Mākaukau anei ʻoe no ka Wave Hou o nā Mea ʻEnekinia Genetically?

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Ua paʻi mua ʻia kahi mana o kēia ʻatikala i ʻO ka makasina honua maʻamau ʻo Malaki 2018 (Mana PDF).

Na Stacy Malkan

Makemake nā kānaka āpau i kahi moʻolelo maikaʻi e pili ana i ka wā e hiki mai ana. Ua lohe paha ʻoe i kēia: ʻo nā meaʻai ʻenehana kiʻekiʻe i hoʻonui ʻia e ka ʻepekema e hānai i ka 9 biliona mau kānaka i manaʻo ʻia ma ka honua e 2050. ʻO nā meaʻai i hana ʻia i loko o nā labs a me nā mea kanu a me nā holoholona i hana ʻenekini ʻia e ulu wikiwiki a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi e hiki ai ke hānai i ka honua lehulehu, e like me nā moʻolelo i wili ma o kā mākou keʻena o ka pāpaho a me ka hoʻonaʻauao.

"6th nā haumāna papa lolo i nā manaʻo biotech nui i # Kaui9 Ua hoʻomanaʻo ʻia kahi leka hou i kau ʻia i ka ʻoihana kemika pūnaewele hoʻolaha Nā pane GMOA Ua komo ka manaʻo o ka haumāna i nā "kāloti e hoʻonui i nā huaora" a me "ka palaoa e ulu i nā wā hoʻoilo paʻakikī."

Kuhi nā mea āpau a hiki i kou nānā ʻana i nā mea maoli ma hope o ka haʻiʻōlelo.

No ka poʻe hoʻomaka, i kahi ʻāina e alakaʻi nei i ka honua i ka ulu ʻana i nā meaola i hoʻololi ʻia i nā genetically (GMO), miliona pōloli. Hoʻoemi kai ʻai, ke kamaʻilio ʻana i ka like ʻole a me ka hoʻololi ʻana i agroecological nā ʻano mahiʻai, ʻaʻole nā ​​GMO, nā kī o ka palekana meaʻai honua, e like me ka poʻe loea ma Nā Aupuni Hui Pū ʻIa. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā meaʻai ʻenekini genetically ma ka makeke i kēia lā ʻaʻohe pono o nā mea kūʻai aku. ʻenekini lākou e ola i nā pesticides, a ua hoʻonui wikiwiki i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pesticides e like me Glyphosate, dicamba a koke 2,4D, ke hana nei i nā hui kaiaulu e kapa nei he weliweli wili lāʻau pesticide.

ʻOiai nā makahiki he nui o ka hype e pili ana i nā mea momona ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole nā ​​mea kanu GMO ʻoi aku ka nui, ua kūleʻa ʻole kēlā mau pono. Hoʻonui ʻia ka wikamina-A Laiki Laiki, no ka laʻana - "ka laiki e hiki ai ke hoʻopakele i hoʻokahi miliona mau keiki i ka makahiki," i hōʻike ʻia manawa puke 17 makahiki aku nei - ʻaʻole ma ka mākeke ʻoiai miliona i lilo i ka hoʻolālā. "Inā he panacea ka laiki gula, no ke aha e ulu wale ai ia i nā poʻo inoa, mamao loa mai nā māla mahiʻai kahi i manaʻo ʻia e ulu?" i nīnau aku ai ʻo Tom Philpott i loko ʻO Jones Jones ʻatikala i kapa ʻia, Ua kū ʻo WTF i ka Rice Gula?

"ʻO ka pane pōkole, ʻaʻole pono i nā mea kanu mea kanu ke hana i nā ʻano mea like ʻole e hana pono ana ma ke kula e like me nā ʻano laiki e kū nei. Ke hoʻopili ʻoe i hoʻokahi mea i loko o kahi genome, e like me ka hāʻawi ʻana i ka raiki i ka hiki ke hana i ka beta-carotene, ʻo ʻoe pilikia i ka hoʻololi ʻana i nā mea ʻē aʻe, e like me ka wikiwiki o ka ulu ʻana. ”

Kūpilikiʻi ke kūlohelohe, i nā huaʻōlelo ʻē aʻe, a hiki i ka ʻenekini genetika ke hana i nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia.

E noʻonoʻo i ka hihia o ka Impossible Burger.

