Hoʻopili ʻia ʻo Aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake a me ka momona

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ʻEpekema e pili ana i ke kaupaona loaʻa + nā pilikia pili i ka nui
ʻEpekema ʻenehana
ʻO ka "Diet" Ke Kūʻai hoʻopunipuni hoʻopunipuni?
Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

ʻO Aspartame, ka hulu kō a kaulana loa o ka honua, i loaʻa i loko o nā tausani o nā kō-kō, kō-kō a me nā mea i kapa ʻia ʻo “diet” a me nā meaʻai. Eia naʻe nā hōʻike ʻepekema i hōʻike ʻia i loko o kēia pepa pepa e hoʻopili i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake, diabetes, derabement metabolic a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona.

E ʻoluʻolu e kaʻana i kēia kumuwaiwai. E ʻike pū i kā mākou pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo, Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi, me ka ʻike e pili ana i nā loiloi i nānā ʻia e nā hoa e pili ana i ka aspartame i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, maʻi maʻi maʻi, maʻi Alzheimer, nā hahau, ka hopu ʻana i nā maʻi, a me nā poʻo hina.

Hoʻoponopono pololei

  • ʻO Aspartame - kālepa ʻia ʻo NutraSweet, Kaulike, Sugar Twin a me AminoSweet - ʻo ia ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni i hoʻohana ʻia e ka honua. Loaʻa ka kemika i nā meaʻai a me nā mea inu he mau kaukani nā huahana, e like me Diet Coke a me Diet Pepsi, gum-sugar, candy, condiment a me nā wikamina.
  • Ua loaʻa iā FDA wahi a aspartame "palekana no ka heluna lehulehu ma lalo o kekahi mau ʻano." Ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema he nui ka Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka ʻae ʻia o ka FDA ma luna o ka ʻikepili kānalua a pono e noʻonoʻo hou ʻia.
  • Ua mālama ʻia he mau hanana he nui i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o mau makahiki aspartame i nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi.

ʻO Aspartame, Kaumaha Loaʻa + Loaʻa e pili ana i nā pilikia 

ʻElima mau loiloi o ka ʻepekema moʻokalaleo e pili ana i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻino e hōʻike ʻaʻole hāʻawi lākou i ka lilo ʻana o ke kaupaona, a no ka mea paha he kumu ia e loaʻa ai ke kaumaha.

  • A 2017 meta analysis o ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana, i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka PepaʻAiā Leka o ka Huilepaʻiʻo Canada, ʻaʻohe hōʻike maopopo e pili ana i nā pono pohō kaumaha no nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻowalewale i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia, a ua hōʻike ʻia e pili ana nā loiloi cohort i nā mea ʻono hana me ka "hoʻonui i ke kaupaona a me ka pūhaka, a me nā hanana kiʻekiʻe o ka momona, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes a me ka maʻi puʻuwai hanana. ”ike no hoi
    • "ʻAʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonanea i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha a alakaʻi ʻia i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā paona," na Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
    • "No ke aha i inu ai kahi mea maʻi puʻuwai i kāna sodaʻai hope loa," na Harlan Krumholz, Puka Puka Puka (9.14.2017)
    • "Makemake kēia cardiologist i kona ʻohana e ʻokiʻoki i ka sodaʻai. E pono anei i kāu? na David Becker, MD, Philly Enquirer (9.12.2017)
  • A 2013 Nā kuʻuna i ka Endocrinology a me Metabolism ʻike ka ʻatikala loiloi "hōʻiliʻili ʻia nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana i nā mea kūʻai pinepine pinepine i kēia mau mea kō i kū i ka nui o ka loaʻa o ke kaumaha, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi," a ʻo "ka hoʻohana pinepine ʻana i nā meaʻono ikaika nui ke loaʻa ka hopena hopena o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic. ”2
  • A 2009 Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali ʻike ka ʻatikala loiloi i ka "hoʻohui o NNS [nonenutritive sweeteners] i nā papaʻai ʻaʻohe waiwai no ka pohō kaumaha a hoʻemi ʻia paha ka loaʻa o ke kaupaona me ka ʻole o ka palena o ka ikehu. Aia kekahi mau manaʻo hopohopo lōʻihi e pili ana i ka hoʻokomo ʻia ʻana o NNS i ka papaʻai e paipai ai i ka lawe ʻana i ka ikehu a hāʻawi i ka momona. ”3
  • A 2010 ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ka hopena o ka loiloi ʻana i nā puke e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hoʻopunipuni i hoʻoholo ʻia, "ʻimi nā noiʻi noiʻi i hiki i nā mea ʻono hana kuʻi ke kōkua i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha."4
  • A 2010 Ka Nūpepa International o ka nui o nā keiki Kākoʻo ka ʻatikala loiloi, "ʻO ka ʻikepili mai ka nui, nā noiʻi epidemiologic e kākoʻo i ke ola o kahi hui ma waena o ka inu ʻana me ka mea inu a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha i nā keiki."5

