ʻO Biohazards News Tracker: ʻO nā ʻatikala maikaʻi loa ma nā kumu SARS-CoV-2, nā biolabs a me ka loaʻa o ka noiʻi hana.

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Eia kahi papa inoa heluhelu e pili ana i ka mea i ʻike ʻia a ʻike ʻole ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, nā ulia pōpilikia a me nā kahe ma nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a me nā biowarfare, a me nā pilikia olakino o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana (GOF), kahi e hoʻonui ai ka laulā host, transmissibility, infectivity a i ʻole pathogenicity o nā pandhogens hiki ke loaʻa. ʻO US kuleana e ʻike ke alakaʻi nei i nā noiʻi e pili ana i kēia mau kumuhana a ke kau nei i nā mea i loaʻa i kā mākou Blog Biohazards.

Ke holo nei kēia papa inoa heluhelu. E hoʻohou mākou ia. E ʻoluʻolu e hoʻouna i nā heluhelu ua hala paha mākou iā Sainath Suryanarayanan ma sainath@usrtk.org.

Nā Kumuhana (hāʻule nā ​​loulou)

Nā ʻatikala hou loa

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. ʻO ka leka mai ka poʻe Republican House i ka EcoHealth Alliance Pelekikena Peter Daszak e ʻimi nei i ka ʻike a me nā palapala e pili ana i nā kumu o ka maʻi Covid-19. ʻO Cathy McMorris Rodgers, Brett Guthrie, H. Morgan Griffith. ʻApelila 16, 2021.

The New York Times. Kāhea aku no ka nīnau hou ʻana i nā kumu coronavirus. Colin Butler ma. ʻApelila 7, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: He hewa maikaʻi ʻole ka hōʻike covid WHO, a ʻaʻole nō e hoʻokolokolo maoli ʻia. ʻO Josh Rogin. 29 Malaki 2021.

CBS. Ua aha ʻo Wuhan? No ke aha e waiho mau nei nā nīnau ma ke kumu o ka coronavirus. ʻO Lesley Stahl. 28 Malaki 2021.

Newsweek. Kanaka, ʻaʻole holoholona, ​​lawe paha i ka maʻi virus COVID iā Wuhan, kūʻē i nā kuleana o Kina.. Rowan Jacobsen. 25 Malaki 2021.

Nā Palapala Kemika Kūlohelohe. E hōʻemi paha mākou i ke kumu kahua o COVID-19? Rossana Segreto, Yuri Deigin, Kevin McCairn, Alejandro Sousa, Dan Sirotkin, Karl Sirotkin, Jonathan J. Couey, Adrian Jones & Daoyu Zhang. 25 Malaki 2021.

USA I kēia lā. Hiki paha i kahi ulia ke kumu iā COVID-19? No ke aha e hemo ʻole ai ke kumumanaʻo lab-leak Wuhan. ʻO Alison Young. 22 Malaki 2021.

He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?

Nā papahana o ka National Academy of Sciences. I mea e hōʻoki ai i ka maʻi ahulau e hiki mai ana, pono mākou e wehe i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO David A. Relman. Nowemapa 3, 2020.

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Ua ala mai ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2 mai kahi papahana noiʻi bat coronavirus ma kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua Kina? Maliʻa paha. Milton Leitenberg. Iune 4, 2020.

The Telegraph. Ua pakele maoli ka maʻi Covid-19 mai kahi hale hana ʻo Wuhan? ʻO Matt Ridley lāua ʻo Alina Chan. Pepeluali 6, 2021.

Ka Wall Street Journal. Pono ka honua i kahi noiʻi maoli i nā kumu o Covid-19. ʻO Alina Chan lāua ʻo Matt Ridley. Ianuali 15, 2021.

New York Magazine. ʻO ke kuhiakau-leak-kuhiakau. ʻO Nicholson Baker. Ianuali 4, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: Pono ka US e hōʻike i kāna ʻike e pili ana i ka hale hana ʻo Wuhan. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 22, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo Manaʻo: Hoʻomaopopo ka luna ʻo Biden i kekahi akā ʻaʻole i nā koi āpau o Wuh. ʻO Josh Rogin. 9 Malaki 2021.

Politico. I ka 2018, ua aʻo ʻia nā diplomats o nā hoʻokolohua Risky Coronavirus i kahi Wuhan Lab. ʻAʻohe mea i hoʻolohe. ʻO Josh Rogin. 8 Malaki 2021.

Newsweek. Pono ʻo Beijing e hoʻomaʻemaʻe e pili ana i nā kumu ʻo COVID-19 | Manaʻo Manaʻo. Jamie Metzl. Ianuali 22, 2021

Wall Street Pai. ʻO wai nā mea ʻimi noiʻi ʻo Covid? Loaʻa nā hakakā o ka hoihoi i nā lālā o kahi ʻimi ʻimi no WHO. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 15, 2021.

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists.ʻO wai: ʻaʻole i liu ʻo COVID-19 mai kahi hale hana. Eia pū me WHO: Ua hana paha ia. Filipa Lentzos. Pepeluali 11, 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: ʻAʻole i ʻike ka honua i ka pehea e hoʻoponopono ai i ka noiʻi i nā virus make. ʻO Brian Klaas. 11 Malaki 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Ma hope o kā Wuhan mikiona ma nā kumu pandemi, ua hoʻokuʻu ka kime WHO i ka manaʻo leak lab. ʻO Gerry Shih lāua ʻo Emily Rauhala. Pepeluali 9, 2021.

Wall Street Pai. ʻO nā mea noiʻi WHO e ʻokiʻoki i nā hoʻolālā no ka hōʻike wā kuʻuna ma Probe o Covid-19 kumu. ʻO Betsy McKay, Drew Hinshaw a me Jeremy ʻAoʻao. 4 Malaki 2021.

Wall Street Pai. Palapala wehe: Kāhea i kahi noiʻi forensic ākea āpau a kaohi ʻole ʻia i nā kumu o COVID-19. 4 Malaki 2021.

Bloomberg. ʻAʻole maopopo iā mākou ma hea mai ʻo Covid-19. ʻO Faye Flam. Ianuali 12, 2021.

Pākuʻi ʻole. Lab Leak: kahi hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o nā politika - a hoʻoholo ʻole ʻia. Charles Schmidt. 17 Malaki 2021.

Lapaʻau Kūlohelohe. Ma ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Angela Rasmussen. Ianuali 13, 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Ua aʻo aku nā moku ʻoihana mokuʻāina no nā pilikia palekana ma ka hale hōʻikeʻike ʻo Wuhan e hoʻopaʻa haʻawina nei i nā coronavirus. ʻO Josh Rogin. ʻApelila 14, 2020.

BBC. ʻO Covid: ʻoluʻolu 'ʻepekema Wuhan e kipa i ke kuhi naʻau leaking lab. ʻO John Sudworth. Kekemapa 22, 2020.

ʻO Houston Chronicle. Hoʻomaopopo ka ʻepekema UTMB i nā pilikia palekana ma ka hale hana Kina e hana nei i ka noiʻi coronavirus. ʻO Nick Powell. ʻApelila 23, 2020. 

Ka Wall Street Pai. Kāomi ʻo NIH i ka pono ʻole o US no ka ʻike ma Wuhan virology lab. ʻO Betsy McKay. ʻAukake 19, 2020.  

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. ʻO ka leka mai ka poʻe Republican House i ka Luna Hoʻokele NIH ʻo Francis Collins e ʻimi nei e holomua i kahi hoʻokolohua kūʻokoʻa, ʻepekema e pili ana i ke kumu o ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19.. ʻO Cathy McMorris Rodgers, Brett Guthrie, H. Morgan Griffith. 18 Malaki 2021.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. No laila no hea mai ka maʻi? ʻO Matt Ridley Mei 29, 2020. 

Ka Hale Waihona ʻEpekema Palani (CNRS). Ke nīnau nui ʻia nei ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yaroslav Pigenet. Nowemapa 9, 2020.

The Times. Pehea i hoʻomaka ai ʻo Covid-19? ʻO Hunt no ka mea hoʻomanawanui ʻole ua lilo i ka hakakā o nā mana nui. ʻO Tom Whipple. Kekemapa 31, 2020.

CNET. ʻO ka ʻimi huli hihi a huehue no ke kumu o COVID-19 a me ke kumumanaʻo o ka leakī. ʻO Jackson Ryan. Ianuali 19, 2021.

Pukahi Pepa. Ua pakele paha ʻo COVID-19 mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua? Rowan Jacobsen. Kepakemapa 9, 2020. 

Nature. ʻO ka mea pohihihi nui loa: he aha ka mea e nānā ai i ke kumu o ka coronavirus. ʻO David Cyranoski. 5 Iune 2020.

Ka Washington Post. Hoʻokuʻu ka 'Oihana Moku'āina i ke kaula uila i hoʻokumu i nā koi i pakele ka coronavirus mai ka hale hana Kina. ʻO John Hudson lāua ʻo Nate Jones. Lulai 17, 2020. 

NBC News. Hōʻike ka hōʻike i ka ʻikepili o ke kelepila e hōʻike nei i ka pau ʻana o ʻOkakopa ma Wuhan lab, akā kānalua nā poʻe loea. ʻO Ken Dilanian, Ruaridh Arrow, Courtney Kube, Carol E. Lee, Louise Jones lāua ʻo Lorand Bodo. Mei 9, 2020. 