ʻO ka burger hoʻokumu mea kanu i "kahe" hiki ke hana ʻia e ka hū genetically e like me ka leghemoglobin, kahi mea i loaʻa i nā aʻa mea kanu soya. Mālama ka GMO soy leghemoglobin (SLH) i kahi protein i kapa ʻia ʻo "heme," e hāʻawi ana i nā ʻano mea like me ka burger - kona kalaʻulaʻula a me ke aniani ma ka pā - me ka ʻole o ka hopena a me ka hopena o ka hopena o kaʻiʻo. Akā haki pū ka GMO SLH i 46 mau protein ʻē aʻe i hele ʻole i ka papaʻai kanaka a hiki ke hoʻoweliweli i nā pilikia palekana.

E like me The New York Times hoike, kā ka huna huna a ka burger “e hōʻike i nā pilikia o ka ʻenehana ʻenehana.” Hoʻokumu ʻia ka moʻolelo ma nā palapala i loaʻa iā ETC Group a me nā Hoa o ka Honua ma lalo o kahi noi Freedom of Information Act - nā palapala i manaʻo paha ka ʻoihana ʻaʻole lākou e ʻike i ke ao o ka lā. I ka wā i noi aku ai nā mea hiki ʻole i ka Food and Drug Administration e hōʻoia i kāna mea GMO "ʻike ʻia he palekana" (GRAS), ka manawa ua hōʻike, ua "hōʻike ka ʻoihana" i ka hopohopo no ka mea ʻaʻole i hoʻopau ʻia e nā kānaka a lilo paha ia i mea maʻi.

Nā luna o FDA i kākau i loko o nā memo e wehewehe ana kahi kāhea iā 2015 me ka hui, "Ua ʻōlelo ʻo FDA ʻo nā paio o kēia manawa ma ka lima, ʻokoʻa pākahi, ʻaʻole lawa e hoʻokumu i ka palekana o SLH no ka ʻai ʻana." Akā, e like me ka manawa Ua wehewehe ka moʻolelo, ʻaʻole i ʻōlelo ka FDA he palekana ʻole ka leghemoglobin GMO, a ʻaʻole pono ka ʻoihana i ka ʻae o ka FDA e kūʻai aku i kāna burger.

ʻAʻole hoʻokumu nā paio i ka palekana - FDA

No laila ʻo Impossible Burger ma ka mākeke me ka hōʻoia o ka palekana o ka ʻoihana a ʻo ka hapa nui o nā mea kūʻai i ka pouli e pili ana i nā mea i loko. ʻOiai e wehewehe ʻia ana ke kaʻina hana GMO ma ka pūnaewele ʻaʻole i kūʻai ʻia pēlā ma ke ala o ke kūʻai aku. Ma kahi kipa hou aku nei i kahi hale ʻaina Bay Bay e kūʻai aku nei i ka Impossible Burger, ua noi aku kahi mea kūʻai aku inā ua hoʻololi ʻia ka burger i ka genetically. Ua haʻi pololei ʻia iā ia, “ʻaʻole.”

ʻO ka nele o ke kiaʻi aupuni ʻana, nā pilikia olakino ʻike ʻole ʻia a me nā mea kūʻai aku i waiho ʻia i ka pouli - he mau kumuhana hou kēia i loko o ka moʻolelo e hōʻike nei e pili ana i ka Wild West o ka hoʻokolohua ʻenekinia genetics e lele nei i kahi hale kūʻai kokoke iā ʻoe.

He GMO e kekahi inoa ʻē aʻe…

ʻO Biology synthetic, CRISPR, hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā ʻāne, a me nā hanauna ʻole. wehewehe kēia mau huaʻōlelo i nā ʻano hou o nā mea kanu ʻenekinia, nā holoholona a me nā mea e holo wikiwiki nei nā ʻoihana e kiʻi i ka mākeke.

ʻO ka hana kahiko o ka hana ʻenekini, i kapa ʻia transgenics, pili i ka hoʻoili ʻana i nā genes mai kekahi ʻano i kekahi. Me nā ʻano ʻenehana ʻenekema hou - ka mea a kekahi mau hui kaiaulu i kapa aku ai iā GMO 2.0 - hana hewa nā ʻoihana i ke kūlohelohe i nā ala hou a weliweli paha. Hiki iā lākou ke holoi i nā genes, hoʻohuli a pio paha nā genes, a hana paha i nā kaʻina DNA hou ma kahi kamepiula. ʻO kēia mau ʻenehana āpau he GMO i ke ala a nā mea kūʻai aku a me ka US Patent Office e noʻonoʻo ai iā lākou - ua loli ʻo DNA i nā hale hana i nā ala e hiki ʻole ai ke kūlohelohe, a hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā huahana i hiki ke hoʻopili ʻia. Aia kekahi mau ʻano maʻamau o GMO 2.0.