Hōʻike nā hōʻike Epidemiological e hoʻopili ʻia nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono i ka loaʻa kaumaha. O kahi laʻana:

  • ka Ke aʻo naʻau o San Antonio "Ua nānā i kahi pilina maikaʻi, hopena pane-maikaʻi ma waena o AS [hana ʻono] me ka inu inu a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha kau lōʻihi." Eia kekahi, ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ka ʻai ʻana ma mua o 21 mau mea inu momona i hana ʻia i kēlā me kēia pule - hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka poʻe i pau ʻole, "pili pū ʻia me ka ʻaneʻane pālua ʻia ʻana o ka momona a ka momona paha."6
  • ʻO kahi aʻo ʻana i ka inu mea inu ma waena o nā keiki a me nā ʻōpio i piha i ka makahiki 6-19 i paʻi ʻia ma International Journal of Food Food and Nutrition ua loaʻa "pili maikaʻi ka BMI me ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea inu carbonated."7
  • ʻO kahi makahiki he ʻelua mau makahiki o 164 mau keiki i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka Nupepa o ke Kulanuiʻo NutritionʻAmelika ʻike ʻo "Hoʻonui ka nui o ka ʻai soda ka nui o ka nui o ke kaupaona a me nā kumuhana i loaʻa ke kaupaona ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuhana kaupaona maʻamau. ʻO ka baseline BMI Z-score a me ka makahiki 2 ka ʻai sodaʻai i wānana ʻia ma 83.1% o ka ʻokoʻa ma ka makahiki 2 BMI Z-helu. ” Ua ʻike pū ʻia ʻo ia ka "ʻai inu soda ka mea inu wale i pili me ka helu 2 BMI Z-helu, a ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ʻai ma nā kumuhana kaumaha a me nā kumuhana i loaʻa ka paona i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuhana kaupaona maʻamau i ʻelua mau makahiki."8
  • ka Ke ulu nei ʻo US i kēia lā ke aʻo ʻana i nā keiki he 10,000 a ʻoi ka nui o 9-14 mau makahiki i loaʻa, no nā keikikāne, ʻo ka lawe ʻana i ka soda soda “e pili nui me nā hana kaupaona.”9
  • Ke aʻoʻo 2016 ma ka Ka Papa Kakauho o kaʻOihana ua hōʻike i ka loaʻa ʻana he ʻehiku mau mea like ʻole e hōʻike ana i nā hui nui me ka momona o ka ʻōpū i nā wahine, me ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame.10
  • ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau i nā mea hoʻonaninani a me ka makaʻu i ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka loaʻa ʻana o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi maʻi ʻōpio,"11 e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma luna o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism

Hōʻike like kekahi mau ʻano noiʻi ʻē aʻe ʻaʻole hāʻawi nā mea hoʻonanea i ka pohō kaumaha. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻaʻole kākoʻo nā noiʻi intervenal i ka manaʻo e hana nā mea hoʻonaninani hana i ka pohō kaumaha. Wahi a ka ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ka loiloi ʻana i nā puke ʻepekema, "ʻo ka ʻae mai nā noiʻi hoʻokolohua e hōʻike nei ʻaʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻoliʻiliʻi i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi ke hoʻohana wale ʻia."12

Hōʻike pū kekahi mau noiʻi e hoʻonui nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka makemake, i hiki ke hāpai i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha. ʻO kahi laʻana, ka ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ua ʻike ʻia "ua ʻike ʻia nā hoʻokolohua Preload i ka ʻono o ka ʻono, i hāʻawi ʻia e ke kō a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻonaninani ʻino, hoʻonui i ka makemake o ke kanaka."13

