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona holoholona i hoʻohana ākea ʻia e ʻike ai i nā mea hoʻohui e pili ana… ka hopena hopu," e like me kahi noi 1987 i Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.14

ʻO nā mahele aspartame kiʻekiʻe loa "hiki paha ke hoʻopili i ka likelike o ka hopu ʻana i ka simptomless akā maʻalahi ka poʻe," e like me kahi noiʻi 1985 i ʻO ka Lancet. Hoʻomaopopo ka noiʻi i ʻekolu mau mākua olakino olakino i loaʻa i ka maʻi nui i nā wā ke hoʻopau lākou i nā kaona kiʻekiʻe o ka aspartame.15

ʻO Neurotoxicity, Pōʻino lolo a me nā maʻi Mood

Ua hoʻopili ʻia ʻo Aspartame i nā pilikia pili i ka lawena a me ka noʻonoʻo me ka pilikia o ke aʻo ʻana, ka ʻeha poʻo, ka hopu ʻana, ka migraines, nā ʻano huhū, ka pīhoihoi, ke kaumaha, a me ka hiamoe ʻole, ua kākau nā mea noiʻi o kahi noi 2017 ma ʻO Neuroscience Nutritional. "Pono e hoʻokokoke me ka akahele ma muli o ka hoʻohana ʻana o ka aspartame ma muli o nā hopena e hiki ai i ke olakino neurobeh behavioral."16

"Ua hoʻololi maoli ka aspartame waha i ka lawena, kūlana anti-oxidant a me morphology o ka hippocampus i nāʻiole; no paha, hoʻonāukiuki paha ia i ka neurogenesis mākua hippocampal, "i hōʻike ʻia i kahi noi 2016 ma ʻO Neurobiology o ke aʻo ʻana a me ka hoʻomanaʻo.17 

"Ma mua, ua hōʻike ʻia hiki i ka ʻai ʻana o aspartame ke hana i nā haunaele neurological a me nā lawena i nā poʻe pilikino. ʻO nā poʻo poʻo, ka hiamoe a me ka hopu ʻana kekahi o nā hopena neurological i loaʻa, "e like me kahi noi 2008 i ka ʻO ka European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. "Hāʻawi ʻia [W] i ke komo ʻana o ka ingartartame ingests i loko o ke pathogenesis o kekahi mau maʻi noʻonoʻo ... a i loko nō hoʻi o ka aʻo ʻana a me ka hana naʻau."18 

"(N) nā hōʻailona Eurological, me ke aʻo ʻana a me nā kaʻina hana hoʻomanaʻo, pili paha i ka kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole nā ​​mea ʻawaʻawa o ka mea hoʻomomona [aspartame] metabolites," i ʻōlelo ʻia kahi noiʻi 2006 i ʻĀina noiʻi lāʻau.19

"Hiki iā Aspartame ke hoʻopōʻino i ka paʻa ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo a hōʻino hoʻi i nā neurons hypothalamic i nāʻiole mākua," e like me kahi noiʻi mice 2000 i paʻi ʻia ma Nā Palapala Toxicology.20

"(I) ʻike nā makaʻāina me nā maʻi maʻi i ʻano koʻikoʻi loa i kēia mea hoʻoheheʻe ʻino a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kēia heluna kanaka e pono e hoʻonāwaliwali," e like me kahi noi 1993 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka Psychiatry Biological.21

ʻO nā lāʻau kiʻekiʻe o ka aspartame "hiki ke hana i nā hoʻololi neurochemical nui i nāʻiole," i hōʻike ʻia kahi noi ma 1984 i Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.22

Ua hōʻike nā hoʻokolohua i ka hōʻino o ka lolo i nāʻiole pēpē ma hope o ka waha o ka aspartate, a e hōʻike ana he "ʻawaʻawa ka aspartate i ka ʻiole pēpē ma nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa o ka lawe ʻana o ka waha," i hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ma 1970. Nature.23

He wāwae a me Migraines

"ʻO Aspartame, kahi mea hoʻowalewale dietetic, e hoʻonāukiuki paha i ka ʻeha o ke poʻo i kekahi mau kanaka maʻalahi. Ma aneʻi, wehewehe mākou i ʻekolu mau hihia o nā wahine ʻōpio me ka migraine i hōʻike i ko lākou ʻeha poʻo i hiki ke hoʻonāukiuki ʻia e ka nau ʻana i ka kāpili kō ʻole i loaʻa ka aspartame, "e like me ka pepa 1997 i Puke Pai Headache.24

ʻO kahi hoʻokolokolo hoʻokalakupua e hoʻohālikelike ana i ka aspartame a me kahi placebo i paʻi ʻia ma 1994 i ʻO ke olakino, "Hāʻawi i nā hōʻike i, i waena o nā kānaka me nā maʻi poʻo ponoʻī i hōʻike ʻia iā lākou iho ma hope o ke komo ʻana o ka aspartame, kahi subset o kēia hui e hōʻike hou aku i nā poʻo hina ke hoʻāʻo ʻia ma lalo o nā kūlana i kāohi ʻia. ʻIke ʻia e maʻalahi paha kekahi poʻe i ka maʻi poʻo i hoʻokumu ʻia e aspartame a makemake paha e kaupalena i kā lākou ʻai ʻana. "25

ʻO kahi ana ʻana o nā mea maʻi he 171 ma ka Hale Mīkini Lapaʻau Lapaʻau ʻo Montefiore i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka poʻe maʻi me ka migraine “ua hōʻike ʻia ka aspartame ma ke ʻano he piʻi ʻekolu manawa ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o nā ʻano ʻeha ʻeha ʻē aʻe ... ”1989 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Puke Pai Headache.26

Hoʻohālikelike kahi hoʻokolokolo kūlike e hoʻohālikelike ana i ka aspartame a me kahi placebo ma ke alapine a me ka ikaika o ka migraines. Puke Pai Headache.27

Hoʻoiho i nā hana hōʻino

ʻO ka ʻai ʻana ma mua o ʻelua mau lawelawe i kēlā me kēia lā o ka soda momona i hoʻopili ʻia "e pili ana me ka hoʻonui pālua he 2 no ka emi ʻana o ka hana hakuʻala ma nā wahine," e like me kahi noi 2011 i ka Ka Nūpepa Lapaʻau o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa o Nephrology.28

Loaʻa Kālā, Hoʻonui i ka Appetite a me nā pilikia e pili ana i ka nui

Loulou kekahi mau noiʻi i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake, diabetes, derabement metabolic a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona. E ʻike i kā mākou pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo: ʻO ka Diet Soda Chemical i hoʻopili ʻia i ke Kaumaha.

Ke hoʻopili nei kēia ʻepekema i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona ʻana a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona e hāpai i nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kūpono o ke kūʻai ʻana i nā huahana aspartame-i loaʻa he "ʻai" a i ʻole kōkua kōkua kaumaha. I ka makahiki 2015, ua noi ʻo USRTK i ka FederalʻIliahi Komikina a FDA e nānā i nā hana kūʻai aku a me nā hoʻolaha ʻana o nā huahana "ʻai" i loaʻa kahi kemika i hoʻopili ʻia i ka loaʻa kaumaha. E ʻike nūhou pili uhi, pane mai FTC, a pane mai FDA.

Diabetes a me ka Metabolic Derangement

Wāwahi ʻo Aspartame i kahi ʻāpana i ka phenylalanine, kahi mea hoʻopilikia i ka hana o ka enzyme ʻōpū alkaline phosphatase (IAP) i hōʻike mua ʻia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi metabolic (kahi hui o nā ʻōuli e pili ana i ka maʻi diabetes type 2 a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi) e like me kahi noi ma 2017 i Pili ʻOihana Pilikino, Nutr a me Metabolism. I kēia noi ʻana, ua loaʻa nā ʻiole i loaʻa i ka aspartame i kā lākou wai inu i ka nui o ke kaupaona a hoʻomohala i nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe o ka metabolic syndrome ma mua o nā holoholona i hānai ʻia i nā papaʻai like nele i ka aspartame. Hoʻopau ke aʻo ʻana, "ʻo nā hopena pale IAP e pili ana i ka maʻi metabolic e pāpā ʻia e phenylalanine, kahi metabolite o aspartame, e wehewehe ana paha i ka nele o ke kaupaona ʻana i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hoʻomaikaʻi metabolic e pili ana i nā mea inu."29

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau ana i nā mea ʻono hana hoʻopunipuni i ka makaʻu nui o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona ʻana, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi puʻuwai," e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma kahi o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

I loko o kahi noiʻi i ukali ʻia ma hope o 66,118 mau wahine ma mua o 14 mau makahiki, ua pili nā mea inu kō a me nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia me ka pilikia o ka maʻi diabetes Type 2. "Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hana maikaʻi maikaʻi ma ka hopena T2D ma waena o nā quartiles o ka hoʻohana ʻana no nā ʻano mea inu ʻelua ... ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kahi hui no 100% inu wai huaʻai, ”i hōʻike ʻia ma ka noi 2013 i paʻi ʻia ma Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.31

ʻO Intestinal Dysbiosis, Metabolic Derangement a me ka momona

Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o glucose ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū, e like me a Ke aʻo 2014 ma ʻAno. Ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi, "pili kā mākou hopena i ka ʻai ʻana o NAS [non-calorical sweetener] ʻai, dysbiosis a me nā mea pono ʻole o ka metabolic, no laila ke noi nei e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o NAS ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa ua kōkua pololei ʻo NAS i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka maʻi kūpilikiʻi [momona] ua manaʻo ʻia lākou e hakakā. ”32

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻoniʻoni ke hoʻololi i kā mākou bacteria i nā ala weliweli," na Ellen Ruppel Shell, ʻAmelika ʻEpekema (4.1.2015)

Ke aʻo 'ia nei he 2016 Nā Nūhou Physiology i noi ʻia a me ka Metabolism ua hōʻike ʻia, "Ua hoʻohuli nui ka loaʻa ʻana o Aspartame i ka pilina ma waena o ka helu nui o ke kino (BMI) a me ke ahonui glucose ... ʻo ka ʻai ʻana o ka aspartame e pili pū me nā hōʻino e pili ana i ka momona ma ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka glucose."33

Wahi a kahi moʻo ʻiole 2014 ma PLOS ONE, "Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ka aspartame i nā pae kō glucose a me kahi hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i hōʻike iā aspartame e hōʻino i ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glucose stimulate i ka insulin ... Ua hōʻike ka nānā ʻana i ka fecal o ka haku mele bacteria i ka aspartame e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā koʻohune…"34

 Nā Abnormalities o ka hāpaiʻana: hānau mua o ka wā hānau 

Wahi a kahi hui pūʻulu 2010 o 59,334 Denemaka wahine hāpai i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali, "Aia kahi hui ma waena o ka lawe ʻana i nā mea inu momona a me nā wai ʻole noncarbonated a me ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka makaʻi o ka lawe mua ʻana." Ua pau ke aʻo ʻana, "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i kēlā me kēia lā o nā mea inu momona momona i hoʻonui ʻia ka makaʻu o ka lawe mua ʻana."35

  • E nānā hoʻi: "Downing Diet Soda i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka hānau mua ʻole," na Anne Harding, Reuters (7.23.2010)

ʻO nā pēpē momona

Hoʻopili ʻia ka inu mea inu me ka mea inu i ka wā o ka hāpai ʻana i ka papa inoa nui o ke kino no nā pēpē, e like me kahi noi 2016 i Nā Jedia Pediatrics. "I ko mākou ʻike, hāʻawi mākou i ka hōʻike kanaka mua loa i ka ʻai ʻana o ka makuahine i nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka wā hāpai e hoʻohuli i ka BMI pēpē," i kākau ai nā mea noiʻi.36

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "ʻO Diet Soda i ka hāpai ʻana e pili ana i nā pēpē momona," na Nicholas Bakalar, New York Times (5.11.2016)

ʻO Menarche mua

ʻO ka National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study i ukali i nā kaikamahine 1988 no 10 mau makahiki e nānā i nā hui e kū nei ma waena o ka ʻai ʻana o ke kō a me nā kō ʻole i caffeine ʻia - a me nā mea inu momona a me nā menarche mua. "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea inu momona momona caffeine a ʻoluʻolu hoʻi e pili pono me ka makaʻu o nā menarche mua i kahi cohort o ʻAmelika ʻAmelika a me nā kaikamahine Caucasian," i pau i ka noi i paʻi ʻia ma 2015 i Ka Nūpepa o ka ʻAi Lapaʻau ʻAmelika.37

Pōʻino Sperm

"Ua ʻike ʻia kahi hōʻemi nui o ka hana spermame o nā holoholona i mālama ʻia aspartame ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka kaohi a me ka MTX kaohi," e like me kahi noi 2017 i ka Ka Palapala'Ōiwi Aupuni o kaʻIke. "… Hōʻike kēia mau hopena i hiki i nā metabolite aspartame ke lilo i mea kōkua no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ke koʻikoʻi oxidative i ka epididymal sperm."38

ʻO ka hōʻino a me ka make ʻana o Glutathione

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi noi iole ma 2017 ma ʻO Biology Redox ua hōʻike ʻia, "ʻO ka lawelawe pinepine ʻana o aspartame… ua hōʻeha ʻia ka ate a me ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi ʻia o nā pae hepatic o ka glutathione i hoʻemi ʻia, glutathione oxidized, γ-glutamylcysteine, a me ka hapa nui o nā metabolites o ke ala trans-sulphuration ..."39

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi noi iole ma 2017 ma Nānāʻau Nutrition ʻike ʻia, "Loaʻa i ka inu inu a aspartame paha i hyperglycemia a me hypertriacylglycerolemia… Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hoʻololi cytoarchitecture i ke akepaʻa, e like me ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa, infiltration, nekrosis, a me fibrosis, me ka aspartame. Hōʻike kēia mau ʻike i ka lawe lōʻihi ʻana o ka inu momona a i ʻole aspartame-i hoʻokomo ʻia i ka hōʻino hepatic ma o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i ka hyperglycemia, ka hōʻiliʻili lipid, a me ke koʻikoʻi oxidative me ke komo pū ʻana o adipocytokines. "40

Ka akahele no nā heluna kanaka maʻalahi

He hōʻike moʻokalaleo 2016 e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana kuʻi i ka ʻO India Journal of Pharmacology ua hōʻike ʻia, “aia kekahi manaʻo paʻa ʻole nā hōʻike e kākoʻo i ka hapa nui o kā lākou hoʻohana a me kekahi mau noiʻi hou ʻana e hōʻike nei i kēia mau pōmaikaʻi i hoʻokumu mua ʻia ... ʻaʻole paha ia he ʻoiaʻiʻo. " ʻO nā heluna kūpono e like me nā wahine hāpai a lactating, nā keiki, nā diabetic, migraine, a me nā mea maʻi epilepsy "pono ​​e hoʻohana i kēia huahana me ke akahele loa."41

ʻO nā hana PR ʻoihana a me nā pūʻulu mua 

Mai ka hoʻomaka, GD Searle (ma hope ʻo Monsanto a me ka NutraSweet Company) hoʻolauna i nā hana PR mehana e kūʻai aku i ka aspartame ma ke ʻano he huahana palekana. I ʻOkakopa 1987, Gregory Gordon i hōʻike ʻia ma UPI:

"Ua uku aku ka NutraSweet Co. a $ 3 miliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki no ka hana 100-kanaka i nā pilina lehulehu e nā keʻena ʻo Chicago o Burson Marsteller, kahi limahana o ka New York PR firm i ʻōlelo ai. Ua ʻōlelo ka limahana ua hoʻolimalima ʻo Burson Marsteller i nā ʻepekema a me nā kauka he nui, he $ 1,000 mau i kēlā me kēia lā, e pale aku i ka mea momona ma nā nīnauele nūhou a me nā kolamu lehulehu. Ua hōʻole ʻo Burson Marsteller e kūkākūkā i kēia mau mea. ”

Hōʻike nā hōʻike hou e pili ana i nā palapala ʻoihana kūloko e hōʻike ana i ka uku ʻana o nā ʻoihana inu e like me Coca-Cola i nā ʻelele o ka ʻaoʻao ʻekolu, e like me nā kauka a me nā ʻepekema, e paipai i kā lākou huahana a hoʻololi i ka hewa ke hoʻopaʻa nā ʻepekema i kā lākou huahana i nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi.