ʻO nā GMO biology synthetic pili i ka hoʻololi a hana ʻana paha i ka DNA e synthesize synthesize i nā mea hoʻohui ma mua o ka lawe ʻana iā lākou mai nā kumuwaiwai kūlohelohe. ʻO nā laʻana e pili ana i ka hū ʻenekini genetically a i ʻole nā ​​limu e hana i nā mea ʻono e like me vanillin, stevia a me citrus; aiʻole nā ​​mea ʻala e like me patchouli, aila rose a me ka clearwood - nā mea āpau āpau i loko o nā huahana.

Ke hoʻolaha nei kekahi mau ʻoihana i nā mea ulu i hana ʻia ma ke ʻano he hopena no ka hoʻomau ʻana. Akā aia ka diabolō i nā kikoʻī i hōʻike ʻole ʻia e nā ʻoihana. He aha nā mea hānai? Pili kekahi mau huahana biology synthetic i ke kō mai nā monocultures kemikino a i ʻole nā ​​mea ʻai haumia e like me fr gas. Aia kekahi hopohopo e hiki i nā limu hana ʻenekini ke pakele i ke kaiapuni a lilo i haumia i ke ola.

A he aha ka hopena i nā mahiʻai e hilinaʻi nei i nā mea ulu ulu kūpono? Ke hopohopo nei nā mahiʻai a puni ka honua no ka mea hiki i nā mea pani i ka lab-ulu, ke kūʻai hewa ʻia ʻia ma ke ʻano he "kūlohelohe," ke hoʻokuʻi iā lākou mai kā lākou ʻoihana. No nā hanauna, ua mahi nā mahiʻai ma Mekiko, Madagascar, ʻApelika a me Paraguay i ka vanilla kūlohelohe a me nā meaola, shea butter a stevia paha. Ma Haiti, ʻo ka mahiʻai ʻana i ka mauʻu vetiver no ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea ʻala kiʻekiʻe loa e kākoʻo i nā mea ulu liʻiliʻi he 60,000, e kōkua ana i ka hoʻoikaika ʻana i ka hoʻokele waiwai i luku ʻia e ke ōlaʻi a me nā ʻino.

Pono paha e neʻe i kēia mau ʻenekini hoʻokele waiwai i South San Francisco a hānai i ka kō i mahi ʻia i ka hale hana i ka hū i mea e hana ai i nā mea ʻala a me nā ʻono ʻono? ʻO wai ka mea e pōmaikaʻi ai, a ʻo wai ka mea e lilo, i ke kipi ulu kiʻekiʻe?

ʻO ka iʻa a me nā holoholona i hana ʻia me genetically: ʻo nā bipi dehorned, nā puaʻa castrated maoli, a me nā hua moa i hoʻolālā ʻia e loaʻa i kahi mea lapaʻau i loko o ka paipu hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua. ʻO kahi papahana "bipi kauō" kāne kāne kāne āpau - me ka inoa inoa "Keikikāne wale nō" - e manaʻo e hana i kahi bipi kāne nāna e hānau kāne wale nō nā kāne, a laila "e hoʻohuli i nā mea i ka maleness a e ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka ʻoihana (ʻiʻo)," hoike Hōʻike ʻ Technologylelo MIT.

He aha ka hewa e hiki ai?

Ke hana nei ka genististist i ka pipi terminator, ʻo Alison Van Eenennaam o ke Kulanui o Kaleponi, ʻo Davis, ke ʻimi nei i ka FDA e noʻonoʻo hou i kāna hoʻoholo 2017 e mālama i nā holoholona i hoʻoponopono ʻia ʻo CRISPR me he mea lā he lāʻau hou ia, no laila e koi ana i nā noiʻi palekana. ua haʻi ʻo ia i ka Nānā MIT ʻo ia ka mea e "kau i kahi kaohi hoʻokele nui i ka hoʻohana ʻana i kēia hana hoʻoponopono gen i nā holoholona." Akā ʻaʻole pono nā koi no ke aʻo ʻana i ke olakino, palekana a me nā hopena o ka nohona genetically engineered, a me kahi pae no ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i ka hopena o ka pono, maikaʻi a me ka pilikanaka. Ke hoʻokeke ikaika nei nā ʻoihana no nā koi ʻole; i Ianuali, ua kamaʻilio ʻo Pelekikena Trump e pili ana i ka biotechnology no ka manawa mua i kona wā pelekikena a hana i kahi ʻōlelo maopopo ʻole e pili ana i “streamlining rules.”