Hōʻike nā haʻawina e pili ana i nā rodents i ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono hiki ke alakaʻi i ka ʻai ʻana i nā meaʻai keu. Wahi a ka ʻO ka loiloi ʻo Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, "Hoʻohui like ʻole ma waena o ka ʻono momona a me ka ʻike caloric hiki ke alakaʻi i ka ʻai nui ʻana a me ke kaulike ikehu maikaʻi." Hoʻohui ʻia, e like me ka ʻatikala like, "nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono, kūpono no ka mea he mea ʻono ia, paipai i ka ʻono a me ka hilinaʻi i ke kō."14

Ke aʻoʻo 2014 ma ka Ka PepaʻAlaʻAmelika o ke Ola Nui ua loaʻa ʻo "ʻO nā mākua kaumaha a momona hoʻi o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e inu i nā mea inu papaʻai ma mua o ka poʻe mākua olakino olakino, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui o nā calorie mai nā meaʻai paʻa - ma nā pāʻina a me nā mea ʻai māmā - ma mua o nā mākua kaupaona a me nā momona i inu i ka SSB a ʻai i ka huina like o ka nui o nā calorie e like me ke kaumaha a me nā mākua ākea e inu SSBs. "15

A 2015 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina o nā mākua ma ka Ka Nupepa o ka Society Geriatric Society loaʻa "I loko o kahi pānaʻi pane pane-pane," ʻo ka "hoʻonui ʻana i ka DSI [kaʻai ʻana i ka soda] me ka piʻi ʻana o ka momona o ka ʻōpū ..."16

ʻO kahi noi nui 2014 i paʻi ʻia ma Nature ʻike i ka "ʻai ʻana o ka NAS i hoʻohana mau ʻia [non-calorical sweetener] hoʻomohala i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka glucose intolerance ma o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i nā loli a me nā hana i ka microbiota ʻōpū. pili ka hopena i kā mākou hopena NAS, ka dysbiosis a me nā pono ʻole o ka metabolic ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa iā NAS ua hāʻawi pololei paha i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ke ahulau kikoʻī a lākou i manaʻo ai e hakakā. ”17

Diabetes a me ka Metabolic Derangement

Wāwahi ʻo Aspartame i kekahi ʻāpana i ka phenylalanine, kahi mea hoʻopilikia i ka hana o ka enzyme ʻōpū alkaline phosphatase (IAP) i hōʻike mua ʻia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi metabolic, kahi hui o nā ʻōuli e pili ana i ka maʻi diabetes 2 a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi. Wahi a kahi noi 2017 ma Pili ʻOihana Pilikino, Nutr a me Metabolism, nāʻiole e loaʻa ana i ka aspartame i kā lākou wai inu i loaʻa ka nui o ke kaumaha a hoʻomohala i nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe o ka metabolic syndrome ma mua o nā holoholona i hānai ʻia i nā ʻanoʻai like ʻole nele i ka aspartame. Hoʻopau ke aʻo ʻana, "hiki ke kāohi ʻia nā hopena pale IAP e pili ana i ka maʻi metabolic e phenylalanine, kahi metabolite o aspartame, e wehewehe ana paha i ka hemahema o ke kaupaona ʻana i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hoʻomaikaʻi metabolic e pili ana i nā mea inu."18

  • E nānā i kekahi: Hoʻokuʻu kaomi lehulehu Mass ma ke aʻo ʻana, “E pale paha ʻo Aspartame, ʻaʻole e paipai, ka pohō ʻana o ke kaupaona ʻana ma ke ālai ʻana i ka hana a ka enzyme ʻōpū”

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau ana i nā mea ʻono hana hoʻopunipuni i ka makaʻu nui o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona ʻana, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi puʻuwai," e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma kahi o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism.19