E ʻike i ka hōʻike a Anahad O'Connor i ka New York Times, Candice Choi i ka hui pu Press, a me nā mea i loaʻa mai ka Nānā ʻo USRTK e pili ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻoihana kō a me nā hoʻolaha lobbying.

Nā ʻatikala nūhou e pili ana i nā pāʻina PR ʻoihana soda:

Nā moʻolelo kūkala nūhou e pili ana i aspartame:

Nā Pepa Pono ʻo USRTK

Nā hōʻike ma nā pūʻulu mua a me nā hoʻolaha PR

Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

[1] ʻO Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Degli Esposti D, Lambertini L, Tibaldi E, Rigano A. "Hōʻike hoʻokolohua mua loa o nā hopena carcinogenic multipotential o aspartame i lawelawe ʻia i ka hānai i nā ʻiole ʻo Sprague-Dawley." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 2006 Malaki; 114 (3): 379-85. PMID: 16507461. (Haawina)

[2] Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M. "ʻO ke ola ākea i nā lāʻau haʻahaʻa o ka aspartame e hoʻomaka ana i ke ola prenatal e hoʻonui i nā hopena maʻi ʻaʻai i nāʻiole." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 2007 Sep; 115 (9): 1293-7. PMID: 17805418. (Haawina)

[3] Soffritti M et al. "Hoʻokele ʻia ʻo Aspartame i ka hānai, hoʻomaka prenatally ma o ke ola, hoʻonāukiuki i nā maʻi ʻaʻai o ke akepaʻa a me ka akemāmā i nā ʻiole Swiss kāne." ʻO Am J Ind Med. 2010 Kekemapa; 53 (12): 1197-206. PMID: 20886530. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[4] ʻO Schernhammer ES, Bertrand KA, Birmann BM, Sampson L, Willett WC, Feskanich D., "Kaʻai ʻana i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻono - a me ka soda i loaʻa i ke kō a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma a me ka leukemia i nā kāne a me nā wahine." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec; 96 (6): 1419-28. PMID: 23097267. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[5] Soffritti M1, Padovani M, Tibaldi E, Falcioni L, Manservisi F, Belpoggi F., "Nā hopena carcinogenic o ka aspartame: Ka pono nui no ka loiloi hou ʻana i ka hoʻokele." ʻO Am J Ind Med. 2014 ʻAropa; 57 (4): 383-97. hana: 10.1002 / ajim.22296. Epub 2014 Ian 16. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[6] Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins LN. "Ke hoʻonui nei i nā helu tumo lolo: aia kekahi loulou i aspartame?" ʻO J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Nov; 55 (11): 1115-23. PMID: 8939194. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[7] Azad, Meghan B., et al. Nā meaʻono nonnutritive a me ke olakino cardiometabolic: kahi loiloi ʻōnaehana a me nā aniani-aniani o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia a me nā noi cohort prospective. KEKAHI Lulai 17, 2017 mahuka ana. 189 ʻaʻole. 28 doi: 10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[8] ʻO Fowler SP. Hoʻohana ka mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa-calorie a me ke kaulike ikehu: Nā hopena mai nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i nā holoholona, ​​a me nā noiʻi prospective nui i nā kānaka. ʻO Physiol Behav. 2016 ʻOkakopa 1; 164 (Pt B): 517-23. hana: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2016.04.047. Epub 2016 Apr 26. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[9] Vyas A et al. "Ka inu inu ʻana i ka papaʻai a me ka hopena o nā hanana Cardiovascular: kahi hōʻike mai ka Initiative Health Women." J Gen Intern Med. 2015 ʻApel; 30 (4): 462-8. hana: 10.1007 / s11606-014-3098-0. Epub 2014 Dec 17. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[10] ʻO Matthew P. Pase, PhD; ʻO Jayandra J. Himali, PhD; Alexa S. Beiser, PhD; Hugo J. Aparicio, MD; ʻO Claudia L. Satizabal, PhD; Ramachandran S. Vasan, MD; Sudha Seshadri, MD; Paul F. Jacques, DSc. "ʻO nā mea inu kō a me nā mea ʻono i hana ʻono ʻia a me nā pōʻino o ka maʻi ahulau a me Dementia. Ka Haʻawina Cohort Prospective. ” Hahau. 2017 ʻApelila; STROKEAHA.116.016027 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[11] Yang M et al. "ʻO ka maʻi o Alzheimer a me ka ʻino o ka methanol (ʻāpana 1): ʻO ka hānai ʻana o ka methanol mau loa i alakaʻi ʻia i nā hemahema hoʻomanaʻo a me ka Tau Hyperphosphorylation ma nāʻiole." ʻO J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Apr 30. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[12] Yang M et al. "ʻO ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer a me ka ʻino o Methanol (ʻĀpana 2): Nā haʻawina mai ʻehā Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) ʻo Fed Methanol mau." ʻO J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Apr 30. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[13] Camfield PR, Camfield CS, Dooley JM, Gordon K, Jollymore S, Weaver DF. "Hoʻonui ka Aspartame i ka EEG spike-nalu hoʻokuʻu i nā keiki me ka epilepsy absent generalised: kahi papa hoʻomalu makapō makapō." Neurology. 1992 Mei; 42 (5): 1000-3. PMID: 1579221. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[14] Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ. "Nā hopena neurologic paha o aspartame, kahi mea hoʻohui meaʻai i hoʻohana ākea ʻia." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 1987 Nov; 75: 53-7. PMID: 3319565. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[15] Wurtman RJ. "Aspartame: hiki i ka hopena o ka hopu ʻana i ka susceptibility." Lancet. 1985 Nov 9; 2 (8463): 1060. PMID: 2865529. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[16] Choudhary AK, Lee YY. "Nā hōʻailona Neurophysiological a me aspartame: He aha ka pilina?" Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 15: 1-11. hana: 10.1080 / 1028415X.2017.1288340. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[17] Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ, Nwoha PU. "Aspartame a me ka hippocampus: Hōʻike i kahi alakaʻi bi-directional, dose / dependant a me ka neʻe ʻana o ka morphological i nāʻiole." Neurobiol Koʻo Mem. 2017 Mar; 139: 76-88. hana: 10.1016 / j.nlm.2016.12.021. Epub 2016 Dec 31. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[18] ʻO Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naudé H. "Nā hopena a pololei ʻole o nā cellular o ka aspartame ma ka lolo." ʻO Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 62 (4): 451-62. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[19] Tsakiris S, Giannoulia-Karantana A, Simintzi I, Schulpis KH. "Ka hopena o nā metabolite aspartame i ka hana acetylcholinesterase membrane erythrocyte kanaka." ʻO Pharmacol Res. 2006 Ian; 53 (1): 1-5. PMID: 16129618. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[20] Pāka CH mā. "Hoʻopilikia ka glutamate a me ka aspartate i ka paʻa ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo a hōʻino hoʻi i nā neurons hypothalamic i nāʻiole mākua." ʻO Toxicol Lett. 2000 Mei 19; 115 (2): 117-25. PMID: 10802387. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[21] Walton RG, Hudak R, Green-Waite R. "Nā hopena maikaʻi ʻole i ka aspartame: ʻaʻa makapō makapō makapō i nā mea maʻi mai kahi lāhui nawaliwali." ʻO J. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Jul 1-15; 34 (1-2): 13-7. PMID: 8373935. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[22] Yokogoshi H, Roberts CH, Caballero B, Wurtman RJ. "Nā hopena o ka aspartame a me ka hoʻokele glucose i ka pae o ka lolo a me ka plasma o nā amino acid kūlike ʻole a me ka lolo 5-hydroxyindoles." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Jul; 40 (1): 1-7. PMID: 6204522. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[23] Olney JW, Ho OL. "Ka poino o ka lolo ma nāʻiole pēpē e pili ana i ka waha o ka Glutamate, Aspartate a i ʻole Cysteine." Kūlohelohe. 1970 Aug 8; 227 (5258): 609-11. PMID: 5464249. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[24] Blumenthal HJ, Vance DA. “E ʻeha poʻo poʻo poʻo. ʻEha poʻo. 1997 Nov-Dec; 37 (10): 665-6. PMID: 9439090. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[25] Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT Jr, van Belle G, Daling JR, McKnight B. "Hoʻokomo ʻia ka aspartame a me nā poʻo hina: kahi hoʻāʻo crossover randomized." Neurology. 1994ʻOkakopa; 44 (10): 1787-93. PMID: 7936222. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[26] Lipton RB, Newman LC, Cohen JS, Solomon S. "Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache." ʻEha poʻo. 1989 Pepeluali; 29 (2): 90-2. PMID: 2708042. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[27] Koehler SM, Glaros A. "ʻO ka hopena o ka aspartame i ka maʻi migraine." ʻEha poʻo. 1988 Pepeluali; 28 (1): 10-4. PMID: 3277925. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[28] ʻO Julie Lin lāua ʻo Gary C. Curhan. "ʻO nā hui o ke kō a me ka Soda ʻoluʻolu ʻimi hoʻopunipuni me Albuminuria a me nā hana hakuʻala e hōʻole i nā wahine." ʻO Clin J Am Soc Nefrol. 2011 Ian; 6 (1): 160-166. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[29] Gul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Hoʻohālikelike paha ka pāpā ʻana o ka ʻōpū ʻōpū i ka phalphasease alkal i loko o ka ʻōpū pehea e hāpai ai ka aspartame i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose a me ka momona i nāʻiole. ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Ian; 42 (1): 77-83. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. Epub 2016 Nov 18. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[30] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hoʻokumu nā mea ʻono hana i ka hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441. (Haawina)

[31] ʻO Guy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "ʻO ka inu ʻana i nā mea inu ʻono a me ke kō a me nā ʻano ʻano like ʻole i ʻike ʻia ma ka Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de lʻEduction Nationale – ʻEulopa ʻosplelo Pelekikena Prospective Investigation i ka cohort maʻi ʻaʻai a me Nutr." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2, Ian 2013; hana: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[32] ʻO Suez J et al. "Hoʻokomo nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū." Kūlohelohe. 2014 ʻOkakopa 9; 514 (7521). PMID: 25231862. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[33] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Pili ka lawe ʻana o ka aspartame me ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose i kēlā me kēia kanaka me ka momona." ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul; 41 (7): 795-8. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. Epub 2016 Mei 24. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[34] Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. (2014) Ka Hana Haʻahaʻa Aspartame Hoʻohana ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa iā Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions i ka Diet-Induced Obese Rat. PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109841. (Haawina)

[35] Halldorsson TI, Strøm M, Petersen SB, Olsen SF. "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i nā mea inu momona a me ka makaʻu o ka lawe mua ʻia: kahi noi cohort prospective ma 59,334 mau wahine hāpai Denemaka." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep; 92 (3): 626-33. PMID: 20592133. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[36] Meghan B. Azad, PhD; Atul K. Sharma, MSc, MD; Russell J. de Souza, RD, ScD; et al. "ʻO ka hui ma waena o ka inu ʻana o ka mea inu ʻono no ka wā o ka hāpai ʻana a me ke kino o ke kino o ke keiki." JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170 (7): 662-670. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[37] Mueller NT, Jacobs DR Jr, MacLehose RF, Demerath EW, Kelly SP, Dreyfus JG, Pereira MA. "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana o ka caffeine a me nā mea inu momona i hoʻopili ʻia e pili pū me ka makaʻu o ka menarche mua." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep; 102 (3): 648-54. hana: 10.3945 / ajcn.114.100958. Epub 2015 Jul 15. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[38] ʻO Ashok I, Poornima PS, Wankhar D, Ravindran R, Sheeladevi R. "ʻO ke koʻikoʻi oxidative i hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā pohō ma ka sperm rat and attenuated antioxidant status on konsumsi of aspartame." ʻO Int J Impot Res. 2017 Apr 27. doi: 10.1038 / ijir.2017.17. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[39] ʻO Finamor I, Pérez S, Bressan CA, Brenner CE, Rius-Pérez S, Brittes PC, Cheiran G, Rocha MI, da Veiga M, Sastre J, Pavanato MA., "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame maʻi mau e hoʻololi i ka trans- ke ala sulphuration, glutathione depletion a me ka hōʻino o ke ake i nāʻiole. " ʻO Redox Biol. 2017 ʻAropa; 11: 701-707. hana: 10.1016 / j.redox.2017.01.019. Epub 2017 Feb 1. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[40] Lebda MA, Tohamy HG, El-Sayed YS. "ʻO ka mea inu palupalu lōhi a me ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame i mea e hōʻino ai i ka hepatic ma o ka disregulation o adipositokine a me ka loli o ka lipid profile a me ke kūlana antioxidant. ʻO Nutr Res. 2017 Apr 19. pii: S0271-5317 (17) 30096-9. hana: 10.1016 / j.nutres.2017.04.002. [Epub ma mua o ka paʻi] (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

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ʻO Bayer's Shady PR Firms: FleishmanHillard, Ketchum, Kūkākūkā FTI

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Hoʻouna mua ʻia Mei 2019; Hoʻohou Nowemapa 2020

Ma kēia kūlana, ke kiaʻi nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā hōʻino hoʻopunipuni lehulehu e pili ana i nā ʻoihana PR i hilinaʻi nui ʻia e nā mea nunui mahiʻai Bayer AG a me Monsanto no kā lākou pale kaua pale huahana: ʻo FTI consulting, Ketchum PR a me FleishmanHillard. ʻO kēia mau ʻoihana he mau mōʻaukala lōʻihi o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hana hoʻopunipuni e hāpai i nā papa politika o kā lākou mea kūʻai aku, e like me ka pesticide, ka paka a me nā ʻoihana pale pale ʻaila.

Nā hana hōʻino hou

Hōʻike ʻo NYT i nā ʻano hana malu a ka FTI Consulting firm no ka ʻoihana aila: i ka Nowemapa 11, 2020 New York Times ʻatikala, Hōʻike ʻo Hiroko Tabuchi i ke kōkua ʻana o FTI Consulting i ka hoʻolālā ʻana, nā limahana a me ka holo ʻana o nā ʻoihana a me nā pūnaewele i uku kālā ʻia e nā ʻoihana ikehu i hiki ke hōʻike i ke kākoʻo o ka mauʻu mauʻu no nā hanana wahie fossil. Ma muli o kāna mau ninaninau ʻana me ka ʻumikūmālua mau limahana FTI ma mua a me nā haneli o nā palapala kūloko, hōʻike ʻo Tabuchi e pili ana i ka nānā ʻana o ka FTI i nā mea hana kaiapuni, holo i nā hoʻolaha politika astroturf, limahana i nā pūnaewele a me nā ʻike ʻelua a kākau i nā ʻatikala ʻoihana e pili ana i ka fracking, nā lawsuits a me nā mea wela -pili pihi me ke kuhikuhi mai Exxon Mobile.

Ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo Monsanto a me kāna mau ʻoihana PR i ka hana GOP e hoʻoweliweli i nā mea noiʻi maʻi maʻi. ʻO Lee Fang i hōʻike ʻia no The Intercept i ka 2019 ma nā palapala e hōʻike ana i ka Monsanto antagonized reg regulator a hoʻohana i ka kaomi e hoʻohālikelike i ka noiʻi o ka honua nei i ka lāʻau make, glyphosate. Hōʻike ka moʻolelo i nā hana hoʻopunipuni PR hoʻopunipuni, e like me ke kākau ʻana o FTI Consulting i kahi leka e pili ana i ka ʻepekema glyphosate i kau inoa ʻia e kahi ʻelele nui o GOP.

Hōʻike nā palapala a Monsanto i nā ʻano hana e hōʻino ai i ka hoʻokolokolo hoihoi lehulehu. Ua hōʻike ʻia nā palapala Monsanto kūloko ma o ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i ʻAukake 2019 i ka nui o nā hana i hoʻohana ʻia e ka ʻoihana a me nā ʻoihana PR e hoʻokele i nā mea nūpepa a me nā mea hoʻohuli ʻē aʻe i hāpai i ka hopohopo e pili ana i nā pesticides a me GMO, a hoʻāʻo e pale i kahi hoʻokolokolo i kā lākou hana e US Right to Know.