ʻO ka holoholona GMO wale nō ma ka makeke i kēia manawa ʻo ka salmon AquaAdvantage i hoʻolālā ʻia me nā gen o kahi puhi e ulu wikiwiki. Ke kūʻai ʻia nei ka iʻa ma Kanada, akā ʻaʻole e ʻōlelo ka ʻoihana i hea, a mālama ʻia nā kūʻai aku a US ma muli o "lepili ʻana i nā pilikia.”Kūpono ka makemake no ka hūnā ʻana mai ke kuanaʻike kūʻai aku: 75% o nā mea pane i a 2013 New York Times piʻi ua ʻōlelo ʻaʻole lākou e ʻai i ka iʻa GMO, a ma kahi o ʻelua hapakolu i ʻōlelo ʻaʻole lākou e ʻai i ka ʻiʻo i hoʻololi ʻia i nā genetically.

Nā hana hoʻomāhie Gene e like me ka hoʻopiʻi RNA (RNAi) hiki ke hoʻopau i nā genes e hana i kekahi mau ʻano. Ua ʻenekini ʻia ka Apple Arctic non-browning me RNAi e hoʻohuli i ka hōʻike o nā genes i kumu e ʻeleʻele a palupalu nā ʻōpala. E like me ka wehewehe ʻana o ka ʻoihana ma kāna pūnaewele, "ke nahu ʻia ka ʻāpala, ʻoki ʻia, a i ʻole pēpē ʻia ... ʻaʻole ʻāpala ʻeleʻele yucky i waiho ʻia ma hope."

Ke noi nei paha nā mea kūʻai no kēia ʻano? Mākaukau paha ʻaʻole hele mai ia. ʻO ka GMO Arctic Apple mua, kahi Golden Delicious, i hoʻomaka i ke poʻo no nā mākeke hoʻāʻo i ka Midwest i ka mahina i hala. ʻAʻohe mea e ʻōlelo pololei ana i kahi e pae mai nā ʻāpala, akā ʻaʻole lākou e kapa ʻia me GMO. E nānā no ka māka ʻo “Arctic Apples” inā makemake ʻoe e ʻike inā e ʻai ana ʻoe i ka ʻāpala hana ʻenekia.

"Hilinaʻi wau e ʻike hou aku i nā mea kanu i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻohana i hāʻule i waho o ka mana hoʻomalu." 

Nā hana hoʻoponopono Gene e like me CRISPR, TALEN a i ʻole zinc manamana nukelea i hoʻohana ʻia e ʻokiʻoki iā DNA i mea e hoʻololi ai i ka genetic a i ʻole hoʻokomo i nā mea kūlohelohe. ʻOi aku ka wikiwiki a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia o kēia mau hana ma mua o ka hana kahiko transgenic. Akā ʻo ka nele o ka nānā aupuni ʻana e hāpai i nā hopohopo. "Aia hiki ke lilo i pahuhopu a me nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia," wehewehe ʻo Michael Hansen, PhD, ʻepekema ʻelemakule o Consumers Union. "Ke hoʻololi ʻoe i nā genetics o nā mea ola ʻaʻole lākou e hana maʻamau e like me kāu e manaʻo ai. ʻO kēia ke kumu e koʻikoʻi e hoʻopaʻa pono i ke olakino a me nā hopena o ke kaiapuni, akā ʻaʻole koi ʻia kēia mau aʻo ʻana. ”

Kahi huaʻahi CRISPR non-browning pakele i ke kānāwai US, e like me Nature hoike i ka makahiki 2016. ʻO kahi aila CRISPR canola hou, ʻenekini e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau make, aia i nā hale kūʻai i kēia manawa a kapa ʻia paha "non-GMO," wahi a Bloomberg, mai ka US Department of Agriculture ua "lawe i kahi pass" i ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā mea kanu CRISPR. Ua haʻi ka moʻolelo i ka "hele wāwae ʻana o Monsanto, DuPont a me Dow Chemical" i loko o ka ʻole o ka hoʻokele "a hahau i nā hana laikini e hoʻohana i ka ʻenehana hoʻoponopono gen.

A hāpai aʻe i kahi hae ʻulaʻula me ka moʻolelo e hāʻawi ai nā GMO hou i nā pono mea kūʻai aku ʻaʻole i hana nā ʻano transgenic kahiko. "Ma muli o ka ʻokoʻa o nā ʻenehana ʻaʻole ia he ʻano e lilo nā ʻano," wahi a Kauka Hansen. "ʻO ka hana kahiko o ka hana ʻenekini i hoʻohana nui ʻia e hana i nā mea kanu e pale aku i nā lāʻau make a hoʻonui i ke kūʻai aku i nā lāʻau make. E hoʻohana ʻia paha nā hana hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono hou i nā ala like, akā aia kekahi mau wili hou. "

ʻO nā makemake o ka Consumer Versus Pono Makemake

Kākoʻo ʻia ka piko “hoʻololi i ka meaʻai” a ka ʻAkelanika e DowDuPont. E ʻike i kā mākou ke hōʻike nei i kēlā moʻolelo.