I loko o kahi noiʻi i ukali ʻia ma hope o 66,118 mau wahine ma mua o 14 mau makahiki, ua hoʻohui ʻia nā mea inu ʻono a me nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia me ka pilikia o ka maʻi diabetes Type 2. "Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hanana maikaʻi ikaika ma ka hopena ʻo T2D ma waena o ka quartile o ka inu no nā ʻano mea inu ʻelua ... ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kahi hui no 100% inu wai huaʻai," i hōʻike ʻia i ka noiʻi 2013 i paʻi ʻia ma Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.20

ʻO Intestinal Dysbiosis, Metabolic Derangement a me ka momona

Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o glucose ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū, e like me a Ke aʻo 2014 ma ʻAno. Ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi, "pili kā mākou hopena i ka ʻai ʻana o NAS [non-calorical sweetener] ʻai, dysbiosis a me nā mea pono ʻole o ka metabolic, no laila ke noi nei e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o NAS ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa ua kōkua pololei ʻo NAS i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka maʻi kūpilikiʻi [momona] ua manaʻo ʻia lākou e hakakā. ”21

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻoniʻoni ke hoʻololi i kā mākou bacteria i nā ala weliweli," na Ellen Ruppel Shell, ʻAmelika ʻEpekema (4.1.2015)

Ke aʻo 'ia nei he 2016 Nā Nūhou Physiology i noi ʻia a me ka Metabolism ua hōʻike ʻia, "Ua hoʻohuli nui ka loaʻa ʻana o Aspartame i ka pilina ma waena o ka helu nui o ke kino (BMI) a me ke ahonui glucose ... ʻo ka ʻai ʻana o ka aspartame e pili pū me nā hōʻino e pili ana i ka momona ma ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka glucose."22

Wahi a kahi moʻo ʻiole 2014 ma PLOS ONE, "Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ka aspartame i nā pae kō glucose a me kahi hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i hōʻike iā aspartame e hōʻino i ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glucose stimulate i ka insulin ... Ua hōʻike ka nānā ʻana i ka fecal o ka haku mele bacteria i ka aspartame e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā koʻohune…"23

ʻEpekema ʻenehana

ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā loiloi hou i kahi loulou ma waena o nā mea hoʻonanea a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha. ʻAʻole ʻelua mau noi kālā i hoʻolako kālā ʻia.

  • A 2014 Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali Ua hoʻopau ka meta-analysis "ʻO nā ʻike mai nā noiʻi nānā i hōʻike ʻole i kahi pilina ma waena o LCS [mea hoʻoliʻiliʻi calorie haʻahaʻa] i loaʻa a me ke kaumaha o ke kino a i ʻole ka momona momona a me kahi hui maikaʻi maikaʻi me BMI [body mass index]; Eia nō naʻe, nā ʻikepili mai nā RCT [ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka hoʻāʻo hoʻokolohua], e hāʻawi ana i ke kūlana kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe loa o ka hōʻike no ka nānā ʻana i nā hopena hopena o ka LCS e lawe ai, e hōʻike i ka pani ʻana i nā koho LCS no kā lākou mana calorie maʻamau nā hopena i kahi kaupaona hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa. mea hana papaʻai e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ke kūlike me ka pohō a me nā hoʻolālā mālama kaumaha. " "Ua loaʻa i nā mea kākau ke kālā e alakaʻi ai i kēia noiʻi mai ka North American Branch o ka International Life Science Institute (ILSI)."24

ʻO ka International Life Science Institute, kahi nonprofit e hana i ka ʻepekema no ka ʻoihana meaʻai, he mea hoʻopaʻapaʻa i waena o nā poʻe loea olakino lehulehu ma muli o ke kālā kālā ʻana mai nā hui kemika, nā meaʻai a me nā mea lapaʻau a me nā paio kūpono o ka hoihoi, e like me ka 2010 ʻatikala ma Kūlohelohe.25 E nānā pū kekahi: Pono ʻo US e ʻike pepa pono e pili ana i ka International Life Science Institute.

A moʻo o nā moʻolelo i paʻi ʻia ma UPI i ka makahiki 1987 e ka mea noiʻi noiʻi Greg Gordon wehewehe i ke komo ʻana o ILSI i ke kuhikuhi ʻana i ka noiʻi ʻana ma luna o ka aspartame i nā noiʻi e kākoʻo paha i ka palekana o ka mea ʻono.