The Times. Hōʻike ʻia: ʻEhiku makahiki ke ala coronavirus mai kaʻu make ʻana i kahi keʻena ʻo Wuhan. ʻO George Arbuthnott, Jonathan Calvert, a me Philip Sherwell. Lulai 4, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Nānā nā mākaʻikaʻi coronavirus a WHO i ka mākeke ʻo Wuhan ma ke ʻano he palapala ʻāina i hōʻike ʻole ʻia. ʻO John Power lāua ʻo Simone McCarthy. Kekemapa 15, 2020.

BBC. Wuhan: Ke kūlanakauhale noho mālie; Ke ʻimi nei i nā pane ma kahi i hoʻomaka ai ka coronavirus. ʻO John Sudworth. Iulai 2020.

ʻO ka New York Times, 8 mau nīnau mai kahi mākaʻikaʻi maʻi ma nā kumu kumu o ka pandemia. ʻO William J. Broad. Lulai 8, 2020.

The New York Times. I Hunt no Source Virus, ʻo wai e hoʻokuʻu iā Kina. Selam Gebrekidan, ʻO Matt Apuzzo, ʻO Amy Qin a . Nowemapa 2, 2020.

Ka Wall Street Pai. I ka neʻe ʻole ʻana, ua hōʻoia nā keʻena ʻike ʻike US inā ua kū mai ka coronavirus mai kahi ulia lab. ʻO Warren P. Strobel lāua ʻo Dustin Volz. ʻApelila 30, 2020.

ke Kahu. Hoʻowahāwahā i nā kumumanaʻo kipi: ʻike ka poʻe ʻepekema ʻaʻole i hana ʻia ʻo Covid-19 i kahi lab. ʻO Peter Daszak. Iune 9, 2020. 

Na kela la i keia Telegraph. ʻ saylelo nā kānaka ʻepekema ua kuke ʻia ʻo COVID-19 i ka hale hana. ʻO Sharri Markson. Iune 1, 2020.

ʻEpekema. ʻO Trump 'aie iā mākou i kahi noi kala.' ʻ .lelo ʻia nā ʻepekema Kina ma waenakonu o COVID-19. ʻO Jon Cohen. Lulai 24, 2020.

ʻEpekema. Pane i ka makasina ʻepekema: Shi Zhengli Q&A. Shi Zhengli. Lulai 15, 2020.

Minerva. Kūkulu nā ʻōlelo kūpale i ka kānalua i ka ʻike maka Kina. ʻO Aksel Fridstrøm. Kepakemapa 10, 2020. 

Minerva. ʻO ka wehewehe kūpono loa ia mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua. ʻO Aksel Fridstrøm lāua ʻo Nils August Andresen. Lulai 2, 2020. 

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ke kūkulu nei ka hihia i loaʻa iā COVID-19 kahi kumu lab. ʻO Jonathan Latham lāua ʻo Allison Wilson. 5 Iune 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. ʻO kahi kumu i manaʻo ʻia no ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2 a me ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19. ʻO Jonathan Latham lāua ʻo Allison Wilson. Lulai 15, 2020.

ʻO Sam Husseini Blog. Ke nīnau nei i ka CDC: He kuhi kūpono piha loa kā kā Kina BSL4 wale nō ma Wuhan? Audio a me ke wikiō. Sam Husseini. ʻApelila 17, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. Ua hoʻohana nā ʻepekema ʻo Wuhan a me US i nā ʻano undetectable o ka hana ʻenekinia ma nā cor coronavirus. ʻO Jonathan Matthews lāua ʻo Claire Robinson. Mei 20, 2020. 

ʻO ka mea kākau moʻolelo hana hewa. Andrew Kailrell ma ke kumu o COVID-19. Russell Mokhiber. ʻAukake 11, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. Ua hoʻolālā ʻenekini ʻia ka maʻi COVID-19? ʻO Jonathan Matthews. ʻApelila 22, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. No ke aha e hoʻopakele ai nā labialial denialists i kēlā mau wahaheʻe kolohe ʻole? ʻO Jonathan Matthews. Iune 17, 2020. 

ʻO ke kuʻina. I loko o kāna Zeal e hōʻino aku iā Kina no Coronavirus, ke hoʻomake nei ke Keʻena Hoʻokele i nā noiʻi i nā kumu kumu o ka Pandemi. ʻO Mara Hvistendahl. Mei 19, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Kapa inoa ʻo WHO i ka laina no nā kime o ka honua e nānā nei i nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Simone McCarthy. Nowemapa 25, 2020.

Kūpono ʻole a me ke kāohi ʻana i nā hōʻike e pili ana iā COVID-19

hui pu Press. Kūleʻa ʻo Kina i ka huli huna no nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Dake Kang, ʻo Maria Cheng lāua ʻo Sam McNeil. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. Ma ka honua ma Wuhan, nā hōʻailona o Kina e kū nei i ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Jeremy ʻAoʻao a me Natasha Khan. Mei 12, 2020.

The New York Times. 25 mau lā i hoʻololi i ka honua: Pehea ʻo Covid-19 i hemo ai i kā China hopu. ʻO Chris Buckley, ʻo David D. Kirkpatrick, ʻo Amy Qin lāua ʻo Javier C. Hernández. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

ʻO ka New York Times. Ua hoʻopaʻi ʻia ka mea kākau moʻolelo kamaʻāina Kina no 4 mau makahiki no ka hōʻike ʻana o Covid. ʻO Vivian Wang. Kekemapa 28, 2020.

ʻO ProPublica. Hōʻike i nā Palapala Pūʻali Pehea ka Kōkua o ko Kina Pūʻali Pūnaewele Pūnaewele i Censor ka Coronavirus. Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur, Aaron Krolik lāua ʻo Jeff Kao. Kekemapa 19, 2020.

The New York Times. Hoʻowalewale ʻo Kina i nā mea wahaheʻe e pahu i ka manaʻo i hele mai ka maʻi mai kahi ʻē aʻe. ʻO Javier C. Hernández. Kekemapa 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. Ke paʻakikī nei ʻo Kina e hoʻonā i ka mea pohihihi o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o Covid. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

waiwai Times. Hoʻonui ka pāpāho Kina i ka hoʻouka e ʻimi probe i loko o nā kumu Covid. Kahuhipa Karistiano. Nowemapa 26, 2020.

Nūhou Sky Australia. Hōʻike nā leka uila i hōʻike ʻia 'ʻaʻohe ʻoiaʻiʻo a transparency' i ka leka e pili ana i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO Sharri Markson. Nowemapa 22, 2020.

ʻO nā ulia pōpilikia, nā liu, nā paʻa paʻa ʻole, nā ʻole transparency i nā pono biosafety

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. ʻO nā makaʻu o ke kūkulu ʻana i nā labina bio he nui loa. ʻO Elisabeta Eaves. 18 Malaki 2020. 

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Hewa o kānaka ma nā labs biocontainment kiʻekiʻe: kahi hoʻoweliweli paha i ka maʻi pandemia. ʻO Lynn Klotz. Pepeluali 25, 2019. 

ʻO James Martin Center no ka Nonproliferation Nā haʻawina. Kahi alakaʻi no ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu kumu kumu: kūlohelohe i ka Laboratory. ʻO Richard Pilch, Miles Pomper, Jill Lustre, a me Filippa Lentzos. ʻOkakopa 2020.

ProPublica. Eia ʻeono mau pōʻino i loaʻa i nā mea noiʻi a UNC me nā coronavirus i hana ʻia e ka lab. ʻO Alison Young lāua ʻo Jessica Blake. ʻAukake 17, 2020. 

CBC. Ua hoʻouna ka ʻepekema Kanada i nā maʻi ʻino i Wuhan hale hana ma mua o ka noi ʻana o RCMP e noiʻi. Iune 16, 2020.

Ka Nūhou Ka Nūhou. Hōʻike nā hōʻike loiloi CDC e pili hou ana e pili ana i ka kāohi noiʻi USAMRIID. Heather Mongilio. Nowemapa 23, 2019. 

Nā kikowaena no ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi a me ka pale ʻana (CDC) a me ka US ʻoihana mahiʻai. Ke Keʻena ʻImi ʻImi ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa o nā Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID): ka wehewehe o nā wehewehe ʻana i nā ʻike loiloi. ʻAukake 2019.

Keʻena Luna Wae Aupuni o US. Nā keʻena hoʻokolohua paʻa kiʻekiʻe: nā kulekele piha a me nā loina hou a me nā ʻano ʻoi aku ka ikaika e pono ai e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka palekana. ʻApelila 19, 2016. GAO-16-305. 

USA I kēia lā. 10 hanana i loaʻa ma biolabs a ka lāhui. ʻO Alison Young lāua ʻo Nick Penzenstadler. Mei 29, 2015. 

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Pakele nā ​​pandemics hoʻoweliweli a me nā keʻena hoʻokolohua: nā wanana hoʻokō ponoʻī. ʻO Martin Furmanski. 31 Malaki 2014.

Ke kikowaena no ka Mākau ʻAilima a me ka Nonproliferation. Nā ʻĀkena Laboratory a me nā "wānana hoʻokō ponoʻī" Epidemics. ʻO Martin Furmanski. Pepeluali 17, 2014.

ʻĀnaka ʻImi Nū Aupuni. Nā pahuhopu biosecurity o ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka honua i nā keʻena hoʻokolohuaolaola paʻa paʻa: hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o kahi papa hana. 2012. Wakinekona, DC: ʻO ka National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13315 

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. ʻO ka hoʻolohe ʻana i nā mikamina, nā mea ʻino, a me nā mea huna: ka hoʻolaha nui ʻana o nā bio-laboratories ma United States, 110th Ka Ahaolelo. ʻOkakopa 4, 2007.

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. Ke hoʻolohe nei i ka Federal Overversment of High-Containment Biolaboratories, hoʻokahi haneli ʻumikūmākahi kaukanaʻōlelo. Kepakemapa 22, 2009.

BMJ. ʻO nā uhaʻi ʻana o nā kānāwai palekana ka kumu o ke kū ʻana o ka maʻi SARS i kēia manawa, i ʻōlelo ʻo WHO. ʻO Jane Parry. Mei 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

Nūhou ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa. ʻO ka mōʻaukala lōʻihi o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua pōʻino i hoʻokuʻu ʻia o nā pathogens pandemia hiki ke nānā ʻia ʻole i ka COVID-19 pāpāho. Sam Husseini. 5 Mei 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. COVID-19: He ala ala no ka biosafety. ʻO Jonathan Matthews. ʻApelila 24, 2020. 

USA I kēia lā. ʻAʻole hiki iā CDC ke hōʻike i nā hanana lab me nā pathogens bioterror i ka ʻAhaʻolelo. ʻO Alison Young. 24 Iune 2016.

Global Times. Hoʻopuka ʻia ke kulekele biosafety e hoʻoponopono i nā loopholes hoʻokele mau ma nā labs virus. ʻO Liu Caiyu lāua ʻo Leng Shumei. Pepeluali 16, 2020.

CBS News. Nānā: Hoʻololi ka hui ʻo US i ka pane a Ebola. Ka Nupepa Hui. 7 Malaki 2016. 

ʻO GMWatch. ʻO ke kumumanaʻo censor labens theory no SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Claire Robinson. Lulai 16, 2020. 

Pūnaewele o ka biodefense a me ka biowarfare 

ʻO Salon. Ua hele mai kēia maʻi ma kahi hale hōʻikeʻike? ʻAʻole paha - akā hōʻike ia i ka hoʻoweliweli o ka heihei kaua biowarfare. Sam Husseini. ʻApelila 24, 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ua hūnā ʻo Peter Daszak's EcoHealth Alliance ma kahi o $ 40 Miliona i ka Pentagon Funding a me Militarized Pandemic Science.. Sam Husseini. Kekemapa 16, 2020.

ʻO Sam Husseini Blog. Ke hoʻohuli nei i kā mākou maka mai ka biowarfare: pandemics a me nā wanana hoʻokō ponoʻī. Sam Husseini. Mei 2020. 

Ka Poepoe honua o Bosetona. ʻO ka maunu o nā meaola lāʻau. ʻO Bernard Lown lāua ʻo Prasannan Parthasarathi. Pepeluali 23, 2005. 

ʻO Monterey Institute of Studies International. Pekina ma nā biohazards: ʻO ka loea Kina i nā pilikia nonproliferation biowe armas. ʻO Amy E. Smithson, Luna Hoʻoponopono. ʻAukake 2007. Ke Keʻena ʻo James Martin No ka Haʻawina Nonproliferation.

Nā moʻomeheu make: mau mea kaua biological mai 1945. ʻO Mark Wheelis, ʻo Lajos Rózsa, a ʻo Malcolm Dando (Luna hoʻoponopono). Hale Paʻi Kula ʻo Harvard University, 2006.

ʻO Biowarfare a me ka hoʻoweliweli. Francis Boyle. 2005. Clarity Press, Inc.

Ka pale ʻana i ka heihei lima biological. ʻO Susan Wright (Luna Hooponopono). ʻO ka MIT Press, 1990. 

ʻO Biohazard. ʻO Ken Alibek me Stephen Handelman. Hale Random: Nu Ioka, 1999. 

Nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa no ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila

ʻO ka National Academies Press. Nā pilikia kūpono a me nā pōmaikaʻi o ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana: hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o kahi papa hana. 2015. 

Forbes. E ʻae mākou i nā ʻepekema e hana i nā virus-weliweli weliweli? ʻO Steven Salzberg. ʻOkakopa 20, 2014. 

ʻO ka Pūʻulu Hana ʻo Cambridge. ʻO ka ʻōlelo kūkā a ka Pūʻulu Hana ʻo Cambridge e pili ana i ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o nā pathogens pandemic (PPP). Iulai 14, 2014. 

mBio. Hiki i ka palena ʻepekema waiwai o nā hoʻokolohua pathogen pandomy kūpono ke hōʻoia i nā pilikia? ʻO Marc Lipsitch. ʻOkakopa 14, 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02008-14 

mBio. ʻImi e pili ana i ka H5N1 Influenza Virus Kino Pathogenic: Ke Ala i mua. Anthony S. Fauci. Kepakemapa-ʻOkakopa 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. hana: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

Hoʻolapa ʻo PLoS. Nā koho ʻē aʻe i nā hoʻokolohua me nā pathogens pandemic hiki. ʻO Marc Lipsitch lāua ʻo Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. hana: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Nā pepa ʻepekema e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

Nā Palapala Kemika Kūlohelohe. Ke ʻimi nei i nā kumu o SARS-COV-2 i nā maʻi maʻi coronavirus: he loiloi. ʻO Erwan Sallard, ʻo José Halloy, ʻo Didier Casane, ʻo Etienne Decroly a ʻo Jacques van Helden. Pepeluali 4, 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-020-01151-1

ʻO ka Lancet. Nā hiʻohiʻona maʻi o nā maʻi i loaʻa i ka 2019 coronavirus novel ma Wuhan, Kina. Chaolin Huang et al. Ianuali 30, 2020. Volume 395: 497-506. 

ʻAno. Hoʻopuka kahi maʻi pneumonia e pili ana i kahi coronavirus hou o ke kumu ʻōpeʻapeʻa paha. Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… a me Zheng-Li Shi. Pepeluali 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. hana: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

ʻAno. Pākuʻi: kahi maʻi pneumonia i pili me kahi coronavirus hou o ke kumu ʻōpeʻapeʻa paha. Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… a me Zheng-Li Shi. Nowemapa 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z

ʻO ke kino Medicine. ʻO ke kumu kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes, Robert F. Garry. ʻApelila 2020. Volume 26, ʻaoʻao 450-455. 

Ka Nupepa o Virology Lapaʻau. Nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kumu kokoke o SARS-CoV-2. Murat Seyran, Damiano Pizzol, Parise Adadi… a me Adam M. Brufsky. Kepakemapa 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

ʻO BioEssays. Hiki paha i kahi SARS-CoV ‐ 2 ke ala aʻe i kahi ala serial ma waena o kahi mea hoʻokipa holoholona a i ʻole ka moʻomeheu cell? ʻO Karl Sirotkin lāua ʻo Dan Sirotkin. ʻAukake 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Nā palena o ke olakino lehulehu. ʻO nā hihia pneumonia make ma nā miners ʻo Mojiang (2012) a hiki i ka mineshaft ke hāʻawi i nā hōʻailona koʻikoʻi i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Monali Rahalkar lāua ʻo Rahul Bahulikar. Kepakemapa 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

ʻO BioEssays. ʻO ka ʻōnaehana genetic o ka SARS-CoV-2 ʻaʻole e kāpae i kahi kumu ʻenehana. Rossana Segreto a ʻO Yuri Deigin. Nowemapa 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRohana. Hoʻololi maikaʻi ʻo SARS-CoV-2 no nā kānaka. He aha ka manaʻo o kēia no ke ala hou? Shing Hei Zhan, Benjamin E. Deverman, Yujia Alina Chan. Mei 2, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

Zenodo. Ma hea kahi i hoʻomaka ai ka maʻi maʻi maʻi 2019 Coronavirus a pehea i hoʻolaha ai? ʻO ka haukapila ʻo ka Liberation Army ma Wuhan Kina a me ka laina 2 o ka Wuhan Metro System e pane nei i nā pane. ʻO Steven Carl Quay. ʻOkakopa 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

Zenodo. Hoʻopau kahi loiloi Bayesian ma mua o kahi kānalua kūpono ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ʻAʻole ia he zoonosis kūlohelohe akā ma kahi o ke keʻena hoʻokolohua i loaʻa. ʻO Kauka Steven Quay. Ianuali 29, 2021.

Minerva. ʻO nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana ʻaʻole kēia he maʻi hoʻomaʻemaʻe kūlohelohe.. Birger Sørensen, Angus Dalgleish & Andres Susrud. Lulai 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ke noʻonoʻo nei paha i kahi kumu gen-manipulation no SARS-CoV-2 kahi kumumanaʻo kipi e pono ai e censored? ʻO Rossana Segreto lāua ʻo Yuri Deigin. ʻApelila 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

ʻPrlelo hoʻolaha. ʻO nā hopohopo nui e pili ana i ka ʻike ʻana o ka bat coravavirus kānana RaTG13 a me ka maikaʻi o ka pepa Nature like. Xiaoxu Lin, Shizhong Chen. Iune 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

ʻPrlelo hoʻolaha. ʻO ke ʻano kūlohelohe o ka hāpana swab fecal i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hoʻopili NGS o ke kaʻina genome RaTG13 e hoʻokau i kahi nīnau i ka pololei o ke kaʻina RaTG13. ʻO Monali Rahalkar lāua ʻo Rahul Bahulikar. ʻAukake 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Nā hoʻolaha OSF. ʻO COVID-19, SARS a me nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa coronaviruses genome genises RNA exogeneous i manaʻo ʻole ʻia. ʻO Jean-Claude Perez lāua ʻo Luc Montagnier. ʻApelila 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

Zenodo. Hoʻolālā nā kāne i nā kūleʻa genome coronavirus i hana ʻia e ke kāne. ʻO Jean-Claude Perez lāua ʻo Luc Montagnier. ʻAukake 2, 2020. 

Nā Microbes e kū mai ana. ʻAʻole kōkua ʻo HIV-1 i ka genome 2019-nCoV. Xiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang a me Gao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. hana: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

arXiv. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka silico o ka spike protein-ACE2 e hoʻopaʻa nei i nā affinities ma waena o nā laha; ke ʻano nui no ke kumu hiki ke loaʻa i ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2. Sakshi Piplani, Puneet Kumar Singh, David A. Winkler, Nikolai Petrovsky. Mei 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ke ʻike nei i nā coronavirus pili pili iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā pangolins Malayan. Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- Fang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, Gabriel M. Leung, Edward C. Holmes, Yan-Ling Hu, Yi Guan & Wu-Chun Cao. 26 Malaki 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Nā Polokalamu PLoS. ʻO pangolins ke kikowaena waena o ka coronavirus novel novel (SARS-CoV-2019) 2? Ping Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Mei 14, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia o ka coronavirus e pili ana i ka SARS-CoV-2 mai nā pangolins Malayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi She. Mei 7, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Ke lāʻo Biology. Loaʻa paha ʻo Pangolin kumu o SARS-CoV-2 i hui pū ʻia me ka maʻi COVID-19. Tao Zhang, Qunfu Wu, Zhigang Zhang. 19 Malaki 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Kahi kumu o nā panolin CoVs me kahi like o Spike RBD i SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yujia Alina Chan lāua ʻo Shing Hei Zhan. ʻOkakopa 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

ʻO ka maʻi, Genetics a me ka Evolution. COVID-19: Ka manawa e exonerate i ka pangolin mai ka lawe ʻana o SARS-CoV-2 i nā kānaka. ʻO Roger Frutos, ʻo Jordi Serra-Cobo, ʻo Tianmu Chen lāua ʻo Christian A. Devaux. Volume 84, ʻOkakopa 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRohana. ʻAʻohe hōʻike o nā coronaviruses a i ʻole nā ​​virus ʻē aʻe i hiki i ka Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) ke komo i ke kālepa holoholona hihiu ma o Malaysia.. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Iune 19, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Pūnae. ʻO kahi kuanaʻike genomic e pili ana i ke kumu a me ka puka ʻana o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yong-Zhen Zhang, ʻo Edward C. Holmes. ʻApelila 2020 181 (2): 223-227. hana: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

ʻO Biology. Pili kekahi pili ʻōpeʻapeʻa coronavirus pili loa iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā hoʻokomo kūlohelohe ʻana ma ka pūnaewele cleavage S1 / S2 o ka pūnana spike. ʻO Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, a Weifeng Shi. Iune 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia ka bat coravavirus RmYN02 e ka holoi ʻana 6-nucleotide ma ka huina S1 / S2, a kānalua loa ka mea i hoʻokomo ʻia ʻo PAA. ʻO Yuri Deigin lāua ʻo Rossana Segreto. Kekemapa 1, 2020.

Zenodo. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona maʻamau o ka genome SARS-CoV-2 e hōʻike nei i ka hoʻololi ʻana o ka hale hana maʻalahi ma mua o ka hoʻolālā kūlohelohe a me ka wehewehe ʻana o kāna ala synthetic hiki.. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, a me Shanchang Hu. Kepakemapa 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Johns Hopkins Center no ka palekana olakino. I ka pane: Yan et al Preprint Examinations o ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Kelsey Lane Warmbrod, Rachel M. West, Nancy D. Connell lāua ʻo Gigi Kwik Gronvall. Kepakemapa 21, 2020.

Zenodo. Kuhi ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 Spillover i ka manawa o 2019 Nānā i nā Laʻana mai kahi Mineshaft ma Mojiang, Yunnan Province, Kina. Inoa inoa ʻole Kepakemapa 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Nā ʻatikala blog ʻimi noiʻi e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

Medium. Hana-Lab? ʻO ka moʻokūʻauhau SARS-CoV-2 ma o nā aniani o ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila. ʻO Yuri Deigin. ʻApelila 22, 2020.

Medium. Nā mea hoʻomaʻi weliweli a me kahi e loaʻa ai iā lākou. Moreno Colaiacovo. Nowemapa 15, 2020.

Wahi. ʻO ka hōʻiliʻili ʻikepili hōʻeuʻeu o nā hihia Covid-19 i manaʻo ʻia ma Wuhan. Gilles Demaneuf. ʻOkakopa 15, 2020.

Ua noi aku ka mea hoʻoponopono nūpepa pili Kina i ke kōkua e hoʻohuli i ke kuhiakau o Covid-19

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ʻO ka luna hoʻoponopono o kahi puke pai ʻepekema me nā pilina me Kina i kauoha ʻia a commentary e hōʻole i ke kuhiakau i loaʻa mai ka moʻolelo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 mai kahi lab, e like me nā leka uila i kiʻi ʻia e US Right to Know.

Ua hoʻokūpaʻa ka ʻōlelo i ka moʻolelo ʻepekema o ka maopopo e pili ana i nā kumu kūlohelohe o SARS-CoV-2, ʻo ka maʻi hoʻomaʻamaʻa ke kumu o Covid-19, he mau pule wale nō ma hope o ka ua hōʻike mua ʻia ka ʻōhū ma Wuhan, Kina.

ʻO ka ʻae a ka puke pai i ka ʻōlelo hoʻopuka no ka paʻi ʻana ma waena o 12 mau hola o kona waiho ʻana e hōʻike ana i kahi kaʻina loiloi kūlana kiʻekiʻe e ka paʻi ʻepekema e hana i kahi manaʻo politika.

ʻO ka ʻōlelo hoʻopuka, i kākau ʻia e nā virologists o US, i paʻi ʻia a puni ka manawa like me ʻepekema nā hōʻike a a olelo mai nā kānaka ʻepekema 27 i paʻi ʻia i loko o nā puke pai like ʻole i hōʻike ʻia he kumu maoli kā ka coronavirus hou.

ka hōʻike ʻO ka luna hoʻoponopono, ʻo Shan Lu o ke Kula Lapaʻau o Ke Kulanui o Massachusetts, ua noi i ka ʻōlelo no ka puke pai Nā Microbes e kū mai ana (Emi) hāpai i nā nīnau e pili ana inā aia ʻike ma waena o nā pono politika a me ʻepekema e kūlike me nā Ke kūlana aupuni o Kina ma kēia hoʻopaʻapaʻa loa hoʻopuka.

ʻO ka puke pai hoʻoponopono is lawelawe ʻia na Shanghai Shangyixun Cultural Communication Co. ma Kina, i ka laulima ʻana me ka mea hoʻopuka ʻo Taylor & Francis, i hoʻokumu ʻia ma ʻEnelani. He mau luna hoʻoponopono o ka puke pai a me nā lālā o ka papa aia ma Kina, me nā hui pū kekahi me ke aupuni Kina.

Emi ʻO nā lālā o ka papa ʻo Shibo Jiang ma ke Kula Lapaʻau o ke Kulanui ʻo Fudan a ʻo Yuelong Shu ma ke Kulanui ʻo Sun-Yat Sen i waena o ka hui o nā ʻepekema Kina ka mea i ʻimi e hoʻololi i ka inoa o ka coronavirus hou e hoʻokaʻawale iā ia mai Kina; ʻO Dong Xiaoping kahi luna aupuni ma ke Keʻena Kina no ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi, ʻo ia ka loea helu ʻelua ma ka ʻaoʻao Kina o ka Pepeluali 2020 huakaʻi me ka World Health Organization e wehewehe i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

ʻO ke poʻo manaʻo o Pepeluali 2020 ke poʻo inoa "ʻAʻohe mea hōʻoiaʻiʻo e kākoʻo ana i nā koi o ka ʻenehana ʻenehana o SARS-CoV-2," a ua kākau ʻia e nā virologists ʻo Shan-Lu Liu lāua ʻo Linda Saif o ke Kulanui o Ohio State. ʻO Susan Weiss o ke Kulanui o Pennsylvania; a ʻo Lishan Su, ka mea i pili i kēlā manawa me ke Kulanui o North Carolina. Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā mea kākau i kā lākou ʻatikala e kūʻē ana i ka hiki i ka SARS-CoV-2 i hoʻomaka ʻia mai kahi leak o kahi lab coronavirus i kapa ʻia Kahiwa13 ka mea, ua e noho ana ma loko o Kina Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).

ʻO ka WIV ka hale noiʻi poʻokela coronavirus poʻokela loa a loaʻa he mau mile wale nō mai ka pūnaewele o ka hōʻike mua ʻia ma Wuhan, Kina. Ua hoʻokuʻu pū nā mea kākau i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā loli i pili i nā maʻi e pili ana i ka SARS hana na ka ʻepekema WIV i ka laulima ʻana me kahi keʻena nui o ke Kulanui o North Carolina i lilo i kumu no SARS-CoV-2.

I kēia lā, ʻepekema WIV a me nā luna aupuni aupuni Kina ʻaʻole hāʻawi komo nā ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa i ka Hōkeo ʻikepili ʻo WIV o nā coronaviruses ʻōpeʻapeʻa.

ʻAe wikiwiki

I hoʻokahi Pepeluali 11, 2020 mail, Ua kono ʻo Liu iā Saif e lilo i mea kākau kākau ma kahi kikoʻī "kokoke loa" o "kahi ʻōlelo e pili ana i ke kumu o ka 2019-nCoV a i ʻole SARSCoV-2 i mea e paio ai kekahi mau lono." Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Liu i ka leka uila ua kākau ʻo ia i ka manaʻo me Su ma ke kono a ka luna hoʻoponopono o Nā Microbes e kū mai ana.

ʻAe ʻo Saif e hui pū, ka hoʻohālikelike: "Ua hoʻoponopono wau i kēia mana a hoʻohui i koʻu inoa ʻoiai ke manaʻo nui nei wau e pili ana i ka hōʻino ʻana i kēia."

ʻO Saif kahi kaʻawale kahi mea kau inoa i ka olelo i paʻiʻia ʻO ka Lancet ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia kēlā mau leka uila e EcoHealth Alliance's Peter Daszak. ʻO EcoHealth Alliance kahi hui waiwai ʻole i loaʻa loaʻa nā kālā he miliona of Luna ʻauhau US kālā i manipulate genetically nā maʻi maʻi, me nā ʻepekema hoʻi ma ka ʻO Wuhan Institute o Virology.

Ma Pepeluali 12, 2020, ʻo Liu kekahi kono ʻO Professor Weiss kekahi mea kākau pū, a ua ʻae koke ʻo ia.

Liu i hoʻounaʻia ka palapala ma ke ahiahi o Pepeluali 12, a ma loko o 12 mau hola, ke keʻena hoʻoponopono o Shanghai me ka puke pai lawe maikai nei ka pepa, me hoʻokahi loiloi loiloi e hōʻike nei: "He ʻōlelo haʻi ʻōlelo kēia manawa. Kākau maikaʻi ʻia ... ʻ suggestlelo aku nei au e paʻi koke. ”

Ma Pepeluali 2020, Emi paʻi ʻelua mau manaʻo hou aʻe, nā mea āpau i ke kūlana o ke aupuni Kina e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

  • a Pepeluali 4 commentary i kapa ʻia ʻo "HIV-1 ʻaʻole i hāʻawi i ka genome 2019-nCoV" e nā ʻepekema Kina i hoʻokumu ʻia e US me nā pili i nā kula Kina; a
  • a Pepeluali 28 commentary me ke poʻo inoa "No SAREA-CoV-2 mai ka hale hana? Kahi i hōʻole ʻia i ke kuleana o ka hoʻokumu ʻana ma o ka hoʻohui hou ʻana o ka hale hana,

Ke hoʻomau nei ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa Origins 

ʻO ka poʻe loea nāna i kākau ka Emi ʻaʻole manaʻo ka manaʻo ma nā hale WIV hoʻopuka ʻole ʻia ʻO nā coronaviruses pili pili i ka SARS, i hiki ke lawelawe ʻia ma ke ʻano he anakuhi no ke kumu lab o SARS-CoV-2, e like me i kekahi poʻe ʻepekema. I kēia lā, ke koe nei ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa e pili ana i ke kumu o ka maʻi hamama, a aia no e ulu ana Kāhea e makaikai kūlohelohe a me nā hiʻohiʻona lab-origin.

ʻO Stanford Professor David Relman kakau iho la i ka PNAS ʻatikala e kūʻē ana i nā hanana ʻenekini kūkākūkā ʻia "ʻaʻole e hōʻoia i ka hiki ke ʻike ʻia he ʻelua a ʻoi paha mau kūpuna i hōʻike ʻole ʻia (ʻo ia hoʻi, ʻo nā kūpuna kokoke ma mua o RaTG13 a me RmYN02) a ua aʻo ʻia i loko o kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua - no ka laʻana, hoʻokahi me ka ʻO ka backbone o ka SARS-CoV-2 a me ka spike protein-binding domain, a ʻo kekahi me ka pūnaewele cleavage furbasage SARS-CoV-2 polybasic. He hana kūpono hou ia e noʻonoʻo ai e pili ana i nā waiwai o ka virus recombinant a laila hana ia i loko o ke keʻena hoʻokolohua. "

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

ʻO nā leka uila a ke Kulanui o Ohio State Professor Linda Saif, a US Right to Know i loaʻa ma o kahi noi moʻolelo lehulehu, hiki ke loaʻa ma aneʻi: Nā leka uila Saif pūʻulu # 1: Ke Kulanui o Ohio State (Nānā 303)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai no kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

ʻAoʻao kāʻei kua ma ka US Right to Know ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

Ua ʻimi nā ʻepekema Kina e hoʻololi i ka inoa o ka coronavirus make e hoʻokaʻawale iā ia mai Kina

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I nā lā mua o ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19, ua hoʻāʻo kahi hui o nā ʻepekema e pili ana me ke aupuni o Kina e hoʻokaʻawale i ka coronavirus mai Kina ma o ka hoʻohuli ʻana i kāna inoa inoa. ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia ua ʻike mua ʻia ka maʻi ma Wuhan, Kina, ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema ua makaʻu lākou e ʻike ʻia ka maʻi ʻo "Wuhan coronavirus" a i ʻole "Wuhan pneumonia," nā leka uila i loaʻa na US Pono e ʻike i ka hōʻike.

Hōʻike nā leka uila i mua i ke kaua ʻike i hoʻokumu ʻia e ke aupuni Kina e hoʻokino i ka moʻolelo e pili ana i ke kumu o ka nūhou coronavirus.

ʻO ka inoa o ka maʻi "he mea nui i ka poʻe Kina" a me nā kuhikuhi e pili ana i ka maʻi i hōʻike iā Wuhan "stigmatize and insid" Wuhan mau kamaʻāina, nā leka mai nā lā ʻo Pepeluali 2020.

ʻO ka mea kikoʻī ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā ʻepekema Kina i ka inoa loea kūhelu i hāʻawi ʻia i ka maʻi - "koʻikoʻi respiratory respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" - ʻaʻole wale "paʻakikī e hoʻomanaʻo a ʻike" akā "" hoʻopunipuni maoli nō "no ka mea pili ia ka mea hoʻomaʻi hou i ka maʻi SARS-CoV 2003 i hoʻomaka ma Kina.

Ua kapa ʻia ka maʻi e ka Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) o ke Kōmike Hoʻomalu e pili ana iā Virus Taxonomy (ICTV).

ʻO Wuhan Institute of Virology ʻepekema ʻo Zhengli Shi, ka mea nāna i alakaʻi i ka inoa hou hana, i ho'ākāka ʻia i loko o kahi leka uila i ke Kulanui o North Carolina virologist ʻo Ralph Baric, "kahi kūkākūkā ikaika i waena o nā virologists Kina" ma luna o ka inoa SARS-CoV-2.

ʻO Deyin Guo, ka mea ma mua o ke Kula Nui o Biomedical Science o Wuhan University a me ka mea kākau o ka noi hoʻololi hoʻololi inoa, kakau iho la i nā lālā CSG ua hōʻole lākou i ke kūkākūkā ʻana i kā lākou koho inoa ʻana me "virologists me nā ʻike mua loa [ili] o ka maʻi maʻi a me nā mea wehewehe mua o ka maʻi ”mai Kina ʻāina nui.

"ʻAʻole kūpono i ka hoʻohana ʻana i hoʻokahi inoa virus ma muli o ka maʻi (e like me SARS-CoV) e inoa i nā maʻi kūlohelohe ʻē aʻe āpau o ka ʻano like akā he ʻokoʻa loa nā waiwai," kākau ʻo ia i ka leka i hoʻouna ʻia ma kona ʻaoʻao a ʻelima mau ʻepekema ʻē aʻe o Kina.

Ua hoʻolālā ka hui i kahi inoa koho - "Transmissible respiratory respiratory coronavirus (TARS-CoV). ʻO kekahi koho ʻē aʻe, i ʻōlelo ʻia, ʻo ia ka "Human acute respiratory coronavirus (HARS-CoV)."

Ua kākau ʻia ka pae leka uila e hōʻike kikoʻī nei i ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka inoa iā CSG Chair John Ziebuhr.

Hōʻike nā leka i kūʻē ʻo Ziebuhr i ka manaʻo o ka hui Kina. Ua pane ʻo ia "ʻo ka inoa ʻo SARS-CoV-2 e hoʻopili ana i kēia maʻi i nā mea ʻino ʻē aʻe (i kapa ʻia ʻo SARS-CoVs a i ʻole SARSr-CoVs) i kēia ʻano e like me ka virus prototype o nā mea ulu ma mua o ka maʻi i hoʻouluulu i ka inoa o kēia prototype virus ma kahi o 20 mau makahiki i hala. Hoʻohana ʻia ka suffix -2 ma ke ʻano he mea ʻike kū hoʻokahi a hōʻike ʻia ʻo SARS-Co V-2 he ANOTHER (akā pili loa) i kēia maʻi. "

ʻO kā China hui kūʻāina nona ka mokuʻāina ʻo CGTN hoike hooikaika hou ana i Malaki 2020 e nā virologists Kina e kapa hou i ka inoa SARS-CoV-2 ma ke ʻano he coronavirus kanaka 2019 (HCoV-19), ʻaʻole pū kekahi i hui pū ʻia me ka CSG.

Ke kapa nei i ka maʻi hoʻomaʻamaʻa ahulau - ke kuleana o ka World Health Organization (WHO) - he pinepine ia hoʻopiʻi politika hoʻoikaika kino i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻauhau ʻana.