E ʻike pū hoʻi i nā pepa ʻo USRTK, i hoʻokumu ʻia i nā palapala i loaʻa mai kā mākou noiʻi ʻana, e hōʻike ana i nā ʻaoʻao ʻaoʻao ʻekolu i kōkua i ka pale ʻoihana pesticide: Ke nānā nei i ka Pūnaewele Propaganda ʻoihana Pesticide.

I ka Mei 2019, ua hōʻike mākou i nā hōʻino e pili ana i nā ʻoihana PR a Bayer:

Nā hōʻino a 'Monsanto File'

Mea kākau moʻolelo ma Ua hōʻike ʻo Le Monde iā Mei 9 ua loaʻa iā lākou kahi “Monsanto File” i hana ʻia e ka hui pili lehulehu FleishmanHillard e helu ana i kahi "lehulehu o ka ʻike" e pili ana i 200 mau mea nūpepa, nā luna politika, nā ʻepekema a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i manaʻo ʻia e hoʻohuli i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ma glyphosate ma Palani. Le Monde ua hoʻopiʻi me ka keʻena hoʻokolokolo o Palisa e ʻōlelo nei e pili ana ka palapala i ka hōʻiliʻili hewa ʻana a me ka hana ʻana i ka ʻikepili pilikino, e hoʻopiʻi ana i ka keʻena hoʻokolokolo i wehe i kahi ʻimi kalaima. "He mea nui loa kēia i ʻike ʻia no ka mea ke hōʻike ʻia aia he mau pahuhopu pahuhopu e hāmau i nā leo ikaika. ʻIke wau i kā lākou hoʻāʻo ʻana e hoʻokaʻawale iaʻu, ” ʻO ke Kuhina Kaiapuni mua o Farani ʻo Segolene Royal, ka mea ma ka papa inoa, haʻi iā Palani 24 TV.

"He mea nui kēia e ʻike ʻia no ka mea hōʻike ia aia kekahi mau kumumanaʻo kumumanaʻo e hoʻopau i nā leo ikaika."

ʻO Francois Veillerette, kahi mea mālama i ka nohona ma ka papa inoa hoʻi, i haʻi aku iā Palani 24 i loko o ia mea he kikoʻī pilikino pilikino, nā manaʻo a me ka pae o ka pili e pili ana iā Monsanto. "He haʻalulu nui kēia ma Palani," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. "ʻAʻole mākou e manaʻo he mea maʻamau kēia." Ua ʻae ʻo Bayer ua huki ʻo FleishmanHillard "'papa inoa kiaʻi 'o nā pro-a anti-pesticides huahelu"I nā ʻāina ʻehiku ma waena o ʻEulopa, ua hōʻike ka AFP. Aia i loko o nā papa inoa nā ʻike e pili ana i ka poʻe nūpepa, nā luna politika a me nā hui hoihoi ʻē aʻe. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ka AFP ua waiho aku ʻo ia i kahi hoʻopiʻi me kahi keʻena hoʻokele Farani no ka mea aia kekahi o kāna mau mea nūpepa ma ka papa inoa i hōʻike ʻia ma Palani.

ʻO Bayer mihi a ʻōlelo ʻia ua kāpae i kāna pilina me nā ʻoihana e pili ana, me FleishmanHillard a me Publicis Consultants, e kali ana i kahi hoʻokolokolo. "ʻO ka mea nui a mākou e hoʻokumu i ka transparency," Wahi a Bayer. "ʻAʻole mākou e ʻae i ka lawena unethical i kā mākou hui." (Ua hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻia nā ʻoihana i ka hana hewa ʻole e ka loio loio i hoʻolimalima ʻia e Bayer.)

Pākuʻi hou aku:

Ke kau nei ma ke ʻano he mea haʻi moʻolelo ma ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana iā Monsanto 

Ke hoʻohui nei i nā pilikia PR a Bayer, ua hōʻike ʻo AFP ma Mei 18 i kahi limahana o kekahi "hoʻokele pilikia" PR paʻa i kēlā hana pū me Bayer lāua ʻo Monsanto - FTI Consulting - ua hopu ʻia posing ma ke ʻano he freelance journalist i kahi hoʻokolokolo pekelala ma Kapalakiko i hoʻopau me ka $ 80 miliona hoʻoholo kūʻē iā Bayer no nā hopohopo maʻi ʻaʻai glyphosate.

Ua ʻike ʻia ka limahana FTI Consulting ʻo Sylvie Barak e kamaʻilio kūkākūkā ana e pili ana i nā manaʻo moʻolelo i ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia e hana no ka BBC a ʻaʻole ia i hōʻike ua hana ʻo ia no kahi ʻoiaʻiʻo PR.

Pākuʻi hou aku:

Holo ʻo Ketchum lāua ʻo FleishmanHillard i ka salto GMO PR

I ka makahiki 2013, ua kī ka ʻoihana ahupuaʻa iā FleishmanHillard a me Ketchum, nā ʻona na Omnicom, e poʻo i kahi Hoʻāhewa ʻo PR e hoʻoponopono hou i ke kiʻi o kāna GMO a me nā huahana pesticide. Ua koho ʻia ʻo Monsanto FleishmanHillard e "hōʻano hou" i kona kaulana ma waena o ka "kūʻēʻē nui" i nā meaʻai i hoʻololi ʻia i nā genetically, e like me ka Holmes Report. Ma ka manawa like, ua lilo ʻo FleishmanHillard ka ʻO ka ʻoihana PR moʻohelu no Bayer, a me ka Council for Biotechnology Information (CBI) - kahi hui kālepa i ukuʻia e ʻO Bayer (Monsanto), Corteva (DowDuPont), Syngenta a me BASF - hoʻolimalima iā Ketchum firm pili aupuni e hoʻomaka i kahi ua hoʻolaha ʻia ka pāʻoihana marketing me nā GMO Nā Pane.

Hoʻokomo ʻia nā hana spin i hoʻohana ʻia e kēia ʻoihana.e aloha ana i nā mea kākau blog makuahine"A me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā leo o nā loea i manaʻo ʻia he" kūʻokoʻa "i"hoʻomaʻemaʻe i ka huikau a me ka hilinaʻi ʻole”E pili ana i nā GMO. Eia naʻe, ua hōʻike ʻia nā hōʻike e hoʻoponopono ana nā ʻoihana PR a kākau ʻia kekahi o nā loea "kūʻokoʻa". ʻO kahi laʻana, nā palapala i kiʻi ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike i kēlā Palapala ʻia ʻo Ketchum nā pou no nā pane GMO i kau inoa ʻia e a Kumu Kulanui o Florida ka mea i koi kūʻokoʻa iā ia e hana ana ma hope o nā hanana me Monsanto ma nā papahana PR. He pelekikena hope poʻokela ma FleishmanHillard hoʻoponopono i ka haʻiʻōlelo o a ʻO Polofesa ʻo UC Davis a ua aʻo iā ia pehea e "lanakila ai i ka poʻe i loko o ka lumi" ma an Kūkākūkā IQ2 e hōʻoia i ka lehulehu e ʻae i nā GMO. ʻO Ketchum kekahi hāʻawi i ke polopeka i nā manaʻo no ka ninaninau lekiō e pili ana i kahi noiʻi ʻepekema.

He ʻelele koʻikoʻi nā ʻatikala no ka hana lobbying ʻoihana e kūʻē i ka lepili ʻana o GMO, i hōʻike ʻia ka New York Times ma 2015. "He pāpale keʻokeʻo nui nā polopeka / mea noiʻi / ʻepekema i kēia hoʻopaʻapaʻa a me ke kākoʻo i kā lākou mokuʻāina, mai nā mea kālaiʻāina i nā mea hana," ʻo Bill Mashek, kahi pelekikena hope ma Ketchum, i kākau aku ai i ke Kulanui o Polopeka polofesa. “E hoʻomau!” Ua hoʻolilo aku ka hui kālepa ʻoihana CBI ma kahi o $ 11 miliona ma Ketchum's GMO Answers mai ka 2013, e like me nā moʻolelo ʻauhau.

GMO Pane i ka 'hoʻokele pilikia' kūleʻa

Ma ke ʻano he hōʻailona o kona kūleʻa ma ke ʻano he mīkini milo PR, ʻo GMO Answers ka papa inoa ʻia no kahi makana hoʻolaha CLIO i ka 2014 i ka mahele o "Crisis Management & Issue Management." I loko o kēia wikiō no CLIO, ua kaena ʻo Ketchum e pili ana i ka aneane pālua o ka nānā ʻana o ka media i nā GMO a me "kaulike 80% o nā pilina" ma Twitter. ʻO ka hapa nui o kēlā mau pilina pūnaewele mai nā waihona i kū kūʻokoʻa a ʻaʻole hōʻike i kā lākou pili i ka hoʻolaha PR o ka ʻoihana.

ʻOiai ʻo ka wikiō Ketchum i koi ʻia ʻo GMO Answers e "hōʻano hou i ka transparency" me ka ʻike mai ka poʻe loea me ka "ʻaʻohe mea i kānana ʻia a censored ʻia, a ʻaʻohe leo i hāmau ʻia," kahi papa hana ʻo Monsanto PR e hōʻike ana i ka hui i helu ʻia ma nā pane GMO e kōkua i ka wili ʻana i kāna huahana i kahi kukui maikaʻi. ʻO ka palapala mai 2015 papa inoa Nā pane GMO ma waena o nā "hoa hana" hiki iā ia ke pale aku iā Roundup mai ka hopohopo no ka maʻi ʻaʻai. i loko o kahi ʻāpana "kumuwaiwai" ma ka ʻaoʻao 4, ua papa inoa ʻia ka papahana i nā loulou i nā pane GMO me nā palapala a Monsanto i hiki ke kamaʻilio i ka leka o ka ʻoihana "ʻaʻole ʻo Glyphosate he carcinogenic."

Ua kau ʻia kēia wikiō Ketchum i ka pūnaewele CLIO a hemo ʻia ma hope o kā mākou kāhea ʻana i ka nānā iā ia.

Pākuʻi hou aku:

ʻO Omnicom's FleishmanHillard a me Ketchum: nā moʻolelo o ka hoʻopunipuni

No ke aha e hoʻokau ai kekahi ʻoihana iā FleishmanHillard a i ʻole Ketchum i mua o nā hana e hoʻoulu ai i ka hilinaʻi he paʻakikī e hoʻomaopopo, no ka mea ʻo kā lākou mōʻaukala o nā hoʻopunipuni i kākau ʻia. O kahi laʻana:

A hiki i ka 2016, ʻo Ketchum ka ʻO PR paʻa no Rūsia a me Vladimir Putin. Wahi a nā palapala i loaʻa iā ProPublica, Ua hopu ʻia ʻo Ketchum e hoʻokau ana iā pro-Putin op-eds ma lalo o nā inoa o nā "ʻoihana kūʻokoʻa" me he mea lā i nā nūhou like ʻole. I ka 2015, ka ua hoʻolimalima ke aupuni Honduran iā Ketchum e hoʻāʻo e hoʻōla hou i kona kūlana maikaʻi ma hope o ka hoʻowahāwahā he miliona miliona.

Ua kī pū ʻia nā palapala iā Mother Jones e hōʻike ana ua hana ʻo Ketchum me kahi ʻoihana pilikino pilikino "i kiu iā Greenpeace a me nā hui kaiaulu ʻē aʻe mai ka hopena o 1990s ma o ka liʻiliʻi 2000, e ʻimi ana i nā palapala mai nā ipu ʻōpala, e hoʻāʻo ana e kanu i nā mea hana hūnā ma waena o nā hui, nā waihona kālā, hōʻiliʻili ʻana i nā moʻolelo kelepona o nā mea hoʻouluulu, a komo i loko o nā hālāwai kūkā. ” Ua hopu ʻia ʻo FleishmanHillard me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hana spionage kūpono ʻole e kūʻē i ke olakino lehulehu a me nā mea kākoʻo i ka paka no ka ʻoihana paka ʻo RJ Reynolds, e like me kahi noiʻi a Ruth Malone i ka Ka PepaʻAlaʻAmelika o ke Aupuni. Ua audiotaped hoʻi ka firm PR i nā hālāwai kūkā paka a me nā ʻaha kūkā.

ʻO FleishmanHillard ʻo ia ka ʻoihana pili lehulehu no The Tobacco Institute, ʻo ka ʻoihana paka ʻoihana lobbying nui, no ʻehiku mau makahiki. I loko o kahi ʻatikala 1996 Washington Post, Morton Mintz haʻi moʻolelo o pehea i hoʻololi ai ʻo FleishmanHillard a me ka Tobacco Institute i ka Healthy Buildings Institute i hui i mua no ka ʻoihana paka i kāna hana e hoʻohuli i ka hopohopo lehulehu e pili ana i ka pilikia o ka uahi lua. Ketchum ua hana pū no ka ʻoihana paka.

Ua hana nā ʻoihana ʻelua i kekahi manawa i nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua o kahi pilikia. ʻO FleishmanHillard i hala hoʻolimalima ʻia no nā pāʻālua puhipaka. I ka makahiki 2017, ua hemo ʻo Ketchum a firm-off firm i kapa ʻia ʻo Cultivate e loaʻa kālā ma ka mākeke ʻai mea ulu e ulu nei, ʻoiai ʻo Ketchum's GMO Answers i hōʻino i nā meaʻai meaola, e ʻōlelo ana ua uku ka poʻe kūʻai i kahi "uku nui" no nā meaʻai i ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi ma mua o nā meaʻai i ulu mau ʻia e ka ʻaha.

Pākuʻi hou aku:

Kūkākūkā FTI: hoʻopunipuni i ke aniau a me nā pili paka hou aʻe

ʻO FTI Consulting, ka "hoʻokele pilikia" ʻO PR firm e hana pū ana me Bayer a ʻo ka mea nāna ka hana hopu ʻia e hoʻohālike ana i kahi mea kākau moʻolelo ma ka hoʻāʻo ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup ma Kapalakiko, kaʻana like i kekahi mau like me FleishmanHillard a me Ketchum, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hana huna, nele i ka moakaka a me ka mōʻaukala o ka hana pū ʻana me ka ʻoihana paka.

Ua ʻike ʻia ke kūpaʻa ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻokani nui i kā ExxonMobil mau hana e pale ai i ke kuleana no ka loli. As Elana Schor lāua ʻo Andrew Restuccia i hōʻike ʻia ma Politico ma 2016:

"Ma waho o [Exxon] ponoʻī, ke kūʻē leo nui ʻana i nā ʻōmaʻomaʻo mai FTI Consulting, kahi paʻa i hoʻopiha ʻia me nā mea kōkua Repubalika ma mua i kōkua i ka hoʻohui ʻana i ka GOP i ka pale ʻana i nā wahie fossil. Ma lalo o ka hae o Energy ma Depth, kahi papahana e holo nei no ka Independent Petroleum Association of America, ua kīwī ʻo FTI i nā mea kūkala nūhou me nā leka uila e hōʻike ana i ka "collusion" ma waena o nā mea hana ʻōmaʻomaʻo a me nā AGs mokuʻāina, a ua hāpai ʻia nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hāʻawi kālā a InsideClimate's Rockefeller. "

Ua hopu ʻia nā limahana ʻo FTI Consulting e hoʻohālike ana i nā mea kākau moʻolelo ma mua. Ua hōʻike ʻo Karen Savage ma Ianuali 2019 i ka Nūhou Liability News, "ʻElua mau mea hoʻolālā pili i ka lehulehu e kū nei no Exxon i hala aku nei ma ke ʻano he nūpepa i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e ninaninau i kahi loio e kū ana i nā kaiāulu ʻo Colorado e hoʻopiʻi nei iā Exxon no nā pohō e pili ana i ka huliau. ʻO nā mea hoʻolālā — Michael Sandoval lāua ʻo Matt Dempsey — hana ʻia e FTI Consulting, kahi ʻoihana i pili lōʻihi me ka ʻoihana aila a me nā ʻaila. ” Wahi a ka Climate Liability News, ua helu ʻia nā kāne ʻelua ma ke ʻano he mea kākau no Western Wire, kahi pūnaewele i holo ʻia e nā makemake aila a me nā limahana me ka FTI Consulting, kahi e hāʻawi nei i nā limahana iā Energy In Depth, kahi wahie pro-fossil "noiʻi, aʻo a me hoʻolaha hoʻolaha hoʻolaha ākea. ”

Ua hōʻike ʻo Energy In Depth iā ia iho ma ke ʻano "mom and pop shop" e hōʻike ana i nā mea lawelawe ikehu liʻiliʻi akā ua hoʻokumu ʻia e nā ʻoihana aila a me nā ʻaila nui e lobby no deregulation, Ua hōʻike ʻia ka blog DeSmog ma 2011. Ua wehe ka hui Greenpeace i Memo ʻoihana 2009 e wehewehe nei ʻO ka Energy In Depth ma ke ʻano he "ʻoihana hou ākea ākea ... e hakakā i nā lula hou o ke kaiapuni, keu hoʻi e pili ana i ka haki nehe" ʻaʻole hiki ke hana ʻia me ka ʻole o nā hoʻokō kālā mua "o nā pono nui o ka aila a me ke kinoea me BP, Halliburton, Chevron, Shell, XTO Energy (ʻona iā ExxonMobil).

ʻO kekahi hiʻohiʻona e laulā me kēia mau ʻoihana āpau ʻo kā lākou ʻoihana pili paka. ʻO FTI Consulting he "moʻolelo lōʻihi o ka hana ʻana me ka ʻoihana paka," e like me ʻO ka Taka ʻAka paka. Ka hulina o ka waihona puke ʻoihana ʻoihana paka ʻo UCSF lawe mai i 2,400 palapala e pili ana iā FTI Consulting.

Pākuʻi hou aku:

ʻO ka hōʻike hou aku e pili ana i nā hōʻino PR a Bayer

ʻO Coverage ma Palani:

Ka uhi ma ka ʻōlelo Pelekania:

Chlorpyrifos: pesticide maʻamau i nakinaki ʻia i ka lolo i nā keiki

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ʻO Chlorpyrifos, kahi pesticide hoʻohana ākea, pili nui ʻia iā poino ka lolo i nā keiki. Ua alakaʻi ʻia kēia a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe mau ʻāina a kekahi mau mokuʻāina ʻo US e pāpā aku iā chlorpyrifos, akā ʻo ka kemikā ʻae ʻia ma nā mea kanu meaʻai i ka US ma hope lobbying kūleʻa e kāna mea hana.

ʻO Chlorpyrifos i ka meaʻai  

ʻO Chlorpyrifos hoʻolauna ʻia nā insecticides e Dow Chemical i ka makahiki 1965 a ua hoʻohana ākea ʻia i nā wahi mahiʻai. ʻO ka mea i ʻike pinepine ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i nā inoa inoa ʻo Dursban a me Lorsban, ʻo ka chlorpyrifos kahi insecticide organophosphate, acaricide a me miticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia e kaohi i nā lau a me nā meaola o ka ʻohana i lawe ʻia i ka lepo ma nā ʻano meaʻai a me nā mea kanu hānai. Hiki mai nā huahana i ke ʻano wai a me nā granula, nā pauka, a me nā ʻeke hiki ke hoʻoheheʻe ʻia i ka wai, a hoʻopili ʻia paha e ka lepo a me nā pono lewa.

Hoʻohana ʻia ʻo Chlorpyrifos ma nā ʻano mea kanu like ʻole me nā ʻoma, ʻalani, strawberry, kulina, palaoa, citrus a me nā meaʻai ʻohana a kā lākou mau keiki e ʻai nei i kēlā me kēia lā. Na USDA Polokalamu ʻIkepili Pesticide loaʻa ke koena o ka chlorpyrifos ma nā citrus a me nā melon ʻoiai ma hope o ka holoi ʻana a ihi ʻia. Ma ka leo, hoʻohana nui ʻia ʻo chlorpyrifos i ka palaoa a me ka soybeans, me ka miliona o ka paona i hoʻopili ʻia i kēlā me kēia makahiki i kēlā me kēia hua. ʻAʻole ʻae ʻia ka kemika ma nā mea kanu meaola.

Hoʻohana nā mahi ʻole mahiʻai i nā papa kolepa, ka honu, nā hale ʻōmaʻomaʻo, a me nā pono hana.

Nā hopohopo olakino kanaka

ʻO ka American Academy of Pediatrics, ʻo ia ka mea i ʻoi aku ma mua o 66,000 pediatricians a me nā kaukōkō pediatric, ua hoʻohoka ʻo ia hoʻomau i ka hoʻohana ʻana o chlorpyrifos i ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā fetus, nā pēpē, nā keiki a me nā wahine hāpai i ka makaʻu nui.

Ua ʻike nā ʻepekema ʻo ka hōʻike prenatal i ka chlorpyrifos e pili ana me ka kaumaha hānau haʻahaʻa, hoʻemi ʻia ka IQ, ka nalowale ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo hana, nā maʻi noonoo, a hoʻopaneʻe i ka hoʻomohala kaʻa. Ua helu ʻia ma lalo nā haʻawina nui.

Hoʻopili pū ʻia ʻo Chlorpyrifos i ka lāʻau make pesticide huikau a hiki ke hana i nā haunaele, ka maʻi pehu hanu, a i kekahi manawa, make.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo FDA ʻaʻole palekana ka ʻai a me ka wai inu

He meaʻawaʻawa loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos ka Mana Maluhia o ʻEulopa pāpā ʻia ke kūʻai aku ʻana i nā kemika i Ianuali 2020, ke loaʻa nei aia ʻaʻohe pae palekana. Ua pāpā aku kekahi mau mokuʻāina ʻo ʻAmelika i nā chlorpyrifos mai ka hoʻohana mahiʻai ʻana, e like me Hawaii a Hawaii.

Ua ʻaelike ka US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) me Dow Chemical i ka makahiki 2000 e kāpae i nā hoʻohana āpau o nā chlorpyrifos ma muli o ka noiʻi ʻepekema e hōʻike nei he mea weliweli ka kemikal i nā lolo e ulu ana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki liʻiliʻi. Ua pāpā ʻia ia mai ka hoʻohana a puni nā kula i ka 2012.

I ʻOkakopa 2015, ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ua hoʻolālā ʻia e kāpae i nā pale pale koena o ka meaʻai no ka chlorpyrifos, ʻo ia hoʻi ʻaʻole ia he kānāwai e hoʻohana ai ia i ka mahiʻai. Ua ʻōlelo ka ʻoihana "ʻo nā koena o chlorpyrifos i manaʻo ʻia no nā mea kanu mea ʻai i ʻoi aku ma mua o ke kūlana palekana ma lalo o ka Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." Ua hele mai kēia neʻe ʻana i ka pane ʻana i kahi palapala noi no ka pāpā ʻana mai ka ʻAoʻao Kūʻai Kūʻai Kūlohelohe a me ka Pesticide Action Network.

I Nowemapa 2016, ua hoʻokuʻu ka EPA i loiloi hou ʻia ka loiloi pilikia ola kanaka no chlorpyrifos e hōʻoia ana ʻaʻole palekana e ʻae i ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka kemika i ka mahiʻai. Ma waena o nā mea ʻē aʻe, ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ʻaʻole palekana nā hōʻike āpau o ka meaʻai a me ka wai inu, keu hoʻi i nā keiki 1-2 makahiki. Ua ʻōlelo ka EPA e mālama ʻia kēia pāpā ma 2017.

Hoʻolālā ʻo Trump EPA i ka pāpā

Ma hope o ke koho ʻia ʻana o Donald Trump ma ke ʻano he Pelekikena no ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, ua hoʻopaneʻe ʻia ka pāpā ʻia ʻana o chlorpyrifos. Ma Malaki 2017, i kekahi o kāna hana kūhelu mua ma ke ʻano he luna o ka nohona ma luna o ka lāhui, ʻo EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt hōʻole i ka palapala noi e nā hui kaiaulu a ʻōlelo ʻia ʻaʻole e hele i mua ka pāpā ma luna o nā chlorpyrifos.

ʻO The Associated Press i hōʻike ʻia i Iune 2017 ua hui ʻo Pruitt me Dow CEO Andrew Liveris 20 mau lā ma mua o ka hoʻopau ʻana i ka pāpā. Ua hōʻike pū kekahi ʻo Media iā Dow hāʻawi $ 1 miliona i nā hana hoʻokumu a Trump.

I Pepeluali o 2018, EPA ua hōʻea i kahi hoʻonā e koi ana iā Syngenta e uku i kahi uku $ 150,000 a hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā mahiʻai i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka pesticide ma hope o ka hōʻole ʻole ʻana o ka ʻoihana i nā limahana e hōʻalo i nā māla kahi i kāpīpī ʻia ai ʻo chlorpyrifos a me kekahi mau limahana i komo i ke kula. ua maʻi a koi ʻia ka mālama olakino. Ua hāʻawi mua ʻo Obama EPA i kahi maikaʻi kokoke ʻeiwa mau manawa ʻoi aku ka nui.

I Pepeluali 2020, ma hope o ke kaomi a ka mea kūʻai, nā hui olakino, nā ʻepekema a me ke alo o ke kāhea ʻana no nā pāpā ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Corteva AgriScience (ʻo DowDuPont ma mua) e hemo aku iecaianoaaiiie o chlorpyrifos, akā noho paʻa ke kemika no nā hui ʻē aʻe e hana a kūʻai aku ai.

Wahi a kahi kālailai i paʻi ʻia ma Iulai 2020, nā mea hoʻokele US Hilinaʻi i ka ʻikepili hoʻopunipuni i hāʻawi ʻia e Dow Chemical e ʻae i nā pae palekana o nā chlorpyrifos i loko o nā hale ʻAmelika no nā makahiki. Ua haʻi ʻia ka hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo mai nā kānaka noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona ʻo nā hopena pololei ʻole ka hopena o kahi noiʻi daphlorpyrifos dosing i hana ʻia i nā 1970 mua no Dow.

I Kepakemapa 2020 ua hoʻopuka ka EPA i kāna kolu ʻike kūpono ma luna o chlorpyrifos, e ʻōlelo ana "ʻoiai he mau makahiki o ke aʻo ʻana, ka loiloi ʻana o nā hoa, a me nā kaʻina lehulehu, ua hoʻomau ʻia ka ʻepekema e kamaʻilio nei i nā hopena ʻē aʻe," a hiki nō ke hoʻohana ʻia i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai.

Ma hope o ka hoʻoholo halawai lehulehu ma waena o ka EPA a me Corteva.

Hoʻopiʻi nā hui a me nā mokuʻāina iā EPA

Ma hope o ka hoʻoholo ʻana o ka Trump Trump e hoʻopaneʻe i kekahi pāpā a hiki i ka 2022 ma lalo, Pesticide Action Network a me ka Council Defence Resources hoʻopiʻi i ka hoʻopiʻi kū'ē iā EPA i ʻApelila 2017, e ʻimi ana e koi aku i ke aupuni e ukali me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ke aupuni a Obama e pāpā aku ai iā chlorpyrifos. I ʻAukake 2018, he pekelala ua loaʻa ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi ua haki ka EPA i ke kānāwai ma o ka hoʻomau ʻana i ka ʻae ʻana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā chlorpyrifos, a kauoha iā EPA e hoʻopau i kāna pāpā i manaʻo ʻia i loko o ʻelua mau mahina. Ma hope lohi hou, Ua hoʻolaha ʻo ka Luna Hoʻokele EPA ʻo Andrew Wheeler i Iulai 2019 e EPA ʻaʻole e pāpā i ka kemika.

Ua hoʻopiʻi kekahi mau mokuʻāina i ka EPA no ka hōʻole ʻole ʻana i nā chlorpyrifos, e like me Kaleponi, New York, Massachusetts, Wakinekona, Maryland, Vermont a me Oregon. Kūkākūkā nā mokuʻāina i nā palapala a ka ʻaha e pāpā ʻia ai ʻo chlorpyrifos i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai ma muli o nā pilikia e pili pū ana me ia.

Ua waiho pū ʻo Earthjustice i ka hoʻopiʻi ma ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo ʻAmelika no ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo Kaapuni ʻeiwa ke ʻimi nei i kahi kapu lāhui ma ka ʻaoʻao o nā hui e kākoʻo nei no nā mea hana kaiapuni, nā mea mahiʻai a me nā poʻe me ke kino kīnā ʻole.

ʻImi lapaʻau a me ʻepekema

ʻO neurotoxicity ulu

"ʻO nā noiʻi epidemiological i nānā ʻia ma aneʻi ua hōʻike i nā pilina koʻikoʻi ma waena o ka hōʻike prenatal i ka CPF [chlorpyrifos] a me nā pilikia neurological postnatal, ʻo ia hoʻi nā hemahema o ka naʻau i pili pū me ka hoʻohaunaele ʻana o ka pono o ka lolo .... Ua hōʻike mau nā ʻano ʻimi noiʻi preclinical a puni ka honua i ka CPF kahi neurotoxicant ulu. ʻO ka neurotoxicity CPF hoʻomohala, i kākoʻo maikaʻi ʻia e nā noiʻi ʻana e hoʻohana ana i nā ʻano holoholona like ʻole, nā ala o ka hōʻike ʻana, nā kaʻa, a me nā ʻano hoʻokolohua, ʻike ʻia e nā hemahema o ka ʻike a me ka hoʻohaunaele ʻana o ka pono o ka lolo. " ʻO ka neurotoxicity ulu o ka meaola insecticide chlorpyrifos: mai nā hopena maʻi i nā hiʻohiʻona preclinical a me nā ʻano hiki.. Ka Nūpepa o Neurochemistry, 2017.

"Mai ka 2006, ua kākau ʻia i nā noiʻi epidemiological ʻeono mau neurotoxicant ulu hou - manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachlorethylene, a me nā polyethic diphenyl ether." Nā hopena Neurobehavioural o ka hoʻomohala hoʻomohala. Lancet Neurology, 2014.

Childrens 'IQ & hoʻomohala ʻike

Ua ʻike ʻia ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻia ʻana o nā makuahine o loko a me nā keiki ʻo "prenatal CPF [chlorpyrifos] kiʻekiʻe, e like me ke ana ʻana i ka umbilical cord blood plasma, ua pili pū ʻia me ka emi ʻana o ka hana naʻau ma nā ʻikepili ʻelua WISC-IV. nā kamaliʻi liʻiliʻi ma 7 mau makahiki ... ʻo ka Working Memory Index ka mea i pili ikaika loa me ka hōʻike ʻana o ka CPF i kēia heluna kanaka. ” ʻEhiku mau makahiki Neurodevelopmental Scores a me ka Prenatal Exposure iā Chlorpyrifos, kahi Pesticide Mahiʻai Maʻa mau.. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Ke aʻo ʻana o ka cohort hānau o nā ʻohana mahiʻai Latino ma Kaleponi i pili i kahi metabolite o nā pesticides organophosphate i loaʻa i ka mimi i nā wahine hāpai me nā helu ʻilihune i kā lākou mau keiki no ka hoʻomanaʻo, ka wikiwiki o ka hana, ka hoʻomaopopo waha, ka noʻonoʻo manaʻo a me ka IQ. "Hōʻike kā mākou ʻike i ka hōʻike prenatal i nā pesticides OP [organophosphate], e ana ʻia e ka urinary DAP [dialkyl phosphate] metabolites i nā wahine i ka wā hāpai, e pili ana me nā mākau ʻike maikaʻi ʻole i nā keiki ma 7 mau makahiki. ʻO nā keiki i ka quintile kiʻekiʻe o nā mākua DAP concentrations he awelika deficit o 7.0 mau helu IQ i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea i ka quintile haʻahaʻa. He laina nā hui, a ʻaʻole mākou i nānā i kahi paepae. " Hōʻike Prenatal i nā Pesticides Pōhaku a me IQ i nā Keiki 7 makahiki. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

ʻO ka noi ʻana o ka cohort prospect o nā wahine a me kā lākou mau keiki i nā hopena "manaʻo ʻia e pili maikaʻi ʻole ka prenatal i nā organophosphates me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka noʻonoʻo, ʻo ia hoʻi ka noʻonoʻo manaʻo, me nā hōʻike o nā hopena e hoʻomaka ana ma 12 mau mahina a hoʻomau i ka wā kamaliʻi." ʻO Prenatal Exposure i nā Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, a me ka hoʻomohala Cognitive i ke kamaliʻi. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

ʻImi ʻia nā cohort prospect o kahi heluna o ke kūlanakauhale kūloko i loaʻa i nā keiki me nā kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā chlorpyrifos "i ka helu, ma ka awelika, 6.5 mau kiko i lalo o ka Bayley Psychomotor Development Index a me nā helu 3.3 ma lalo o ka Bayley Mental Development Index ma 3 makahiki me kēlā me nā pae haʻahaʻa o ka hōʻike. Ua ʻike ʻia nā keiki i ke kiʻekiʻe, ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā pae o lalo, chlorpyrifos a ʻoi aku paha ka ʻike ʻana i ka Index Psychomotor Development Index a me ka hoʻopaneʻe ʻana o ka Mental Development Index, nā pilikia no ka nānā ʻana, nā pilikia ma ka deficit attention / defact hyperactivity, a me nā pilikia o ka ulu ulu ākea ma 3 mau makahiki. " Ka hopena o ka Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure ma Neurodevelopment i nā makahiki 3 mua o ke ola ma waena o nā keiki o loko.. Pai o ka American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Hoʻonui ʻia ke aʻo ʻana o ka cohort hānau lōʻihi ma kahi ʻāina mahiʻai o Kaleponi i "ʻike mua ʻia o nā hui ma waena o PON1 genotype a me nā pae enzyme a me kekahi mau kikowaena o ke neurodevelopment ma o ke kula mua, e hōʻike nei i nā hōʻike hou e pili ana nā hui maikaʻi ʻole ma waena o DAP. i nā keiki a nā makuahine me nā pae haʻahaʻa o ka PON1 enzyme. ” ʻO ka hoʻowalewale pesticide Organophosphate, PON1, a me neurodevelopment i nā keiki o ke kula mai ka CHAMACOS hoʻopaʻa.. ʻImi Kūlohelohe, 2014.

ʻO Autism a me nā maʻi neurodevelopmental ʻē aʻe

Ua ʻike ʻia ka noiʻi ʻana i ka hihia hihia e pili ana i ka hihia, "Prenatal a i ʻole ka hānai pēpē ʻana i nā pesticides i wae ʻia priori - e like me glyphosate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, a me permethrin - i pili me ka hoʻonui ʻia o nā pilikia o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā ʻano maʻi autism." ʻO ka Prenatal a me ke keiki hānai i nā pesticides ambient a me ka maʻi autism spectrum i nā keiki: ka nānā ʻana i ka hihia-ka nānā ʻana i ka hihia. BMJ, 2019.

ʻO ka nānā ʻana i ka hihia hihia pili i ka heluna kanaka "ʻike i nā hui maikaʻi ma waena o ASD [autism spectrum disorders] a me ka noho mua prenatal i nā pesticides organophosphate i ka lua (no ka chlorpyrifos) a me nā trimesters ʻekolu (organophosphates holoʻokoʻa). Nā maʻi Neurodevelopmental a me kahi kokoke o ka noho ʻana o Prenatal i nā Pesticides Mahiʻai: Ke aʻo CHARGE. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

E nānā i kekahi: Ke kuʻi ʻana i ke kaulike o ka ʻike autism: nā hana kūpono e pili ana i nā pesticides a me Autism. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Nā anomalies o ka lolo

"ʻO kā mākou ʻike i hōʻike ʻia ka hōʻike ʻia ʻana o ka CPF prenatal [chlorpyrifos], ma nā pae i ʻike ʻia me ka hana maʻamau (nonoccupational) a ma lalo o ka paepae no nā hōʻailona o ka hōʻike ākea, he hopena i ana ʻia i ka hanana lolo i kahi laʻana o 40 keiki 5.9-11.2 y o makahiki. Ua ʻike mākou i nā mea kūpono ʻole i nā ana morphological o ka ʻaoʻao cerebral e pili ana me ka hōʻike CPF prenatal kiʻekiʻe aʻe .... Ua hoʻonui ʻia nā hoʻonui ākea o ka ʻaoʻao cerebral a ua loaʻa i loko o ka manawa kiʻekiʻe, waena waena o ke kino, a me ka haʻahaʻa postcentral gyri bilaterally, a me ka gyrus mua kiʻekiʻe. , gyrus rectus, cuneus, a me precuneus ma ka paia mesial o ka hemisphere ʻākau ”. ʻO nā anomalies o ka lolo i nā keiki e hōʻike prenatally i kahi pesticide organophosphate maʻamau. Nā hana o ka National Academy of Science, 2012.

Ulu Fetal

Ua ʻike kēia noiʻi "i kahi hui kūwili nui loa ma waena o ka pae umbilical cord chlorpyrifos a me ka hānau hānau a me ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻana ma waena o nā pēpē i ka cohort o kēia manawa i hānau ʻia ma mua o ka US EPA mau hana hoʻomalu e kāpae i ka hoʻohana noho ʻana o ka insecticide." ʻO Biomarkers i ka nānā ʻana i nā hōʻike insecticide noho i ka wā hāpai a me nā hopena i ka ulu ʻana o ka fetal. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Ua ʻike ʻia ka noiʻi ʻana o ka cohort multethnic "i ka manawa i lawe ʻia ai ka pae o ka hana PON1 makuahine, nā pae makuahine o chlorpyrifos ma luna o ka palena o ka ʻike me nā hana PON1 haahaa e pili ana me ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui akā ka liʻiliʻi o ke anapuni o ke poʻo. Hoʻohui ʻia, nā pae PON1 makuahine wale nō, akā ʻaʻole pili i nā polymorphism genetic PON1, i hoʻopili ʻia me ka nui o ka nui o ke poʻo. Ma muli o ka ʻike ʻia o ka nui o ke poʻo liʻiliʻi e wānana i ka hiki ke noʻonoʻo ma hope, hōʻike kēia mau ʻike i ka hopena maikaʻi ʻole o ka chlorpyrifos i ka neurodevelopment fetal ma waena o nā makuahine e hōʻike nei i ka hana PON1 haʻahaʻa. " I ka hōʻike Utero Pesticide Exposure, Maternal Paraoxonase Haʻawina, a me ke poʻo o ke poʻo. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Ke hoʻopaʻa ʻia nei kahi cohort prospect o nā makuahine liʻiliʻi a me kā lākou mau keiki hānau hou. ʻO ke kikoʻī, ʻo ka hui ma waena o ka cord plasma chlorpyrifos a me ka hoʻēmi ʻia ʻana o ke kaumaha a me ka lōʻihi i ʻike nui ʻia ma waena o nā keiki hānau me 25% kiʻekiʻe o nā pae hōʻike. ʻO Prenatal Insecticide Exposures a me ka hānau ʻana o ke Kaumaha a me ka lōʻihi ma waena o kahi Cohort Urban Minority. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Lung Cancer  

I loko o kahi loiloi o nā mea hoʻohana pesticide he 54,000 i ka Haʻawina Ola Ola, ua hōʻike nā ʻepekema o ka National Cancer Institute e pili ana ka hopena o ka maʻi ʻaʻa maʻi me ka hōʻike ʻana o chlorpyrifos. "Ma kēia kālailai ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma waena o nā mea noi pesticide laikini i hōʻike ʻia i nā lāʻau pākī līlū ma North Carolina a me Iowa, ua ʻike mākou i kahi hanana helu o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka makaʻu o ka maʻi ʻaʻa maʻi, akā ʻaʻole kekahi o nā maʻi ʻaʻai ʻē aʻe i nānā ʻia, me ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o ka chlorpyrifos." Loaʻa ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma waena o nā mea hoʻohana Pesticide i Chlorpyrifos i ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai. Ka Nūpepa o ka National Cancer Institute, 2004.

ʻO ka maʻi o Parkinson

Ua hōʻike ka hoʻopaʻa hihia hihia o nā poʻe e noho ana ma Kalepona Waena ʻo Kaleponi i hōʻike ākea e pili ana i nā pesticides he 36 i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i ka maʻi maʻi Parkinson. ʻO ke aʻo ʻana "hoʻohui i nā hōʻike ikaika" e hoʻopili ʻia nā pesticides organophosphate i loko o ka etiology o ka maʻi idiopathic Parkinson. ʻO ka hui ma waena o ka hōʻike ākea i nā organophosphates a me ka pilikia o ka maʻi maʻi Parkinson. ʻO ka lāʻau lapaʻau hana & kaiapuni, 2014.

Nā hopena hānau

Ua ʻike ʻo Multiethnic makua cohort o nā wahine hāpai a me nā keiki hānau hou ua pili ʻo chlorpyrifos i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha o ka hānau a me ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻana (p = 0.01 a p = 0.003, pakahi) a me ke kaupaona hānau haʻahaʻa ma waena o ʻAmelika ʻAmelika.p = 0.04) a hoʻemi i ka lōʻihi o ka hānau ʻana ma Dominicans (p <0.001) ”. Nā hopena o ka Transplacental Exposure i nā Pollutants Environmental ma nā hopena hānau ma kahi lehulehu. Nāʻike o ke olakino olakino.

Ka hoʻohaunaele Neuroendocrine

"Ma o ke kālailai ʻana i nā ʻano maʻamau o ka moekolohe-dimorphic hōʻike mākou i ka neurotoxic a me ka endocrine hoʻohaunaele i nā hana o CPF [chlorpyrifos] overlap. No laila e noʻonoʻo ʻia kēia pesticide organophosphorus hoʻolaha ākea e like me kahi disruptor neuroendocrine paha e hōʻike ana i kahi kumu weliweli no nā maʻi neurodevelopmental bias i ka wahine i nā keiki. " Nā hana dimorphic moekolohe e like me nā māka o ka neuroendocrine hoʻohaunaele e nā meaola o ke kaiapuni: ka hihia o chlorpyrifos. NeuroToxicology, 2012.

ʻO Tremor

"Hōʻike nā mea i loaʻa i kēia manawa ʻo nā keiki me ka hōʻike prenatal kiʻekiʻe i nā chlorpyrifos e hōʻike maʻalahi ana i ka haʻalulu a haʻahaʻa paha i hoʻokahi a ʻelua paha mau lima ke loiloi ʻia ma waena o nā makahiki o 9 a me 13.9 mau makahiki .... pili kēlā prenatal i ka CPF [chlorpyrifos], i nā pae hoʻohana maʻamau o kēia manawa, e hoʻopili ʻia me nā ʻano o nā pilikia hoʻomohala hoʻomau a pili pū kekahi. Hōʻike Prenatal i ka chlorophyros pesticide pesticide a me ka haʻalulu o ke kamaliʻi. NeuroToxicology, 2015.

ʻO ke kumukūʻai o chlorpyrifos

ʻO nā kuhi kumukūʻai no ka hōʻike ʻana i nā kemika hoʻohaunaele endocrine i loko o ka European Union ua ʻike ʻia "ua hoʻopili ʻia nā hōʻike Organophosphate me 13.0 miliona (anamanaʻo noʻonoʻo, 4.24 miliona a i 17.1 miliona) i nalo nā helu IQ a me 59 300 (ka noʻonoʻo ʻike, 16 500 a 84 400) mau hihia. o ke kīnā ʻole o ka ʻike, ma nā koina o € 146 biliona (ka noʻonoʻo ʻana, € 46.8 biliona a i € 194 biliona). " Nā Neurobeh behavioral Deficits, Nā maʻi, a me nā kumukūʻai pili i ka hōʻike i ka Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals i ka European Union.. Ka Nūpepa o Endocrinology Clinical & Metabolism, 2015.

ʻO thyroid i nāʻiole

"Ua hōʻike ka noiʻi i kēia manawa i ka hōʻike ʻia ʻana o nāʻiole CD1, i ka wā o nā puka aniani koʻikoʻi o ka prenatal a me ka hoʻolālā postnatal, ma CPF [chlorpyrifos] pae pae ma lalo o nā mea e kāohi ana i ka lolo AchE, hiki ke hoʻoulu i nā hoʻololi i ka thyroid." Hōʻike Hoʻomohala i ka Chlorpyrifos Induces Alterations i ka pae thyroid a me ka thyroid Hormone pae me ka ʻole o nā hōʻailona ʻino ma Cd1 Mice.. ʻEpekema Toxicological, 2009.

Nā pilikia me nā ʻike ʻoihana

"Ma Malaki 1972, ua hōʻike ʻo Frederick Coulston a me nā hoa hana ma ke Kulanui Lapaʻau ʻo Albany i nā hopena o kahi noiʻi duke chlorpyrifos i manaʻo ʻia i ke kākoʻo o ka noi, ʻo Dow Chemical Company. Ua hoʻoholo kā lākou hōʻike 0.03 mg / kg-lā ka maʻi maʻamau i nānā ʻole ʻia-hopena-hopena (NOAEL) no nā chlorpyrifos i loko o nā kānaka. Hōʻike mākou ma aneʻi i kahi kālailai kūpono e ke ʻano helu kūmole i loaʻa i kahi NOAEL haʻahaʻa (0.014 mg / kg-lā), a me ka hoʻohana ʻana o nā hana helu i loaʻa mua i ka makahiki 1982 e hōʻike ana ʻo ka hapa haʻahaʻa loa i loko o ke aʻo ʻana he hopena lapaʻau koʻikoʻi. ʻO ka loiloi kumu, alakaʻi ʻia e nā statisticians ʻo Dow-hana, ʻaʻole i hana i ka loiloi pakanā ʻia; akā naʻe, ua kuhikuhi ʻo EPA i ka noiʻi Coulston ma ke ʻano he noiʻi kūpono a mālama ʻia i ka hōʻike ʻia ʻo NOAEL ma ke ʻano he wahi haʻalele no nā loiloi weliweli ma nā makahiki 1980 a me 1990. I loko o kēlā manawa, ʻae ʻo EPA i nā chlorpyrifos e hoʻopaʻa inoa no nā hoʻohana he nui i hoʻopau ʻia e hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā hopena olakino hiki i nā keiki a me nā pēpē. Inā ua hoʻohana ʻia nā anamanaʻo kūpono i ka loiloi o kēia noi, malia paha ʻaʻole i ʻae ʻia e ka EPA ka hapa nui o kēlā mau hoʻohana i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia o nā chlorpyrifos. Hōʻike kēia hana i ka hilinaʻi ʻia e nā mea hoʻoponopono pesticide i nā hopena noiʻi ʻaʻole i nānā pono ʻia e nā hoa a he mea pono ʻole ia e hoʻoweliweli i ka lehulehu. " Ka nānā ʻana i ka nānā ʻana o kahi noi dosing kanaka i manaʻo ʻia a me kona hopena ma nā loiloi pōpilikia chlorpyrifos. Ka Honua International, 2020.

"I kā mākou loiloi i ka ʻike maka e pili ana i kahi pesticide kaulana, chlorpyrifos, a me kahi hui e pili ana, ua ʻike ʻia nā mea like ʻole ma waena o nā ʻike maoli a me nā hopena i huki ʻia e ka hale hōʻike hoʻokolohua i ka hōʻike i waiho ʻia no ka ʻae ʻana i ka pesticide." Ka palekana o ka palekana palekana o ka Pesticides: neurotoxicity ulu o chlorpyrifos a me chlorpyrifos-methyl. Ke olakino kaiapuni, 2018.

Nā pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo

Ke Kula Nuiʻo Harvard Kennedy Shorenstein: ʻO kahi insecticide pepehi kanaka controversial a me kona hopena i ka ulu ʻana o ka lolo: ʻImi a me nā kumuwaiwai

Kula Nui ʻo Harvard: ʻO ka Pesticide Hoʻohana ākea loa, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope

Honua: Chlorpyrifos: ʻO ka pesticide pesticide e hoʻopōʻino nei i kā mākou keiki a me ke kaiapuni

Ke Kalapu ʻo Sierra: Nā keiki a me Chlorpyrifos

Ka Nūpepa a me ka Manaʻo

Kiʻi na Bradley Peterson, ma o Ke kaʻina hana o ka National Academy of Science; New York Times

Ka Hoʻoilina o Trump: Nā lolo i hōʻino ʻia, na Nicholas Kristof, New York Times. "ʻO ka pesticide, kahi o nā papa o nā kemika i hoʻomohala ʻia ma ke ʻano he kinoea nerve i hana ʻia e Nazi Kelemania, i kēia manawa e loaʻa i ka meaʻai, ka ea a me ka wai inu. Hōʻike nā haʻawina kanaka a me nā holoholona e hōʻino ia i ka lolo a hoʻēmi i nā IQ i ka wā e haʻalulu ai i waena o nā keiki. "

Palekana i ka lolo o kā mākou keiki, na Sharon Lerner, New York Times. "ʻO ka hoʻohana ākea o ka chlorpyrifos e kuhikuhi i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻaʻole ia ke ʻano o ka kemika e hōʻino i nā poʻe āpau e launa pū me ia - a i ʻole ke kumu e hāʻule make ai lākou i ka hopena. Akā, ke hōʻike nei ka noiʻi e hoʻonui i ka makaʻu o nā pilikia hoʻomōhala, ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hana, he mea weliweli hoʻi, hoʻomanawanui. "

ʻO ka huaʻawaʻawa: makemake ʻo Dow Chemical i nā mahiʻai e hoʻomau i ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi Pesticide i pili iā Autism a me ADHD, na Sharon Lerner, ka Intercept. "ʻO Dow, ka hui kemika nunui nāna i patent chlorpyrifos a ke hana nei i ka hapa nui o nā huahana i loaʻa iā ia, ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa mau i nā hōʻike ʻepekema e piʻi nei e hōʻino ana kāna kemika blockbuster i nā keiki. Akā ua hoʻomaopopo ka hōʻike a ke aupuni ua ʻae ka EPA i kēia manawa i ka ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa e hōʻike ana i ka pesticide e ulu nei i ka nui o kā mākou meaʻai ʻaʻole palekana. "

Ke lawa ʻole ka ʻikepili e hana i ke kulekele: Ka holo pono ʻole ʻana e pāpā i nā chlorpyrifos, na Leonardo Trasande, PLOS Biology. "He kuleana ko ka ʻepekema e ʻōlelo i ka wā e ʻae ʻole ai nā mea hana politika i ka ʻikepili ʻepekema. Pono lākou e hōʻike koʻikoʻi i nā hopena o nā holomua o nā kulekele, ʻoiai inā ʻaʻole paʻa kekahi o nā kumu ʻepekema. "

Pehea i pāpā ʻole ʻia ai kēia lāʻau make? e ka papa hoʻoponopono o The New York Times. "ʻO ka pesticide i kapa ʻia ʻo chlorpyrifos he mea weliweli ʻelua a hoʻohana ākea loa. ʻIke ʻia e hele maʻalahi mai ka makuahine a i ka fetus a ua hoʻopili ʻia i ka nui o nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi, e like me ka ulu ʻana o ka maʻi, ka maʻi ʻo Parkinson a me kekahi ʻano o ka maʻi ʻaʻai. ʻAʻole ia he pūʻiwa. Ua hoʻomohala mua ʻia nā kemika e Nazis i ka wā o ke Kaua Honua II no ka hoʻohana ʻana e like me ke kinoea nerve. Eia ka mea kupaianaha: ke kāpīpī ʻia nei nā iona o nā pesticide ma nā miliona o ka ʻeka o nā ʻāina mahiʻai o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i kēlā me kēia makahiki, kokoke i ʻelima mau makahiki ma hope o ka hoʻoholo ʻana o ka ʻĀina Hoʻomalu Pono e pāpā. "

Pili loa kēia pesticide i nā ʻāʻī nerve i hoʻohana ʻia i ke Kaua Honua II. ʻAʻole mālama ʻo EPA o Trump, na Joseph G. Allen, Wakinekona Post. "He mea weliweli ka mea a mākou e ʻike ai e pili ana i nā chlorpyrifos. ʻO kahi aʻo kaulana paha i hana ʻia e nā mea noiʻi ma ke Kulanui o Columbia nāna i hana ke kiʻi ʻana o ka lolo i nā keiki ʻōpio me ke kiʻekiʻe o ka chlorpyrifos. Kupaianaha nā hopena a maopopo ʻole hoʻi. I nā huaʻōlelo a nā kānaka noiʻi: "Hōʻike kēia noiʻi i nā hui nui o ka prenatal exposed i kahi neurotoxicant kaiapuni i hoʻohana ākea ʻia, ma nā pae hoʻohana maʻamau, me nā hoʻololi o ke kūkulu ʻana i ka lolo kanaka."

ʻO kahi hihia ikaika e kūʻē i kahi Pesticide ʻAʻole Faze EPA ma lalo o ke kani, na Roni Caryn Robin, New York Times. "ʻO ka loiloi olakino olakino kanaka i hōʻuluʻulu ʻia e ka EPA i Nowemapa i ʻike ʻia e pili ana nā pilikia olakino ma nā pae haʻahaʻa o ka hōʻike ma mua o ka mea i manaʻo ʻia he pōʻino. Hōʻike ʻia nā pēpē, nā keiki, nā kaikamahine ʻōpio a me nā wahine i nā pae weliweli o nā chlorpyrifos ma o kaʻai wale nō, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka ʻoihana. Hōʻike ʻia nā keiki i nā pae a i ka 140 manawa o ka palena palekana. ”

ʻOi aku ka nui o nā pēpē ma hope o ka pāpā ma nā pesticides 2, nā ʻike i loaʻa, na Richard Pérez-Peña, New York Times. "ʻO nā wahine hāpai ma Manhattan luna i hōʻike nui ʻia i ʻelua mau insecticides maʻamau i loaʻa nā pēpē liʻiliʻi ma mua o ko lākou mau hoanoho, akā ʻo nā kaohi o kēia mau mea ʻelua i hoʻohaʻahaʻa koke i ka hōʻike a hoʻonui i ka nui o nā pēpē, e like me kahi noiʻi i paʻi ʻia i kēia lā."

ʻO mākou nā mea ʻino, na Timothy Egan, New York Times. "Ke nahu ʻoe i kahi ʻāpana o nā hua, he ʻoluʻolu noʻonoʻo ʻole ia. ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole like ke kūpono o kēlā strawberry-nānā strawberry me kahi niho keʻokeʻo-keʻokeʻo keʻokeʻo e hoʻomaka. Akā ʻaʻole pono ʻoe e noʻonoʻo e pili ana i ka ulu ʻana o ka lolo kamaliʻi ke kau ʻana ia ma luna o kāu cereal. ʻO ka Trump administration, i ka waiho ʻana i nā toadies ʻoihana kemika ma waena o kā mākou meaʻai a me ka palekana o ka lehulehu, ua koi ʻo ia i kahi loiloi hou o ka ʻaina kakahiaka a me nā hana ʻē aʻe i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ʻaʻole weliweli. "

Ma kāu pāʻina ʻaina a i kou kino: ʻo ka pesticide weliweli loa āu i lohe ʻole ai, na Staffan Dahllöf, Hōʻike Haumāna Denmark. "ʻAʻole hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻia ka hopena ʻino o nā chlorpyrifos i nā mea kolo. ʻO ka nīnau i hoʻoholo ʻole ʻia i ka nui o ka weliweli o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka chlorpyrifos i nā meaola āpau e like me ka iʻa i loko o nā wai kokoke a i ʻole nā ​​limahana mahiʻai ma nā kula, a i ʻole kekahi e ʻai ana i nā huahana i mālama ʻia. "

Nā Neurotoxins ma kā broccoli o kāu keiki: ʻo ia ke ola ma lalo o Trump, na Carey Gillam, ke Kahu. “ʻEhia ke kumu ola o kāu keiki? ʻO ka pane e hele mai ana mai ke alakaʻi o ka US Environmental Protection Agency: ʻaʻole ia he nui… No laila, eia mākou - me nā hopohopo ʻepekema no ka palekana o kā mākou keiki hala ʻole a palupalu ma kekahi ʻaoʻao a me nā mea pāʻani ʻoihana ʻoihana waiwai kekahi. Ua hōʻike aku ko mākou alakaʻi alakaʻi kālaiʻāina a me nā luna hoʻokele i nā mea makemake nui ʻia e lākou. "

Hiki i nā Insecticide Maʻamau ke hōʻino i ka lolo o nā keikikāne ma mua o nā kaikamahine, na Brett Israel, Nā Nūhou Ola Ola. "I nā keikikāne, pili ka pili ʻana i nā chlorpyrifos i ka ʻōpū nā helu liʻiliʻi ma nā hoʻāʻo hoʻomanaʻo wā pōkole hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā kaikamahine i hōʻike ʻia i nā nui like. "

ʻO nā pepa ʻepekema hou aʻe e pili ana i nā kemikona i kā mākou meaʻai 

E ʻike hou aʻe i ko ʻAmelika kuleana e ʻike i nā pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo:

Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi

Pepa ʻo Glyphosate: Ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe

Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻo Dicamba 

ʻO US Right to Know kahi pūʻulu olakino lehulehu noiʻi e hana nei ma ka honua āpau e hōʻike i nā hewa o nā ʻoihana a me nā hemahema aupuni e hoʻoweliweli i ka pono o kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai, ko mākou kaiapuni a me ko mākou olakino.  Hiki iā ʻoe hāʻawi ma aneʻi i kā mākou mau hoʻokolokolo a kau inoa no kā mākou leka pepa o kēlā me kēia pule.  

Pepa ʻo Glyphosate: Ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe

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ʻO Glyphosate, kahi herbicide synthetic i patentia i ka 1974 e ka Hui Monsanto a i hana ʻia a kūʻai ʻia e nā hui he nui i nā huahana he haneli, ua pili pū ʻia me ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe. ʻO Glyphosate ka mea i ʻike nui ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i nā lāʻau make inoa ʻo Roundup-branded, a me ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana ʻia me "Roundup Ready" nā meaola i hoʻoponopono maoli ʻia (GMO).

ʻO ka tolerance Herbicide ka mea i hoʻomake nui ʻia me ka GMO i hana ʻia i loko o nā mea kanu meaʻai, me kekahi 90% o ke kulina a me 94% o nā soybeans i ka US i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau make, e like me ka ʻikepili USDA. A 2017 like ʻike ʻia ua hoʻonui ʻia ka ʻike ʻana o ka poʻe ʻAmelika i ka glyphosate 500 pakeneka mai ka Roundup Ready GMO i hoʻolako ʻia i ka US ma 1996. Eia kekahi mau ʻike nui e pili ana i ka glyphosate:

Pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia

E like me ka Pepeluali Fepuari 2016, ʻo glyphosate ka ʻo ka pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia: "I ka US, ʻaʻohe pesticide i hele mai kahi kokoke i ka hoʻohana nui a hoʻolaha ākea." Loaʻa nā loaʻa ma:

  • Ua noi nā ʻAmelika i 1.8 miliona mau tona o glyphosate mai kona hoʻolauna ʻana i ka makahiki 1974.
  • Ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa 9.4 miliona mau tona o ka kemika i pīpī ʻia ma nā kahua - lawa pono e kāpīpī kokoke i ka hapalua paona o Roundup ma kēlā me kēia ʻeka e mahi ʻia ana o ka honua.
  • Ma ke ao holoʻokoʻa, ua piʻi aʻe ka hoʻohana glyphosate ma kahi o 15 mau pā mai ka hoʻopuka ʻia ʻana o nā mea kanu ʻo Roundup Ready GMO.

Nā ʻōlelo mai nā ʻepekema a me nā lawelawe mālama olakino 

Nā hopohopo maʻi ʻaʻai

ʻO nā palapala ʻepekema a me nā hopena hoʻoholo e pili ana i nā glyphosate a me nā gicphosate-based herbicides e hōʻike nei i kahi hui o nā hopena, e hana ana i ka palekana o ka lāʻau make i kumuhana i hoʻopaʻapaʻa nui ʻia. 

Ma 2015, ka ʻO ka 'Oihana Kuleana International o ka World Health Organization no ka Research on Cancer (IARC) glyphosate ʻike ʻia e like me "carcinogenic paha i nā kānaka”Ma hope o ka loiloi ʻana i nā makahiki o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana a me ka loiloi ʻia e nā hoa ʻepekema. Ua ʻike ka kime o nā ʻepekema kūwaho he hui ma waena o glyphosate a me non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Nā keʻena US: I ka manawa o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana IARC, ke alakaʻi nei ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i kahi loiloi hoʻopaʻa inoa. ʻO ke Kōmike loiloi i ka maʻi ʻaʻai e EPA (CARC) hoʻopuka i kahi hōʻike i Kepakemapa 2016 Ke hoʻopau nei i ka glyphosate "ʻaʻole ia he carcinogenic i nā kānaka" ma nā lāʻau e pili ana i ke olakino kanaka. I Kēkēmapa 2016, ua hoʻākoakoa ka EPA i kahi Panel Aʻoaʻo ʻepekema e nānā i ka hōʻike; nā lālā i mahele ʻia i kā lākou loiloi i kā EPA hana, me kekahi mau mea i loaʻa i ka EPA i hala i ke ʻano o ka loiloi ʻana i kekahi noiʻi. Hoʻohui ʻia, ua hoʻoholo ke Keʻena ʻo EPA o ka noiʻi a me ke kūkulu ʻana i ka Office of Pesticide Programs a ka EPA ʻaʻole i hahai pono i nā ʻōmole kūpono i loko o kāna loiloi o glyphosate, a ua ʻōlelo ʻia ua hiki ke manaʻo ʻia he mau kākoʻo e kākoʻo ana i kahi hōʻike "carinogen" a "a manaʻo" paha o ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka carcinogenicity. Eia naʻe ka EPA hoʻopuka ʻia kahi hōʻike kikoʻī ma glyphosate i ka lāʻo Dekemaba 2017 e hoʻomau ana i ka paʻa ʻana ʻaʻole paha he carcinogenic ka kemikala. I ʻApelila 2019, ka EPA hōʻoia hou i kona kūlana ʻaʻole pilikia kēlā glyphosate i ke olakino lehulehu. Akā ma mua o kēlā mahina, ua hōʻike ka US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) he mau loulou ma waena o glyphosate a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Wahi a ka hōʻike kikoʻī mai ATSDR, "He nui nā noiʻi i hōʻike i nā lakio pōpilikia i ʻoi aku ma mua o hoʻokahi no nā hui ma waena o ka hōʻike glyphosate a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a i ʻole myeloma lehulehu." 

Ua hoʻopuka ka EPA i kahi Hoʻoholo Manaʻo Manaʻo Kākoʻo Kūmau i Ianuali 2020 me ka ʻike hou e pili ana i kona kūlana ma glyphosate. 

Hui PūʻAina: ka ʻO ka Mana palekana palekana Kai ʻEulopa a me ka Ka Hui Kūmole Europa ua ʻōlelo ʻaʻole paha he gākana kino ka glyphosate i kānaka. A Hōʻike 2017 e nā hui kaiapuni a me nā mea kūʻai aku i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i ka hilinaʻi kūpono ʻole o nā mea hoʻokele i ka noiʻi i kuhikuhi ʻia a hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana kemika. A 2019 like ua ʻike ʻo Kelemania Federal Institute no ka hōʻike loiloi ʻikepili ma glyphosate, ka mea i loaʻa ʻole kahi pilikia o ka maʻi ʻaʻai, me nā ʻāpana o ka ʻōlelo plagiarized mai nā noi a Monsanto. I Pepeluali 2020, ua hōʻike ʻia nā hōʻike ʻepekema 24 i waiho ʻia i nā luna hoʻomalu Kelemania e hōʻoia i ka palekana o glyphosate mai kahi keʻena nui Kelemania ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hoʻopunipuni a me nā hana hewa ʻē aʻe.