  • Ke aʻoʻo 2014 ma ka puke pai ʻO Obesity ua hoʻāʻo ka wai e kūʻē i nā mea inu momona no ka papahana hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha he 12 mau pule, ke loaʻa nei "ʻaʻole ʻoi aku ka wai ma mua o nā wai inu NNS [non-nutritive sweetened] no ka pohō kaumaha i ka wā o ka papahana hoʻohaʻahaʻa kaumaha maʻamau āpau." Ua "uku piha ʻia ke aʻo ʻana e ka American Beverage Association,"26 ʻo ia ka pūʻulu lobbying nui no ka ʻoihana soda.

Aia kekahi hōʻike ikaika i ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o nā noi kālā kālā i nā noiʻi biomedical ma mua o ka mea i kālā kūʻokoʻa ʻia. A 2016 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma PLOS Hoʻokahi na Daniele Mandrioli, ʻo Cristin Kearns lāua ʻo Lisa Bero i nānā i ka pilina ma waena o nā hopena noiʻi a me ka makaʻu ʻole o ka hoʻowahāwahā, ke kākoʻo kākoʻo a me nā hakakā kālā a ka mea kākau o ka hoihoi i nā loiloi o nā hopena o nā mea inu momona i hana ʻia ma nā hopena kaupaona.27 Ua hoʻopau nā mea noiʻi, "ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o nā hopena i kākoʻo ʻia e nā ʻoihana mea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni ma mua o nā loiloi i kākoʻo ʻole ʻia e ka ʻoihana ʻē aʻe ... a me nā hopena maikaʻi." ʻAʻole i hōʻike ʻia nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi i 42% o nā loiloi, a me nā loiloi i hana ʻia e nā mea kākau me nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi me ka ʻoihana meaʻai (inā i hōʻike ʻia a ʻaʻole paha) i loaʻa nā hopena maikaʻi loa no ka ʻoihana ma mua o nā loiloi i hana ʻia e nā mea kākau me ka ʻole nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi. 

A 2007 PLOS ʻImi lāʻau ma ke kākoʻo ʻoihana no ka noiʻi biomedical i ʻike ʻia “ʻO ke kālā ʻoihana o nā ʻepekema ʻepekema e pili ana i ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke hoʻokau i nā hopena ma ke ʻano o nā huahana kākoʻo, me nā hopena koʻikoʻi no ke olakino lehulehu… ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o nā manawa i nā pono kālā o nā mea kākoʻo ma mua o nā ʻatikala me ka ʻole kālā-pili kālā. ʻO kahi hoihoi nui, ʻaʻole kekahi o nā noi intervensi me nā kākoʻo ʻoihana āpau i hopena maikaʻi ʻole ... ”28

ʻO ka "Diet" Ke Kūʻai hoʻopunipuni hoʻopunipuni?

I ʻApelila 2015, ua noi ʻo US Right to Know i ka FederalʻIliahi Komikina (FTC) a me ka ʻO kaʻai a me ka lāʻauʻai lāʻau (FDA) e noiʻi i ke kālepa ʻana a me nā hana hoʻolaha o nā huahana "ʻai" i loaʻa kahi kemika e pili ana i ka loaʻa kaumaha.

Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa mākou ʻo ka huaʻōlelo "ʻai" e like me ka hoʻopunipuni, wahaheʻe a alakaʻi hewa ʻole i ka ʻāpana 5 o ke Federal Commission Commission Act a me ka ʻāpana 403 o ka Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Ua hōʻole nā ​​ʻoihana i kēia manawa e hana i ka haʻi ʻana i ka nele o nā kumuwaiwai a me nā mea nui ʻē aʻe (e nānā FDA a FTC nā pane).

"Minamina ia ʻaʻole hana ka FTC e kāohi i nā hoʻopunipuni o ka ʻoihana soda" ʻai ". Loulou nā hōʻike ʻepekema e hoʻopili i nā mea ʻono hana i ke kaupaona, ʻaʻole i ka pohō, "wahi a Gary Ruskin, ka luna hui o US Right to Know "Ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei wau e iho ana ka soda 'diet' i ka mōʻaukala US ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻopunipuni nui loa nā mea kūʻai aku."

Hōʻike hou:

Hoʻokuʻu a me nā pou kaomi ʻo USRTK:

Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema 

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