ʻO Biohazards News Tracker: ʻO nā ʻatikala maikaʻi loa ma nā kumu SARS-CoV-2, nā biolabs a me ka loaʻa o ka noiʻi hana.

Print enamel Share Tweet

Eia kahi papa inoa heluhelu e pili ana i ka mea i ʻike ʻia a ʻike ʻole ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, nā ulia pōpilikia a me nā kahe ma nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a me nā biowarfare, a me nā pilikia olakino o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana (GOF), kahi e hoʻonui ai ka laulā host, transmissibility, infectivity a i ʻole pathogenicity o nā pandhogens hiki ke loaʻa. ʻO US kuleana e ʻike ke alakaʻi nei i nā noiʻi e pili ana i kēia mau kumuhana a ke kau nei i nā mea i loaʻa i kā mākou Blog Biohazards.

Ke holo nei kēia papa inoa heluhelu. E hoʻohou mākou ia. E ʻoluʻolu e hoʻouna i nā heluhelu ua hala paha mākou iā Sainath Suryanarayanan ma sainath@usrtk.org.

Nā Kumuhana (hāʻule nā ​​loulou)

Nā ʻatikala hou loa

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: Pono ka US e hōʻike i kāna ʻike e pili ana i ka hale hana ʻo Wuhan. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 22, 2021.

Wall Street Pai. ʻO wai nā mea ʻimi noiʻi ʻo Covid? Loaʻa nā hakakā o ka hoihoi i nā lālā o kahi ʻimi ʻimi no WHO. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 15, 2021.

Wall Street Pai. Hōʻole ʻo Kina e hāʻawi iā WHO i ka ʻikepili maka ma nā hihia Covid-19 Early. ʻO Jeremy ʻAoʻao lāua ʻo Drew Hinshaw. Pepeluali 12, 2021.

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. ʻO wai: ʻaʻole i liu ʻo COVID-19 mai kahi hale hana. Eia pū me WHO: Ua hana paha ia. Filipa Lentzos. Pepeluali 11, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. I ka haʻalele ʻana o ka mikiona virus coronavirus i ka lima ʻole, ʻōlelo ʻo Kina e lanakila ana ka propaganda. ʻO Gerry Shih. Pepeluali 10, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Ma hope o kā Wuhan mikiona ma nā kumu pandemi, ua hoʻokuʻu ka kime WHO i ka manaʻo leak lab. ʻO Gerry Shih lāua ʻo Emily Rauhala. Pepeluali 9, 2021.

The Telegraph. Ua pakele maoli ka maʻi Covid-19 mai kahi hale hana ʻo Wuhan? ʻO Matt Ridley lāua ʻo Alina Chan. Pepeluali 6, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Ke nalowale nei mākou i ka moʻolelo kumu o kēia maʻi ahulau. Ke noho nei ʻo Kina ma nā pane. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 5, 2021.

Wall Street Pai. ʻO ka Covid-19 Kinohi ʻImi. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Ianuali 23, 2021.

Newsweek. Pono ʻo Beijing e hoʻomaʻemaʻe e pili ana i nā kumu ʻo COVID-19 | Manaʻo Manaʻo. Jamie Metzl. Ianuali 22, 2021

He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?

Nā papahana o ka National Academy of Sciences. I mea e hōʻoki ai i ka maʻi ahulau e hiki mai ana, pono mākou e wehe i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO David A. Relman. Nowemapa 3, 2020.

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Ua ala mai ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2 mai kahi papahana noiʻi bat coronavirus ma kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua Kina? Maliʻa paha. Milton Leitenberg. Iune 4, 2020.

Ka Wall Street Journal. Pono ka honua i kahi noiʻi maoli i nā kumu o Covid-19. ʻO Alina Chan lāua ʻo Matt Ridley. Ianuali 15, 2021.

New York Magazine. ʻO ke kuhiakau-leak-kuhiakau. ʻO Nicholson Baker. Ianuali 4, 2021.

Bloomberg. ʻAʻole maopopo iā mākou ma hea mai ʻo Covid-19. ʻO Faye Flam. Ianuali 12, 2021.

Lapaʻau Kūlohelohe. Ma ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Angela Rasmussen. Ianuali 13, 2021.

The Times. Ua kulu ʻia ke keʻena lāʻau lāʻau biological coronavirus, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka luna o US. Didi Tang. Ianuali 4, 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Ua aʻo aku nā moku ʻoihana mokuʻāina no nā pilikia palekana ma ka hale hōʻikeʻike ʻo Wuhan e hoʻopaʻa haʻawina nei i nā coronavirus. ʻO Josh Rogin. ʻApelila 14, 2020.