ʻO ka hui hui ʻana o WHO / FAO ma nā koena Pesticide i hoʻoholo i ka 2016 ʻaʻole hiki i kēlā glyphosate ke waiho i kahi makaʻi kanesa i nā kānaka mai ka hōʻike ʻana ma o ka papaʻai, akā ua hōʻino ʻia kēia ʻike e kipi o ka hoihoi hopohopo ma hope o ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o ka noho a me ka luna noho o ka hui i paʻa i nā kūlana alakaʻi me ka Ke KeʻenaʻEpekema Ola Ola International, kahi hui i kālā kālā ʻia e Monsanto a me kekahi o kāna hui lobbying.

Kaleponi OEHHA: Ma Malaki 28, 2017, ua hōʻoia ka Office of Protection Environmental Protection Agency o Kaleponi e hana ia hoʻohui glyphosate i ka Palapala Kauoha Kaleponi 65 papa inoa o nā kemika i ʻike ʻia e lilo ai ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Monsanto e pale i ka hana akā ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka hihia. I kekahi hihia ʻokoʻa, ua ʻike ka ʻaha ʻaʻole hiki i Kaleponi ke koi aku i nā ʻōlelo a ka maʻi ʻaʻai no nā huahana i loaʻa ka glyphosate. Ma Iune 12, 2018, ua hōʻole kahi ʻaha ʻĀpana o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i ka noi a ka Loio Kuhina Kaleponi no ka ʻaha e noonoo hou i ka hoʻoholo. Ua ʻike ka ʻaha he hiki wale iā Kaleponi ke koi aku i ka haʻiʻōlelo kalepa e hōʻike ana i ka "ʻike maoli a me ka pili ʻole o ka ʻike," a ʻaʻole i hōʻoia ʻia ka ʻepekema e pili ana i ka carcinogenicity glyphosate.

Ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai: Ua loaʻa i kahi aupuni lōʻihi o US i kākoʻo ʻia e ka cohort prospective cohort no nā ʻohana mahiʻai ma Iowa a me North Carolina ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi pilina ma waena o ka hoʻohana glyphosate a me ka non-Hodgkin lymphoma, akā ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi "ma waena o nā mea noi i ka quartile hōʻike kiʻekiʻe loa, aia kekahi hoʻonui i ka makaʻu o ka myeloid leukemia (AML) i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea hoʻohana ʻole… ” i hoʻolaha ʻia i ka hopena o 2017.

ʻO nā noiʻi hou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe 

Cancer

Ka hoʻohaunaele Endocrine, ka momona a me nā hopohopo hānau 

ʻO ka maʻi maʻi 

  • ʻO kahi noi 2017 e pili ana i nā hōʻike glyphosate mau loa, haʻahaʻa loa maʻi maʻi ʻona ʻona ʻona ʻole i nāʻiole. Wahi a nā kānaka noiʻi, ʻo nā hopena "hōʻike ʻia ka ʻai mau ʻana o nā pae haʻahaʻa loa o kahi GBH formulate (Roundup), ma nā ʻano like glyphosate e like me ia, e pili ana i nā hoʻololi o ka proteome ate a me ka metabolome," nā biomarkers no NAFLD.

Hoʻohaunaele Microbiome 

  • November 2020 ka pepa i ka Pai no e hopohopo hōʻike e pili ana i ka 54 pākēneka o nā laha i ke kumu o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka i "hiki ke maʻalahi" i ka glyphosate. Me kahi "mahele nui" o nā koʻohune i loko o ka ʻōpū microbiome i maʻalahi ʻia i ka glyphosate, ʻo ka lawe ʻana o glyphosate "e loli loa i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka," i ʻōlelo nā mea kākau i kā lākou pepa. 
  • A 2020 Nānā moʻokalaleo o nā hopena o glyphosate ma ka ʻōpū microbiome Panina ia, "ʻO ke koena glyphosate ma luna o ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke kumu i ka dysbiosis, no ka mea ʻoi aku ke kūpaʻa o nā pathogens oportunistic i ka glyphosate ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka bacteria bacteria." Ke hoʻomau nei ka pepa, "ʻO Glyphosate kahi mea hoʻonāukiuki kūpilikiʻi loa i ka etiology o kekahi mau mokuʻāina e pili ana i ka dysbiosis, e like me ka maʻi celiac, ka maʻi ʻōpū a me ka maʻi hanu huhū. He hopena paha kā Glyphosate no ke olakino noʻonoʻo, e like me ka hopohopo a me ke kaumaha, ma o ka loli ʻana i ka microbiome ʻōpū.
  • Ua mālama ʻia kahi noi no ka ʻiole 2018 e ka Ramazzini Institute e hōʻike ana i nā hōʻike haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa i Roundup ma nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he palekana loa ua hoʻololi i ka microbiota ʻōpū i kekahi o nā ʻīlio ʻiole.
  • Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ʻē aʻe ma 2018 i ke kiʻekiʻe o nā glyphosate kiʻekiʻe i lawelawe ʻia i nā ʻiole i hoʻohaunaele i ka ʻōpū microbiota a hana i nā ʻano hopohopo a me ke kaumaha.

Nā hopena piʻina ʻino a me nā butterflies mōʻī

ʻO nā hoʻopiʻi kanesa

Ma mua o ka 42,000 poʻe i waiho i ka hoʻopiʻi kūʻē iā Monsanto Company (ʻo Bayer i kēia manawa) e ʻōlelo nei i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka lāʻau make i Roundup i mea iā lākou a i ʻole nā ​​mea aloha e hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin (NHL), a ua uhi ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia. Ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka hana ʻike, ua huli ʻo Monsanto i mau miliona o nā ʻaoʻao o nā moʻolelo kūloko. O mākou ke kau nei i kēia mau pepa Monsanto i ka wā e loaʻa ai. No nā nūhou a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e pili ana i ke kānāwai e hoʻomau nei, e ʻike iā Carey Gillam's Pūnaewele Hoʻokolohua Roundup. ʻO nā hoʻokolokolo mua ʻekolu i pau i nā makana nui i nā mea hoʻopiʻi no ke kuleana a me nā pohō, me nā jure e hoʻoholo ana he mea kōkua nui ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele a Monsanto i mea e hoʻomohala iā NHL. Hoʻopiʻi ʻo Bayer i nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo. 

Ka mana o Monsanto i ka noiʻi: I Malaki 2017, ua wehe ka luna kānāwai pekelala i kekahi o nā palapala Monsanto kūloko hāpai i nā nīnau hou e pili ana i kā Monsanto mana i ka hana EPA a pili i nā mea hoʻokele noiʻi e hilinaʻi ai. Hōʻike nā palapala i nā hoʻopiʻi lōʻihi a Monsanto e pili ana i ka palekana o glyphosate a me Roundup mai hilinaʻi pono i ka ʻepekema kani e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka ʻoihana, akā naʻe nā hana e hoʻopololei i ka ʻepekema

Nā ʻike hou aʻe e pili ana i ka hoʻopilikia ʻepekema

Ua hāʻawi ʻia nā ʻepekema ʻo Sri Lankan i kahi makana no ke kūʻokoʻa AAAS no ka noiʻi maʻi maʻi ʻōpū

Ua hāʻawi aku ka AAAS i ʻelua ʻepekema Lankan, ʻo Dr. ʻO Channa Jayasumana lāua ʻo Sarath Gunatilake, ka ʻO ka makana 2019 no ke kūʻokoʻa ʻepekema a me ke kuleana no kā lākou hana e "ʻimi i ka pilina ma waena o glyphosate a me nā maʻi puʻuwai maʻi ma lalo o nā pilikia." Ua hōʻike nā ʻepekema he hana nui ka glyphosate i ka lawe ʻana i nā metala kaumaha i nā puʻupaʻa o ka poʻe e inu ana i ka wai i hoʻohaumia ʻia, a hiki i ka nui o nā maʻi maʻi maʻi ma nā kaiāulu mahiʻai. ʻIke pepa i loko  ʻO SpringerPlus (2015), ʻO BMC Nefrology (2015), Ka Ola Ola (2015), International Journal of Environmental Research a me Health Health (2014). ʻO ka makana AAAS i hala hoʻokuʻuʻia ma waena o kahi hoʻoulu kūʻē kūʻē mai nā mea kōkua pesticide e hoʻohaʻahaʻa i ka hana a ka ʻepekema. Ma hope o ka loiloi, ʻo ka AAAS hoʻihoʻi hou i ka makana

Desiccation: kahi kumu hou aʻe o ka hōʻike papaʻai 

Hoʻohana kekahi mau mahiʻai i ka glyphosate ma nā mea kanu ʻole GMO e like me ka palaoa, ka bale, ka ʻoka, a me ka lihi e hoʻomaloʻo i ka hua i mua o ka ʻohi ʻana i mea e wikiwiki ai ka ʻohi. Kēia hana, ʻike ʻia ʻo desiccation, paha he kumu waiwai nui o ka hōʻike papaʻai i glyphosate.

ʻO Glyphosate i ka meaʻai: Huki ʻo US i kona mau wāwae i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana

Ua hoʻokuʻu mālie ka USDA i kahi hoʻolālā e hoʻomaka e hoʻāʻo i nā meaʻai no nā koena o glyphosate ma 2017. ʻO nā palapala kūloko kūloko i loaʻa ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike ana ua hoʻolālā ke keʻena e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana ma kahi o 300 mau laʻana o ka syrup kānana no glyphosate i ʻApelila 2017. Akā ua pepehi ka ʻoihana i ka papahana ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana. Ua hoʻomaka ka US Food and Drug Administration i kahi papahana hoʻāʻo palena palena i ka 2016, akā piha ka hana me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a me nā pilikia kūloko a ʻo ka papahana ka hoʻomaha ʻia i Kepakemapa 2016. Loaʻa i nā ʻoihana ʻelua i nā papahana e hoʻāʻo i kēlā me kēia makahiki i nā meaʻai no nā koena pesticide akā ua haʻalele pinepine lāua i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana no ka glyphosate.

Ma mua o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana, loaʻa kahi chemist o FDA pae weliweli o glyphosate i nā laʻana he nui o ka meli US, nā pae i kū ʻole i ke ʻenehana no ka mea ʻaʻohe ʻae i hoʻokumu ʻia no ka meli e ka EPA. Eia kahi recap o nā nūhou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i loaʻa i ka meaʻai.

Nā pesticides i kā mākou meaʻai: Aia i hea ka ʻike palekana?

Hōʻike kaʻikepili USDA mai 2016 i nā pae pesticide i hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma 85% o ʻoi aku ma mua o 10,000 mau meaʻai i laʻana, nā mea āpau mai nā ʻalalā i nā hua waina i nā pīni ʻōmaʻomaʻo. Wahi a ke aupuni ʻaʻohe mea iki e pili ana i ke ola olakino, akā ʻōlelo kekahi ʻepekema ʻaʻohe mea iki e kākoʻo ai i kēlā hoʻopiʻi. E nānā “Nā kemika i kā mākou meaʻai: Inā ʻaʻole palekana ʻo "palekana": ʻImi ʻepekema o ke koena pesticide i nā meaʻai e ulu; nīnau ʻia nā pale hoʻomalu, ”Na Carey Gillam (11/2018).

Ua pāpālua ʻo Gates Foundation i ka hoʻoili hewa ma Cornell e like me ke kāhea o nā alakaʻi ʻApelika no agroecology 

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Pili hōʻike: ʻO kā Gates Foundation ʻōuli ʻōmaʻomaʻo i ʻApelika (7.29.20)

ʻO ka Hoʻolālā Pili a me Melinda Gates Foundation makana hou ʻia he $ 10 miliona i ka pule i hala i ka hakakā ʻo Cornell Alliance no Science, a ka hoʻolauna kūkā kamaʻilio ʻana ma Cornell e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā hoa ma ʻApelika a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe e hoʻolaha a pale aku i nā meaʻai me nā genetically engineered, nā mea kanu a me nā mahiʻai. Hāʻawi ka hāʻawi hou i nā hāʻawi BMGF i ka hui i $ 22 miliona.

Ua hele mai ka hoʻopukapuka PR i kahi manawa i lalo o ka ahi o ka Gates Foundation no ka hoʻolilo ʻana i mau piliona kālā ma nā hoʻolālā hoʻomohala mahiʻai ma ʻApelika i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka poʻe loiloi e hoʻokomo i nā ʻano mahiʻai e pono ai nā ʻoihana ma mua o ka poʻe. 

Hoʻopiʻi nā alakaʻi hilinaʻi i ka Gates Foundation 

Ma Kepakemapa 10, ua alakaʻi ʻia nā alakaʻi manaʻoʻiʻo ma ʻApelika palapala wehe i ka Gates Foundation e noi ana iā ia e nānā hou i kāna mau hana hāʻawi hāʻawi no ʻApelika. 

"ʻOiai mākou e mahalo nei i ka Bill a me Melinda Gates Foundation no kāna kūpaʻa i ka pale ʻana i ka palekana o ka meaʻai, a me ka ʻae ʻana i ke kōkua kōkua kanaka a me nā kōkua i hoʻolako ʻia i nā aupuni o kā mākou ʻāina, kākau mākou no ka hopohopo nui no ke kākoʻo o ka Gates Foundation no ka hoʻonui ʻana o ke hoʻonui nei i ka mahiʻai pālākiō ʻoihana i ka ulia pōpilikia kanaka, "wahi a ka leka hōʻailona i hoʻohui ʻia e ka Ke Kula Kaiapuni ʻo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa ʻĀina Hema (SAFCEI).  

Kuhi ka leka i ka Alakaʻi alakaʻi ʻia ʻo Gates no kahi Green Revolution (AGRA) no kāna kākoʻo "pilikia nui" o nā ʻōnaehana hua kalepa i mālama ʻia e nā ʻoihana nui, ke kākoʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hou ʻana i nā kānāwai hua e hoʻomalu i nā hua i hōʻoiaʻiʻo ʻia a hana hewa i nā hua i hōʻoia ʻole ʻia, a me kāna Kākoʻo i nā mea kūʻai hua laha e hāʻawi i ka ʻōlelo aʻo e pili ana i nā huahana ʻoihana ma mua o nā lawelawe ʻoihana lehulehu e pono ai. 

Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi nūpepa nui loa o Uganda i kēlā me kēia lā e pili ana i ka hana hewa a AGRA

"Nonoi aku mākou i ka Gates Foundation a me AGRA e hoʻōki i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā ʻenehana i kūleʻa ʻole a me nā hana hoʻonui lōʻihi a hoʻomaka i ka hoʻolohe ʻana i nā mahiʻai e hoʻomohala nei i nā hopena kūpono no kā lākou pōʻaiapili," wahi a nā alakaʻi o ka manaʻoʻiʻo.

Me nā piliona kālā i lilo a me 14 mau makahiki o ka hoʻohiki, ʻaʻole i hoʻokō ʻo AGRA i kāna mau pahuhopu o ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka ilihune a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā loaʻa kālā no nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi, e like me ka Hōʻike ʻo Iulai i nā ʻōlelo hoʻohiki wahaheʻe. Ua alakaʻi ʻia ka noiʻi e kahi hui ʻana o nā hui ʻApelika a me Kelemania a hui pū me ka ʻikepili mai a pepa keʻokeʻo hou paʻi ʻia e Tufts Global Development and Environment Institute. 

ʻAʻole pane ʻo ka Gates Foundation i nā noi no ka manaʻo no kēia ʻatikala akā i ʻōlelo ʻia i kahi leka uila ma mua, "Kākoʻo mākou i nā hui e like me AGRA no ka mea hui pū lākou me nā ʻāina e kōkua iā lākou e hoʻokō i nā mea nui a me nā kulekele i loko o kā lākou papa hana hoʻomohala ʻāina."

Nā ʻōlelo hoʻohiki e nalo ana o ka ʻōuli ʻōmaʻomaʻo 

Hoʻomaka ʻia ma 2006 e nā Gates a me nā Rockefeller Foundation, ua hoʻohiki ʻo AGRA e hoʻolālua i nā hua a me nā loaʻa no 30 miliona mau home mahiʻai ma ʻApelika e 2020. Akā ua wehe mālie ka hui i kēlā mau pahu hopu mai kāna pūnaewele i kekahi manawa i ka makahiki i hala. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Luna Nui o AGRA ʻo Andrew Cox ma o ka leka uila ʻaʻole i hoʻemi ka hui i kāna makemake akā ke hoʻomaʻemaʻe nei i kāna mau ala a me kona noʻonoʻo e pili ana i nā metric. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia e hana ana ʻo AGRA i kahi loiloi piha i nā hopena i kēia makahiki e hiki mai ana. 

Ua hōʻole ʻo AGRA e hāʻawi i ka ʻikepili a pane paha i nā nīnau nui mai nā mea noiʻi o ka hōʻike wahaheʻe False, haʻi nā mea kākau. ʻO nā Lunamakaʻāinana mai BIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia a me HOMEF Nigeria i hoʻouna aku i leka iā Cox Sept. 7 ke noi nei i kahi pane i kā lākou noiʻi noiʻi. ʻO Cox pane ʻo Sept. 15 me ka mea a kekahi kānaka noiʻi i wehewehe ai ma ke ʻano he "ʻekolu mau ʻaoʻao o PR." (ʻIke piha nā leka ma aneʻi me ka pane o BIBA's ʻOkakopa 7.)

"Pono nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i kahi pane nui mai AGRA," i ʻōlelo ʻia ka leka iā Cox mai Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima a me Ngimmo Bassay.  "Pēlā nō nā mea kōkua o ka lehulehu o AGRA, ka mea e like me ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi hoʻihoʻi ʻilihune loa i kā lākou hoʻokomo kālā. Pono nō hoʻi nā aupuni ʻApelika e hāʻawi i kahi moʻohelu kālā maopopo no nā hopena o kā lākou waihona kālā ponoʻī e kākoʻo ana i nā papahana Green Revolution. "

Hoʻolilo nā aupuni ʻApelika ma kahi o $ 1 biliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki ma nā kōkua kālā e kākoʻo i nā ʻano hua pāʻoihana a me nā mahiʻai. I loko nō naʻe o nā hoʻopukapuka nui i loaʻa nā huahana mahiʻai, ua hoʻonui ka pōloli i kanakolu pākēneka i loko o nā makahiki AGRA, e like me ka hōʻike wahaheʻe.

He mana koʻikoʻi ko Gates Foundation hoʻopukapuka i ke ʻano o ka ʻōnaehana meaʻai i ʻApelika, e like me kahi Iune hōʻike mai ka International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES). Ua hōʻike ka hui i nā piliona kālā ma nā hāʻawi kālā Gates Foundation i hoʻoulu i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana i ʻApelika a kāohi i nā hoʻopukapuka i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai kūpono a kaulike hoʻi.  

"Nānā ʻo BMGF no ka hoʻihoʻi wikiwiki, hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma ka hoʻopukapuka, a no laila makemake i nā pahuhopu, nā ʻenehana ʻenehana," i ʻōlelo ʻo IPES.

Nā mea hana kūloko a me nā kaulahao meaʻai pōkole 

ʻO ke kūkulu ʻana o ka mahiʻai mahiʻai ʻo Gates Foundation no ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mākeke no nā mea kanu ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka hoʻokomo nui e waiho ana i ka mea kūlike ʻole me ka noʻonoʻo ʻana e pili ana pehea e hana pono ai i nā kūlana kūpikipiki i hana ʻia e nā māhoe ʻelua o ka hoʻololi o ke aniau a me ka pandov Covid-19.

I Kepakemapa, ka Ua ʻōlelo ʻo UN Food and Agriculture Organization pono ia e kūkulu i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai kūloko hou aʻe e like me ka maʻi pandemia "i hoʻokau i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai kūloko i nā pilikia ma nā kaulaʻai holoʻokoʻa." Ua hōʻike ka hōʻike i nā pilikia e pili ana i ka maʻi ahulau a me nā haʻawina mai kahi ana honua i mālama ʻia ma ʻApelila a Mei i huki ʻia ai nā 860 pane. 

"ʻO ka leka maopopo, i mea e pale aku ai i nā haʻalulu e like me COVID-19, nā kūlanakauhale me nā kūlana o ka nohona a me ka agroclimatic kūpono e pono ai e hoʻohana i nā kulekele a me nā papahana e hoʻoikaika i nā mea hana kūloko e ulu i nā meaʻai, a paipai i nā kaulahao pōkole e hiki ai i nā kamaʻāina kūlanakauhale. e kiʻi i nā huahana meaʻai, "i pau ai ka hōʻike. "Pono nā kūlanakauhale e hoʻokaʻawale i kā lākou lako meaʻai a me nā kumuwaiwai, e hoʻoikaika ana i nā kumuwaiwai kūloko i kahi e hiki ai, akā me ka hoʻopau ʻole ʻana i nā lako aupuni a me ka honua."

ʻOiai ke hoʻoweliweli nei ka maʻi ahulau i nā kaiāulu mahiʻai e hakakā nei me ka hoʻololi i ke aniau, aia ʻo ʻApelika ma ke alahaka, kākau ʻo Million Belay, ka mea hoʻonohonoho o ka ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa ʻAmelika, a ʻo Timothy Wise, ka mea noiʻi alakaʻi o ka anamanaʻo Tufts o AGRA, i kahi Sepatemaba 23 op-ed. "E hoʻomau anei kona poʻe a me ko lākou aupuni i ka hoʻāʻo e hana kope i nā hana mahiʻai ʻenehana e hoʻolauna ʻia e nā ʻāina kūkulu? A i ʻole e neʻe wiwo ʻole i ka wā e maopopo ʻole ana, e ʻapo ana i ka mahiʻai kaiaola? "

Ua wehewehe ʻo Belay lāua ʻo Wise i kekahi mau nūhou maikaʻi mai ka noiʻi hou ʻana; "ʻElua o nā ʻāina AGRA ʻekolu i hōʻemi i ka helu a me ka mahele o ka poʻe ʻai ʻole - ʻo ʻAitiopa a me Mali - i hana ʻē aʻe ma muli o nā kulekele e kākoʻo ana i ka mahiʻai kaiaola."

ʻO ka moʻolelo kūleʻa nui loa, ʻo Mali, ua ʻike i ka hāʻule ʻana o ka pōloli mai ka 14% a i ka 5% mai ka 2006. Wahi a kahi hihia hihia i ka Hōʻike hoʻohiki wahaheʻe, "ʻAʻole hiki mai ka holomua ma muli o ka AGRA akā no ka mea ua kūʻē ke aupuni a me nā hui o nā mahiʻai i kāna hoʻokō ʻana," kākau ʻo Belay lāua ʻo Wise, e kuhikuhi ana i nā kānāwai ʻāina a me nā hua e hōʻoiaʻiʻo i nā pono o nā mahiʻai e koho i kā lākou mea kanu a me nā hana mahiʻai, a me nā papahana aupuni paipai ʻaʻole wale i ka maize akā ʻo nā ʻano mea kanu meaʻai like ʻole.

"ʻO ka manawa kēia no nā aupuni ʻApelika e hoʻi i hope mai ka hala ʻole ʻana o Green Revolution a pakuhi i kahi ʻōnaehana meaʻai hou e mahalo i nā moʻomeheu kūloko a me nā kaiāulu e ka paipai ʻana i ka mahiʻai haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa," i kākau lākou. 

Ke pāpālua nei i ka hoʻolaha PR i noho ʻia ma Cornell 

Ke kūʻē nei i kēia kāʻei kua, ke pāpālua nei ka Gates Foundation i kāna hoʻopukapuka kālā ma ka Cornell Alliance for Science (CAS), kahi hoʻolaha pili lehulehu i hoʻomaka ʻia ma 2014 me kahi hāʻawi Gates a hoʻohiki e "hoʻopau i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa" a puni GMO. Me ka $ 10 miliona hou, Hoʻolālā ʻo CAS e hoʻonui i kona nānā ʻana "E pale aku ai i nā kumumanaʻo kipi a me nā hoʻolaha disinformation e kāohi ana i ka holomua o ka aniau, ka biology synthetic, nā hana mahiʻai." 

Akā ʻo ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema ua lilo i polarizing ikaika a me kahi kumu o ka misinformation e like me ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i nā poʻe a puni ka honua e paipai a me ka lobby no nā mea kanu i hana ʻia i ko lākou ʻāina home, a he hapa nui o lākou ma ʻApelika. 

Ua kāhea aku kekahi mau kālaiʻike, nā pūʻulu meaʻai a me nā loea loea i ka hui pololei ʻole a hoʻopunipuni hoʻi i ka leka ʻana. ʻO nā hui kaiaulu e hana nei e hoʻoponopono i nā pesticides a me biosafety ua hoʻopiʻi iā CAS o e hoʻohana nei i nā hana hoʻomāinoino ma Hawaii a ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mahiʻai ma ʻApelika i kāna hoʻolaha paipai hōʻeuʻeu a me nā hoʻolaha lobby.  

A Hōʻikeʻo 30 i ka lā Iulai na Mark Lynas, kahi kipa ʻana iā Cornell e hana ana no CAS, hoʻomālamalama i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ma o ka leka ʻana o ka hui. Ke kuhikuhi nei i kahi mea i hala iho nei hōʻike pākuʻina ma ka mālama ʻana i ka mahiʻai, i ʻōlelo ʻo Lynas,  "Pilikia ka agro-ecology i ka hōʻino ʻana i ka poʻe ʻilihune a hōʻemi hoʻi i ke kaulike kāne ma ʻApelika." Ua kālailai nui ʻia kāna kālailai e nā poʻe loea o ke kula.

ʻO Marc Corbeels, ka agronomist nāna i kākau i ka meta-analysis, i ʻōlelo ʻia ua hana ʻia ka ʻatikala.kahili laulaha. ” Ua wehewehe nā kālaiʻike ʻē aʻe i ka ʻatikala a Lynas ma ke ʻano “kīnā ʻole, ""hohonu unserious, ""demagogic a me ka ʻepekema ʻole, "Kahi ʻōlelo hewa hewa e lele i"hopena hopena hihiu, "A “Hoʻohilahila no kekahi e makemake e koi he ʻepekema ʻo ia. ”

ʻO ka mea kākau e hoʻokuʻu houʻia, i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Marci Branski, kahi loea ma mua o ke aniau o USDA ʻO Marcus Taylor, he kālaimeaola kālaiʻāina ma ke Kula Nui ʻo Queen.

Hoopaapaa ka 'agroecology hoʻomehana

Ua ala hou ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa i kēia pule ma luna o kahi webinar CAS e hoʻokipa nei Poaha ʻOkakopa 1 ma ke kumuhana o ka agroecology. Ke kuhikuhi nei i nā hopohopo ʻo ka hui ma Cornell-hoʻokumu "ʻaʻole lawa kūpono e komo i kahi hoʻopaʻapaʻa wehe ʻole", ua haʻalele ʻelua mau loea ʻōnaehana meaʻai mai ka webinar ma mua o kēia pule.

Ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema ʻelua ua ʻae lāua e komo i ka webinar ma hope o ka ʻike ʻana i ka inoa o kekahi i waena o nā panela. "Ua lawa ia na mākou ʻelua e hilinaʻi pū i ka hui ma hope o ka hanana," i kākau ai Pablo Tittonell, PhD, ʻEpekema ʻImi Nui ma Argentina's National Council for Science and Technology (CONICET) a ʻO Sieglinde Snapp, PhD, Polofesa o ka Honua a me Cropping Systems Ecology ma ke Kulanui Mokuʻāina ʻo Michigan, i ka luna moderator ʻo Joan Conrow, hoʻoponopono o CAS 

"Akā ʻo ka heluhelu ʻana i kekahi o nā blog a me nā ʻāpana manaʻo i hoʻopuka ʻia e ka Alliance, nā paʻi a nā panela ʻē aʻe, e aʻo e pili ana i nā hoʻopiʻi kūpaʻa ʻole ʻole. kū'ē i ka agroecology, ka push ideologically push no kekahi ʻenehana, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. ua hoʻoholo mākou ʻaʻole lawa ka koʻikoʻi o kēia wahi e komo ai i kahi ākea, kūlike ʻole, kūkulu a, ʻo ka mea nui loa, ʻike maikaʻi ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema, "kākau ʻo Tittonell lāua ʻo Snapp i Conrow.

"No laila ua haʻalele mākou i kēia hoʻopaʻapaʻa." ʻAʻole i pane ʻo Conrow i nā noi no ka manaʻo.

 E hele i mua ka pūnaewele pūnaewele ʻO Nassib Mugwanya, he haumāna alakaʻi alakaʻi honua ma CAS 2015 a he haumāna kauka laeoʻo ma ke Kulanui ʻo North Carolina State, ka mea i hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hōʻeha kūpono ʻole i ka agroecology. I ka a 2019 kikokikona no ka Breakthrough Institute, hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo Mugwanya, "ʻaʻole hiki i nā hana mahiʻai kuʻuna ke hoʻololi i ka mahiʻai ʻApelika." 

Hōʻike ka ʻatikala i ka leka ʻana o ka ʻoihana biotech ʻoihana maʻamau: e hōʻike nei i nā hua GMO ma ke ʻano he "ʻepekema" "e pena ana i" nā ʻano ʻē aʻe o ka hoʻomohala ʻana ma ke ʻano he "anti-science," kumu ʻole a weliweli hoʻi, " mamuli o ke kaanaki e ka Alakaʻi kaiāulu i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Seattle no Global Justice.

"Kaulike nui ʻia i loko o ka ʻatikala," i ʻōlelo ai ka hui, "he hoʻohana ikaika o nā metaphors (e laʻa me ka agroecology i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā paʻa lima), nā laulaha ʻana, ka haʻalele ʻana i ka ʻike a me nā hewa kūpono he nui."

Me Tittonell lāua ʻo Snapp i ka papa inoa ma ka webinar o ka Pōʻalima, e hui pū ʻia ʻo Mugwanya e Pamela Ronald, he polofesa no ke ʻano lāʻau lāʻau ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi, ʻo Davis, ka mea nāna ka nā hui i nā pūʻulu pesticide ʻoihana mua, a ʻO Frédéric Baudron, ʻepekema ʻepekema ma ka International Maize and Wheat hoʻomaikaʻi Center (CIMMYT), a Gates Pūʻulu hoʻokumu kālā. 

Ke noi nei i kahi 'hakakā maikaʻi'

Ua ʻike ʻo Mariam Mayet, ka luna hoʻomalu o ka Center for Biodiversity o ʻApelika, i ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o nā hoʻolaha PR ma ke ʻano he "hōʻike o ka hopohopo" "ʻaʻole hiki ke loaʻa pololei ma ka ʻāina nui." 

Loaʻa i kāna hui no nā makahiki e kākau ana "Nā hana e hoʻolaha i ka Green Revolution ma ʻApelika, a me nā hopena make e alakaʻi ia i: ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi o ke olakino o ka lepo, ka nalowale ʻana o nā meaola mahiʻai, ka nalowale ʻana o ka noho aliʻi mahiʻai, a me ka laka ʻana o nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i kahi ʻōnaehana i hoʻolālā ʻole ʻia no kā lākou pono , akā no nā waiwai o ka hapa nui o nā ʻoihana multinational ʻĀkau. "

ʻO ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema e pono e noho aliʻi i loko, wahi a Mayet i kahi webinar ʻAukake e pili ana i ka mana o ka Gates Foundation ma ʻApelika, “no ka hewa o ka ʻike hewa (a) ke ʻano o kā lākou disingenuous a me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻole. Nīnau akula ʻo ia, "No ke aha ʻoe e hakakā ʻole ai me mākou?"

ʻO Stacy Malkan ka mea hoʻokumu a reporter no US Right to Know, kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi nonprofit e kia ana i nā pilikia olakino lehulehu. ʻO ia ka mea kākau o ka puke 2007, "ʻAʻole wale he helehelena nani: ka ʻaoʻao maikaʻi ʻole o ka ʻOihana Uʻi." E hāhai iā ia ma Twitter @StacyMalkan