Hōʻikeʻikepili hou e pili ana i nā pesticides i ka meaʻai e hāpai i nā nīnau palekana

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Ke ʻākoakoa nei ka poʻe ʻAmelika i ko lākou ʻohana e kaʻana like i kahi papa ʻaina Lā Hoʻomaikaʻi i kēia pule, hāʻawi ka ʻikepili aupuni hou i kahi loiloi kūpono ʻole o ka lako o ka meaʻai o US. ua hoʻāʻo ʻia.

Hōʻike ka ʻikepili i ka hebedoma i hala e ka US Department of Agriculture e hōʻike ana i nā pae like ʻole o nā koena pesticide i nā mea āpau mai nā ʻalalā i nā uala a me nā hua waina i nā pīni ʻōmaʻomaʻo. Hoʻokahi o nā laʻana o nā strawberry i loaʻa nā koena o 20 pesticides, e like me ka "Polokalamu ʻIkepili Pesticide" (PDP) hōʻike i hoʻopuka ʻia i kēia mahina e ka USDA ʻoihana Hoʻolālā Mahiai. ʻO ka hōʻike ka 25th makahiki e like me ka hōʻuluʻulu ʻana o nā ʻikepili koena no ka ʻoihana, a uhi ʻia ka laʻana a ka USDA i hana ai ma 2015.

ʻO ka mea nui, ua ʻōlelo ka ʻoihana he 15 wale nō pākēneka o nā laʻana he 10,187 i hoʻāʻo ʻia me ka manuahi mai nā koena pesticide i ʻike ʻia. He ʻokoʻa ia i ʻike ʻia mai ka makahiki 2014, i ka manawa a ka USDA i ʻike ai ma mua o ka 41 pākēneka o nā laʻana he "maʻemaʻe" a i ʻole hōʻike i kahi koena pesticide i hiki ke ʻike ʻia. Ua hōʻike ʻia ma kahi o 40-50 pakeneka o nā laʻana me ka manuahi o nā koena i hiki ke ʻike ʻia, e like me ka ʻikepili USDA. Ua ʻōlelo ka USDA ʻaʻole ia he "statistically valid" e hoʻohālikelike i hoʻokahi makahiki i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe, akā naʻe, no ka mea ua loli ka huikau o nā meaʻai i hōʻike ʻia i kēlā me kēia makahiki. Ke hōʻike nei naʻe ka ʻikepili he like ka 2015 me nā makahiki ma mua o kēlā me nā hua a me nā huaʻai hou a hoʻoponopono ʻia i hana i ka hapa nui o nā meaʻai i hoʻāʻo ʻia.

ʻOiai he maikaʻi ʻole paha ia, ʻo nā koena pesticide he mea ʻole ia e hopohopo ai ka poʻe, e like me ka USDA. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ua ʻoihana nei “nā koena i loaʻa i nā huahana mahiʻai i laʻana ʻia ma nā pae i kū i ka pilikia i ke olakino o nā mea kūʻai aku a palekana ...”

Akā ʻōlelo kekahi ʻepekema ʻaʻohe mea iki i ka ʻikepili e kākoʻo i kēlā hoʻopiʻi. ʻAʻole lawa ka noiʻi ʻana o nā mea hoʻoponopono e pili ana i ka hopena o ka hana mau ʻana o nā koena o nā ʻano pesticides i ke olakino kanaka ma kahi lōʻihi, a he wahaheʻe hoʻi ka hōʻoia ʻana o ke aupuni no ka palekana, i ʻōlelo ʻia e kekahi ʻepekema.

"ʻAʻole maopopo iā mākou inā ʻoe e ʻai i ka ʻāpala i koe nā koena he nui i kēlā me kēia lā he aha nā hopena 20 makahiki ma ke ala," i ʻōlelo ʻo Chensheng Lu, he loea pili o ka biology i hōʻike ʻia i ke kaiapuni ma ke Kula Nui o Harvard. "Makemake lākou e hōʻoia i ka poʻe āpau he palekana kēia akā ʻaʻole lawa ka ʻepekema. He pilikia nui kēia. ”

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo USDA i loko o kāna hōʻike hou loa he 441 o nā laʻana i ʻike ʻia ua hopohopo ʻia ʻo ia ʻo "nā hana ʻae ʻana i ka hoʻomanawanui," no ka mea ʻo nā koena i ʻoi aku ma mua o ka mea i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a i ʻole loaʻa ʻia i nā meaʻai ʻaʻole i manaʻo ʻia e loaʻa nā koena pesticide i nā mea āpau a no laila ʻaʻohe pae hoʻomanawanui kū kānāwai. Aia i loko o kēlā mau laʻana nā koena o nā pesticides 496 like ʻole, i ʻōlelo ʻo USDA.

ʻO ka milo, nā strawberry, nā hua waina, nā pīni ʻōmaʻomaʻo, nā ʻōmato, nā kukama a me nā ipu wai i waena o nā meaʻai i loaʻa me nā koena pesticide i kū ʻole i ke kānāwai. ʻOiai nā koena o nā kemikū i pāpā lōʻihi ʻia ma United States i loaʻa, me nā koena o DDT a i ʻole nā ​​metabolite i loaʻa i ka milo a me kaʻuala. Ua pāpā ʻia ʻo DDT i ka makahiki 1972 ma muli o ke olakino a me nā wahi e pili ana i ka insecticide.

Aia ʻole mai ka ʻikepili USDA kahi ʻike e pili ana i nā koena glyphosate, ʻoiai ʻo ka glyphosate ka lōʻihi o ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana o ka lāʻau make i ka honua a pīpī pinepine ʻia i nā mea kanu he nui, e like me ka palaoa, ka soy, ka palaoa, a me nā ʻoka. ʻO ia kahi mea nui i ka Monsanto Co.'s Roundup herbicide, a ua hoʻolaha ʻia he kino kanaka make paha i ka makahiki i hala e kahi hui o nā ʻepekema maʻi ʻaʻai honua e hana pū ana me ka World Health Organization. Akā ua ʻōlelo ʻo Monsanto he palekana nā koena glyphosate i ka meaʻai. Ua noi ka hui i ka EPA iā hāpai i nā pae ahonui no glyphosate ma kekahi mau meaʻai i ka 2013 a ua hana ʻo EPA pēlā.

ʻO ka meaʻai a me ka lāʻau hoʻomalu lāʻau i kēlā me kēia makahiki nā mea laʻana no nā koena o nā pesticides. Hōʻike nā palapala hou i loaʻa mai ka FDA i nā pae kolohe ʻole o nā ʻano ʻelua o nā insecticides - propargite, hoʻohana ʻia no ka luku ʻana i nā mites, a me flonicamid, ka mea maʻamau e hoʻomake i nā aphids a me nā whiteflies - i loaʻa koke ʻia i loko o ka meli. Hōʻike pū nā palapala aupuni ʻo DEET, kahi repellant insect maʻamau, i ʻike koke ʻia e nā mea hoʻokele i ka meli, a ua loaʻa ka lāʻau hoʻomomona acetochlor ma nā ʻalalā.

Ua hōʻike pū kekahi nā ʻepekema ʻo FDA i nā kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe kū ʻole o ka neonicotinoid thiamethoxam i loaʻa i ka laiki, e like me ka ʻike mai ka ʻoihana. Syngenta i nīnau aku ai ka ʻĀina Hoʻopalekana ʻĀina e ʻae i nā koena kiʻekiʻe o thiamethoxam i ʻae ʻia i nā mea kanu he nui no ka makemake o ka ʻoihana e hoʻonui i ka hoʻohana ʻana e like me ka lau o ka lau. Ke kali nei kēlā noi me EPA, e like me ka mea haʻi ʻōlelo a kahi ʻelele.

ka hōʻike hōʻike residue lehulehu hou loa i hoʻopuka ʻia e ka FDA e hōʻike nei i ka piʻi ʻana o nā uku hōʻino no nā koena pesticide i nā makahiki i hala iho nei. ʻO nā hana i koe i loko o nā laʻana meaʻai home he 2.8 pakeneka no ka makahiki 2013; pālua i ka helu i ʻike ʻia ma 2009. Ua hōʻea ka haki 12.6 pakeneka no nā meaʻai i lawe ʻia mai i ka makahiki 2013, mai ka 4 pākēneka i ka 2009.

E like me ka USDA, ua haʻalele ʻo FDA i ka glyphosate i loko o nā makahiki he ʻumi o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana no nā koena pesticide. Akā ua hoʻokumu ka ʻoihana i “Hana kūikawā” i kēia makahiki e hoʻoholo i nā pae o ka glyphosate e hōʻike nei i kahi hui liʻiliʻi o nā meaʻai. Ua hōʻike kahi chemist FDA i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā koena glyphosate i ka meli a kekahi mau huahana oatmeal, me ka meaʻai pēpē.

uku ʻikepili hoʻāʻo i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i kēia mahina ua hōʻike pū kekahi i ke koena o nā koena glyphosate ma Cheerios cereal, nā kuki Oreo a me nā ʻano meaʻai ʻē aʻe i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i makemake ʻia.

NA NINAU MA NA HANA HELU

Inā paha e hopohopo nā mea kūʻai aku e pili ana i ka meaʻai i loaʻa nā koena pesticide he mea ia o ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa mau. ʻO ke kolu o nā keʻena pekelala e pili ana i nā koena pesticide e hoʻopuka nei i nā mea āpau i ka mea a lākou e kuhikuhi ai ʻo "nā palena koina palena nui" (MRLs), a i ʻole nā ​​"tolerance," i mau pae hoʻohālikelike no ka palekana. Hoʻohana ka EPA i ka ʻikepili i hoʻolako ʻia e ka ʻoihana mahiʻai e kōkua e hoʻoholo i kahi e hoʻonohonoho ʻia ai nā MRL no kēlā me kēia pesticide a me kēlā me kēia hua e manaʻo ʻia e hoʻohana ʻia nā pesticides.

ʻOiai ʻo ka hapa nui o nā meaʻai i hōʻike ʻia e hōʻike i nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai ma lalo o nā MRL, ʻaʻohe kumu hopohopo, mālama ka USDA. "ʻO ka hōʻike ʻana o nā koena i loaʻa ma nā pae ma lalo o ke ahonui i hoʻokau ʻia no ka hōʻoia ʻana i ka palekana o ka lako o ka meaʻai a ka Nation," i ʻōlelo ʻia nā hōʻike residue 2015. Hāʻawi ka ʻoihana mahiʻai i nā hōʻoia ʻoi aku ka laulā, e ʻōlelo ana ʻaʻohe mea makaʻu i ka ʻai ʻana i nā koena o nā kemika e kūʻai aku ana i nā mahiʻai no ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai, ʻoiai inā ʻoi aku lākou i nā ʻae kū kānāwai.

Akā he nui nā ʻepekema e ʻōlelo nei ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia nā ahonui e pale aku i nā mea hoʻohana pesticide ma mua o nā mea kūʻai. Hoʻololi ka hoʻomanawanui i ka hilinaʻi ʻana i ka pesticide a me ka hua. ʻO ke ahonui no ka insecticide chlorpyrifos ma ka ʻāpala, no ka laʻana, ʻokoʻa loa ma mua o ka nui o nā chlorpyrifos i ʻae ʻia i nā hua citrus, a i ʻole i ka maiʻa a i ʻole i ka waiū, e like me ka ʻike hoʻomanawanui o ke aupuni.

I ka hihia o chlorpyrifos, ua ʻōlelo maoli ka EPA e makemake ana e hoʻopau i nā pale kai āpau no ka mea ua hoʻopili nā noiʻi i ka kemika i ulaula pōpilikia i nā keiki. ʻOiai ua manaʻo lōʻihi ka ʻoihana i nā koena o chlorpyrifos palekana, i kēia manawa ua ʻōlelo ka ʻoihana, ʻaʻole paha.

ʻAʻole hiki i ka "EPA," ke hoʻoholo i kēia manawa i ka koena o nā chlorpyrifos, e like me ka hōʻike ʻana i nā papaʻai a me nā hōʻike ʻē aʻe e pili ana i nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe. i ʻōlelo ʻia i ka makahiki i hala. ʻO Dow AgroSciences, i hoʻomohala i nā chlorpyrifos i nā makahiki 1960, ke kūʻē nei ʻo nā hana EPA, ke hoʻopaʻapaʻa nei i ka chlorpyrifos kahi "mea hana koʻikoʻi" no nā mahiʻai. I loko o ka hōʻike hou o ke koena USDA, loaʻa nā chlorpyrifos i nā peach, nā ʻāpala, nā milo, nā strawberry, nā nectarine a me nā meaʻai ʻē aʻe, ʻaʻole naʻe ma nā pae i manaʻo ʻia e hōʻino i nā hoʻomanawanui.

Pale aku ka EPA i kāna hana me nā hoʻomanawanui, a ʻōlelo ʻo ia e hoʻokō ana me ke Kanawai Palekana ʻAno Meaʻai e koi ai i ka EPA e noʻonoʻo i nā hopena o nā koena o nā mea "i loaʻa kahi ʻano maʻamau o ka ʻawahia." Wahi a ka ʻoihana e hoʻonohonoho i kahi ahonui no ka pesticide, nānā ia i nā noiʻi i waiho ʻia e nā ʻoihana pesticide e ʻike ai i nā hopena weliweli e hiki ke loaʻa i ka kemika i nā kānaka, ka nui o nā kemika e noho ai a i ʻole ka meaʻai a me nā hōʻike ʻē aʻe i ka kemika like.

Akā ʻōlelo nā loiloi he maikaʻi ʻole ia - pono e nānā i nā loiloi i nā hanana kūpono hou aʻe e noʻonoʻo ai i ka hopena ākea ākea o nā ʻano ʻāpana o nā koena pesticide e hoʻoholo ai i kahi palekana e hoʻopau ai i nā hui i ʻike ʻia i ka papaʻai o kēlā me kēia lā. Hāʻawi ʻia i kekahi mau pesticides i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i ka hanaʻai mea i hoʻopili ʻia i ka maʻi, hōʻole i ka hana o ka noʻonoʻo, nā maʻi ulu, a me nā maʻi deficit / hyperactivity i nā keiki, aia kahi makemake nui no ka ʻimi hohonu hou ʻana o kēia mau hopena cumulative, e like me i nā ʻepekema he nui. Kuhi lākou i ka National Research Council's hōʻike i nā makahiki i hala aku nei "ʻo ka lawe ʻana i ka papaʻai kahi kumu nui o ka hōʻike ʻana o ka pesticide no nā pēpē a me nā keiki, a ʻo ka hōʻike ʻana i ka papaʻai hiki ke hoʻonui i nā pilikia olakino pili pesticide e pili ana i nā mākua."

"Me ka hōʻike ākea a puni i nā hoʻohuihui kemika, hiki ke alakaʻi hewa i ka hōʻoia ʻana o ka palekana e pili ana i nā papa inoa o nā paepae ʻino o kēlā me kēia kanaka," i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Lorrin Pang, he endocrinologist me ka ʻOihana Ola o Hawaii a he mea aʻoaʻo mua no ka World Health Organization.

ʻO Tracey Woodruff, he ʻepekema kahiko o ka EPA a me ke kākāʻōlelo aʻoaʻo loea i loea i nā mea haumia i ke kaiapuni a me ke olakino keiki, ua ʻōlelo ʻia he pono maopopo no ka noiʻi hou aku. Ke alakaʻi nei ʻo Woodruff i ka papahana ma ke olakino hoʻohua a me ke kaiapuni ma ke Kula ʻo Kauka Lapaʻau o ke Kulanui o Kaleponi.

"ʻAʻole kēia he mea nui," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. "ʻO ka manaʻo holoʻokoʻa o ka nānā ʻana i nā hōʻike kumulative kahi kumuhana wela me nā ʻepekema. ʻO ka loiloi ʻana i nā hoʻomanawanui ʻana o kēlā me kēia me he mea lā aia wale nō i kahi solo ʻaʻole ia he hiʻohiʻona pololei o ka mea a mākou i ʻike ai - ʻike ʻia ka poʻe i nā kemika he nui i ka manawa like a ʻaʻole pili ka ʻepekema i kēia manawa.

Wahi a ka poʻe loiloi, ʻo ka nānā pono ʻana i ka palekana pesticide e palupalu wale paha ia i ka hoʻoholo a ka Pelekikena i koho ʻia e Donald Trump. ʻO Myron Ebell e nānā i nā hana hoʻololi i ka EPA. ʻO Ebell, ka luna o ka Center for Energy and Environment ma ka hoʻokūkū ʻoihana Institute, kahi mea kākoʻo ikaika i nā pesticides a me ko lākou palekana.

"ʻAno ʻole nā ​​pae pesticide, inā hiki ke hoʻokokoke i nā pae palekana. ʻOiai ka poʻe uē e uē wolf no ka mea ʻoi aku nā koena i nā palena pekelala ʻaʻole ia he kumu no ka palekana ʻole o nā huahana SAFEChemicalPolicy.org Pūnaewele holo ʻO ka hui o Ebell. "ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, hiki i nā koena ke lilo i mau haneli mau manawa ma mua o nā palena hoʻokele a palekana naʻe."

He mea paʻakikī nā leka uila i nā mea kūʻai aku e ʻike i ka mea e manaʻoʻiʻo ai e pili ana i ka palekana o nā koena pesticide i loko o ka meaʻai, i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Therese Bonanni, he kauka lāʻau lapaʻau ma Jersey Shore University Medical Center.

"ʻOiai ʻo ka hopena o ka ʻai ʻana i kēia mau lāʻau make ma mua o ka wā o ka wā ʻaʻole ʻike ʻia, ʻike ʻia ka ʻike pili pōkole aia he kumu e akahele." "Huikau loa ka ʻōlelo i nā mea kūʻai aku."

(Paukū i hōʻike mua ʻia ma Ka Huffington Post)