BBC. ʻO Covid: ʻoluʻolu 'ʻepekema Wuhan e kipa i ke kuhi naʻau leaking lab. ʻO John Sudworth. Kekemapa 22, 2020.

ʻO Houston Chronicle. Hoʻomaopopo ka ʻepekema UTMB i nā pilikia palekana ma ka hale hana Kina e hana nei i ka noiʻi coronavirus. ʻO Nick Powell. ʻApelila 23, 2020. 

Ka Wall Street Pai. Kāomi ʻo NIH i ka pono ʻole o US no ka ʻike ma Wuhan virology lab. ʻO Betsy McKay. ʻAukake 19, 2020.  

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. No laila no hea mai ka maʻi? ʻO Matt Ridley Mei 29, 2020. 

Ka Hale Waihona ʻEpekema Palani (CNRS). Ke nīnau nui ʻia nei ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yaroslav Pigenet. Nowemapa 9, 2020.

The Times. Pehea i hoʻomaka ai ʻo Covid-19? ʻO Hunt no ka mea hoʻomanawanui ʻole ua lilo i ka hakakā o nā mana nui. ʻO Tom Whipple. Kekemapa 31, 2020.

CNET. ʻO ka ʻimi huli hihi a huehue no ke kumu o COVID-19 a me ke kumumanaʻo o ka leakī. ʻO Jackson Ryan. Ianuali 19, 2021.

Pukahi Pepa. Ua pakele paha ʻo COVID-19 mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua? Rowan Jacobsen. Kepakemapa 9, 2020. 

Nature. ʻO ka mea pohihihi nui loa: he aha ka mea e nānā ai i ke kumu o ka coronavirus. ʻO David Cyranoski. 5 Iune 2020.

Newsweek. ʻO nā hoʻokolohua kontroversial a me Wuhan lab i manaʻo ʻia no ka hoʻomaka ʻana i ka maʻi maʻi coronavirus. ʻO Fred Guterl, ʻo Naveed Jamali lāua ʻo Tom O'Connor. ʻApelila 27, 2020.

Ka Washington Post. Hoʻokuʻu ka 'Oihana Moku'āina i ke kaula uila i hoʻokumu i nā koi i pakele ka coronavirus mai ka hale hana Kina. ʻO John Hudson lāua ʻo Nate Jones. Lulai 17, 2020. 

ʻO ka Telegraph. Nānā nā ʻepekema i ka puka ʻana o Covid mai ka hale hana aku ma ke ʻano he ʻimi noiʻi i nā kumu virus. Paul Nuki. Kepakemapa 15, 2020.  

NBC News. Hōʻike ka hōʻike i ka ʻikepili o ke kelepila e hōʻike nei i ka pau ʻana o ʻOkakopa ma Wuhan lab, akā kānalua nā poʻe loea. ʻO Ken Dilanian, Ruaridh Arrow, Courtney Kube, Carol E. Lee, Louise Jones lāua ʻo Lorand Bodo. Mei 9, 2020. 

Kāpena Post. Pehea i hoʻomaka ai ka covid-19? Haʻalulu kāna moʻolelo kumu mua. ʻO David Ignatius. ʻApelila 2, 2020.

The Times. Hōʻike ʻia: ʻEhiku makahiki ke ala coronavirus mai kaʻu make ʻana i kahi keʻena ʻo Wuhan. ʻO George Arbuthnott, Jonathan Calvert, a me Philip Sherwell. Lulai 4, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Nānā nā mākaʻikaʻi coronavirus a WHO i ka mākeke ʻo Wuhan ma ke ʻano he palapala ʻāina i hōʻike ʻole ʻia. ʻO John Power lāua ʻo Simone McCarthy. Kekemapa 15, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Coronavirus: Wuhan probe o ka World Health Organization ʻaʻole e ʻimi nei i nā ʻaoʻao hewa. ʻO Agence Palani-Presse. Kekemapa 24, 2020.

BBC. Wuhan: Ke kūlanakauhale noho mālie; Ke ʻimi nei i nā pane ma kahi i hoʻomaka ai ka coronavirus. ʻO John Sudworth. Iulai 2020.

ʻO ka New York Times, 8 mau nīnau mai kahi mākaʻikaʻi maʻi ma nā kumu kumu o ka pandemia. ʻO William J. Broad. Lulai 8, 2020.