I ka wā i laha mua o ka H5N1 flu ʻo ka virus i kū aʻe ma Kina, ua hoʻokau ke aupuni Kina i ka WHO e hana i nomenclature e hoʻopaʻa ʻole i nā inoa virus i kā lākou mōʻaukala a i ʻole nā ​​wahi i hele mai ai.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

Nā leka uila a ke Kulanui o North Carolina ʻo Professor Ralph Baric, kahi a US Right to Know i loaʻa mai ma o kahi noi moʻolelo lehulehu, hiki ke loaʻa ma aneʻi: ʻO nā leka uila Baric # 2: Ke Kulanui o North Carolina (Nānā 332)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai no kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

ʻAoʻao kāʻei kua ma ka US Right to Know ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

Hōʻike nā leka uila i ka poʻe ʻepekema i kūkākūkā e pili ana i kā lākou komo ʻana i ka palapala puke pai e pili ana i nā kumu o Covid

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ʻO ka pelekikena ʻo EcoHealth Alliance Peter Daszak, ke poʻo o kahi hui i pili i ka noiʻi ʻana i genetically manipulate coronaviruses, ua kūkākūkā e hūnā i kāna kuleana i kahi ʻōlelo i paʻi ʻia i ka makahiki i hala i ʻO ka Lancet i hoʻohewa ʻia ma ke ʻano he "thepirates theories" hopohopo e pili ana ka maʻi virus COVID-19 i loko o kahi keʻena noiʻi, ua loaʻa nā leka uila i loaʻa e US Right to Know.

ʻO ka ʻōlelo Lancet, i pūlima ʻia e 27 ʻepekema koʻikoʻi, he mea nui i ka hoʻopau ʻana i nā manaʻo kānalua e kekahi poʻe ʻepekema e hiki i ka COVID-19 ke pili i ka Wuhan Institute of Virology o Kina, a he pili pili noiʻi kēia na ka EcoHealth Alliance.

Ua kākau ʻo Daszak i ka ʻōlelo a hoʻolaha iā ia i nā ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e kau inoa. Akā ʻo ka leka uila hōʻike iā Daszak a me ʻelua mau ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e pili ana iā EcoHealth i manaʻo ʻaʻole pono e kau inoa i ka ʻōlelo i mea e uhi ai i kā lākou komo pū i loko. Ke waiho nei i ko lākou inoa mai ka ʻōlelo e hāʻawi iā ia "kahi mamao mai iā mākou a no laila ʻaʻole holo i kahi ala counterproductive," kākau ʻo Daszak.

Ua hoʻomaopopo ʻo Daszak hiki iā ia ke "hoʻouna a puni" i nā ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e kau inoa. "E hoʻokuʻi mākou i kahi ala i ʻole e hoʻopili iā ia i kā mākou hana pū ʻana no laila e hoʻonui mākou i kahi leo kūʻokoʻa," i kākau ʻo ia.

Ua kākau nā ʻepekema ʻelua ʻo Daszak e pili ana i ka pono e hōʻike kūʻokoʻa ka pepa iā EcoHealth, he loea coronavirus ʻo Ralph Baric lāua ʻo Linfa Wang.

Ma nā leka uila, ua ʻae ʻo Baric me kā Daszak manaʻo e ʻaʻole pūlima ʻO ka Lancet ʻōlelo, kākau ʻana "Inā ʻaʻole ia e nānā pono iā ia iho, a lilo kā mākou hopena."

Ua kau inoa ʻo Daszak i ka ʻōlelo iā ia iho, akā ʻaʻole ʻo ia i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he alakaʻi alakaʻi a mea hoʻomalu paha o ka hana.

ʻO nā leka uila kahi ʻāpana o kahi tranche o nā palapala i kiʻi ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike ana i ka hana ʻana ʻo Daszak mai ka wā ma mua o ka makahiki i hala e hōʻino ai ke kuhiakau i kulu paha ka SARS-CoV-2 mai ka Ke Kula ʻo Wuhan.

ʻO ka hōʻike mua ʻia o COVID-19 ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Wuhan.

Pono ʻo US e ʻike mamua ua hōʻike ua kākau ʻo Daszak i ka ʻōlelo no ʻO ka Lancet, a hoʻonohonoho ʻia ia i "ʻAʻole e ʻike ʻia e hele mai ana mai kekahi hui a kanaka paha" akā e ʻike ʻia ma "Kahi leka mai nā ʻepekema alakaʻi".

ʻO EcoHealth Alliance kahi hui nonprofit ma Nu Ioka i loaʻa he miliona miliona o ka ʻauhau ʻauhau US no ka genetically manipulate coronaviruses, me nā ʻepekema ma Wuhan Institute.

ʻO ka mea nui, ua puka mai ʻo Daszak ma ke ʻano he kikowaena kikoʻī i ka hoʻokolokolo kūhelu ʻana o kā SARS-CoV-2 kumu. He lālā ʻo ia o ka Pūnaewele o ka Honuake kime o ka poʻe loea e huli nei i ke kumu o ka coronavirus, a ʻO ka Lancet COVID 19 Komisina.

E ʻike i kā mākou hōʻike mua ʻana i kēia kumuhana: 

E kau inoa no kā mākou leka pepa manuahi e loaʻa ai nā lono hou i kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. 

Palapala ʻo University State ʻo Colorado ma ka noiʻi bat pathogen

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Hōʻike kēia pou i nā palapala o ke Kulanui ʻo Colorado State University (CSU) ʻo Rebeka Kading lāua ʻo Tony Schountz, kahi a US Right to Know i loaʻa mai kahi noi palapala lehulehu. ʻO Kading lāua ʻo Schountz he mau virologist e aʻo i nā pathogens pili i ka ʻōpeʻe i nā wahi wela o ka honua. Hana pū lākou me EcoHealth Alliance, ka US Department of Defense (DoD) a me ka Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), ka ʻimi noiʻi a me ka lima hoʻomohala o ka pūʻali koa US.

Hāʻawi nā palapala i kahi ʻike i ka pūʻali koa-kālaiʻike paʻakikī o nā ʻepekema ka mea e hoʻopaʻa naʻau pehea e pale ai i ka wai o nā pathogens pandemic kūpono mai nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa Hāpai nā palapala i nā nīnau e pili ana i nā pilikia contagion, no ka laʻana, no ka hoʻouna ʻana i nā opeapea a me nā ʻiole i loaʻa i nā maʻi maʻi weliweli. Loaʻa iā lākou kekahi mau mea koʻikoʻi ʻē aʻe, e like me:

  1. I Pepeluali 2017, nā mea hoʻonohonoho o DoD o ka Polokalamu Hoʻolālā Hoʻolālā Kūlohelohe ʻo Defense Threat Reduction Agency hai mai la kahi kuʻikahi ʻōpeʻapeʻa honua hou "e kūkulu a leverage i ka ʻāina a me nā pono āpana e hoʻonui i ka ʻike i ka ʻōpeʻapeʻa a me kā lākou kaolaola i loko o ka pōʻaiapili o nā pathogens o ka palekana. Pili pū me kēia, nā leka uila hoike kahi laulima ma waena o CSU, EcoHealth Alliance a me nā National Institutes of Health's Rocky Mountain Laboratories e kūkulu i kahi kahua noiʻi ʻōpeʻapeʻa ma CSU e hoʻonui i nā noiʻi maʻi ʻōpeʻapeʻa.
  2. Ua lilo ke kuikahi ʻōpeʻapeʻa honua i hui i kapa ʻia ʻo Bat One Health Research Network (BOHRN). Ma ka 2018, e hana pū ana nā ʻepekema BOHRN me DARPA ma kahi papahana i kapa ʻia ʻo PREEMPT. Nā moʻolelo CSU ma PREEMPT e hōʻike i nā Rocky Mountain Laboratories, CSU a me Montana State University ke hoʻomohala nei i nā lāʻau lapaʻau "scalable vectored" e hoʻolaha ʻia ma waena o nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa "e pale i ka puka ʻana a me ka ninini ʻana" o nā maʻi pandemi kūpono mai nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa i nā heluna kanaka. ʻO kā lākou pahuhopu ka hoʻomohala ʻana “pakuhi hoʻolahalaha pilikino iho ” - i pālahalaha nui ʻia ma waena o nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa - me ka lana o ka manaʻo e hoʻopau i nā pathogens i loko o kā lākou waihona wai holoholona ma mua o ka ninini ʻana i loko o ke kanaka. Hāpai kēia noiʻi nā mea pili e pili ana i nā hopena i makemake ʻole ʻia o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i nā ʻenekini hoʻolaha pilikino iā ia iho i kahi ākea, a me nā pōpilikia kaiaola o kā lākou ʻike ʻole i ka hoʻomohala, virulence a hoʻolaha.
  3. ʻO ka hoʻouna ʻana i nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa a me nā ʻiole i loaʻa i nā pathogens weliweli e hana i ka hiki ke hiki ke ninini ʻole ʻia i loko o ke kanaka. Ua kākau ʻo Tony Schountz iā EcoHealth Alliance VP Jonathan Epstein ma Malaki 30, 2020: "Ua lawe ʻo RML [Rocky Mountain Labs] i ka waihona wai maʻi Lassa ma o ka hānau ʻia ʻana i ʻApelika, a laila lawe pono ʻia nā keiki iā RML. Mai ʻike inā hiki ke hānau ʻia nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa lio ma ke pio, akā he ala ia e hōʻemi ai i nā hopohopo CDC. ” Virus Lassa ua pālahalaha ʻia e nā ʻiole i hopena i ʻApelika komohana. Hoʻokumu ia i kahi maʻi maʻi i kapa ʻia ʻo Lassa fever i nā kānaka, a hiki i kahi o 5,000 mau make i kēlā me kēia makahiki (1% ka helu make).
  4. Ma Pepeluali 10, 2020, Pelekikena ʻo EcoHealth Alliance Peter Daszak i hoʻouna leka uila noi i nā mea kau inoa no kahi kikoʻī o ka Lancet olelo "E hōʻahewa ikaika i nā manaʻo kipi kipi e hōʻike nei ʻaʻohe kumu kūlohelohe o 2019-nCoV." I ka leka uila, ua kākau ʻo Daszak: “Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Dr. Ua kākau ʻo Linda Saif, Jim Hughes, Rita Colwell, William Karesh a me Hume Field i kahi ʻōlelo maʻalahi o ke kākoʻo no nā ʻepekema, ke olakino olakino a me nā kauka olakino o Kina e hakakā nei i kēia ʻōpala (hoʻopili ʻia), a ke kono aku nei iā ʻoe e hui pū me mākou ma ke ʻano he inoa mua. ” ʻAʻole ʻo ia i haʻi i kāna hana ponoʻī i ke kākau ʻana i kēia ʻōlelo.  ʻO kā mākou hōʻike mua ʻana hoike mai i ʻO Daszak kope i ka ʻōlelo i paʻi ʻia ma ʻO ka Lancet.
  5. Ua kālepa ʻo Tony Schountz i nā leka uila me nā ʻepekema nui Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) ʻo Peng Zhou, Zhengli Shi a me Ben Hu. I loko o he leka uila i kākau ʻia ma ʻOkakopa 30, 2018, Ua noi aku ʻo Schountz iā Zhengli Shi i kahi "hui kaawale" ma waena o ka CSU's Arthropod-driven a me ka Infectious Disease Laboratory a me WIV, e pili pū ana me "ka laulima ʻana i nā papahana pili (e laʻa me nā arboviruse a me nā virus i hōʻali ʻia) a me ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i nā haumāna. Zhengli Shi pane maikaʻi i kā Schountz manaʻo. ʻAʻole hōʻike nā moʻolelo i ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o kahi ʻano like.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

