No ke aha mākou e ʻimi nei i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2, nā labs biosafety a me ka noiʻi GOF

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E nānā i ka Blog Biohazards no nā mea hou i kā mākou noiʻi ʻana, a ke kau nei mākou palapala mai kā mākou hoʻokolokolo ʻana ma aneʻi. Kau inoa maanei e loaʻa i nā hoʻohou i kēlā me kēia pule. 

I Iulai 2020, ua hoʻomaka ʻo US Right to Know i ka waiho ʻana i nā palapala a ka lehulehu i ka ʻimi ʻana i ka ʻikepili mai nā keʻena lehulehu i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e ʻike i nā mea i ʻike ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o ka novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ke kumu o ka maʻi Covid-19 Mai ka hoʻomaka o ka laha ma Wuhan, ua make ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ma kahi o hoʻokahi miliona mau kānaka, ʻoiai e maʻi ana he mau miliona i loko o ka maʻi ahulau e hoʻomau mau nei.

Ke ʻimi nei nō hoʻi mākou i nā ulia pōpilikia, nā kulu a me nā pōʻino ʻē aʻe ma nā keʻena hoʻokolohua kahi e mālama a hoʻoponopono ʻia ai nā pathogens o ka maʻi ahulau, a me nā pilikia o ka olakino lehulehu o ka noiʻi loaʻa (GOF), e pili ana i nā hoʻokolohua e hoʻonui i nā hiʻohiʻona o ka hana o nā pathogens make , e like me ka ukana viral, infectivity a me transmissibility.

He kuleana ko ka lehulehu a me ko ke kaiāulu ʻepekema honua e ʻike i ka ʻikepili e pili ana i kēia mau mea. E hōʻike mākou ma aneʻi i nā loaʻa kūpono e kū mai kā mākou noiʻi.

ʻO US Right to Know kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi e kia ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu.

No ke aha mākou e hana nei i kēia noiʻi?

Ke hopohopo nei mākou ʻaʻole hiki i nā ʻōnaehana palekana aupuni o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Kina a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe, a me ke kula nui, nā ʻoihana a me nā hui aupuni a lākou e hana pū ai, ke hāʻawi i kahi kiʻi piha a ʻoiaʻiʻo o nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2 a me nā pilikia. o ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila.

Ma o kā mākou noiʻi ʻana, ʻimi mākou e pane i nā nīnau ʻekolu:

  • He aha ka mea i ʻike ʻia e pili ana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?
  • Aia paha kekahi mau pōʻino a i ʻole nā ​​pōʻino i hana ʻia ma kahi biosafety a i ʻole nā ​​wahi noiʻi GOF i hōʻike ʻole ʻia?
  • Aia paha kekahi hopohopo e pili ana i nā pilikia palekana o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a i ʻole noiʻi GOF i hōʻike ʻole ʻia?

He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?

I ka hopena o Kekemapa 2019, ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Wuhan, Kina, ua puka mai ka nūhou e pili ana i ka maʻi weliweli i kapa ʻia ʻo COVID-19, i hoʻokumu ʻia e SARS-CoV-2, kahi coronavirus hou i ʻike ʻole ʻia ma mua. ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Aia kekahi kuhiakau nui ʻelua.

Nā kānaka noiʻi i nā ʻoihana ʻoihana i pili me ka ʻO Wuhan Institute o Virology (WIV) a Hui ʻEcoHealth, kahi US non-profitthat i ua loaʻa he mau miliona kālā mai nā hāʻawi kālā i uku kālā ʻia e ka ʻauhau i hana pū me WIV ma ka noiʻi coronavirus, palapala ʻo ka virus mea hou hoʻomaka ʻia ma o ke koho kūlohelohe i na mea hookipa holoholona, ​​me kona waihona i loko o nā opeapea. keia Ke kumu "zoonotic" ua hoʻoikaika hou ʻia ke kuhiakau e kuleana ua hoʻomaka ka maʻi ahulau hou i a “Holoholona hihiu” mākeke ma Wuhan, ka Mākeke kai ʻo Huanan, kahi i kūʻai ʻia aku ai nā holoholona i hoʻopili ʻia. (Eia naʻe, ma ka liʻiliʻi hoʻokahi hapakolu o ka hui mua o nā mea maʻi maʻi, me ka hihia mua loa o ka maʻi i ʻike ʻia mai Kēkēmapa 1, 2019, ʻaʻohe pili a pili ʻole paha me nā poʻe kaiāulu a me nā holoholona o ka mākeke iʻa Huanan.)

ʻO ke kuhiakau zoonosis i kēia manawa ke kuhiakau o ke kumu. Eia naʻe, ʻo ka kumu zoonotic o SARS-CoV-2 i akā e hoʻokumu paʻa ʻia, a ua kuhikuhi kekahi o nā kānaka noiʻi ua kau ia ma luna kuee loina ia makemake hoʻokolokolo hou.

No ka heluhelu hou ʻana i kēia mau kumuhana, e ʻike i kā mākou papa inoa heluhelu: He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2? He aha nā mea e makaʻu ai i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka noiʻi?

Ua kuhi kekahi ʻepekema i kahi kuhiakau ʻokoʻa o ke kumu; kuhi lākou ʻo ka SARS-CoV-2 ka hopena o kahi pilikia hoʻokuʻu o kahi ʻano hihiu a i ʻole hōʻano lab-i kānana o kahi pili pili Virus e like me SARS i mālama ʻia i nā wahi biosafety e mālama nei i ka noiʻi coronavirus ma Wuhan, e like me ka WIV a i ʻole nā ​​Wuhan Centres for Disease Control and Prevent.

ʻO ka mea nui, ʻaʻole kuhi ʻia kahi hanana ʻōnaehana lab-kumu i ke kuhiakau zoonosis no ka mea ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ka hopena o nā hoʻololi lab i mālama ʻia ma nā mana i hōʻike ʻole ʻia o nā coronaviruses like like me SARS. mālama i WIV, a i ʻole ka hōʻiliʻili a mālama ʻana paha o ia mau coronavirus. Kū'ē o ke kuhiakau-kumu-kuhiakau ua kipaku aku i kēia mau manaʻo e like me nā manaʻo pohihihi ʻole a nā manaʻo kipi.

I kēia lā, aia nō aole lawa hoike e hōʻole definitively i kahi zoonotic kumu a me nā kuhiakau-kumu kuhiakau. ʻIke mākou, ma muli o nā ʻatikala noiʻi i paʻi ʻia a Hāʻawi ke aupuni pekelala US i ka EcoHealth Alliance no ke kākoʻo kālā ʻana i ka noiʻi coronavirus a WIV, kēlā WIV mālama haneli o ka weliweli SARS-like coronaviruses, a hana ʻia Nā hoʻokolohua GOF ma nā coronaviruses i ka hana pū ʻana me nā kula nui o US, a aia kekahi hopohopo biosafety me ʻO ka hale hana BSL-4 a WIV.

Akā i kēia manawa, ʻaʻohe loiloi kūʻokoʻa o nā moʻolelo hale hōʻikeʻike a WIV a me ka ʻikepili pūnaewele, a liʻiliʻi ka ʻike e pili ana i nā hana kūloko o ka WIV. Ua wehe ka WIV mai kāna ʻike pūnaewele e like me ʻo ka huakaʻi 2018 o ka diplomats ʻepekema US, a pani paʻa ʻia i ke kiʻi ʻana i kāna hōkeo ʻikepili a papa hana hale hōʻikeʻike o nā hoʻokolohua coronavirus e mālama ʻia e nā ʻepekema WIV.

ʻO ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2 he hopena koʻikoʻi koʻikoʻi no ka olakino a me nā ʻōnaehana kai. Hoʻāla ʻia kahi kumu zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 kūpono ninau e pili ana i nā kulekele e hoʻolaha ana i ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana a me nā hana holoholona, ​​i hiki ke lilo i mau hoʻokele nui ka puka ʻana o nā nūhou a me nā mea hoʻomaʻi pathogenic kiʻekiʻe, ka wao nahele, nalowale o nā mea ola a me nā wahi noho. ʻO ka hiki i kū mai paha ʻo SARS-CoV-2 mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua biodefense e ala aʻe nei ninau e pili ana i inā pono mākou e loaʻa kēia mau wahi, kahi e mālama a hoʻoponopono ʻia ai nā pathogens microbial i loaʻa i ka nahelehele ma o nā hoʻokolohua GOF.

Inā SARS-CoV-2 i hōʻano hou ʻia a ʻaʻole paha, ʻo nā noiʻi ʻana o nā lab-origin-theorists e hāpai ana i nā nīnau nui e pili ana i ka deficit transparency e pili ana i ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā pathogens. mālama a hoʻoponopono ʻia i mea e make hou ai lākou.

Loaʻa ka makaʻu i ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana?

Aia kekahi mea nui hoike he nui nā laboratories biosafety ulia, nā hāhā, a hāʻule paʻa, a o na nā pōmaikaʻi kūpono o ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana hiki ʻaʻole waiwai ka nā pilikia o ke kumu o nā pandemics hiki.

ʻO ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo e hoʻololi a hoʻāʻo i nā pathogens weliweli e like me ka maʻi Ebola, H1N1 influenza virus, a me nā coronaviruses pili i ka SARS ma lalo o ka rubric o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā hana kūʻē lapaʻau (e like me nā lāʻau lapaʻau). E like me ia, ʻaʻole hoihoi ia wale ʻenehana biotechnology a me ka ʻoihana lāʻau akā, i ʻoihana biodefense, e pili ana i ka hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia o ka noiʻi ʻo GOF no nā hana o ka biowarfare.

ʻO ka noiʻi GOF ma nā pathogens make he a nui maoli aupuni pili ola olakino. hoike o nā kulu kuhihewa a me nā haʻihaʻi biosafety ma nā wahi noiʻi GOF ʻaʻole mea maʻamau. Ma hope o kahi hui koʻikoʻi o nā virologists i paʻi i kahi koi ʻōlelo ʻaelike ma Iulai 14, 2014 e kāhea ana i kahi moratorium ma ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo, ua hoʻokau ke aupuni US ma lalo o kā Pelekikena Barack Obama hoʻokele.  "Hoʻomaha kālā" ma nā hoʻokolohua GOF e pili ana i nā pathogens weliweli, me nā coronaviruses a me nā virus influenza.

ʻO ka hoʻomaha kālā kālā pekelala ma ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo i hāpai ʻia i 2017 ma hope o kahi manawa a ke aupuni US i hana ai he moʻo kūkā e helu i ka nā pōmaikaʻi a me nā pilikia pili pū me nā noiʻi e pili ana i ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo.

Ke ʻimi nei i ka transparency

Ke hopohopo nei mākou i ka ʻikepili i koʻikoʻi i ke kulekele olakino lehulehu e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, a me nā makaʻu o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a me ka noiʻi ʻana o ka loaʻa pono o ka hana, e hūnā ʻia ma loko o nā pūnaewele biodefense o nā pale pono aupuni o ka United. Nā Aupuni, Kina, a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe.

E hoʻāʻo mākou e hoʻomālamalama i kēia mau mea ma o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā noi palapala lehulehu. E kūleʻa paha kāua. Hiki iā mākou ke hāʻule maʻalahi. E hōʻike mākou i kekahi mea pono e loaʻa iā mākou.

ʻO Sainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, he ʻepekema limahana ma US Right to Know a me ka mea kākau o ka puke, "ʻO nā pi e nalo nei: ʻEpekema, politika a me ka olakino Honeybee”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).