Science. E ʻimi paha kahi mikiona alakaʻi ʻo WHO i ke kumu o ka maʻi ahulau. Eia nā nīnau nui e nīnau ai. ʻO Jon Cohen. Lulai 10, 2020.

The New York Times. I Hunt no Source Virus, ʻo wai e hoʻokuʻu iā Kina. Selam Gebrekidan, ʻO Matt Apuzzo, ʻO Amy Qin a . Nowemapa 2, 2020.

Ka Washington Post. He mea pohihihi nō ke kumu o ka coronavirus. Pono mākou i kahi hoʻokolokolo piha. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Nowemapa 14, 2020.

kuokoa. ʻO Coronavirus: ua hoʻokumu ʻia ke poʻo ʻo MI6 i ka maʻi maʻi i hoʻomaka ʻia e like me ka hōʻeha. ʻO Andy Gregory. Iune 4, 2020.

Ka Wall Street Pai. I ka neʻe ʻole ʻana, ua hōʻoia nā keʻena ʻike ʻike US inā ua kū mai ka coronavirus mai kahi ulia lab. ʻO Warren P. Strobel lāua ʻo Dustin Volz. ʻApelila 30, 2020.

Ka Wall Street Pai. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ka loea ʻōpeʻapeʻa Kina ʻo kāna Wuhan lab ʻaʻole kahi kumu o ka coronavirus hou. ʻO James T. Areddy. ʻApelila 21, 2020.

ABC News. E kala mai, nā manaʻo kipi. Hoʻopau ka noi ʻana ʻo COVID-19 'ʻaʻole kahi hale hana'. ʻO Kate Holland. 27 Malaki 2020. 

ʻO ka Economist. Ke hele nei i ka mālamalama nā ʻāpana o ka nane o Covid-19. Mei 2, 2020. 

Ka Wall Street Pai. ʻO ke kumumanaʻo lab ʻo Wuhan. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Mei 6, 2020. 

ke Kahu. Hoʻowahāwahā i nā kumumanaʻo kipi: ʻike ka poʻe ʻepekema ʻaʻole i hana ʻia ʻo Covid-19 i kahi lab. ʻO Peter Daszak. Iune 9, 2020. 

Na kela la i keia Telegraph. ʻ saylelo nā kānaka ʻepekema ua kuke ʻia ʻo COVID-19 i ka hale hana. ʻO Sharri Markson. Iune 1, 2020.

ʻEpekema. ʻO Trump 'aie iā mākou i kahi noi kala.' ʻ .lelo ʻia nā ʻepekema Kina ma waenakonu o COVID-19. ʻO Jon Cohen. Lulai 24, 2020.

ʻEpekema. Pane i ka makasina ʻepekema: Shi Zhengli Q&A. Shi Zhengli. Lulai 15, 2020.

Minerva. Kūkulu nā ʻōlelo kūpale i ka kānalua i ka ʻike maka Kina. ʻO Aksel Fridstrøm. Kepakemapa 10, 2020. 

Minerva. ʻO ka wehewehe kūpono loa ia mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua. ʻO Aksel Fridstrøm lāua ʻo Nils August Andresen. Lulai 2, 2020. 

Newsweek. Ua kākoʻo ʻo Kauka Fauci i ke keʻena ʻo Wuhan controversial me nā kālā US no ka noiʻi coronavirus weliweli. ʻO Fred Guterl. ʻApelila 28, 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ke kūkulu nei ka hihia i loaʻa iā COVID-19 kahi kumu lab. ʻO Jonathan Latham lāua ʻo Allison Wilson. 5 Iune 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. ʻO kahi kumu i manaʻo ʻia no ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2 a me ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19. ʻO Jonathan Latham lāua ʻo Allison Wilson. Lulai 15, 2020.

The Federalist. Ua wehewehe ʻo Virologist i kāna ʻimi e nānā i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO Julian Vigo. Kepakemapa 2, 2020. 

ʻO Sam Husseini Blog. Ke nīnau nei i ka CDC: He kuhi kūpono piha loa kā kā Kina BSL4 wale nō ma Wuhan? Audio a me ke wikiō. Sam Husseini. ʻApelila 17, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. Ua hoʻohana nā ʻepekema ʻo Wuhan a me US i nā ʻano undetectable o ka hana ʻenekinia ma nā cor coronavirus. ʻO Jonathan Matthews lāua ʻo Claire Robinson. Mei 20, 2020. 

ʻO ka mea kākau moʻolelo hana hewa. Andrew Kailrell ma ke kumu o COVID-19. Russell Mokhiber. ʻAukake 11, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. Ua hoʻolālā ʻenekini ʻia ka maʻi COVID-19? ʻO Jonathan Matthews. ʻApelila 22, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. No ke aha e hoʻopakele ai nā labialial denialists i kēlā mau wahaheʻe kolohe ʻole? ʻO Jonathan Matthews. Iune 17, 2020. 

NBC News. Ma loko o ka hale hana Kina kahi kikowaena i ka ʻimi ʻana i ke kumu o ka coronavirus. ʻO Janis Mackey Frayer lāua ʻo Denise Chow. ʻAukake 10, 2020.

ʻO ke kuʻina. I loko o kāna Zeal e hōʻino aku iā Kina no Coronavirus, ke hoʻomake nei ke Keʻena Hoʻokele i nā noiʻi i nā kumu kumu o ka Pandemi. ʻO Mara Hvistendahl. Mei 19, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Kapa inoa ʻo WHO i ka laina no nā kime o ka honua e nānā nei i nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Simone McCarthy. Nowemapa 25, 2020.

ʻO Edizioni Cantagalli. Cina Covid 19. La chimera che ha cambiato il mondo (China COVID-19: ʻO Chimera nāna i hoʻololi i ka honua). Joseph Tritto. ʻAukake 2020. 

Kūpono ʻole a me ke kāohi ʻana i nā hōʻike e pili ana iā COVID-19

hui pu Press. Kūleʻa ʻo Kina i ka huli huna no nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Dake Kang, ʻo Maria Cheng lāua ʻo Sam McNeil. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. Ma ka honua ma Wuhan, nā hōʻailona o Kina e kū nei i ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Jeremy ʻAoʻao a me Natasha Khan. Mei 12, 2020.

The New York Times. 25 mau lā i hoʻololi i ka honua: Pehea ʻo Covid-19 i hemo ai i kā China hopu. ʻO Chris Buckley, ʻo David D. Kirkpatrick, ʻo Amy Qin lāua ʻo Javier C. Hernández. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

ʻO ka New York Times. Ua hoʻopaʻi ʻia ka mea kākau moʻolelo kamaʻāina Kina no 4 mau makahiki no ka hōʻike ʻana o Covid. ʻO Vivian Wang. Kekemapa 28, 2020.

ʻO ProPublica. Hōʻike i nā Palapala Pūʻali Pehea ka Kōkua o ko Kina Pūʻali Pūnaewele Pūnaewele i Censor ka Coronavirus. Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur, Aaron Krolik lāua ʻo Jeff Kao. Kekemapa 19, 2020.

The New York Times. Hoʻowalewale ʻo Kina i nā mea wahaheʻe e pahu i ka manaʻo i hele mai ka maʻi mai kahi ʻē aʻe. ʻO Javier C. Hernández. Kekemapa 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. Ke paʻakikī nei ʻo Kina e hoʻonā i ka mea pohihihi o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o Covid. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

waiwai Times. Hoʻonui ka pāpāho Kina i ka hoʻouka e ʻimi probe i loko o nā kumu Covid. Kahuhipa Karistiano. Nowemapa 26, 2020.

Nūhou Sky Australia. Hōʻike nā leka uila i hōʻike ʻia 'ʻaʻohe ʻoiaʻiʻo a transparency' i ka leka e pili ana i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO Sharri Markson. Nowemapa 22, 2020.

ʻO nā ulia pōpilikia, nā liu, nā paʻa paʻa ʻole, nā ʻole transparency i nā pono biosafety

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. ʻO nā makaʻu o ke kūkulu ʻana i nā labina bio he nui loa. ʻO Elisabeta Eaves. 18 Malaki 2020. 

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Hewa o kānaka ma nā labs biocontainment kiʻekiʻe: kahi hoʻoweliweli paha i ka maʻi pandemia. ʻO Lynn Klotz. Pepeluali 25, 2019. 

ʻO James Martin Center no ka Nonproliferation Nā haʻawina. Kahi alakaʻi no ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu kumu kumu: kūlohelohe i ka Laboratory. ʻO Richard Pilch, Miles Pomper, Jill Lustre, a me Filippa Lentzos. ʻOkakopa 2020.

ProPublica. Eia ʻeono mau pōʻino i loaʻa i nā mea noiʻi a UNC me nā coronavirus i hana ʻia e ka lab. ʻO Alison Young lāua ʻo Jessica Blake. ʻAukake 17, 2020. 

CBC. Ua hoʻouna ka ʻepekema Kanada i nā maʻi ʻino i Wuhan hale hana ma mua o ka noi ʻana o RCMP e noiʻi. Iune 16, 2020.

Ka Nūhou Ka Nūhou. Hōʻike nā hōʻike loiloi CDC e pili hou ana e pili ana i ka kāohi noiʻi USAMRIID. Heather Mongilio. Nowemapa 23, 2019. 

Nā kikowaena no ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi a me ka pale ʻana (CDC) a me ka US ʻoihana mahiʻai. Ke Keʻena ʻImi ʻImi ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa o nā Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID): ka wehewehe o nā wehewehe ʻana i nā ʻike loiloi. ʻAukake 2019.

Keʻena Luna Wae Aupuni o US. Nā keʻena hoʻokolohua paʻa kiʻekiʻe: nā kulekele piha a me nā loina hou a me nā ʻano ʻoi aku ka ikaika e pono ai e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka palekana. ʻApelila 19, 2016. GAO-16-305. 

USA I kēia lā. 10 hanana i loaʻa ma biolabs a ka lāhui. ʻO Alison Young lāua ʻo Nick Penzenstadler. Mei 29, 2015. 

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Pakele nā ​​pandemics hoʻoweliweli a me nā keʻena hoʻokolohua: nā wanana hoʻokō ponoʻī. ʻO Martin Furmanski. 31 Malaki 2014.

Ke kikowaena no ka Mākau ʻAilima a me ka Nonproliferation. Nā ʻĀkena Laboratory a me nā "wānana hoʻokō ponoʻī" Epidemics. ʻO Martin Furmanski. Pepeluali 17, 2014.

ʻĀnaka ʻImi Nū Aupuni. Nā pahuhopu biosecurity o ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka honua i nā keʻena hoʻokolohuaolaola paʻa paʻa: hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o kahi papa hana. 2012. Wakinekona, DC: ʻO ka National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13315 

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. ʻO ka hoʻolohe ʻana i nā mikamina, nā mea ʻino, a me nā mea huna: ka hoʻolaha nui ʻana o nā bio-laboratories ma United States, 110th Ka Ahaolelo. ʻOkakopa 4, 2007.

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. Ke hoʻolohe nei i ka Federal Overversment of High-Containment Biolaboratories, hoʻokahi haneli ʻumikūmākahi kaukanaʻōlelo. Kepakemapa 22, 2009.

BMJ. ʻO nā uhaʻi ʻana o nā kānāwai palekana ka kumu o ke kū ʻana o ka maʻi SARS i kēia manawa, i ʻōlelo ʻo WHO. ʻO Jane Parry. Mei 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

Nūhou ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa. ʻO ka mōʻaukala lōʻihi o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua pōʻino i hoʻokuʻu ʻia o nā pathogens pandemia hiki ke nānā ʻia ʻole i ka COVID-19 pāpāho. Sam Husseini. 5 Mei 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. COVID-19: He ala ala no ka biosafety. ʻO Jonathan Matthews. ʻApelila 24, 2020. 

USA I kēia lā. ʻAʻole hiki iā CDC ke hōʻike i nā hanana lab me nā pathogens bioterror i ka ʻAhaʻolelo. ʻO Alison Young. 24 Iune 2016.

Global Times. Hoʻopuka ʻia ke kulekele biosafety e hoʻoponopono i nā loopholes hoʻokele mau ma nā labs virus. ʻO Liu Caiyu lāua ʻo Leng Shumei. Pepeluali 16, 2020.

CBS News. Nānā: Hoʻololi ka hui ʻo US i ka pane a Ebola. Ka Nupepa Hui. 7 Malaki 2016. 

ʻO GMWatch. ʻO ke kumumanaʻo censor labens theory no SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Claire Robinson. Lulai 16, 2020. 

Pūnaewele o ka biodefense a me ka biowarfare 

ʻO Salon. Ua hele mai kēia maʻi ma kahi hale hōʻikeʻike? ʻAʻole paha - akā hōʻike ia i ka hoʻoweliweli o ka heihei kaua biowarfare. Sam Husseini. ʻApelila 24, 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ua hūnā ʻo Peter Daszak's EcoHealth Alliance ma kahi o $ 40 Miliona i ka Pentagon Funding a me Militarized Pandemic Science.. Sam Husseini. Kekemapa 16, 2020.

ʻO Sam Husseini Blog. Ke hoʻohuli nei i kā mākou maka mai ka biowarfare: pandemics a me nā wanana hoʻokō ponoʻī. Sam Husseini. Mei 2020. 

Ka Poepoe honua o Bosetona. ʻO ka maunu o nā meaola lāʻau. ʻO Bernard Lown lāua ʻo Prasannan Parthasarathi. Pepeluali 23, 2005. 

ʻO Monterey Institute of Studies International. Pekina ma nā biohazards: ʻO ka loea Kina i nā pilikia nonproliferation biowe armas. ʻO Amy E. Smithson, Luna Hoʻoponopono. ʻAukake 2007. Ke Keʻena ʻo James Martin No ka Haʻawina Nonproliferation.

Nā moʻomeheu make: mau mea kaua biological mai 1945. ʻO Mark Wheelis, ʻo Lajos Rózsa, a ʻo Malcolm Dando (Luna hoʻoponopono). Hale Paʻi Kula ʻo Harvard University, 2006.

ʻO Biowarfare a me ka hoʻoweliweli. Francis Boyle. 2005. Clarity Press, Inc.

Ka pale ʻana i ka heihei lima biological. ʻO Susan Wright (Luna Hooponopono). ʻO ka MIT Press, 1990. 

ʻO Biohazard. ʻO Ken Alibek me Stephen Handelman. Hale Random: Nu Ioka, 1999. 

Nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa no ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila

ʻO ka National Academies Press. Nā pilikia kūpono a me nā pōmaikaʻi o ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana: hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o kahi papa hana. 2015. 

Forbes. E ʻae mākou i nā ʻepekema e hana i nā virus-weliweli weliweli? ʻO Steven Salzberg. ʻOkakopa 20, 2014. 

ʻO ka Pūʻulu Hana ʻo Cambridge. ʻO ka ʻōlelo kūkā a ka Pūʻulu Hana ʻo Cambridge e pili ana i ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o nā pathogens pandemic (PPP). Iulai 14, 2014. 

mBio. Hiki i ka palena ʻepekema waiwai o nā hoʻokolohua pathogen pandomy kūpono ke hōʻoia i nā pilikia? ʻO Marc Lipsitch. ʻOkakopa 14, 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02008-14 

mBio. ʻImi e pili ana i ka H5N1 Influenza Virus Kino Pathogenic: Ke Ala i mua. Anthony S. Fauci. Kepakemapa-ʻOkakopa 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. hana: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

mBio. Ke hāʻule nei i lalo o ka lua lāpaki: aTRIP i ke kiko kiko lexiconic i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa "loaʻa-o-ka hana". W. Paul Duprex lāua ʻo Arturo Casadevall. vol. 5,6 e02421-14. 12 Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1128 / mBio.02421-14

Hoʻolapa ʻo PLoS. Nā koho ʻē aʻe i nā hoʻokolohua me nā pathogens pandemic hiki. ʻO Marc Lipsitch lāua ʻo Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. hana: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Nā pepa ʻepekema e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

ʻO ka Lancet. Nā hiʻohiʻona maʻi o nā maʻi i loaʻa i ka 2019 coronavirus novel ma Wuhan, Kina. Chaolin Huang et al. Ianuali 30, 2020. Volume 395: 497-506. 

ʻAno. Hoʻopuka kahi maʻi pneumonia e pili ana i kahi coronavirus hou o ke kumu ʻōpeʻapeʻa paha. Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… a me Zheng-Li Shi. Pepeluali 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. hana: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

ʻAno. Pākuʻi: kahi maʻi pneumonia i pili me kahi coronavirus hou o ke kumu ʻōpeʻapeʻa paha. Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… a me Zheng-Li Shi. Nowemapa 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z

ʻO ke kino Medicine. ʻO ke kumu kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes, Robert F. Garry. ʻApelila 2020. Volume 26, ʻaoʻao 450-455. 

Ka Nupepa o Virology Lapaʻau. Nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kumu kokoke o SARS-CoV-2. Murat Seyran, Damiano Pizzol, Parise Adadi… a me Adam M. Brufsky. Kepakemapa 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

ʻO BioEssays. Hiki paha i kahi SARS-CoV ‐ 2 ke ala aʻe i kahi ala serial ma waena o kahi mea hoʻokipa holoholona a i ʻole ka moʻomeheu cell? ʻO Karl Sirotkin lāua ʻo Dan Sirotkin. ʻAukake 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Nā palena o ke olakino lehulehu. ʻO nā hihia pneumonia make ma nā miners ʻo Mojiang (2012) a hiki i ka mineshaft ke hāʻawi i nā hōʻailona koʻikoʻi i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Monali Rahalkar lāua ʻo Rahul Bahulikar. Kepakemapa 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

ʻO BioEssays. ʻO ka ʻōnaehana genetic o ka SARS-CoV-2 ʻaʻole e kāpae i kahi kumu ʻenehana. Rossana Segreto a ʻO Yuri Deigin. Nowemapa 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRohana. Hoʻololi maikaʻi ʻo SARS-CoV-2 no nā kānaka. He aha ka manaʻo o kēia no ke ala hou? Shing Hei Zhan, Benjamin E. Deverman, Yujia Alina Chan. Mei 2, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

Zenodo. Ma hea kahi i hoʻomaka ai ka maʻi maʻi maʻi 2019 Coronavirus a pehea i hoʻolaha ai? ʻO ka haukapila ʻo ka Liberation Army ma Wuhan Kina a me ka laina 2 o ka Wuhan Metro System e pane nei i nā pane. ʻO Steven Carl Quay. ʻOkakopa 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

Zenodo. Hoʻopau kahi loiloi Bayesian ma mua o kahi kānalua kūpono ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ʻAʻole ia he zoonosis kūlohelohe akā ma kahi o ke keʻena hoʻokolohua i loaʻa. ʻO Kauka Steven Quay. Ianuali 29, 2021.

Minerva. ʻO nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana ʻaʻole kēia he maʻi hoʻomaʻemaʻe kūlohelohe.. Birger Sørensen, Angus Dalgleish & Andres Susrud. Lulai 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ke noʻonoʻo nei paha i kahi kumu gen-manipulation no SARS-CoV-2 kahi kumumanaʻo kipi e pono ai e censored? ʻO Rossana Segreto lāua ʻo Yuri Deigin. ʻApelila 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

ʻPrlelo hoʻolaha. ʻO nā hopohopo nui e pili ana i ka ʻike ʻana o ka bat coravavirus kānana RaTG13 a me ka maikaʻi o ka pepa Nature like. Xiaoxu Lin, Shizhong Chen. Iune 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

ʻPrlelo hoʻolaha. ʻO ke ʻano kūlohelohe o ka hāpana swab fecal i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hoʻopili NGS o ke kaʻina genome RaTG13 e hoʻokau i kahi nīnau i ka pololei o ke kaʻina RaTG13. ʻO Monali Rahalkar lāua ʻo Rahul Bahulikar. ʻAukake 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Nā hoʻolaha OSF. ʻO COVID-19, SARS a me nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa coronaviruses genome genises RNA exogeneous i manaʻo ʻole ʻia. ʻO Jean-Claude Perez lāua ʻo Luc Montagnier. ʻApelila 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

Zenodo. Hoʻolālā nā kāne i nā kūleʻa genome coronavirus i hana ʻia e ke kāne. ʻO Jean-Claude Perez lāua ʻo Luc Montagnier. ʻAukake 2, 2020. 

Nā Microbes e kū mai ana. ʻAʻole kōkua ʻo HIV-1 i ka genome 2019-nCoV. Xiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang a me Gao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. hana: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

arXiv. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka silico o ka spike protein-ACE2 e hoʻopaʻa nei i nā affinities ma waena o nā laha; ke ʻano nui no ke kumu hiki ke loaʻa i ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2. Sakshi Piplani, Puneet Kumar Singh, David A. Winkler, Nikolai Petrovsky. Mei 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ke ʻike nei i nā coronavirus pili pili iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā pangolins Malayan. Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- Fang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, Gabriel M. Leung, Edward C. Holmes, Yan-Ling Hu, Yi Guan & Wu-Chun Cao. 26 Malaki 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Nā Polokalamu PLoS. ʻO pangolins ke kikowaena waena o ka coronavirus novel novel (SARS-CoV-2019) 2? Ping Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Mei 14, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia o ka coronavirus e pili ana i ka SARS-CoV-2 mai nā pangolins Malayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi She. Mei 7, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Ke lāʻo Biology. Loaʻa paha ʻo Pangolin kumu o SARS-CoV-2 i hui pū ʻia me ka maʻi COVID-19. Tao Zhang, Qunfu Wu, Zhigang Zhang. 19 Malaki 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Kahi kumu o nā panolin CoVs me kahi like o Spike RBD i SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yujia Alina Chan lāua ʻo Shing Hei Zhan. ʻOkakopa 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

ʻO ka maʻi, Genetics a me ka Evolution. COVID-19: Ka manawa e exonerate i ka pangolin mai ka lawe ʻana o SARS-CoV-2 i nā kānaka. ʻO Roger Frutos, ʻo Jordi Serra-Cobo, ʻo Tianmu Chen lāua ʻo Christian A. Devaux. Volume 84, ʻOkakopa 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRohana. ʻAʻohe hōʻike o nā coronaviruses a i ʻole nā ​​virus ʻē aʻe i hiki i ka Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) ke komo i ke kālepa holoholona hihiu ma o Malaysia.. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Iune 19, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Pūnaewele o Virology. A palindromic ʻO ke kaʻina RNA ma ke ʻano he mea hāʻawi breakpoint maʻamau i ka hoʻopili hou ʻana o nā koho kope ma SARS-CoV-2. William R. Gallaher. Lulai 31, 2020.

Pūnae. ʻO kahi kuanaʻike genomic e pili ana i ke kumu a me ka puka ʻana o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yong-Zhen Zhang, ʻo Edward C. Holmes. ʻApelila 2020 181 (2): 223-227. hana: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

Nā papahana o ka National Academy of Sciences. ʻO ke ʻano Superantigenic o kahi hoʻokomo kū hoʻokahi i ka spike SARS-CoV-2 i kākoʻo ʻia e ka repertoire TCR skewed i nā mea maʻi me ka hyperinflammation. ʻO Mary Hongying Cheng, ʻo She Zhang, ʻo Rebeka A. Porritt, ʻo Magali Noval Rivas, ʻo Lisa Paschold, ʻo Edith Willscher, ʻo Mascha Binder, ʻo Moshe Arditi, a ʻo Ivet Bahar. Kepakemapa 28, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010722117

ʻO Biology. Pili kekahi pili ʻōpeʻapeʻa coronavirus pili loa iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā hoʻokomo kūlohelohe ʻana ma ka pūnaewele cleavage S1 / S2 o ka pūnana spike. ʻO Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, a Weifeng Shi. Iune 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia ka bat coravavirus RmYN02 e ka holoi ʻana 6-nucleotide ma ka huina S1 / S2, a kānalua loa ka mea i hoʻokomo ʻia ʻo PAA. ʻO Yuri Deigin lāua ʻo Rossana Segreto. Kekemapa 1, 2020.

bioRohana. ʻO ka pūnaewele cleinage Furin ke kī o ka pathogenesis SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Bryan A. Johnson,… Kari Debbink, Pei Yong Shi, Alexander Freiberg a me Vineet Menachery. ʻAukake 26, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.268854 

bioRxiv. ʻO ka pūnaewele cleinage furin o ka protein spike SARS-CoV-2 kahi mea e hoʻoholo nui ai no ka lawe ʻana ma muli o ka hoʻomaikaʻi hou ʻia i nā pūnaewele airway.. ʻO Thomas Peacock, ʻo Daniel H. Goldhill, ʻo Jie Zhou,… a ʻo Wendy S. Barclay. Kepakemapa 30, 2020. doi. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.318311 

Zenodo. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona maʻamau o ka genome SARS-CoV-2 e hōʻike nei i ka hoʻololi ʻana o ka hale hana maʻalahi ma mua o ka hoʻolālā kūlohelohe a me ka wehewehe ʻana o kāna ala synthetic hiki.. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, a me Shanchang Hu. Kepakemapa 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Johns Hopkins Center no ka palekana olakino. I ka pane: Yan et al Preprint Examinations o ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Kelsey Lane Warmbrod, Rachel M. West, Nancy D. Connell lāua ʻo Gigi Kwik Gronvall. Kepakemapa 21, 2020.

Zenodo. Kuhi ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 Spillover i ka manawa o 2019 Nānā i nā Laʻana mai kahi Mineshaft ma Mojiang, Yunnan Province, Kina. Inoa inoa ʻole Kepakemapa 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Nā ʻatikala blog ʻimi noiʻi e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

Medium. Hana-Lab? ʻO ka moʻokūʻauhau SARS-CoV-2 ma o nā aniani o ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila. ʻO Yuri Deigin. ʻApelila 22, 2020.

Medium. Nā mea hoʻomaʻi weliweli a me kahi e loaʻa ai iā lākou. Moreno Colaiacovo. Nowemapa 15, 2020.

Wahi. ʻO ka hōʻiliʻili ʻikepili hōʻeuʻeu o nā hihia Covid-19 i manaʻo ʻia ma Wuhan. Gilles Demaneuf. ʻOkakopa 15, 2020.