Hiki ke loaʻa kahi loulou i ka pūʻulu holoʻokoʻa o ke Kulanui Makahiki ʻo Colorado ma aneʻi: Nā moʻolelo CSU

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala i loaʻa ma o ke noi ākea kūʻokoʻa o ka lehulehu (FOI) kā mākou noiʻi Biohazards i kā mākou pou: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

Pehea ka palekana o nā biolabs ma ka Mokuʻāina ʻo Colorado?

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manaʻo hoʻopukapuka kikoʻī fa i ʻole ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana o kahi biolab hou ma ke Kulanui o Colorado State i hāpai i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka palekana a me ka palekana ma kāna biolabs e noho nei ma Fort Collins, Colorado.

ʻImi ke noi i ka waihona kālā mai ka National Institutes of Health e pani i ka hana ʻelemakule ma waena o CSU's Ke kikowaena no nā maʻi kūlohelohe Vector-Borne, ʻo ia ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo ka Arthropod-bear and Infectious Disease Laboratory (AIDL). Hoʻokumu ke kikowaena i nā kolone insect a me nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa no nā hoʻokolohua maʻi lele me nā pathogens weliweli e like me nā maʻi maʻi SARS, Zika, Nipah a me Hendra. Hana ʻia nā hoʻokolohua pathogen ola ma kahi ʻāpana i loko BSL-3 nā keʻena hana, ʻo ia nā hale hana paʻa lewa me nā ʻenehana kūikawā e pale ai i nā mea noiʻi mai ka maʻi a hoʻolaha ʻana i nā maʻi.

Ua kākau nā mea kākau o ka noi (Tony Schountz a me Greg Ebel mai CSU a me Jonathan Epstein, he pelekikena hope ma EcoHealth Alliance), "ua hala kekahi o ko mākou mau hale i ko lākou ola pono." Hoʻopili lākou i nā kiʻi o ka hōʻiliʻili ʻana i ka popopo a me nā palu ma ke ʻano he hōʻoia o nā pono "hoʻohaʻahaʻa wikiwiki" i "kahe ke ua."

Hoʻomaopopo pū ka noi i ka hoʻolālā o ka hale hana e koi nei i nā laʻana o ka ʻōpeʻapeʻa i loaʻa ʻia a me nā mea kolo e "lawe ʻia i nā hale like ʻole ma mua o ka hoʻohana." Ua ʻōlelo ʻia aia nā autoclaves e kū nei, ka mea e sterilize i nā mea biohazardous, "hana pinepine ʻole a aia kahi hopohopo kūpono e hoʻomau lākou i ka hana pēlā."

Hiki paha ke hōʻike ʻia nā pilikia no ka mea kākoʻo lākou i kahi noi kālā. Eia kahi ʻāpana mai ka noi kālā me nā kiʻi.

Ua hāpai aʻe kēia noi i nā nīnau he nui: Aia i ka makaʻu nā ola kanaka mai nā lako hana hewa a AIDL? Hoʻonui paha kēia decpitude i ka likelihood o kahi kiki hewa ʻole o nā pathogens weliweli? Aia kekahi mau ʻoihana e pili ana i ka EcoHealth Alliance a puni ka honua i hoʻohaʻahaʻa like a palekana ʻole? ʻAʻole palekana nā kūlana, no ka laʻana, ka Wco Institute of Virology i uku kālā ʻia e EcoHealth Alliance? ʻO kēlā keʻena ua ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he kumuwaiwai hiki o SARS-CoV-2, ka mea hoʻomaʻi nāna i hoʻokumu iā Covid-19.

Nā moʻolelo o ke kōmike biosafety hui o CSU (IBC), i loaʻa ma o nā noi palapala lehulehu, me he mea lā e hoʻokūpaʻa i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka palekana o nā biolabs CSU. ʻO kahi laʻana, nā minuke hālāwai mai Mei 2020 kuhikuhi i kahi mea noiʻi CSU i loaʻa i ka maʻi Zika virus a me nā ʻōuli ma hope o ka lawelawe ʻana i nā makika i hoʻokolohua ʻia. Ua hoʻomaopopo ka IBC: "He nahu makika paha kēia i ʻike ʻole ʻia i ka manawa chaotic ma muli o COVID-19 pani ʻia a me nā loli."

ʻO ka mea mahalo, ʻo ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o ka noiʻi maʻi ʻoi loa ma SARS-CoV-2 ua hoʻonui paha i ka makaʻu o nā lapana biosafety a me nā pōʻino ma CSU. Nā minuke IBC hōʻike kākoʻo no "Nā hopohopo i hāpai ʻia e pili ana i ka nui o nā papahana noiʻi e pili ana iā SARS-CoV-2 i hoʻokau i nā ʻano kumuwaiwai e like me PPE, kahi keʻena, a me nā limahana."

Inā makemake ʻoe e loaʻa i nā hoʻohou mau e pili ana i kā mākou noiʻi biohazards, hiki iā ʻoe kau inoa no kā mākou leka pepa pule ma aneʻi

Ua noi ʻo USRTK iā ODNI e hoʻolaha i nā palapala e pili ana i nā ulia ma nā hale hōʻikeʻike e mālama nei i nā pathogens weliweli

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US kuleana e ʻike (USRTK) i nīnau aku ai ka Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) e hoʻolaha i ʻekolu mau palapala e pili ana i nā lapalapa biosafety e hana ʻia i nā hale hana e mālama nei i nā maʻi ʻino weliweli.

ʻO ka noi koi koi decassification (MDR) e pane i kā ODNI olelo hooholo e hoʻopaʻa ʻekolu mau palapala hoʻolaha e pane i he noi Freedom of Information Act noi ʻia ʻo USRTK i waiho ʻia maʻAukake 2020.

Ua noi ka FOIA "ua ʻimi i ka ʻike i hoʻopau ʻia i hana ʻia mai Ianuali 2015 e pili ana i ka hoʻokuʻu kuhihewa a kolohe paha o nā mea ola biology, nā hoʻokō ʻole i ka pae biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 a i ʻole BSL-4 mau wahi noiʻi, a me nā hanana ʻē aʻe e pili ana i ka ʻimi noiʻi biosafety pālua i BSL-2, BSL-3 a i ʻole BSL-4 hale noiʻi ma Kanada, Kina, ʻAikupita, Palani, Kelemania, ʻInikia, ʻIrana, ʻIlani, Netherlands, Lūkia, nā ʻāina ma mua o ka Soviet Union, ʻApelika Hema. , Taiwan, ke Aupuni Hui Pū ʻIa, a me Thailand. ”

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ODNI i kāna pane ua loaʻa ʻekolu mau palapala, a hoʻoholo i kēia mau "pono ​​e mālama ʻia i kā lākou holoʻokoʻa e like me ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana o FOIA" e pili ana i ka pale o nā mea i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia e pili ana i nā ʻike ʻike a me nā kumuwaiwai o ka pili aupuni palekana. ʻAʻole wehewehe ʻo ODNI a hōʻike ʻano paha i ke ʻano o nā palapala ʻekolu a i ʻole nā ​​ʻike i loko, ʻē aʻe ma mua o ka pane ʻana i ka noi a FOIA.

I loko o kāna noi MDR, noi ʻo USRTK e hoʻokuʻu ʻo ODNI i nā ʻāpana i hoʻokaʻawale ʻole ʻia o nā palapala ʻekolu.

Manaʻo ʻo USRTK he kuleana ko ka lehulehu e ʻike i ka ʻikepili e pili ana i nā ulia pōpilikia, nā kahe a me nā pōʻino ʻē aʻe ma nā keʻena hoʻokolohua kahi e mālama ʻia ai a hoʻololi ʻia nā pathogens o ka maʻi ahulau, a inā paha ua hoʻopili ʻia kekahi ʻano liu i nā kumu o COVID-19, ka mea i hoʻokumu i ka nā make o nā ʻAmelika he 360,000.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai no kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

ʻAoʻao kāʻei kua ma ka US Right to Know ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

Hāpai nā ʻikepili i loli i nā nīnau hou aʻe e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi o nā kī nui i nā kumu coronavirus

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ʻO nā loiloi i nā ʻikepili genomic e pili ana i nā ʻike nui ʻehā e pili ana i nā kumu coronavirus e hoʻohui i nā nīnau hou e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi o kēia mau aʻo ʻana, e hāʻawi ana i ke kākoʻo kumu no ke kuhiakau. i hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 i ka holoholona lōhiu. Nā haʻawina, Peng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou ma., Lam et al., a Xiao et al., ʻike ʻia nā coronavirus pili pili iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā opeapea lio a me nā pangolin Malayan.

Ua waiho nā mea kākau noiʻi i ka ʻikepili hōʻiliʻili DNA i kapa ʻia Heluhelu ke kaʻina, a lākou i hoʻohana ai e hōʻiliʻili i nā genome bat a me pangolin-coronavirus, ma ka National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) kaʻina heluhelu waihona (SRA). Ua hoʻokumu ʻo NCBI i ka waihona kikowaena lehulehu e kōkua i ka hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa o nā aniani genomic e pili ana i nā ʻenehana hoʻonohonoho kiʻekiʻe.

Ua kuleana ʻo US e ʻike i nā palapala i noi ʻia e nā moʻolelo lehulehu hōʻike i nā hoʻoponopono i kēia mau noiʻi SRA ʻikepili mahina ma hope o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana. ʻAno kēia mau loiloi no ka mea ua hana ʻia ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana, a me ka ʻole o ke kumu, ka wehewehe a me ka hōʻoia.

ʻo kahi laʻana, Peng Zhou et al. a Lam et al. hōʻano hou i kā lākou ʻikepili SRA ma nā lā ʻelua like. ʻAʻole wehewehe nā palapala i ke kumu a lākou i hoʻololi ai i kā lākou ʻikepili, akā ua hana ʻia kekahi mau hoʻololi. Xiao et al. ua hoʻololi he nui i kā lākou SRA ʻikepili, me ka holoi ʻia ʻana o ʻikepili ʻelua ma Malaki 10, ka hoʻohui o kahi hōkeo hou ma Iune 19, kahi 8 o Nowemapa i hoʻololi hou ʻia i ka ʻikepili i hoʻokuʻu ʻia ma ʻOkakopa 30, a me kahi hoʻololi hou o ka ʻikepili ma Nowemapa 13 - ʻelua lā ma hope Nature pākuʻi ʻia i kahi “palapala hopohopo” a ka Luna Hoʻoponopono. e pili ana i ke aʻo ʻana. Hong Zhou et al. e kaʻana like i ka huina SRA holoʻokoʻa e hiki ai i ka hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa. ʻOiai nā puke pai e like Nature koi i nā mea kākau e hana i nā ʻikepili āpau.loaʻa koke”I ka manawa o ka paʻi ʻana, hiki ke hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka ʻikepili SRA mahope iho o paipalapala; akā ʻano ʻokoʻa ka hana ʻana i nā hoʻololi i kēlā me kēia mahina ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana.

ʻO kēia mau hoʻololi ʻano ʻē o ka ʻikepili SRA ʻaʻole ia e hana maʻalahi i nā ʻehā mau aʻo a me kā lākou ʻikepili e pili pono ana. Eia nō naʻe, nā lohi, nā hemahema a me nā loli o ka ʻike SRA ua hoʻohoka i ka hui kūʻokoʻa a me ka hōʻoia o nā kaʻina genome i paʻi ʻia, a hoʻohui i ninau a nā mea pili e pili ana i ka kūpono o nā aʻo ʻehā, e like me:

  1. He aha nā hoʻoponopono hou ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana i ka ʻikepili SRA? No ke aha i hana ʻia ai? Pehea lākou i hoʻopili ai i nā anamanaʻo a me nā hopena genomic e pili ana?
  2. Ua hōʻoia ʻia kēia mau hoʻoponopono SRA? Inā pēlā, pehea? ʻO ka ʻO kā NCBI hōʻoia wale nō ke ana hoʻohālikelike no ka paʻi ʻana i kahi SRA BioProject– ma ʻō aku o ka ʻike kumu e like me "inoa meaola" - ʻaʻole hiki ke kope ʻia ia.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

ka National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hiki ke loaʻa nā palapala ma aneʻi: Nā leka uila NCBI (Nānā 63)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai no kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

ʻAoʻao kāʻei kua ma ka US Right to Know ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

ʻAʻohe manaʻo loiloi o nā hoa no ka hoʻohui i ka ʻike kumu coronavirus koʻikoʻi?

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Ka mangalepa Nature ʻaʻole i loiloi i ka hilinaʻi o nā kuleana koʻikoʻi i hana ʻia i Nowemapa 17 hoʻohui a like ma nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa kumu o ka moʻolelo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, nā leka me Nature manaʻo nā limahana.

Ma Pepeluali 3, 2020, ua hōʻike ka ʻepekema Wuhan Institute of Virology i ka ʻike ʻana i kahi pili kokoke loa o ka SARS-CoV-2, kahi cor corona virus i kapa ʻia ʻo RaTG13. Kahiwa13 ua lilo i kikowaena i ke kuhiakau i hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 i ka holoholona lōhiu.

ʻO nā helu ʻōlelo hoʻohui pane ʻole ʻia ninau e pili ana i ka hōʻoia o RaTG13. Ua wehewehe nā mea kākau, Zhou et al., Ua loaʻa iā RaTG13 ma 2012-2013 "i kahi mineshaft i haʻalele ʻia ma ka moku ʻo Mojiang, ka moku ʻo Yunnan," kahi ʻeono mau minia i ʻeha. huʻihuʻi respiratory respiratory syndrome ma hope o ka hōʻike ʻia i nā f bat bathes, a ʻekolu i make. Nā noiʻi ʻana o ka hiki i nā hōʻailona o nā mea minia maʻi ke hāʻawi i nā hōʻailona koʻikoʻi e pili ana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Zhou et al. ua hōʻike i ka loaʻa ʻole o nā coronavirus e pili ana i ka SARS i nā laʻana serum i mālama ʻia o nā mea miners maʻi, akā ʻaʻole lākou i kākoʻo i kā lākou mau koi me nā ʻikepili a me nā ʻano e pili ana i kā lākou hoʻokolohua a me nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua.

Loaʻa ka ʻole o ka ʻikepili koʻikoʻi i ka addendum hāpai hou i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi o ka Zhou et al. hoʻopaʻa haʻawina. Ma Nowemapa 27, Ua noi ʻo US Right to Know Nature ninau e pili ana i nā kuleana o ka addendum, a noi ʻia i kēlā Nature paʻi i nā ʻikepili kākoʻo āpau a Zhou et al. ua hāʻawi paha.

Ma Kekemapa 2, Nature Ke poʻo o nā kamaʻilio Bex Walton wahi a ʻo ia ke kumu Zhou et al. ua "pololei akā maopopo ʻole" ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana, a ua kūpono ka hoʻohui anuu hope-paʻi no ka wehewehe ʻana. Ua hoʻohui ʻo ia: "E pili ana i kāu mau nīnau, e kuhikuhi mākou iā ʻoe e hoʻokokoke i nā mea kākau o ka pepa no nā pane, e like me ʻaʻole pili kēia mau nīnau i ka noiʻi a mākou i paʻi ai akā i nā noiʻi ʻē aʻe i mālama ʻia e nā mea kākau, ʻaʻole hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo ”(koʻikoʻi iā mākou). ʻOiai ʻo kā mākou nīnau e pili ana i ka noiʻi i wehewehe ʻia i ka addendum, ka Nature Hōʻike ka ʻōlelo a ka lunamakaʻāinana ʻaʻole i loiloi ʻia kā addendum a Zhou et al. ma ke ʻano he noiʻi.

Ua nīnau mākou he nīnau nīnau ma Kēkēmapa 2: "ua kau ʻia kēia addendum i kekahi loiloi ʻia e nā hoa a me / a i ʻole ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono ʻana e Nature? ” ʻAʻole i pane pololei ʻo Ms. Walton; ʻo ia wahi a: "Ma ka laulā, e loiloi kā mākou mea hoʻoponopono i nā manaʻo a i ʻole nā ​​hopohopo i hāpai ʻia me mākou i ka manawa mua, e nīnau ana i nā mea kākau, a e ʻimi ana i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo mai nā loiloi hoa a me nā loea ʻē aʻe inā manaʻo mākou he pono. ʻAʻole hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo i ka mālama pilikino ʻana i nā hihia pākahi.

No ka Nature manaʻo i ka hoʻohui he a ka hope-hoʻopuka hou, a ʻaʻole ia e hoʻokau i ka post post addenda i nā kūlana loiloi loiloi like e like me nā paʻi mua, me he mea lā ʻo Zhou et al. ʻAʻole i hoʻomoe ʻia e addendum.

ʻAʻole pane nā mea kākau ʻo Zhengli Shi lāua ʻo Peng Zhou iā ia mākou nīnau e pili ana i ko lakou Nature pākuʻi