ʻO nā ʻoihana mahi mahiʻai nui loa o ka honua ka hapanui o nā hua a me nā pesticides, a ke hoʻohui nei lākou i ka mana i nā lima o nā hui multinational he ʻekolu wale nō. Ke pani nei ʻo Bayer lāua ʻo Monsanto i ka hui ʻana, a ua pau nā hui ʻana o ChemChina / Syngenta a me DowDuPont. Ua hoʻolaha wale ʻo DowDuPont i kāna ʻāpana agribusiness e hana ma lalo o ka inoa hou Corteva Agriscience, kahi huaʻōlelo o ka manaʻo "puʻuwai" a me "kūlohelohe."

He mea ʻole ka hana hou ʻana i nā hana hoʻopunipuni a lākou e hoʻāʻo ai, he ʻano kūlohelohe kēia mau ʻoihana he mau moʻolelo lōʻihi o ka nānā ʻole ʻana i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka ʻepekema, ka uhi ʻana i nā pilikia o ke olakino o nā huahana weliweli a me ka waiho ʻana ma hope o nā mea ʻona - Bhopal, dioxin, PCBs, napalm, Agent Orange, teflon, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, dicamba, e inoa ai i kekahi mau mea hōʻino wale nō.

ʻO nā moʻolelo e pili ana i ka wā e hiki mai ana ke nalo i sordid i hala a me ka ʻike o kēia manawa pehea e hoʻohana nei kēia mau ʻoihana i nā ʻenehana ʻenehana genetine i kēia mau lā, ʻo ka hapanui ma ke ʻano he mea hana no nā mea kanu e ola i nā sprays kemika. I mea e maopopo ai ke pāʻani nei kēia papahana ma ka honua i ke alakaʻi ʻana i nā wahi hoʻohana pesticide e ulu ana i ka GMO, heluhelu i nā hōʻike e pili ana hānau kīnā ma Hawaii, pūpū maʻi ʻaʻai ma Argentina, nā alawai wai haumia i Iowa a nā wahi i hōʻino ʻia ma waena o ka Midwest.

ʻO ka wā e hiki mai ana o ka meaʻai ma lalo o ka kaohi o ka agribusiness nui a me nā ʻoihana kemika ʻaʻole paʻakikī e koho - ʻoi aku ka nui o nā mea a lākou e hoʻāʻo nei e kūʻai aku iā mākou: nā mea kanu GMO e hoʻouka i nā kūʻai kemika a me nā holoholona meaʻai i hoʻolālā ʻia e ulu wikiwiki a kūpono maikaʻi i ka mahiʻai hale hana. nā kūlana, me nā lāʻau lapaʻau e kōkua. He hihiʻo nui ia no ka wā e hiki mai ana o nā loaʻa ʻoihana a me ka noʻonoʻo o ka waiwai a me ka mana, akā ʻaʻole maikaʻi loa ia no nā mahiʻai, ke olakino lehulehu, ke kaiapuni a i ʻole nā ​​mea kūʻai aku e koi nei i kahi meaʻai ʻē aʻe i ka wā e hiki mai ana.

Makemake ka nui o nā mea kūʻai aku maoli, ʻai maoli a me nā huahana. Makemake lākou e ʻike i ka mea i loko o kā lākou meaʻai, pehea i hana ʻia ai a no hea mai ia. No ka poʻe makemake e lilo i ka ʻike e pili ana i ka mea a lākou e ʻai nei, aia nō ke ala surefire e hōʻalo ai i nā GMO kahiko a me nā mea hou: kūʻai i meaola. Hōʻoia ka papahana Non-GMO i hōʻoia hōʻoia ʻia ʻaʻole hōʻoia ʻia nā huahana a hana ʻia paha me ka biology synthetic.

He mea nui ia no ka ʻoihana meaʻai maoli e paʻa i ka laina ma ka pono o kēia mau palapala hōʻoia e kūʻē i ka stampede ʻāhiu o nā GMO hou.

ʻO Stacy Malkan ke alakaʻi hui o US Right to Know a me ka mea kākau o ka puke, "Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry."