Pepa ʻo Glyphosate: Ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe

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ʻO Glyphosate, kahi herbicide synthetic i patentia i ka 1974 e ka Hui Monsanto a i hana ʻia a kūʻai ʻia e nā hui he nui i nā huahana he haneli, ua pili pū ʻia me ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe. ʻO Glyphosate ka mea i ʻike nui ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i nā lāʻau make inoa ʻo Roundup-branded, a me ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana ʻia me "Roundup Ready" nā meaola i hoʻoponopono maoli ʻia (GMO).

ʻO ka tolerance Herbicide ka mea i hoʻomake nui ʻia me ka GMO i hana ʻia i loko o nā mea kanu meaʻai, me kekahi 90% o ke kulina a me 94% o nā soybeans i ka US i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau make, e like me ka ʻikepili USDA. A 2017 like ʻike ʻia ua hoʻonui ʻia ka ʻike ʻana o ka poʻe ʻAmelika i ka glyphosate 500 pakeneka mai ka Roundup Ready GMO i hoʻolako ʻia i ka US ma 1996. Eia kekahi mau ʻike nui e pili ana i ka glyphosate:

Pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia

E like me ka Pepeluali Fepuari 2016, ʻo glyphosate ka ʻo ka pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia: "I ka US, ʻaʻohe pesticide i hele mai kahi kokoke i ka hoʻohana nui a hoʻolaha ākea." Loaʻa nā loaʻa ma:

  • Ua noi nā ʻAmelika i 1.8 miliona mau tona o glyphosate mai kona hoʻolauna ʻana i ka makahiki 1974.
  • Ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa 9.4 miliona mau tona o ka kemika i pīpī ʻia ma nā kahua - lawa pono e kāpīpī kokoke i ka hapalua paona o Roundup ma kēlā me kēia ʻeka e mahi ʻia ana o ka honua.
  • Ma ke ao holoʻokoʻa, ua piʻi aʻe ka hoʻohana glyphosate ma kahi o 15 mau pā mai ka hoʻopuka ʻia ʻana o nā mea kanu ʻo Roundup Ready GMO.

Nā ʻōlelo mai nā ʻepekema a me nā lawelawe mālama olakino 

Nā hopohopo maʻi ʻaʻai

ʻO nā palapala ʻepekema a me nā hopena hoʻoholo e pili ana i nā glyphosate a me nā gicphosate-based herbicides e hōʻike nei i kahi hui o nā hopena, e hana ana i ka palekana o ka lāʻau make i kumuhana i hoʻopaʻapaʻa nui ʻia. 

Ma 2015, ka ʻO ka 'Oihana Kuleana International o ka World Health Organization no ka Research on Cancer (IARC) glyphosate ʻike ʻia e like me "carcinogenic paha i nā kānaka”Ma hope o ka loiloi ʻana i nā makahiki o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana a me ka loiloi ʻia e nā hoa ʻepekema. Ua ʻike ka kime o nā ʻepekema kūwaho he hui ma waena o glyphosate a me non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Nā keʻena US: I ka manawa o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana IARC, ke alakaʻi nei ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i kahi loiloi hoʻopaʻa inoa. ʻO ke Kōmike loiloi i ka maʻi ʻaʻai e EPA (CARC) hoʻopuka i kahi hōʻike i Kepakemapa 2016 Ke hoʻopau nei i ka glyphosate "ʻaʻole ia he carcinogenic i nā kānaka" ma nā lāʻau e pili ana i ke olakino kanaka. I Kēkēmapa 2016, ua hoʻākoakoa ka EPA i kahi Panel Aʻoaʻo ʻepekema e nānā i ka hōʻike; nā lālā i mahele ʻia i kā lākou loiloi i kā EPA hana, me kekahi mau mea i loaʻa i ka EPA i hala i ke ʻano o ka loiloi ʻana i kekahi noiʻi. Hoʻohui ʻia, ua hoʻoholo ke Keʻena ʻo EPA o ka noiʻi a me ke kūkulu ʻana i ka Office of Pesticide Programs a ka EPA ʻaʻole i hahai pono i nā ʻōmole kūpono i loko o kāna loiloi o glyphosate, a ua ʻōlelo ʻia ua hiki ke manaʻo ʻia he mau kākoʻo e kākoʻo ana i kahi hōʻike "carinogen" a "a manaʻo" paha o ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka carcinogenicity. Eia naʻe ka EPA hoʻopuka ʻia kahi hōʻike kikoʻī ma glyphosate i ka lāʻo Dekemaba 2017 e hoʻomau ana i ka paʻa ʻana ʻaʻole paha he carcinogenic ka kemikala. I ʻApelila 2019, ka EPA hōʻoia hou i kona kūlana ʻaʻole pilikia kēlā glyphosate i ke olakino lehulehu. Akā ma mua o kēlā mahina, ua hōʻike ka US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) he mau loulou ma waena o glyphosate a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Wahi a ka hōʻike kikoʻī mai ATSDR, "He nui nā noiʻi i hōʻike i nā lakio pōpilikia i ʻoi aku ma mua o hoʻokahi no nā hui ma waena o ka hōʻike glyphosate a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a i ʻole myeloma lehulehu." 

Ua hoʻopuka ka EPA i kahi Hoʻoholo Manaʻo Manaʻo Kākoʻo Kūmau i Ianuali 2020 me ka ʻike hou e pili ana i kona kūlana ma glyphosate. 

Hui PūʻAina: ka ʻO ka Mana palekana palekana Kai ʻEulopa a me ka Ka Hui Kūmole Europa ua ʻōlelo ʻaʻole paha he gākana kino ka glyphosate i kānaka. A Hōʻike 2017 e nā hui kaiapuni a me nā mea kūʻai aku i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i ka hilinaʻi kūpono ʻole o nā mea hoʻokele i ka noiʻi i kuhikuhi ʻia a hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana kemika. A 2019 like ua ʻike ʻo Kelemania Federal Institute no ka hōʻike loiloi ʻikepili ma glyphosate, ka mea i loaʻa ʻole kahi pilikia o ka maʻi ʻaʻai, me nā ʻāpana o ka ʻōlelo plagiarized mai nā noi a Monsanto. I Pepeluali 2020, ua hōʻike ʻia nā hōʻike ʻepekema 24 i waiho ʻia i nā luna hoʻomalu Kelemania e hōʻoia i ka palekana o glyphosate mai kahi keʻena nui Kelemania ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hoʻopunipuni a me nā hana hewa ʻē aʻe.

ʻO ka hui hui ʻana o WHO / FAO ma nā koena Pesticide i hoʻoholo i ka 2016 ʻaʻole hiki i kēlā glyphosate ke waiho i kahi makaʻi kanesa i nā kānaka mai ka hōʻike ʻana ma o ka papaʻai, akā ua hōʻino ʻia kēia ʻike e kipi o ka hoihoi hopohopo ma hope o ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o ka noho a me ka luna noho o ka hui i paʻa i nā kūlana alakaʻi me ka Ke KeʻenaʻEpekema Ola Ola International, kahi hui i kālā kālā ʻia e Monsanto a me kekahi o kāna hui lobbying.

Kaleponi OEHHA: Ma Malaki 28, 2017, ua hōʻoia ka Office of Protection Environmental Protection Agency o Kaleponi e hana ia hoʻohui glyphosate i ka Palapala Kauoha Kaleponi 65 papa inoa o nā kemika i ʻike ʻia e lilo ai ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Monsanto e pale i ka hana akā ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka hihia. I kekahi hihia ʻokoʻa, ua ʻike ka ʻaha ʻaʻole hiki i Kaleponi ke koi aku i nā ʻōlelo a ka maʻi ʻaʻai no nā huahana i loaʻa ka glyphosate. Ma Iune 12, 2018, ua hōʻole kahi ʻaha ʻĀpana o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i ka noi a ka Loio Kuhina Kaleponi no ka ʻaha e noonoo hou i ka hoʻoholo. Ua ʻike ka ʻaha he hiki wale iā Kaleponi ke koi aku i ka haʻiʻōlelo kalepa e hōʻike ana i ka "ʻike maoli a me ka pili ʻole o ka ʻike," a ʻaʻole i hōʻoia ʻia ka ʻepekema e pili ana i ka carcinogenicity glyphosate.

Ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai: Ua loaʻa i kahi aupuni lōʻihi o US i kākoʻo ʻia e ka cohort prospective cohort no nā ʻohana mahiʻai ma Iowa a me North Carolina ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi pilina ma waena o ka hoʻohana glyphosate a me ka non-Hodgkin lymphoma, akā ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi "ma waena o nā mea noi i ka quartile hōʻike kiʻekiʻe loa, aia kekahi hoʻonui i ka makaʻu o ka myeloid leukemia (AML) i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea hoʻohana ʻole… ” i hoʻolaha ʻia i ka hopena o 2017.

ʻO nā noiʻi hou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe 

Cancer

Ka hoʻohaunaele Endocrine, ka momona a me nā hopohopo hānau 

ʻO ka maʻi maʻi 

  • ʻO kahi noi 2017 e pili ana i nā hōʻike glyphosate mau loa, haʻahaʻa loa maʻi maʻi ʻona ʻona ʻona ʻole i nāʻiole. Wahi a nā kānaka noiʻi, ʻo nā hopena "hōʻike ʻia ka ʻai mau ʻana o nā pae haʻahaʻa loa o kahi GBH formulate (Roundup), ma nā ʻano like glyphosate e like me ia, e pili ana i nā hoʻololi o ka proteome ate a me ka metabolome," nā biomarkers no NAFLD.

Hoʻohaunaele Microbiome 

  • November 2020 ka pepa i ka Pai no e hopohopo hōʻike e pili ana i ka 54 pākēneka o nā laha i ke kumu o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka i "hiki ke maʻalahi" i ka glyphosate. Me kahi "mahele nui" o nā koʻohune i loko o ka ʻōpū microbiome i maʻalahi ʻia i ka glyphosate, ʻo ka lawe ʻana o glyphosate "e loli loa i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka," i ʻōlelo nā mea kākau i kā lākou pepa. 
  • A 2020 Nānā moʻokalaleo o nā hopena o glyphosate ma ka ʻōpū microbiome Panina ia, "ʻO ke koena glyphosate ma luna o ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke kumu i ka dysbiosis, no ka mea ʻoi aku ke kūpaʻa o nā pathogens oportunistic i ka glyphosate ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka bacteria bacteria." Ke hoʻomau nei ka pepa, "ʻO Glyphosate kahi mea hoʻonāukiuki kūpilikiʻi loa i ka etiology o kekahi mau mokuʻāina e pili ana i ka dysbiosis, e like me ka maʻi celiac, ka maʻi ʻōpū a me ka maʻi hanu huhū. He hopena paha kā Glyphosate no ke olakino noʻonoʻo, e like me ka hopohopo a me ke kaumaha, ma o ka loli ʻana i ka microbiome ʻōpū.
  • Ua mālama ʻia kahi noi no ka ʻiole 2018 e ka Ramazzini Institute e hōʻike ana i nā hōʻike haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa i Roundup ma nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he palekana loa ua hoʻololi i ka microbiota ʻōpū i kekahi o nā ʻīlio ʻiole.
  • Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ʻē aʻe ma 2018 i ke kiʻekiʻe o nā glyphosate kiʻekiʻe i lawelawe ʻia i nā ʻiole i hoʻohaunaele i ka ʻōpū microbiota a hana i nā ʻano hopohopo a me ke kaumaha.

Nā hopena piʻina ʻino a me nā butterflies mōʻī.

ʻO nā hoʻopiʻi kanesa

Ma mua o ka 42,000 poʻe i waiho i ka hoʻopiʻi kūʻē iā Monsanto Company (ʻo Bayer i kēia manawa) e ʻōlelo nei i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka lāʻau make i Roundup i mea iā lākou a i ʻole nā ​​mea aloha e hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin (NHL), a ua uhi ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia. Ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka hana ʻike, ua huli ʻo Monsanto i mau miliona o nā ʻaoʻao o nā moʻolelo kūloko. O mākou ke kau nei i kēia mau pepa Monsanto i ka wā e loaʻa ai. No nā nūhou a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e pili ana i ke kānāwai e hoʻomau nei, e ʻike iā Carey Gillam's Pūnaewele Hoʻokolohua Roundup. ʻO nā hoʻokolokolo mua ʻekolu i pau i nā makana nui i nā mea hoʻopiʻi no ke kuleana a me nā pohō, me nā jure e hoʻoholo ana he mea kōkua nui ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele a Monsanto i mea e hoʻomohala iā NHL. Hoʻopiʻi ʻo Bayer i nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo. 

Ka mana o Monsanto i ka noiʻi: I Malaki 2017, ua wehe ka luna kānāwai pekelala i kekahi o nā palapala Monsanto kūloko hāpai i nā nīnau hou e pili ana i kā Monsanto mana i ka hana EPA a pili i nā mea hoʻokele noiʻi e hilinaʻi ai. Hōʻike nā palapala i nā hoʻopiʻi lōʻihi a Monsanto e pili ana i ka palekana o glyphosate a me Roundup mai hilinaʻi pono i ka ʻepekema kani e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka ʻoihana, akā naʻe nā hana e hoʻopololei i ka ʻepekema

Nā ʻike hou aʻe e pili ana i ka hoʻopilikia ʻepekema:

Ua hāʻawi ʻia nā ʻepekema ʻo Sri Lankan i kahi makana no ke kūʻokoʻa AAAS no ka noiʻi maʻi maʻi ʻōpū

Ua hāʻawi aku ka AAAS i ʻelua ʻepekema Lankan, ʻo Dr. ʻO Channa Jayasumana lāua ʻo Sarath Gunatilake, ka ʻO ka makana 2019 no ke kūʻokoʻa ʻepekema a me ke kuleana no kā lākou hana e "ʻimi i ka pilina ma waena o glyphosate a me nā maʻi puʻuwai maʻi ma lalo o nā pilikia." Ua hōʻike nā ʻepekema he hana nui ka glyphosate i ka lawe ʻana i nā metala kaumaha i nā puʻupaʻa o ka poʻe e inu ana i ka wai i hoʻohaumia ʻia, a hiki i ka nui o nā maʻi maʻi maʻi ma nā kaiāulu mahiʻai. ʻIke pepa i loko  ʻO SpringerPlus (2015), ʻO BMC Nefrology (2015), Ka Ola Ola (2015), International Journal of Environmental Research a me Health Health (2014). ʻO ka makana AAAS i hala hoʻokuʻuʻia ma waena o kahi hoʻoulu kūʻē kūʻē mai nā mea kōkua pesticide e hoʻohaʻahaʻa i ka hana a ka ʻepekema. Ma hope o ka loiloi, ʻo ka AAAS hoʻihoʻi hou i ka makana

Desiccation: kahi kumu hou aʻe o ka hōʻike papaʻai 

Hoʻohana kekahi mau mahiʻai i ka glyphosate ma nā mea kanu ʻole GMO e like me ka palaoa, ka bale, ka ʻoka, a me ka lihi e hoʻomaloʻo i ka hua i mua o ka ʻohi ʻana i mea e wikiwiki ai ka ʻohi. Kēia hana, ʻike ʻia ʻo desiccation, paha he kumu waiwai nui o ka hōʻike papaʻai i glyphosate.

ʻO Glyphosate i ka meaʻai: Huki ʻo US i kona mau wāwae i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana

Ua hoʻokuʻu mālie ka USDA i kahi hoʻolālā e hoʻomaka e hoʻāʻo i nā meaʻai no nā koena o glyphosate ma 2017. ʻO nā palapala kūloko kūloko i loaʻa ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike ana ua hoʻolālā ke keʻena e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana ma kahi o 300 mau laʻana o ka syrup kānana no glyphosate i ʻApelila 2017. Akā ua pepehi ka ʻoihana i ka papahana ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana. Ua hoʻomaka ka US Food and Drug Administration i kahi papahana hoʻāʻo palena palena i ka 2016, akā piha ka hana me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a me nā pilikia kūloko a ʻo ka papahana ka hoʻomaha ʻia i Kepakemapa 2016. Loaʻa i nā ʻoihana ʻelua i nā papahana e hoʻāʻo i kēlā me kēia makahiki i nā meaʻai no nā koena pesticide akā ua haʻalele pinepine lāua i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana no ka glyphosate.

Ma mua o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana, loaʻa kahi chemist o FDA pae weliweli o glyphosate i nā laʻana he nui o ka meli US, nā pae i kū ʻole i ke ʻenehana no ka mea ʻaʻohe ʻae i hoʻokumu ʻia no ka meli e ka EPA. Eia kahi recap o nā nūhou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i loaʻa i ka meaʻai.

Nā pesticides i kā mākou meaʻai: Aia i hea ka ʻike palekana?

Hōʻike kaʻikepili USDA mai 2016 i nā pae pesticide i hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma 85% o ʻoi aku ma mua o 10,000 mau meaʻai i laʻana, nā mea āpau mai nā ʻalalā i nā hua waina i nā pīni ʻōmaʻomaʻo. Wahi a ke aupuni ʻaʻohe mea iki e pili ana i ke ola olakino, akā ʻōlelo kekahi ʻepekema ʻaʻohe mea iki e kākoʻo ai i kēlā hoʻopiʻi. E nānā “Nā kemika i kā mākou meaʻai: Inā ʻaʻole palekana ʻo "palekana": ʻImi ʻepekema o ke koena pesticide i nā meaʻai e ulu; nīnau ʻia nā pale hoʻomalu, ”Na Carey Gillam (11/2018).

ʻO kā Thailand hoʻohuli ʻana i ka pāpā glyphosate i hiki mai ma hope o ke kākau ʻana o Bayer script US, hōʻike ʻia nā palapala

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ʻO Thailand i hoʻokahi makahiki i hala i hoʻonoho ʻia e pāpā ʻo ka mauʻu mauʻu e luku nei i ka glyphosate Nine Inch, kahi neʻe i hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia e nā mea kākoʻo olakino lehulehu no ka mea he hōʻike ka lāʻau i kumu i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, a me nā mea ʻino ʻē aʻe i ka poʻe a me ke kaiapuni.

Akā ma lalo o ke kaomi koʻikoʻi mai nā luna o US, ua hoʻohuli ke aupuni o Thailand i ka pāpā papa ʻia ma glyphosate i ka mahina ʻo Nowemapa i hala a hoʻolohi i ka pāpā ʻana i nā lāʻau pesticides ʻelua ʻē aʻe me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka ʻōlelo a ke Kōmike Kālā Meaʻāina National National Hazardous i ʻōlelo ʻia he pāpā e pono e pale aku i nā mea kūʻai aku.

ʻO kahi pāpā, keu hoʻi i ka glyphosate, e "hoʻopilikia loa" i ka lawe mai ʻana mai o ka soybeans, ka palaoa a me nā mea mahiʻai ʻē aʻe, ua hoʻomaopopo ʻo US Department of Agriculture Undersecretary Ted McKinney i ke Kuhina Nui o Thailand ʻo Prayuth Chan-Ocha i ka hoʻokau ʻana i ka hoʻololi. Hiki ke hoʻopili ʻia nā lawe mai ma muli o kēlā mau ukana, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe he nui, i hoʻopili ʻia me nā koena o glyphosate.

Ano, nā leka uila hou i hōʻike ʻia ma waena o nā luna aupuni a me Monsanto makua Bayer AG hōʻike i ka hana a McKinney, a me nā mea i lawe ʻia e nā luna aupuni o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻomaopopo iā Thailand ʻaʻole e pāpā i ka glyphosate, ua kākau ʻia a paipae ʻia e Bayer.

Ua loaʻa nā leka uila ma o kahi Freedom of Information Act i noi ʻia e ka Center for Biological Diversity, kahi hui mālama nonprofit. ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi ka hui ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA) a me ka US Department of Commerce i ka Pōʻakolu e ʻimi nei i nā moʻolelo lehulehu e pili ana i nā hana a nā keʻena o ke kālepa a me ka mahiʻai i ka kaomi ʻana iā Thailand e pili ana i ka pilikia glyphosate. Aia kekahi mau palapala a ke aupuni i hōʻole ai e hoʻokuʻu e pili ana i nā kamaʻilio me Bayer a me nā hui ʻē aʻe, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka hui.

"He mea maikaʻi ʻole ka nānā ʻana o kēia hoʻomalu i ka ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa e kākoʻo makapō ai i kā Bayer manaʻo ponoʻī no ka palekana o glyphosate," wahi a Nathan Donley, he ʻepekema kiʻekiʻe ma ka Center for Biological Diversity. "Akā e hana ma ke ʻano he luna ʻo Bayer e kaomi i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe e lawe i kēlā kūlana he mea huhū loa."

ʻO Glyphosate ka mea hoʻohana i nā herbicides Roundup a me nā mana ʻē aʻe i hoʻomohala ʻia e Monsanto, i waiwai ʻia he mau piliona kālā i nā kūʻai makahiki. Ua kūʻai ʻo Bayer iā Monsanto i ka makahiki 2018 a ke ʻumeʻume nei ʻo ia mai ka wā e kāohi ai i ka piʻi ʻana o ka hopohopo e pili ana i ka ʻepekema noiʻi e hōʻike ana hiki i nā gicphosate herbicides ke kumu i kahi maʻi ʻaʻai koko i kapa ʻia ʻo non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ʻO ka hui pū kekahi e hakakā ana i nā hoʻopiʻi e pili ana ma mua o 100,000 mau mea hoʻopiʻi i koi i ko lākou ulu ʻana o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin i kumu ʻia e ka hōʻike ʻana iā Roundup a me nā lāʻau herbicides a Monsanto glyphosate.

ʻO nā mea hoʻomake mauʻu Glyphosate ka mea kanu lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia ma ka honua, ma ka hapa nui no ka mea ua hoʻomohala ʻo Monsanto i nā mea kanu ʻenekini e ʻae pono e pīpī pololei ʻia me ka kemika. ʻOiai he mea pono i nā mahiʻai i ka mālama ʻana i nā māla i nā nāhelehele ʻole, ʻo ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i ka lāʻau make ma luna o nā piko o nā mea ulu e ulu ana nā lau i nā pae like ʻole o ka pesticide i loko o ka palaoa maka a me ka pau ʻana o nā meaʻai. Mālama ʻo Monsanto a me nā mea hoʻokele US i nā pae pesticide i ka meaʻai a me nā hānai holoholona ʻaʻole pilikia i nā kānaka a i nā holoholona, ​​akā nui nā ʻepekema e kūlike ʻole a ʻōlelo ʻoiai he mea weliweli ka nui o nā helu.

Hoʻonohonoho nā ʻāina ʻokoʻa i nā pae kū kānāwai like ʻole no ka mea a lākou e hoʻoholo ai he mau palekana o ka mea hoʻomake mauʻu i ka meaʻai a me nā mea kūʻai maka. Kuhi ʻia kēlā mau "koena koina kiʻekiʻe" ma ke ʻano he MRL. ʻAe ka US i nā MRL kiʻekiʻe loa o glyphosate i ka meaʻai ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe.

Inā pāpā ʻia ʻo Thailand i ka glyphosate, ʻaʻohe o ka pae o ka glyphosate e ʻae ʻia i ka meaʻai, haʻi aku ʻo Bayer i nā luna o US.

Kōkua pae kiʻekiʻe

Hōʻike nā leka uila i ka mahina ʻo Kepakemapa 2019 a i ka hoʻomaka mua o ʻOkakopa o 2019 ʻO James Travis, ka luna nui no nā hana aupuni o Bayer a me ke kālepa, ua ʻimi i ke kōkua i ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ka pāpā glyphosate mai nā luna kiʻekiʻe he nui mai ka USDA a me ka Office of the United States. Lunamakaʻāinana Kālepa (USTR).

Ma waena o kēlā mau poʻe Bayer i ʻimi ai i ke kōkua mai Zhulieta Willbrand, ʻo ia ka luna o nā limahana o ke kālepa a me nā mea mahiʻai haole ma ka US Department of Agriculture. Ma hope o kā Thailand hoʻoholo e hoʻohuli i ka pāpā ma glyphosate, ua hoʻolimalima ʻia ʻo Willbrand e hana pololei no Bayer ma nā mea kalepa kūwaho.

I ka nīnau ʻana inā kōkua ke kōkua mai iā Willbrand ʻoiai ʻo ia he luna aupuni i kōkua iā ia e loaʻa kahi hana ma Bayer, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ka hui e "hoʻoikaika ikaika" e hoʻolimalima i ka poʻe mai "nā ʻano āpau" a me nā "ʻo ka manaʻo ua hoʻolimalima ʻia ʻo ia no nā kumu ʻē aʻe ma mua o ke kālena nui āna i lawe ai iā Bayer he wahaheʻe. "

Ma kahi leka uila iā Willbrand i hana ʻia ma Sepatemaba 18, 2019, ua haʻi ʻo Travis iā Bayer i ka manaʻo he "waiwai maoli" no ke komo ʻana o ke aupuni US ma ka pāpā glyphosate, a ua ʻike ʻo ia e hoʻonohonoho ana ʻo Bayer i nā hui ʻē aʻe e kūʻē pū i ka pāpā.

"Ma ko mākou hopena, ke aʻo aku nei mākou i nā hui mahiʻai, nā mea kanu a me nā hoa ʻoihana i hiki ai iā lākou ke haʻi i nā hopohopo a me ka pono no kahi hana ʻepekema paʻakikī," i kākau ʻo Travis iā Willbrand. Ua hoʻouna aku ʻo Willbrand i ka leka uila iā McKinney, ke kākāʻōlelo o ka USDA ma lalo no ke kālepa a me nā mea mahiʻai haole.

I loko o kahi lā 8 ʻOkakopa 2019, ke aho leka uila me ka laina kumuhana "Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo o Thailand Ban - Hoʻolālā e neʻe wikiwiki nei," ua kākau ʻo Travis iā Marta Prado, ka hope kōkua US Trade Representative no ka Hikina Hema ʻo Asia a me ka Pākīpika, e kope ʻana iā Willbrand a me nā mea ʻē aʻe, e hoʻohou. iā lākou ma ke kūlana.

Ua kākau ʻo Travis ua mākaukau ʻo Thailand e pāpā i ka glyphosate i ka wikiwiki o ka wikiwiki, e Kēkēmapa 1, 2019. Me ka glyphosate, ke hoʻolālā nei ka ʻāina e pāpā pū kekahi Nāpūlani, kahi insecticide i hana nui ʻia e Dow Chemical i ʻike ʻia e hōʻino i ka lolo o nā pēpē; a paraquat, Wahi a nā ʻepekema lāʻau hoʻomake lāʻau i ke kumu o ka maʻi ʻōnaehana i kapa ʻia ʻo Parkinson's.

Ua kuhikuhi ʻo Travis i ka makaʻu i kahi pāpā glyphosate e lilo i nā kūʻai aku o nā huahana US ma muli o ka pilikia MRL a hāʻawi i nā kumuwaiwai i hiki i nā luna ke hoʻohana e hui pū me Thailand.

"Ma muli o nā hanana hou, ke ulu nei mākou i ka hopohopo nui e holo wikiwiki ana kekahi o nā mea kālaiʻāina a me nā luna kau kānāwai i ke kaʻina hana a ʻaʻole e kūkākūkā pono i nā mea kuleana mahiʻai a pau a ʻaʻole hoʻi e noʻonoʻo pono i ka hopena o ka hoʻokele a me ke kaiapuni o ka pāpā ʻana i ka glyphosate," i kākau ai ʻo Travis i nā luna o ka US.

Hōʻike nā kūkaʻi leka uila ua kūkākūkā nā luna o Bayer a me US i nā manaʻo pilikino i hiki i nā luna Thai a pehea e pono ai ka ʻike. "ʻO ka ʻike ʻana i ka mea e hoʻonāukiuki iā ia e kōkua paha me ka USG counter arguments," hoʻokahi luna o ka US i kākau aku ai iā Bayer e pili ana i kahi alakaʻi Thai.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Travis e hana like nā luna o US e like me lākou me Vietnam ke neʻe kēlā ʻāina i ʻApelila 2019 e pāpā iā glyphosate.

Ma hope iki o ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana mai Bayer, ua kākau ʻo McKinney i ke Kuhina Nui Thailand no kēia mea. I loko o kahi ʻOkakopa 17, 2019 leka ʻO McKinney, ka mea ma mua hana no Ua kono ʻo Dow Agrosciences i nā luna o Thailand i Wakinekona no ke kūkā kamaʻilio pilikino ʻana e pili ana i ka palekana glyphosate a me ka manaʻo o ka Environmental Protection Agency e glyphosate "ʻaʻole ia he pilikia kūpono i ke olakino kanaka ke hoʻohana ʻia e like me ka mana."

"Inā hoʻokō ʻia kahi pāpā e hana nui ia i ka lawe ʻia mai o nā mea kūʻai mai Thailand e like me ka soybean a me ka palaoa," i kākau ai ʻo McKinney. "Koi aku au iā ʻoe e hoʻopaneʻe i kahi hoʻoholo ma glyphosate a hiki i ka manawa e hiki ai iā mākou ke hoʻonohonoho i kahi manawa kūpono no ka poʻe loea loea o US e kaʻana like i ka ʻike pili e pili ana i ka hopohopo o Thailand."

Ma kahi o hoʻokahi mahina ma hope aku, ma Nowemapa 27, Thailand hoʻohuli i ka pāpā glyphosate i hoʻolālā ʻia. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻopaneʻe i nā pāpā ma ka paraquat a me ka chlorpyrifos no kekahi mau mahina.

Ua hoʻopau ʻo Thailand i nā pāpā o paraquat a me chlorpyrifos ma Iune 1, o kēia makahiki. Akā hoʻohana mau ʻia ka glyphosate. 

I ka nīnau ʻia ʻana e pili ana i kāna hana me nā luna o US no kēia pilikia, ua hoʻopuka ʻo Bayer i kēia ʻōlelo:

"E like me nā hui a me nā hui e hana ana i nā ʻoihana i hoʻoponopono nui ʻia, hāʻawi mākou i ka ʻike a hāʻawi i ka hana ʻana i ka politika a me nā hana hoʻoponopono. ʻO kā mākou hana pū ʻana me nā mea āpau i ka ʻoihana lehulehu he maʻa mau, ʻoihana, a kūlike me nā kānāwai a me nā rula āpau.

ʻO ka hoʻohuli a ka mana Thai i ka pāpā ma glyphosate e kūlike me nā hoʻoholo ʻepekema e nā kino hoʻomalu a puni ka honua, e like me ka ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIaʻEulopaKelemāniaNuhōlaniKoreaKanakaAotearoaIapana a ma nā wahi ʻē aʻe i hoʻopau pinepine i ka hiki ke hoʻohana palekana ʻia kā mākou huahana glyphosate e like me ke kuhikuhi.

 Ua hoʻohana maluhia nā mahiʻai Thai i ka glyphosate me ka palekana a me ka kūleʻa no nā makahiki he nui e hana i nā mea kanu pono e like me ka cava, kānana, kō, kō, hua ʻaila, a me ka pākeke. Ua kōkua ʻo Glyphosate i nā mahiʻai e hoʻomaikaʻi i kā lākou nohona ola a hui i nā mea i manaʻo ʻia e nā kaiāulu e pili ana i ka palekana, nā meaʻai kūpono e hana paʻa ʻia. "

 

Ua nānā ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi i nā nīnau pohō ma mua o ka hoʻolohe ʻana o Johnson vs. Monsanto

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Ua mākaukau ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi i Kaleponi e hoʻopuka i kahi ʻōlelo hoʻoholo e kākoʻo i ka lanakila mua o ka hoʻokolokolo ma US e pili ana i nā ʻōlelo hoʻopiʻi a Monsanto's Roundup weed killer hana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai.

Na Aha Koi o Kaleponi Apana Hoopii Mua Ma ka Pōʻakolu ua hoʻomaopopo ʻia nā loio no ka mea hoʻopiʻi ʻo Dewayne "Lee" Johnson a me ka loio loio no Monsanto e mākaukau lākou e kia i ka nīnau no nā pohō i hāʻawi ʻia i kēia hihia ma kahi hālāwai hoʻolohe manaʻo i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no Iune 2.

Ke hōʻike nei ka ʻaha i ka hoihoi o ke kūkākūkā ʻana i ka nui o nā pohō e kūpono ma mua o nā pilikia e pili ana i ke noi a Monsanto e hoʻokahuli i ka lilo o ka hoʻokolokolo ma ke kino o ka mea hoʻopiʻi, i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā mea nānā kānāwai.

Ua hala ʻo Monsanto ʻAukake 2018 iā Johnson, he kahu kula ʻo Kaleponi, ka mea mua o nā lilo he ʻekolu o ka hoʻokolokolo Roundup no ka ʻoihana, i loaʻa ʻia e Kelemania Bayer AG kokoke i ʻelua mau makahiki i hala. Ua ʻike ke kiure ma ka hihia ʻo Johnson ua hōʻole ʻo Monsanto i ka hōʻole ʻana e aʻo aku iā Johnson no ka pilikia o ka maʻi ʻaʻai o kāna lāʻau make a hāʻawi iā Johnson he $ 289 miliona no nā pohō, me $ 250 miliona o nā uku hoʻopaʻi. Ua hoʻolilo ka luna kānāwai hoʻokolokolo i ka makana i $ 78.5 miliona. Akā ua lilo ka nalowale i nā ʻāpana o Bayer i haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a hoʻonāukiuki i ka haunaele i hoʻomau ʻia e like me ka ulu ʻana o ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup i hoʻopiʻi ʻia e kūʻē iā Monsanto.

In hoʻopiʻi i ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo, Ua noi ʻo Monsanto i ka ʻaha e hoʻokahuli paha i ka hoʻoholo hoʻokolokolo a komo i kahi hoʻokolokolo no Monsanto a i ʻole hoʻololi a hoʻopiʻi i ka hihia no ka hoʻokolokolo hou. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Monsanto ua hewa ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo ma muli o ke kāpae ʻia o nā hōʻike nui a me ka "distortion o ka ʻepekema hilinaʻi." Inā ʻaʻohe mea ʻē aʻe, ua noi ʻo Monsanto i ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi e hōʻemi i ka ʻāpana o ke kiure no "nā uku pohō noneconomic" e hiki mai ana mai $ 33 miliona a $ 1.5 miliona a e kāpae loa i nā uku hoʻopaʻi. ʻO ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a Monsanto e pili ana i ka hōʻemi ʻana i nā pohō pili waiwai ʻole e hiki mai ana ma muli o ke kūlana o ka hui e make koke paha ʻo Johnson a no laila ʻaʻole e ʻeha ʻia ka ʻeha a me ka ʻeha o ka wā lōʻihi e hiki mai ana.

Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Johnson e noi ana e hoʻihoʻi i ka makana kiure piha o $ 289 miliona.

Ma mua o ka hoʻolohe ʻana no kēia mea, ua ʻōlelo ʻia e ka papa hoʻokolokolo penei: "E mākaukau nā ʻaoʻao e hoʻopuka i kēia pilikia ma ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa waha, i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no June 2, 2020. Manaʻo ua ʻae kēia ʻaha me ka hui ʻo Monsanto e hoʻemi ʻia ka makana o nā pohō noneconomic e hiki mai ana. Inā kuhikuhi ka ʻaha i kahi hōʻemi, pono nō ia e hōʻemi i ka makana o nā uku hoʻopaʻi no ka mālama ʻana i ka lakio o ka ʻaha hoʻokolokolo 1: 1 o ka uku pānaʻi i nā uku hoʻopaʻi? "

Ma kahi hihia ʻokoʻa, ua ʻōlelo ka ʻaha i ka mahina i hala e hōʻole ana i ka noi a ka Loio Kuhina Kaleponi e faila i kahi ʻōlelo pōkole ma kā Johnson ʻaoʻao.

Ua uhi ʻia ka hoʻāʻo Johnson e nā nūhou a puni ka honua a kau i kahi kukui i ka hana Monsanto kānalua. Ua hōʻike aku nā loio no Johnson i nā kiure me nā leka uila o ka hui kūloko a me nā moʻolelo ʻē aʻe e hōʻike ana i nā ʻepekema Monsanto e kūkākūkā ana i nā pepa ʻepekema ghost e hoʻāʻo e kākoʻo i ka pale no ka palekana o nā huahana a ka hui, me nā kamaʻilio kikoʻī ʻana i nā hoʻolālā e hōʻino i nā loiloi, a e hoʻopau i ka loiloi aupuni o ka ʻino o ka glyphosate, ke kemika kī i nā huahana a Monsanto.

I kāna hoʻopiʻi ʻana, ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo Monsanto e hana ana nā jure i ka naʻau ma mua o ka ʻepekema ʻoiaʻiʻo a "ʻaʻohe mea hōʻike e ʻike maoli ʻo Monsanto i kāna lāʻau hoʻomohala glyphosate i kumu i ka maʻi ʻaʻai. ʻAʻole hiki i kekahi, ke ʻae ʻia ka ʻepekema ʻae, i ʻae mau ʻia e EPA a me nā mea hoʻokele ʻē aʻe a puni ka honua, i kūʻē i kēlā hopena. ʻAʻole ia he mea hōʻino i nā luna hoʻomalu e hiki ai i kēia ʻōlelo hoʻokolokolo, a ʻaʻole ia he mea hōʻino no Monsanto e kaʻana like i ko lākou manaʻo i ka ʻepekema. "

Ua hoʻopiʻi ka ʻumi tausani mau mea hoʻopiʻi iā Monsanto e hoʻopiʻi nei e like me kā Johnson, a ua hana ʻia he ʻelua mau hoʻokolokolo hou aʻe mai ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana o Johnson. ʻO kēlā mau hoʻokolokolo ʻelua i hopena i nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo nui kūʻē iā Monsanto.

ʻO Bayer a me nā loio no ka mea ʻoi aku ma mua o 50,000 nā mea hoʻopiʻi e hoʻāʻo nei e kūkākūkā i kahi noho aupuni no ka makahiki i hala akā ua hoʻi hope ʻo Bayer mai kekahi o nā helu hoʻonā i kūkā mua ʻia. Me nā hale hoʻokolokolo i pani ʻia a puni ka ʻāina, ua lilo nā loio o ka mea hoʻopiʻi i ka leverage manawa lōʻihi i loaʻa iā lākou i ka wā i hoʻokolokolo ʻia ai nā hoʻokolokolo hou he nui i kēia kauwela a me ka hāʻule.

Ka Ikepili Unappetizing mai ka FDA

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I ka mahina i hala ua paʻi ka Food & Drug Administration i kāna loiloi hou makahiki o nā pae o nā koena pesticide e hoʻohaumia i nā hua a me nā mea ʻai a me nā meaʻai ʻē aʻe a mākou ʻAmelika e kau maʻa mau ai i kā mākou papa ʻaina awakea. Hoʻohui ka ʻikepili hou i ka ulu ʻana o ka hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema e pili ana i ka hopena o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai - a i ʻole ʻole - i nā maʻi, nā maʻi a me nā pilikia hānau.

Ma kahi o 55 ʻaoʻao o ka ʻikepili, nā pakuhi a me nā pakuhi, ka hōʻike a ka FDA “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” hōʻike i kahi hiʻohiʻona hiʻohiʻona ʻole o ke kekelē a nā mea mahiʻai US i hilinaʻi ai i nā insecticides synthetic, fungicides a me nā herbicides i ka ulu ʻana i kā mākou meaʻai.

ʻIke mākou, e laʻa, i ka heluhelu ʻana i ka hōʻike hou loa, ua loaʻa nā līlū o nā pesticides ma 84 pakeneka o nā huahana home o nā huaʻai, a me 53 pākēneka o nā mea kanu, a me 42 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 73 pākēneka o nā mea ʻai i helu wale ʻia ma ke ʻano " ʻē aʻe. ” Ua huki ʻia nā laʻana mai ka ʻāina holoʻokoʻa, e laʻa me Kaleponi, Texas, Kansas, New York a me Wisconsin.

Ma kahi o ka 94 pākēneka o nā hua waina, ka wai hua waina a me nā hua puaʻa i hoʻāʻo maikaʻi no nā koena pesticide e like me 99 pakeneka o nā strawberry, 88 pakeneka o nā ʻāpala a me nā wai ʻāpala, a me 33 pākēneka o nā huahana laiki, e like me ka ʻike o ka FDA.

Ua hōʻike maoli nā huaʻai a me nā lau i lawe ʻia i ka heluna haʻahaʻa o nā pesticides, me 52 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 46 pākēneka o nā mea kanu mai nā ʻāina ʻē e hoʻāʻo maikaʻi ana i nā pesticides. Ua hele mai kēlā mau laʻana mai nā ʻāina he 40 a ʻoi, me Mekiko, Kina, ʻInia a me Kanada.

Ua aʻo pū mākou no ka laʻana hou ʻana i hōʻike ʻia, ma waena o nā haneli he nui o nā pesticides ʻokoʻa, ua loaʻa i ka FDA nā hiʻona o ka DDT insecticide lōʻihi loa ʻia i loko o nā laʻana meaʻai, a me chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D a me glyphosate. Pili ʻo DDT i ka maʻi ʻaʻai o ka umauma, infertility a me ka hāʻule ʻole ʻana, ʻoiai ʻo chlorpyrifos - kekahi insecticide - ua hōʻike ʻepekema ʻia e hana i nā pilikia neurodevelopmental i nā keiki ʻōpio.

He mea weliweli loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos i koi aku ai ka European Food Safety Authority i kahi pāpā o ʻEulopa e ʻike ai aia aia ʻaʻohe pae palekana. ʻO nā mea kanu lāʻau make 2,4-D a me glyphosate pili pū ʻia i nā maʻi ʻino a me nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe.

Thailand iho nei i ʻōlelo ʻia e pāpā ana glyphosate a me chlorpyrifos ma muli o nā pilikia ʻepekema i hoʻokumu ʻia o kēia mau pesticides.

ʻOiai ka laha o nā pesticides i loaʻa i nā meaʻai o US, ʻo ka FDA, me ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a me ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA), ke ʻōlelo nei ʻaʻole he mea hopohopo nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai. Ma waena o ka lobbying kaumaha e ka ʻoihana ahupuaʻa ua kākoʻo maoli ka EPA i ka hoʻomau mau ʻana o ka glyphosate a me ka chlorpyrifos i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai.

Hoʻolālā nā luna hoʻomalu i nā huaʻōlelo a nā luna hoʻomalu o Monsanto a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i ka ʻoihana kemika ma ke koi ʻana i nā koena pesticide ʻaʻole ia he mea hoʻoweliweli i ke olakino o ke kanaka ke hāʻule nā ​​pae o kēlā me kēia ʻano koena ma lalo o kahi pae "ahonui" i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e ka EPA.

I ke kālailai hou loa ʻana a ka FDA, he 3.8 pakeneka o nā meaʻai home wale nō i koe nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he kiʻekiʻe kū ʻole i ke kānāwai, a i ʻole "violative." No nā meaʻai i lawe ʻia mai, he 10.4 ka pākēneka o nā meaʻai i laana ʻia i hōʻino ʻia, e like me ka FDA.

ʻO ka mea a ka FDA i ʻōlelo ʻole ai, a he aha nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho e hōʻalo pinepine ai i ka haʻi ʻana i ka lehulehu, ʻo ka piʻi ʻana o nā pae hoʻomanawanui no kekahi mau pesticides ua piʻi aʻe i loko o nā makahiki e like me nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides e noi ana i nā palena kānāwai kiʻekiʻe a kiʻekiʻe. Ua ʻae ka EPA i kekahi mau hoʻonui i ʻae ʻia no nā koena glyphosate i ka meaʻai, e like paha. Pēlā nō hoʻi, hoʻoholo pinepine ka ʻoihana i ka hoʻoholo e pono ʻole e hoʻokō i kahi koi kū kānāwai e ʻōlelo ana i ka EPA "e hoʻopili i kahi palena he ʻumi mau palekana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki" i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā pae kū kānāwai no nā koena pesticide. Ua hoʻokahuli ka EPA i kēlā koi i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā hoʻomanawanui pesticide he nui, e ʻōlelo ana ʻaʻole pono kēlā me kēia palena o ka palekana e pale ai i nā keiki.

Ke laina lalo: ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe o ka EPA i hoʻonohonoho i ka "hoʻomanawanui" i ʻae ʻia e like me ka palena o ke kānāwai, ʻo ka haʻahaʻa ka manawa e hōʻike ai nā luna hoʻomalu i nā koena "violative" i kā mākou meaʻai. ʻO ka hopena, ʻae mau ka US i nā kiʻekiʻe o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai ma mua o nā lāhui i hoʻomohala ʻia. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka palena kānāwai no ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele glyphosate ma ka ʻāpala he 0.2 mau ʻāpana no ka miliona (ppm) ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa akā ʻo ka hapalua wale nō o kēlā pae - 0.1 ppm - ʻae ʻia i ka ʻāpala i ka European Union. Pēlā nō, ʻae ka US i nā koena o glyphosate ma ke kulina ma 5 ppm, ʻoiai e ʻae ʻo EU i 1 ppm wale nō.

Ke piʻi nei nā palena o ke kānāwai no nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai, hoʻonui nui nā ʻepekema i ka hoʻāla ʻana e pili ana i nā pilikia o ka hoʻohana mau ʻana o nā koena, a me ka nele o ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i nā hopena kumulative kūpono o ka ʻai ʻana i kahi lūlū a me nā mea hoʻomake mauʻu me kēlā me kēia pāʻina. .

He kime o ka ʻepekema ʻo Harvard ke kāhea nei no noiʻi hohonu e pili ana i nā loulou hiki i waena o ka maʻi a me ka ʻai ʻana o ka pesticide i ko lākou manaʻo he ʻoi aku ma mua o 90 pākēneka o ka poʻe ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i nā koena pesticide i ko lākou mimi a me ke koko ma muli o ka ʻai ʻana o nā meaʻai pesticide-laced. A like pili iā Harvard ua ʻike ʻia ka hōʻike ʻana o ka pesticide pesticide i loko o kahi pae "ʻano" me nā pilikia e hāpai ana nā wahine a me ka hānau ʻana i nā pēpē ola.

Ua loaʻa nā noiʻi hou i nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe i pili i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā papaʻai i nā pesticides, me ka glyphosate.  ʻO Glyphosate ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia i ka honua a ʻo ia ka mea hana i ka Monsanto's Roundup branded a me nā huahana hoʻomake nāhelehele ʻē aʻe.

ʻOihana Pesticide Push Back 

Akā i ka piʻi ʻana o ka hopohopo, ke hoʻihoʻi nei nā ʻaoʻao ʻoihana mahiʻai i hope. I kēia mahina he hui o ʻekolu mau kānaka noiʻi me nā pilina pili lōʻihi i nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides mahiʻai i hoʻokuʻu i kahi hōʻike e ʻoluʻolu i nā hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a hōʻemi i ka noiʻi ʻepekema.

ʻO ka hōʻike, i hoʻopuka ʻia ʻOkakopa 21, i ʻōlelo ʻia "ʻaʻohe hōʻike ʻepekema pololei a lāʻau lapaʻau paha e hōʻike ana i ka hōʻike maʻamau ʻana o nā mea kūʻai aku i nā koena pesticide e waiho ana i kahi olakino olakino. Hōʻike ka ʻikepili koena pesticide a me nā kuhi hōʻike e hōʻike ʻia nā mea kūʻai aku i nā pae o nā koena pesticide i nui nā kauoha o ka nui ma lalo o nā mea e pili ana i ka olakino olakino. "

ʻAʻole he mea kupanaha, pili paʻa nā mea kākau ʻekolu o ka hōʻike i ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. ʻO Steve Savage kekahi o nā mea kākau o ka hōʻike, kahi ʻoihana mahiʻai Point a limahana DuPont mua. ʻO Carol Burns kekahi, he ʻepekema mua no Dow Chemical a me ke kākāʻōlelo no Cortevia Agriscience, kahi wili o DowDuPont. ʻO ke kolu o ka mea kākau ʻo Carl Winter, ka luna o ka ʻOihana ʻEpekema Meaʻai a me ʻenehana ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi ma Davis. Ua loaʻa i ke kula nui $ 2 miliona o ka makahiki mai ka ʻoihana mahiʻai, e like me ka mea noiʻi kulanui, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia ka pololei o kēlā kiʻi.

Ua lawe pololei nā mea kākau i kā lākou hōʻike i ka ʻahaʻōlelo, e paʻa ana ʻekolu mau hōʻike ʻokoʻa i Wakinekona, DC, i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻolaha i kā lākou leka o ka palekana pesticide no ka hoʻohana ʻana ma "nā moʻolelo palekana meaʻai pāpāho, a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka poʻe kūʻai e pili ana i nā meaʻai e pono ai nā mea kūʻai (a i ʻole pono ʻole) ke hoʻohana."

Ua mālama ʻia nā kau pesticide ma nā keʻena o nā keʻena no nā lālā o ka ʻAhaʻōlelo a me he mea lā, ma ke keʻena nui no ʻO America CropLife, ka lobbyist no ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. 

 

Ka Ikepili Unappetizing mai ka FDA

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I ka mahina i hala ua paʻi ka Food & Drug Administration i kāna loiloi hou makahiki o nā pae o nā koena pesticide e hoʻohaumia i nā hua a me nā mea ʻai a me nā meaʻai ʻē aʻe a mākou ʻAmelika e kau maʻa mau ai i kā mākou papa ʻaina awakea. Hoʻohui ka ʻikepili hou i ka ulu ʻana o ka hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema e pili ana i ka hopena o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai - a i ʻole ʻole - i nā maʻi, nā maʻi a me nā pilikia hānau.

Ma kahi o 55 ʻaoʻao o ka ʻikepili, nā pakuhi a me nā pakuhi, ka hōʻike a ka FDA “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” hōʻike i kahi hiʻohiʻona hiʻohiʻona ʻole o ke kekelē a nā mea mahiʻai US i hilinaʻi ai i nā insecticides synthetic, fungicides a me nā herbicides i ka ulu ʻana i kā mākou meaʻai.

ʻIke mākou, e laʻa, i ka heluhelu ʻana i ka hōʻike hou loa, ua loaʻa nā līlū o nā pesticides ma 84 pakeneka o nā huahana home o nā huaʻai, a me 53 pākēneka o nā mea kanu, a me 42 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 73 pākēneka o nā mea ʻai i helu wale ʻia ma ke ʻano " ʻē aʻe. ” Ua huki ʻia nā laʻana mai ka ʻāina holoʻokoʻa, e laʻa me Kaleponi, Texas, Kansas, New York a me Wisconsin.

Ma kahi o ka 94 pākēneka o nā hua waina, ka wai hua waina a me nā hua puaʻa i hoʻāʻo maikaʻi no nā koena pesticide e like me 99 pakeneka o nā strawberry, 88 pakeneka o nā ʻāpala a me nā wai ʻāpala, a me 33 pākēneka o nā huahana laiki, e like me ka ʻike o ka FDA.

Ua hōʻike maoli nā huaʻai a me nā lau i lawe ʻia i ka heluna haʻahaʻa o nā pesticides, me 52 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 46 pākēneka o nā mea kanu mai nā ʻāina ʻē e hoʻāʻo maikaʻi ana i nā pesticides. Ua hele mai kēlā mau laʻana mai nā ʻāina he 40 a ʻoi, me Mekiko, Kina, ʻInia a me Kanada.

Ua aʻo pū mākou no ka laʻana hou ʻana i hōʻike ʻia, ma waena o nā haneli he nui o nā pesticides ʻokoʻa, ua loaʻa i ka FDA nā hiʻona o ka DDT insecticide lōʻihi loa ʻia i loko o nā laʻana meaʻai, a me chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D a me glyphosate. Pili ʻo DDT i ka maʻi ʻaʻai o ka umauma, infertility a me ka hāʻule ʻole ʻana, ʻoiai ʻo chlorpyrifos - kekahi insecticide - ua hōʻike ʻepekema ʻia e hana i nā pilikia neurodevelopmental i nā keiki ʻōpio.

He mea weliweli loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos i koi aku ai ka European Food Safety Authority i kahi pāpā o ʻEulopa e ʻike ai aia aia ʻaʻohe pae palekana. ʻO nā mea kanu lāʻau make 2,4-D a me glyphosate pili pū ʻia i nā maʻi ʻino a me nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe.

Thailand iho nei i ʻōlelo ʻia e pāpā ana glyphosate a me chlorpyrifos ma muli o nā pilikia ʻepekema i hoʻokumu ʻia o kēia mau pesticides.

ʻOiai ka laha o nā pesticides i loaʻa i nā meaʻai o US, ʻo ka FDA, me ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a me ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA), ke ʻōlelo nei ʻaʻole he mea hopohopo nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai. Ma waena o ka lobbying kaumaha e ka ʻoihana ahupuaʻa ua kākoʻo maoli ka EPA i ka hoʻomau mau ʻana o ka glyphosate a me ka chlorpyrifos i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai.

Hoʻolālā nā luna hoʻomalu i nā huaʻōlelo a nā luna hoʻomalu o Monsanto a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i ka ʻoihana kemika ma ke koi ʻana i nā koena pesticide ʻaʻole ia he mea hoʻoweliweli i ke olakino o ke kanaka ke hāʻule nā ​​pae o kēlā me kēia ʻano koena ma lalo o kahi pae "ahonui" i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e ka EPA.

I ke kālailai hou loa ʻana a ka FDA, he 3.8 pakeneka o nā meaʻai home wale nō i koe nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he kiʻekiʻe kū ʻole i ke kānāwai, a i ʻole "violative." No nā meaʻai i lawe ʻia mai, he 10.4 ka pākēneka o nā meaʻai i laana ʻia i hōʻino ʻia, e like me ka FDA.

ʻO ka mea a ka FDA i ʻōlelo ʻole ai, a he aha nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho e hōʻalo pinepine ai i ka haʻi ʻana i ka lehulehu, ʻo ka piʻi ʻana o nā pae hoʻomanawanui no kekahi mau pesticides ua piʻi aʻe i loko o nā makahiki e like me nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides e noi ana i nā palena kānāwai kiʻekiʻe a kiʻekiʻe. Ua ʻae ka EPA i kekahi mau hoʻonui i ʻae ʻia no nā koena glyphosate i ka meaʻai, e like paha. Pēlā nō hoʻi, hoʻoholo pinepine ka ʻoihana i ka hoʻoholo e pono ʻole e hoʻokō i kahi koi kū kānāwai e ʻōlelo ana i ka EPA "e hoʻopili i kahi palena he ʻumi mau palekana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki" i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā pae kū kānāwai no nā koena pesticide. Ua hoʻokahuli ka EPA i kēlā koi i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā hoʻomanawanui pesticide he nui, e ʻōlelo ana ʻaʻole pono kēlā me kēia palena o ka palekana e pale ai i nā keiki.

Ke laina lalo: ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe o ka EPA i hoʻonohonoho i ka "hoʻomanawanui" i ʻae ʻia e like me ka palena o ke kānāwai, ʻo ka haʻahaʻa ka manawa e hōʻike ai nā luna hoʻomalu i nā koena "violative" i kā mākou meaʻai. ʻO ka hopena, ʻae mau ka US i nā kiʻekiʻe o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai ma mua o nā lāhui i hoʻomohala ʻia. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka palena kānāwai no ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele glyphosate ma ka ʻāpala he 0.2 mau ʻāpana no ka miliona (ppm) ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa akā ʻo ka hapalua wale nō o kēlā pae - 0.1 ppm - ʻae ʻia i ka ʻāpala i ka European Union. Pēlā nō, ʻae ka US i nā koena o glyphosate ma ke kulina ma 5 ppm, ʻoiai e ʻae ʻo EU i 1 ppm wale nō.

Ke piʻi nei nā palena o ke kānāwai no nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai, hoʻonui nui nā ʻepekema i ka hoʻāla ʻana e pili ana i nā pilikia o ka hoʻohana mau ʻana o nā koena, a me ka nele o ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i nā hopena kumulative kūpono o ka ʻai ʻana i kahi lūlū a me nā mea hoʻomake mauʻu me kēlā me kēia pāʻina. .

He kime o ka ʻepekema ʻo Harvard ke kāhea nei no noiʻi hohonu e pili ana i nā loulou hiki i waena o ka maʻi a me ka ʻai ʻana o ka pesticide i ko lākou manaʻo he ʻoi aku ma mua o 90 pākēneka o ka poʻe ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i nā koena pesticide i ko lākou mimi a me ke koko ma muli o ka ʻai ʻana o nā meaʻai pesticide-laced. A like pili iā Harvard ua ʻike ʻia ka hōʻike ʻana o ka pesticide pesticide i loko o kahi pae "ʻano" me nā pilikia e hāpai ana nā wahine a me ka hānau ʻana i nā pēpē ola.

Ua loaʻa nā noiʻi hou i nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe i pili i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā papaʻai i nā pesticides, me ka glyphosate.  ʻO Glyphosate ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia i ka honua a ʻo ia ka mea hana i ka Monsanto's Roundup branded a me nā huahana hoʻomake nāhelehele ʻē aʻe.

ʻOihana Pesticide Push Back 

Akā i ka piʻi ʻana o ka hopohopo, ke hoʻihoʻi nei nā ʻaoʻao ʻoihana mahiʻai i hope. I kēia mahina he hui o ʻekolu mau kānaka noiʻi me nā pilina pili lōʻihi i nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides mahiʻai i hoʻokuʻu i kahi hōʻike e ʻoluʻolu i nā hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a hōʻemi i ka noiʻi ʻepekema.

ʻO ka hōʻike, i hoʻopuka ʻia ʻOkakopa 21, i ʻōlelo ʻia "ʻaʻohe hōʻike ʻepekema pololei a lāʻau lapaʻau paha e hōʻike ana i ka hōʻike maʻamau ʻana o nā mea kūʻai aku i nā koena pesticide e waiho ana i kahi olakino olakino. Hōʻike ka ʻikepili koena pesticide a me nā kuhi hōʻike e hōʻike ʻia nā mea kūʻai aku i nā pae o nā koena pesticide i nui nā kauoha o ka nui ma lalo o nā mea e pili ana i ka olakino olakino. "

ʻAʻole he mea kupanaha, pili paʻa nā mea kākau ʻekolu o ka hōʻike i ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. ʻO Steve Savage kekahi o nā mea kākau o ka hōʻike, kahi ʻoihana mahiʻai Point a limahana DuPont mua. ʻO Carol Burns kekahi, he ʻepekema mua no Dow Chemical a me ke kākāʻōlelo no Cortevia Agriscience, kahi wili o DowDuPont. ʻO ke kolu o ka mea kākau ʻo Carl Winter, ka luna o ka ʻOihana ʻEpekema Meaʻai a me ʻenehana ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi ma Davis. Ua loaʻa i ke kula nui $ 2 miliona o ka makahiki mai ka ʻoihana mahiʻai, e like me ka mea noiʻi kulanui, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia ka pololei o kēlā kiʻi.

Ua lawe pololei nā mea kākau i kā lākou hōʻike i ka ʻahaʻōlelo, e paʻa ana ʻekolu mau hōʻike ʻokoʻa i Wakinekona, DC, i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻolaha i kā lākou leka o ka palekana pesticide no ka hoʻohana ʻana ma "nā moʻolelo palekana meaʻai pāpāho, a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka poʻe kūʻai e pili ana i nā meaʻai e pono ai nā mea kūʻai (a i ʻole pono ʻole) ke hoʻohana."

Ua mālama ʻia nā kau pesticide ma nā keʻena o nā keʻena no nā lālā o ka ʻAhaʻōlelo a me he mea lā, ma ke keʻena nui no ʻO America CropLife, ka lobbyist no ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. 

 

Hōʻike Hōʻailona Gene i nā Mishaps Pono no ka nānā ʻo FDA

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ʻO ka ʻimi a kahi hui Midwestern e ʻenekini genetically i nā bipi wahine waiū mua ʻole o ka honua i hōʻeha i kēia kauwela i ka wā i loaʻa ai i ka US Food and Drug Administration nā genes hou aʻe i nā bipi i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ma laila. ʻO nā hewa i loaʻa iā FDA - akā ua hala ka hui - e hōʻike i ka mea nui o ka nānā ʻana o ke aupuni i nā meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia i nā manawa i ka wā e hoʻokau nei nā hui ʻoihana i ka hana.

Nā bipi me nā pepeiaohao: kahi hana no ka hoʻoponopono gen?

ʻO nā mea hana puaʻa, no ka laʻana, "e ʻōlelo ke aupuni pekelala e hoʻomāmā i nā rula e pili ana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hoʻoponopono gen i nā holoholona," i ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻolohi ana i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala. ka Wall Street Journal i hōʻike ʻia i ka pule i hala. Makemake nā mea hana e neʻe ka nānā ʻana mai ka FDA a i ka US Department of Agriculture, kahi ʻae ʻae i nā mea kanu hoʻoponopono gen e kanu a kūʻai aku me ka nānā ʻole o ka hoʻokele.

Akā hoʻolālā ka FDA e koi aku i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke no nā meaʻai meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻāno, e like me ka hana ʻana no nā lāʻau hou. E hōʻoia nā rula i ka palekana o nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe no nā holoholona a me nā mea kūʻai aku, a kōkua i nā mea kūʻai aku e ʻoluʻolu me ka ʻenehana, i haʻi ʻia e kahi haʻi ʻōlelo a ka FDA i ka Pai.

Ka loaʻa ʻana o ka FDA o nā gen keu i loko o ka bipi ʻole, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i hōʻike ʻia nā pilikia e pili ana kūpuna hou ʻenehana ʻenehana, hoʻoikaika i ka hihia no ka nānā aupuni ʻana, a loaʻa i nā hui ʻoihana e ʻākoakoa e kāohi i ka pili pili aupuni.

Ua hala nā gen genes Recombinetics

Ua hōʻike ʻia nā mea noiʻi ma ka hui ʻo Minnesota Recombinetics, Inc. i kahi pepa 2016 ua hana lākou i nā bipi i koho mua ʻia (hornless) me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi ʻenehana hoʻoponopono gen i kapa ʻia ʻo TALENS e hoʻololi i ke kaʻina o nā ʻāpana i nā bipi. Ua hōʻike ka poʻe noiʻi ʻaʻole loaʻa nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia. Ua kākau lākou, "manuahi kā mākou holoholona i nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu."

Akā i ka manawa i nānā hou ai nā mea noiʻi o FDA i ka DNA i kēia kauwela, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kaʻina genome i kau ʻia ma ka pūnaewele e Recombinetics, ua loaʻa iā lākou nā hopena hopena ʻole. ʻElua mau bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia i hāpai i nā kope o ka plasmid bacterial holoʻokoʻa i hoʻohana ʻia i ke kaʻina hoʻoponopono, me nā genes ʻelua antibiotic resistence i loko o kēlā me kēia cell o ko lākou kino. ʻAʻole hana maʻamau nā gen i ka pipi.

Hāʻawi kēia "hoʻopiʻi i nā pilikia o ka biosafety i hāʻawi ʻia aia ka ikaika nui o ka honua e kaupalena i ka hoʻolaha ʻana o nā ʻāpana e hāʻawi ana i ka pale antibiotic," kākau ʻo Jonathan Latham, PhD, i Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Hāpai pū kekahi i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hemahema o ka pololei o nā hana hoʻoponopono gen a hāʻawi i ke kaupaona i nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa no ka nānā aupuni. Ua hoʻopau ʻia nā hoʻolālā e hoʻohua i nā bipi kau ʻole ma Brazil ma hope o ka hopena o nā hopena i waho i ka hopena, ua hōʻike ʻo Wired, no ka mea hiki i nā mea hoʻokele ma laila noonoo hou ʻole i nā bipi non-GMO.

Ua ʻōlelo nā kānaka noiʻi ʻo FDA kā lākou loaʻa "kahi mea nui i kahi makapō hiki ke loaʻa i nā ʻano loiloi hoʻoponopono genome maʻamau," a ʻōlelo lākou manaʻo lākou he "hōʻike ʻole ʻia a nānā ʻole ʻia paha" nā hewa hoʻopili "i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻoponopono genome. Ua ʻike lākou i kekahi mau laʻana ʻē aʻe o nā hoʻololi i manaʻo ʻole ʻia - a 2017 hoʻopaʻa ʻiole i loaʻa nā hoʻopau holoi a me nā hoʻokomo ʻana i loko o ka genome iole i hoʻoponopono ʻia, a he 2018 like i hōʻike i ka hōʻino ʻia o DNA i nā laina pūnaewele kanaka.

No laila pehea i hala ai nā mea noiʻi Recombinetics i ka hoʻohui ʻole ʻana o DNA?

“ʻAʻole mākou i nānā”

"ʻAʻole ia he mea i manaʻo ʻia, a ʻaʻole mākou i ʻimi," wahi a Tad Sonstegard, ka CEO o Recombinetics 'ahupuaʻa ʻo Acceligen, e like me MIT Technology Review. ʻO kahi kikoʻī piha hou "pono ​​e hana ʻia," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. ʻO ka nūpepa Wired Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Sonstegard e wehewehe ana, “ʻAʻole mākou e ʻimi ana i nā hoʻohui plasmid. Loaʻa iā mākou. "

He wahi maopopo ia e nānā ai, wahi a Michael Hansen, PhD, ʻepekema ʻlelo, Advocacy, o Consumers Reports. "Inā i kiʻi ʻia kekahi DNA mai ka plasmid bacterial i hoʻohana ʻia i ke kaʻina hana hoʻoponopono a lawe ʻia kekahi o nā mea mua āu e ʻimi ai inā makemake ʻoe e ʻike i nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu," i ʻōlelo ʻo Hansen.

I kona manaʻo, ʻo kaʻoiaʻiʻo o ka hala ʻana o Recombinetics i ka pilikia e hōʻike nei, “ʻaʻole lākou i hana i ke kiaʻi kūpono. ʻO ia ke kumu e pono ai iā mākou ke kiaʻi aupuni, ”me nā koina no nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke, i ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

Latham, he biologist a me ka ʻenekini ʻenekini ma mua, kuhikuhi pū kekahi i nā ʻike hou mai Iapana i manaʻoʻiʻo ʻo ia ka hopena ma mua o nā ʻike a ka FDA, a ʻoi aku ka nui o nā hopena no ka ʻāina hoʻokele. Ma kahi noi 2019, Ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi Kepanī ua loaʻa i nā genome ʻiole i hoʻoponopono ʻia ka DNA mai ka genome E. coli, a me ka DNA kao a me ka bovine. ʻO kēia DNA hele hewa i hele mai mai nā mea hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono gen, ka hana lawe i hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā hoʻoponopono.

ʻO kēia mau mea i loaʻa he "maʻalahi loa: keʻoki ʻana i ka DNA i loko o nā pūnaewele, me ka nānā ʻole i ke ʻano kikoʻī o ka hoʻoponopono gen, predisposes genome e loaʻa iā DNA makemake ʻole ʻia,", kākau ʻo Latham i Nūhou ʻepekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia i nā mea i loaʻa ʻia “imply, ma ka liʻiliʻi loa, ka pono no nā hana ikaika e pale aku ai i ka hoʻohaumia ʻia e ka DNA hele hewa, a me ka nānā pono ʻana o nā hunaola i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻānō a me nā mea i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻānō. A, e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka hihia Recombinetics, eia nā pono e hui ʻole paha nā mea hoʻomohala. "

ʻO ke kaʻina kūpono aʻe

Loaʻa iā Recombinetics "Kūʻē kūpikū ʻole" i ka nānā ʻana a FDA āpau a lobbied ka Hoʻokele Trump e huki i nā mana hoʻomalu mai ka ʻaoʻao palekana palekana meaʻai, e like me ka MIT Technology Review. A i ka wā i ʻōlelo ai ʻo Recombinetics i ka makahiki 2016 ʻo kāna mau bipi kauō ʻole i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻanona he "manuahi nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu," ua hoʻohana koke ʻia ka loaʻa ʻana ma ke ʻano he mea hana lobby i ka hoʻouka kaua e kūʻē ana iā FDA.

i ka commentary i holo pū me ka noiʻi o ka ʻoihana, ʻelima mau kānaka noiʻi o ke kula nui i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke no nā holoholona meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻenela a koʻikoʻi a pono ʻole. ʻO kekahi o nā mea kākau, ʻO Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, he loea hoʻolōʻihi holoholona ma UC Davis a me kahi loio alakaʻi no ka hoʻopau kino ʻana, ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ka hoʻolālā a FDA e koi ai i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke. me he "pupule lā."

"ʻO nā hopena o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka ʻaneʻi e like like me nā hana kūlohelohe," i kākau nā mea noiʻi i kā lākou ʻōlelo hoʻopuka. ʻO kēlā me kēia "hopena hopena ʻē aʻe hiki ke hoʻoliʻiliʻi ʻia e ka hoʻolālā akahele a me ka hoʻāʻo nui ʻana," i ʻōlelo lākou, me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana "ʻaʻole i loaʻa i nā kānaka noiʻi mai Recombinetics" i kā lākou pipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻenela.

Ua ʻōlelo pū kekahi lākou, me ka pololei ʻole e like me ka mea i lilo, ua lawe ʻia ka bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā gen i ka DNA like "i hoʻopau ʻia e nā kānaka ma kahi o 1,000 mau makahiki." ʻO ka "ʻanuʻu kūpono e hiki mai ana," i kākau ai lākou, e hoʻolaha aku i ke kaʻina genome i hoʻoponopono ʻia "i nā heluna waiū o ka honua."

ʻO ka hoʻokaʻawale ma waena o ka wikiwiki e kūʻai aku i nā meaʻai i hana ʻia me nā genetically engineered, a me ka pono no ka hana pono e hoʻomaopopo i nā hopena i waho o nā manipulate a me nā hopena e hiki ai i ke olakino a me ke kaiapuni. No ka hapanui o nā meaʻai GMO, mālama nā ʻoihana i nā loiloi palekana me nā mea āpau, me ka nānā liʻiliʻi a ʻaʻohe paha o ke aupuni. Akā he aha ka hoʻoikaika e nānā ai nā ʻoihana i nā pilikia?

Hoʻi i 1998, i kahi ninaninau me Michael Pollan no ka New York Times, ʻO Monsanto ka luna hoʻokele kamaʻilio i kēlā manawa i kuhihewa i kāna loiloi ʻana i kahi e waiho ai nā makemake o ka ʻoihana: ”ʻAʻole pono ʻo Monsanto e hōʻoiaʻiʻo i ka palekana o ka meaʻai biotech. ʻO kā mākou hoihoi i ke kūʻai aku e like me ka hiki. ʻO ka hōʻoia ʻana i kona palekana ka hana a ka FDA. ”

Ka heluhelu hou

Pono e hoʻoponopono pololei i ka Gene e ola i kāna hoʻohiki - na David Edgell, Ke kamaʻilio (10.7.19)

Hoʻohui me ka manaʻo ʻole o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka Gene i ka bovine DNA, DNA kao, a me ka DNA koʻohune - na Jonathan Latham, PhD, ʻepekema Kūʻokoʻa Independent (9.23.19)

Loaʻa i kahi bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e ka Gene kekahi koʻikoʻi nui i kā lākou DNA - na Antonio Regalado, Nānā ʻIkepili MIT (8.28.19)

ʻIke ʻo FDA i nā genes resistic antibiotic i manaʻo ʻole ʻia i loko o nā bipi dehorned 'Gene-hoʻoponopono' - na Jonathan Latham, PhD, a me Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

ʻAʻole wale ka hopohopo o nā pahuhopu i hopohopo wale ʻia i nā mea kanu hoʻoponopono kūʻē - Nānā GM (7.10.19)

No ke aha e kuhi hewa ai ka "ʻikela mole" no CRISPR - na Elinor Hortle, ke kamaʻilio (7.4.19)

Hoʻokumu ʻo CRISPR i nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ma ke kahua i manaʻo ʻia no ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻikepili - Nānā GM (4.16.19)

Hoʻokumu ka CRISPR i ka wili i waho i nā hoʻololi i makemake ʻole ʻia ma DNA - Nānā GM (3.13.19)

Hoʻonohonoho kumu CRISPR, ʻike ʻia no ka kikoʻī, pā i kahi snag me nā hoʻololi hoʻololi ʻē aʻe - na Sharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Nā alelo nui a me nā vertebra keu: nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā ʻiʻo holoholona - Na Preetika Rana lāua ʻo Lucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

ʻO ka hōʻino ʻia DNA kūpono mai CRISPR i 'hoʻowahāwahā nui ʻia,' ʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi - na Sharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Hiki iā CRISPR hoʻoponopono ke hiki ke hōʻino i nā genome - Nānā Hana Hana MIT (7.16.2018)

ʻO kahi pale hou koʻikoʻi no CRISPR: Hoʻonohonoho nā hunaola i hoʻoponopono ʻia i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, ʻelua mau ʻike i loaʻa - na Sharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Makemake nā hoʻoponopono o ka ʻĀina Farmland i nā bipi ʻole me nā pepeiaohao, puaʻa ʻaʻohe huelo, a me ka ʻoihana me ka ʻole o nā lula - na Antonio Regalado, Nānā ʻIkepili MIT (3.12.18)

Hōʻike: e hoʻonui nā holoholona i hoʻoponopono ʻia i ka Gene i ka mahi ʻana i nā hale hana a me ka pilikia o ke aniau, hiki ke hōʻeha i ke olakino kanaka - Nā Hoa o ka Honua (9.17.19)

Mākaukau paha ʻoe no ka nalu hou o nā meaʻai hana ʻenekini? - na Stacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

Hana ʻo Monsanto i kahi koho hou e ālai iā St. Louis Trial

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Ma mua o hoʻokahi mahina ka mamao o ka hoʻokolokolo ʻehā Roundup cancer e hoʻowalewale i nā mea maʻi ʻaʻai e kūʻē i ka pilikua mua o Monsanto Co., mau nā loio no nā ʻaoʻao kūʻē e hakakā pehea, i ka manawa a ma hea kahi e hihia ai - a i ʻole pono ʻole. lohe ʻia.

ʻO nā loio no Monsanto a no kāna mea Kelemania ʻo Bayer AG, hoouna letaast hebedoma i ka luna kānāwai nui ma ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo Kaapuni ʻo St. Louis e ʻimi nei i ka hana e wāwahi ai i ka hui o nā mea hoʻopiʻi i nā hui liʻiliʻi a hoʻolohi i ka lā hoʻokolokolo o ʻOkakopa 15 i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no 14 nā mea hoʻopiʻi i hui ʻia ma lalo o ka hihia. ʻO Winston V. Monsanto.

ʻO ka mea hoʻopiʻi alakaʻi Walter Winston a me 13 poʻe ʻē aʻe a puni ka ʻāina i hoʻonoho ʻia no ka hoʻokolokolo ma ka ʻaha ʻo St. Louis City akā ua kūʻē ʻo Monsanto i kahi no nā mea hoʻopiʻi āpau koe ʻo Winston a ma hope o nā mahina o ka hakakā ʻana ma waena o nā loio no nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua, ka luna kānāwai o ka Aha Kaapuni ʻo St. Louis. Ua hoʻololi ʻo Michael Mullen i nā mea hoʻopiʻi āpau koe ʻo Winston i St. Louis County ma a Kauoha 13 Sept.  Ua hoʻoholo kahi ʻaha hoʻokolokolo kiʻekiʻe ma Missouri i ka hoʻomaka mua o kēia makahiki he kūpono ʻole no nā loio o ka mea hoʻopiʻi no ka heleuma i nā mea hoʻopiʻi mai waho o ka wahi i kahi mea i loaʻa kahi kūpono e lawe ai i ka hoʻopiʻi ma St.

Ke hana nei nā loio hoʻopiʻi e mālama pū ana i nā mea hoʻopiʻi he 14 a ma ke ala no ka hoʻokolokolo ma ka lā 15 ʻOkakopa, e ʻimi ana i ka ʻae ʻia no ka luna kānāwai ʻo Mullen e lawe i kahi hana manawa ʻole i ke kalana no ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka hihia Roundup. Akā ua kūʻē ʻo Monsanto i kēlā hoʻāʻo, kāhea ʻana iā ia he "noi kupaianaha" i ka leka a ka hui i ka lā 19 Kepakemapa i ka luna kānāwai ʻo St. Louis County ʻo Gloria Clark Reno.

Ua haʻi ka ʻoihana i nā loio o ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi "iā lākou wale nō ka hewa no ke kūlana a lākou e kū nei i kēia manawa. I ka manawa a lākou i waiho ai i kā lākou mau koi, ʻaʻole kūpono kahi i loko o ke kūlanakauhale o St. Louis. hopena. ”

Hoʻohui pū kekahi, ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā loio a Monsanto i kā lākou leka i kēlā me kēia hoʻokolokolo ʻaʻole pono ma mua o ʻelua mau mea hoʻopiʻi. ʻO Monsanto o kahi hoʻokolokolo kūpono. ”

ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi Winston, i hoʻopiʻi ʻia ma Malaki o 2018, ʻo ia ka hoʻokolokolo mua loa e noho ai ma ka wahi o St. Ua hoʻolohi ʻia nā hoʻokolokolo ʻelua i hoʻonoho ʻia e hoʻomaka ma St. Louis i ʻAukake a me Kepakemapa.

Ma mua o ke kūʻai aku ʻana iā Bayer i ka makahiki i hala, ua hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo Monsanto ma ka wahi kaiāulu o Creve Coeur a ʻo ia kekahi o nā luna hana ma St. ʻO nā hoʻāʻo ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai maʻi Roundup i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no ka wahi o St. Louis i ʻAukake a me Kepakemapa i hoʻopaneʻe ʻia a ʻelua a hiki i kēia makahiki aʻe. ʻO ka e hoʻi kaua ana i hope ma kahi a kahi e hoʻokolokolo ai ʻo Winston a i ʻole ʻaʻole e hana ʻia ma kahi o hoʻokahi makahiki a ʻoi paha.

ʻO ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi ma ka hihia Winston i waena o 18,000 mau kānaka ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻopiʻi nei iā Monsanto e ʻōlelo nei i ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o nā lāʻau ʻoihana glyphosate i hoʻokumu iā lākou e hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a ua hūnā ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia e pili pū ana me kāna mea hoʻomake i ka nāhelehele. Ekolu kau kiure i nā hoʻokolokolo ʻekolu ma luna o nā hoʻopiʻi like i loaʻa i ka makemake o nā mea hoʻopiʻi a kauoha i nā uku hoʻopaʻi nui e kūʻē iā Monsanto.

Ke kūkākūkā nei ʻo Bayer a me nā loio no ka mea hoʻopiʻi hiki ke hoʻonohonoho global  o ka hihia. Ke hana nei ʻo Bayer me kahi kumukūʻai o ke kaumaha a me nā mea hoʻopukapuka hōʻino ʻole mai ka manawa ʻo Aug. 10, 2018 i hoʻoholo ai ke kiure i ka hoʻokolokolo mua ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup. Ua hāʻawi ka jure i kahu mālama ʻāina ʻo Kaleponi Dewayne "Lee" Johnson $ 289 miliona a ua ʻike ʻo Monsanto i hana me ka hana ʻino i ka kāohi ʻana i ka ʻike e pili ana i nā pilikia o kāna lāʻau make.

Loaʻa nā koena Killer Weed i 98 Penetene o nā Laʻana Honey Kanada

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ʻO ka hoʻopaʻa naʻau nā hōʻike hou loa e pili ana i nā lau nahele glyphosate a laha loa i hiki ke loaʻa nā koena i nā meaʻai i hana ʻole ʻia e nā mahiʻai e hoʻohana ana i ka glyphosate.

Ua paʻi mua ʻia kēia ʻatikala ma Nūhou olakino kaiapuni.

Na Carey Gillam

I ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka hula ʻana o nā luna hoʻomalu o ʻAmelika a puni ka pilikia o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i nā meaʻai no ke koena o nā mea pepehi mauʻu glyphosate, ua loaʻa nā ʻepekema aupuni ma Kanada i ka pesticide ma 197 o 200 mau laʻana o ka meli a lākou i nānā ai.

ʻO ka mea kākau ke aʻo, nā mea a pau e hana ana no nā Laboratories Agri-Food ma ka Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, i ʻōlelo ʻo ka nui o nā koena glyphosate i loko o nā laʻana meli - 98.5 pakeneka - ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe ma mua o ka mea i hōʻike ʻia i loko o kekahi mau noiʻi like i hana ʻia i nā makahiki ʻelima i hala i kekahi. ʻāina.

ʻO Glyphosate kahi lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia ma ka honua a ʻo ia ka mea hana i nā ʻoihana Roundup a me nā haneli he nui e kūʻai aku a puni ka honua no ka mahiʻai a me nā kumu ʻē aʻe. Ua ulu nui ka hoʻohana ma 25 mau makahiki i hala a ua hopohopo nā mea kūʻai aku e pili ana i nā koena o ka lāʻau make i kā lākou meaʻai.

Hāʻawi ka ʻikepili i nā hōʻike hou e pili nui ana nā gicphosate herbicides i ke kaiapuni e hiki ke loaʻa i nā koena a hiki i kahi meaʻai e hana ʻole ʻia e nā mahiʻai e hoʻohana ana i ka glyphosate. Ua hoʻomaopopo nā kānaka noiʻi i kā lākou hōʻike ua holo lākou i ka lohi e hoʻāʻo ana e hoʻopili i kā lākou lako hana hoʻāʻo "ma muli o nā pilikia i loaʻa i ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi laʻana meli i loaʻa ʻole nā ​​koina o ka glyphosate."

Lawe nā pi i nā pesticides ke neʻe lākou mai kahi mea kanu a kahi mea kanu, hoʻololi ʻole i nā koena mai nā mea kanu a nā mauʻu paha i kāpīpī ʻia me nā glyphosate i kā lākou hives.

I loko o kahi noiʻi ʻokoʻa, ua lawe pololei nā kānaka noiʻi ma ka mokupuni ʻo Hawaiʻi ʻo Kauai i ka meli mai ka 59 mau meli pi a loaʻa nā koena glyphosate i 27 pakeneka o lākou. Nā kānaka noiʻi Hawaiʻi i ʻōlelo ʻia nā pi pi ma kahi o nā wahi mahiʻai a me nā papa kolepa kahi e hoʻohana ʻia ai ka glyphosate i ʻoi aku ka nui o nā pesticide.

Ua hele mai ka hōʻike Kanada ma waena o nā hōʻike e ulu nei e hiki i nā gicphosate herbicides ke kumu i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, kikoʻī non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ma ka Poalua he kiure ma Kapalakiko loaʻa lokahi ʻo kēlā Roundup, kahi lāʻau make i hoʻokumu ʻia i glyphosate i kaulana ʻia e ka mea hana kemika ʻo Monsanto Co., hoʻohana he "mea nui" i ka hana ʻana i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin i kahi kāne Kaleponi. Ua like ia me ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo juri like i hāʻawi ʻia i ʻAukake i kahi hihia kaʻawale kahi a ka mea i loaʻa i ka maʻi ʻaʻai i ʻōlelo ai ua pili kona maʻi i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā lāʻau make a glyphosate i hoʻokumu ʻia e Monsanto.

Ua hele mai nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo ʻelua ma hope o ka hōʻike ʻana a nā loio o ka mea hoʻopiʻi i hōʻike o ka nui o nā noiʻi ʻana e hōʻike ana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai-ma muli o nā gicphosate herbicides, me hoʻokahi i paʻi ʻia i ka mahina i hala i loko o kahi puke pai nona ka hoʻoponopono i ʻepekema kiʻekiʻe ma ka US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ʻO ka hoʻoholo a ka poʻe Kanada e nānā i nā laʻana meli no ka glyphosate ma hope o kahi like e nānā i nā laʻana meli e kahi US Chemist and Chemist Administration chemist ma 2017. Ua ʻike ka ʻepekema FDA i nā laʻana meli he 28 a pau āna i nānā ai he mau koina o ka glyphosate, me ka 61 pākēneka o nā laʻana i lawa nā glyphosate e ana ʻia. ʻO nā laʻana ʻē aʻe he koena o ka lāʻau make i ka liʻiliʻi loa e ana.

Nā pae "palekana"

ʻO ka hōʻike Kanada, paʻi ʻia i loko o kahi puke pai i kāhea ʻia Nā mea hoʻohui meaʻai & mea hoʻowahāwahā: ʻāpana A, i ʻōlelo ʻia he glyphosate i kēia manawa kahi mea hana i 181 mau mea lāʻau make i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia no ka hoʻohana ma Kanada a ʻo kāna hoʻohana ākea i loaʻa pinepine ʻia i ke kaiapuni.

Ua kuhikuhi ʻia nā mea kākau noiʻi ʻaʻole ʻo Kanada he kūlana kū kānāwai no ka nui o ka lāʻau make i ka meli. Hoʻonohonoho nā mea hoʻokele i nā ʻāina like ʻole i nā mea i kapa ʻia ʻo "maximum residue limit" (MRLs) a haʻi i ka poʻe kūʻai aku palekana kā lākou meaʻai inā koe nā pesticide residues ma lalo o nā MRL. I ʻEulopa, ka MRL no glyphosate ma ʻo ka meli ka 0.05 mg / kg, i hōʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he 50 μg / kg.

Ua ʻōlelo nā mea kākau noiʻi Kanada ʻo nā pae āpau a lākou i ʻike ai ma lalo o ka palena ʻEulopa, ʻoiai ʻo ka mea kiʻekiʻe loa ma kahi o ka palena kānāwai. No ka mea ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ka nui o ke koena ma luna o ka MRL, ua ʻōlelo lākou, "haʻahaʻa loa ka makaʻu i ke olakino mea kūʻai aku ma muli o ke koena i ʻike ʻia."

ʻO kekahi o nā koena i loaʻa i ʻike ʻia e ka ʻepekema FDA ma ka meli US ma luna o kēlā pae i kapa ʻia he pae palekana e pili ana i ka European Union. Akā ʻo ka FDA, e like me ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA) a me EPA, e ʻōlelo nei inā aia nā koena pesticide ma lalo o nā MRL kū kānāwai, ʻaʻole lākou he mea pōʻino.

ʻAʻole ʻae ka poʻe ʻepekema he nui ka pale ʻana o MRL i ke olakino lehulehu.

"Manaʻo ka poʻe he palekana nā hae i ke olakino lehulehu akā ʻaʻole pēlā," ʻo Kauka Philip Landrigan, ka luna o ka Polokalamu Kauka Ola Palahu o ka honua ma ke Kulanui ʻo Boston, i haʻi aku iā EHN. "ʻO ka nui kūpono" o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai "zero," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. "E hoʻomanaʻo, he mau keiki ka nui o ka poʻe e ʻai ana i ka meli."

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi kime o ka ʻepekema ʻo Harvard he manaʻo ʻōlelo i ʻOkakopa e hōʻike nei i nā noiʻi hou aʻe e pili ana i nā loulou kūpono ma waena o ka maʻi a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā koena pesticide e "koi nui ʻia" ʻoiai ʻoi aku ma mua o 90 pākēneka o ka heluna kanaka US he koena pesticide i kā lākou mimi a me ke koko.

Ua hina ʻo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa ma hope o ʻEulopa, Kanada a me nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i nā meaʻai no ke koena o ka glyphosate. ʻOiai ʻo ka FDA a me ka USDA i kēlā me kēia makahiki e hoʻāʻo i nā kaukani meaʻai no nā koena pesticide a hōʻike i ka ʻikepili i nā hōʻike, ʻaʻole i hoʻopili ʻia nā ʻoihana ʻelua i ka glyphosate i kā lākou papahana hōʻike makahiki.

ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole i paʻi ʻia e ka FDA ka hōʻike hoʻokolohua meli i hōʻiliʻili ʻia e ka chemist o FDA a ʻaʻole i hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o ka ʻikepili hōʻike glyphosate mua loa o ka ʻoihana i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i ka hopena o ka makahiki i hala ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka hōʻike hōʻike hōʻike hōʻike makahiki.

Ua pēlā nō hoʻi ka USDA ma ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i nā meaʻai no nā koena glyphosate no nā makahiki he 2017. Ua hoʻolālā ka ʻoihana e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo palena ʻia ʻana ma XNUMX akā haule ka hoʻolālā me ka wehewehe iki ʻana he mau mahina wale nō ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana.

Pahu ʻahaʻōlelo no ka hoʻāʻo ʻana

Ma waena o nā manaʻo āpau e pili ana i ka glyphosate a me nā koena o ka meaʻai, ʻo US Rep Rosa DeLauro o Connecticut i kēia mahina. hoʻolauna i kahi ana i kapa ʻia ʻo "Keep Safe Food From Glyphosate Act." Pono ka bila i ka USDA e hoʻāʻo pinepine i nā meaʻai no nā koena glyphosate.

Pāpā ʻia ka pila i ka pīpī ʻana o glyphosate ma ke ʻano he desiccant ma nā ʻoka. Hoʻohana ʻia kēia hana e kekahi mau mahiʻai e hoʻomaloʻo i kā lākou ʻoka ma mua o ka ʻohi ʻana. Hoʻonui ia i ka ʻohi akā waiho i nā koena kiʻekiʻe ma luna o nā meaʻai oat.

ʻO Monsanto, kahi ʻāpana o Bayer AG, i kūʻai aku i ka glyphosate no ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā ʻoka ma ke ʻano he desiccant no nā makahiki, a ua hōʻoia maikaʻi ka ʻoihana i ka EPA e hāpai i ka MRL no nā koena glyphosate i ʻae ʻia i nā huahana oat. I ka makahiki 1993, no ka laʻana, he ahonui ka EPA no ka glyphosate i nā ʻoka ma nā ʻāpana 0.1 i kēlā me kēia miliona (ppm) akā i ka makahiki 1996 Ua nīnau ʻo Monsanto iā EPA e hoʻonui i ke ahonui i 20 ppm a me ka Ua hana ʻo EPA e like me ka mea i noi ʻia. I ka 2008, ma kā Monsanto manaʻo, ka Ua nānā hou ʻo EPA e hāpai i ka hoʻomanawanui no ka glyphosate i loko o ka oats, kēia manawa i 30 ppm.

I loko o kāna pila, e nānā ana ʻo DeLauro e ʻokiʻoki i ka MRL no nā koena glyphosate i loko o nā oat a 0.1 ppm.

ʻO nā mea mahiʻai Kanada kekahi o nā mea hana nui o ka honua i ka oats, a ʻo ka desiccation me ka glyphosate kahi hana maʻamau ma laila.

Ua hōʻole ʻo Health Canada i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka palekana glyphosate, e ʻōlelo ana:

Ma waho aʻe o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana no nā koena glyphosate, ua hoʻāʻo nō hoʻi nā ʻepekema Kanada no nā koena o glyphosate's huahana hoʻohaʻahaʻa nui, kahi metabolite i kapa ʻia aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). E like me glyphosate, ua manaʻo lōʻihi ʻia ka AMPA e loaʻa ka haʻahaʻa o ka lāʻau. ʻIke ʻia ka AMPA ma 198 o nā 200 laʻana a hiki i ka hoʻonui o 50.1 μg / kg.

"ʻO ka makana o nā koena glyphosate a me AMPA i loaʻa i loko o ka wahi e pili ana i ka haumia o ka nectar mea kanu a ma hope iho ua paʻakikī hou ka meli iā ia iho e nā loli i nā pae o kēia mau hui i nā matrices kaiapuni e like me ka lepo a me ka wai o ka honua," i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā ʻepekema i kā lākou hōʻike.

Nānā pū ka ʻepekema no ke koena o ka glufosinate mea pepehi kanaka wea a loaʻa ke koena o kēlā lāʻau make i 125 o 200 mau laʻana, me ka hapa nui o ka noʻonoʻo i ʻike ʻia he 33 μg / kg.

ʻO Glufosinate ka mea hana i ka BASF's Liberty herbicide.

ʻO Jay Byrne: E hālāwai me ke kāne ma hope o ka mīkini Monsanto PR

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ʻO ka Luna Hoʻokele mua o Monsanto o ka ʻOihana Kōlepa ʻo Jay Byrne, pelekikena o ka ʻoihana pili lehulehu v-Kaaha, he mea hoʻokani kī i ka hūnā hoʻolaha a me nā hoʻolaha lobbying o nā ʻoihana mahiʻai nui loa o ka honua. Loaʻa nā leka uila e US Right to Know, kau ʻia ma ka UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Archive, hōʻike i ke ʻano o nā hana hoʻopunipuni a Byrne a me nā mea kōkua ʻē aʻe e hoʻohana nei e hoʻolaha a pale aku i nā meaʻai a me nā pesticides GMO.

Hōʻike nā hiʻohiʻona ma aneʻi i kekahi o nā ala e neʻe nei nā ʻoihana i kā lākou leka uila i ke kahua ākea mai hope o ka uhi o nā hui kū leo kūpaʻa ʻole, nā mea kōkua aupuni a me nā kālaiʻike i kū kūʻokoʻa i kā lākou hana pū ʻana me nā ʻoihana a i kā lākou mau kākāʻōlelo PR.

Nā mea kūʻai aku: ʻoihana kiʻekiʻe, mahiʻai a me nā ʻoihana lāʻau 

Na Byrne's papa inoa mea kūʻai aku ua hui pū me kahi laulā o ka agribusiness nui a me nā ʻoihana lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā hui ʻoihana, e like me ka American Chemistry Council, Syngenta, AstraZeneca, Monsanto, Pfizer, ka American Farm Bureau, National Corn Growers Association, Grocery Manufacturers Association, Rohm & Haas a me ka pesticide ʻoihana. hui kālepa CropLife.

ʻO ka International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ka mea e hoʻolaha ana i ka genetically engineered "Golden Rice," he mea kūʻai aku kekahi. ʻO Byrne ua hoʻokani i ka hana PR e hoʻouka iā Greenpeace a me nā mea hoʻohewa ʻē aʻe o ka laiki GMO. E ʻike pū i ka waihona puke ʻoihana ʻoihana UCSF no nā mea he nui nā palapala e pili ana iā IRRI.

ʻO ka hui mua mua i kālua ʻia e hoʻouka aku i nā loiloi Monsanto

ʻO kahi papahana nui o ka ʻoihana mahiʻai, e like me ka Hōʻikeʻia ka New York Times, ʻo ia ke kau i nā polopeka "pāpale keʻokeʻo" e hakakā i ka PR o ka ʻoihana a me nā hakakā lobbying ma hope o ka uhi o ka "gloss o ke kūlike ʻole a me ke kaupaona o ka mana i hele mai me ka moʻokūʻauhau a kahi polofesa."

I Malaki 2010, ʻo Byrne a me ke Kulanui o ʻInikia Polofesa Bruce Chassy ua kūkākūkā i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i kahi hui mua i kapa ʻia ʻo "Academics Review" i hiki ke ʻumeʻume i nā makana mai nā ʻoihana ʻoiai ke kūʻokoʻa nei. Ua hoʻohālikelike ʻo Byrne i ka manaʻo i ka Center for Consumer Freedom (kahi hui i mua e holo ʻia e ka mea kaulana ʻole ʻo propaganda kanaka ʻo Rick Berman), ka mea "i hoʻolilo kālā i kēia i ka loa; a manaʻo wau he manaʻo maikaʻi aʻe kā kāua. " Ua wehewehe ʻo Byrne i kahi papa inoa "manawa kūpono" me nā pahuhopu "hiki iā lākou ke hele ma hope. Ua kākau ʻo Byrne iā Kauka Chassy:

ʻO kēlā mau hui āpau, nā poʻe a me nā kumuhana kumuhana "ke ʻano o ke kālā no ke ʻano o nā hui kuʻekuʻe wāwae maikaʻi," i kākau ai ʻo Byrne. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia a ʻO Val Giddings, PhD, he pelekikena hope ma mua no ka hui ʻoihana biotech BIO, hiki ke lawelawe ma ke ʻano he "kaʻa kalepa" no nā kālaiʻike.

Ma November 2010, Ua kākau ʻo Byrne iā Chassy Eia hou, "He mea maikaʻi ia e kiʻi i ka pae hou o ka hana ma Academics Review e hele nei - loaʻa iā mākou kahi lohi o ka hapaha mua e piʻi mai ana i ka 2011 inā mau ka ʻoihana." Hāʻawi ʻo Byrne e “hoʻonohonoho i kekahi manawa no ka huli ʻana o ka ʻenekini pro bono” no kāna hui e kūʻē i ka mana o ka mea loiloi GMO ma ka pūnaewele. Ua hoʻopau ʻo Byrne i ka leka uila, "E like me nā manawa mau, makemake e ʻike i ke kumuhana aʻe (a me ke kākoʻo) e hoʻonui i kēia hiki ke hiki."

I ka 2014, ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka loiloi Academics a hōʻike e hoʻouka nei i ka ʻoihana ʻokanika ma ke ʻano he kālepa hoʻopunipuni; i loko o kāna mau mea kūʻai aku ponoʻī no ka hōʻike, ua koi ʻo Academics Review e kūʻokoʻa a ʻaʻole i hōʻike i kāna kālā ʻoihana mahiʻai.

No ka 'ike hou aku:

"Nā papahana US-GLP-Byrne US" e hoʻohuli i nā mea nūpepa

ʻO kā Byrne lobbying a me nā hana PR no ka GMO a me ka ʻoihana pesticide e hoʻopili i nā helu he nui me ka hana o ʻO Jon Entine, kahi kī ʻē aʻe i nā hana pale pale ʻoihana mahiʻai. Ke alakaʻi nei ʻo Entine i ka papahana Genetic Literacy Project, i hoʻokumu ʻia i ka makahiki 2011 i ka wā a Monsanto i mea kūʻai aku o kāna ʻoihana paʻa PR. (ʻO Entine's PR firm ESG MediaMetrics i papa inoa ʻia ʻo Monsanto ma ke ʻano he mea kūʻai aku ma kāna pūnaewele ma 2010, 2011, 2012 a hiki i Ianuali 2013, e like me nā waihona pūnaewele i loaʻa ma ka pūnaewele.)

I Dekemaba 2013, Ua kākau ʻo Entine iā Max T. Holtzman, ʻo ia ka mea i lilo i hope ma lalo o ka ʻaoʻao ma lalo o ka US Department of Agriculture, e noi e hana pū i kahi moʻo o nā mea āna i wehewehe ai ma ke ʻano he "US government-GLP-Byrne project" e paipai iā GMOs. Ua kākau ʻo Entine iā Holtzman:

Noi a Entine i noi ʻiaʻO ke aupuni US-GLP-Byrne"I loko o nā papahana he" Boot Camp and Response Swat Team "e hoʻomākaukau i nā kānaka ʻaoʻao ʻaoʻao ʻekolu no ka" hiki ʻana i ka ʻahaʻōlelo ma ka lepili ʻana i ka [GMO] a me nā pilikia e pili pū ana, "kahi" conclave journalism "e hoʻoikaika i ka pāpāho e pili ana i nā pilikia palekana meaʻai a" hāʻawi i ke aʻo i ka poʻe nūpepa ʻōpio, "kahi hoʻolaha hoʻolaha hoʻolaha ākea e hoʻolaha i ka ʻae ʻana i ka biotechnology, a me nā ʻikepili pūnaewele lehulehu a me nā wahi mai nā kumuwaiwai hilinaʻi" e hoʻoikaika ana i nā poʻomanaʻo "me nā ʻāpana a me nā kiʻi i loaʻa ma nā pūnaewele aupuni o US, GLP a me nā anuu ʻē aʻe."

Pane maila ʻo Holtzman, “Mahalo iā Jon. Nui ka hui pū ʻana me ʻoe. Manaʻo wau e hāʻawi ana kāu outline ma lalo i nā kiko kuʻina maoli kahi e hoʻohana pono ai ka leka uila usda / USG a me kāu mau hoʻoikaika ʻana. Makemake wau e hana hou a hoʻopili i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe ma usda ʻaʻole wale mai nā wahi loea / kālepa akā mai kā mākou hale kūʻai kamaʻilio pū kekahi. "

Kākoʻo kālā ʻia ka poʻe ʻauhau, nā wikiō kaulike a Monsanto e hāpai i nā GMO

Kākoʻo ʻia kahi pūʻulu ʻauhau ʻauhau Videos i hana ʻia ma 2012 e hoʻolaha i nā meaʻai ʻenekini genetically i kekahi kumu hoʻohālikelike ʻē aʻe e pili ana i ke kāohi ʻana o ka poʻe ʻenehana a me nā kula i ka leka uila. Ua kōkua ʻo Byrne's PR firm v-Fluence i ka hoʻokumu ʻana i nā wikiō i "hoʻolālā ʻia e hōʻike ʻia i kahi waihona haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me ka amateurish," e like me ka leka uila mai ke Kulanui o ʻInikia ʻo Professor Bruce Chassy.

ʻO Kauka Chassy Ua kākau ʻo ia i nā limahana o Monsanto ma ka lā 27 ʻApelila 2012:

Ua pane ʻo Monsanto ʻo Eric Sachs:

Ua hāʻawi ʻo Sachs e kōkua me ka leka ʻana i nā wikiō e hiki mai ana ma o ka kaʻana like ʻana i nā hopena o nā hoʻokolohua pūʻulu e kia ana. Ua kono ʻo Kauka Chassy iā Sachs e hāʻawi i nā manaʻo no nā kumuhana wikiō e hiki mai ana a noi iā ia e hoʻouna pū i nā hopena o ka hui o Monsanto.

E hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā ʻepekema a me nā mea nūpepa e hoʻopaʻa i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa e pili ana i nā GMO a me nā pesticides

Ma 2014 a me 2015, ua kōkua ʻo Byrne iā Jon Entine e hoʻonohonoho i ka Nā kahua hoʻomoana o Biotech Literacy Project kālā ʻia e nā hui mahiʻai a hui pū ʻia e nā hui mua o ka ʻoihana, ʻO ka Entine's Genetic Literacy Project a ʻO kā Bruce Chassy hōʻike loiloi. Ua kuhi hewa nā mea hoʻonohonoho i ka waihona kālā no nā hanana e like me ka mea i loaʻa mai i ka huikau o nā kumu kula, aupuni a me nā ʻoihana, akā ʻo ka ʻo ke kumu waiwai o ke kālā wale nō i hiki ke huli ʻia, e like me ka hōʻike a Paul Thacker. ʻO ke kumu o nā kahua hoʻomoana, ʻo Thacker ka mea i hōʻike ʻia, "e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā ʻepekema a me nā mea nūpepa e hoʻopaʻa i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa no GMOs a me ka ʻawahia o glyphosate."

ʻO Byrne ma ka hui hoʻonohonoho, me Cami Ryan (e hana nei no Monsanto) a me Bruce Chassy (ke loaʻa nei kālā mai Monsanto ʻaʻole i hōʻike ākea ʻia), e like me nā leka uila mai Hoʻohui a Ryan.

No ka 'ike hou aku:

Bonus Eventus: ke keʻena o ka pāhana pāʻina kaiāulu o ka ʻoihana mahiʻai

Hāʻawi kahi lawelawe nui a Byrne i nā hana hoʻoholomua ahupuaʻa ʻo kāna "Bonus Eventus kaiāulu" e hoʻolako i nā mea kālaiʻike a me nā mea ʻē aʻe ʻē aʻe me nā wahi kamaʻilio a me nā manawa hoʻolaha. Kūloko palapala (ʻaoʻao 9) e wehewehe iā Bonus Eventus ma ke ʻano he "portal pūnaewele pilikino pilikino e lawelawe ana ma ke ʻano he kamaʻilio kamaʻilio no nā ʻepekema noʻonoʻo i ka mahiʻai, nā mea hana kulekele a me nā mea kuleana ʻē aʻe." Loaʻa i nā lālā nā nūpepa ʻo Byrne, a me ke komo ʻana i kāna waihona waihona kūmole o nā kumuhana agribusiness, "database stakeholder" o nā poʻe koʻikoʻi i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa GMO, a me nā hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me ke kākoʻo no ka hana kaiaulu.

Hiki ke loaʻa nā laʻana o ka nūpepa i kēia ahu hoʻokoe o nā leka uila mai Byrne a Peter Phillips, he Kulanui o Saskatchewan polopeka ʻo ia hoʻohewa ʻia e nā hoa hana no kona pili pili iā Monsanto. Ma ka nūpepa Nov. 7, 2016, ua koi aku ʻo Byrne iā Phillips a me nā mea loaʻa ʻē aʻe e kaʻana like i nā ʻike e pili ana i nā "hemahema a me nā haʻalele" i loko o kahi New York Times moʻolelo ka mea i hōʻike e pili ana i ka maikaʻi ʻole o nā mea kanu GMO e hoʻonui i nā hua a hoʻemi i nā pesticides, a me nā nīnau e piʻi ana i mua i kahi hui ʻepekema o nā ʻepekema maʻi ʻaʻai nāna i hōʻike he glyphosate kahi kino kanaka kino paha - kākau leka e kūlike me ka PR PR a Monsanto e hoʻowahāwahā i ka ʻimi noiʻi maʻi ʻaʻai. (E nānā pū i kā mākou pepa pono ma Peter Phillip's 'ōlelo huna "kuleana ʻike"

Ua koi aku ʻo Byrne i ke kaiāulu Bonus Eventus e kaʻana i ka ʻike ma kēia mau kumuhana mai nā mea kākau i pili i ka ʻoihana, e like me ʻO Julie Kelly, ʻO Kauka Henry Miller, Kavin Senapathy, ʻO Sci Babe a Lākana Hank o ka ʻAha ʻAmelika no ka ʻepekema a me ke olakino, kahi hui ʻo Monsanto ka uku ʻana e kōkua i ka hōʻino nā ʻepekema maʻi ʻaʻai. I ka 2017, ua holoi ʻo Forbes i nā ʻatikala he nui e Dr. Miller - me nā mea i kākau pū ʻia me ia Kelly, Senapathy a ʻO Byrne - ma hope o ka Hōʻikeʻia ka New York Times ua hoʻopuka ʻo Kauka Miller i kahi ʻatikala ma Forbes ma lalo o kāna inoa ponoʻī i kākau ʻia e Ghostanto.

ʻO Gatekeeper no ka hoʻouka kaua ma Greenpeace

I ka wā i kāhea aku ai kahi hui laureates Nobel iā Greenpeace e hoʻōki i ke kūʻē ʻana i ka raiki ʻenekini, ua like ia me kahi hana kūʻokoʻa. Akā ma hope o ka pale o nā ʻike kupaianaha nā lima kōkua o ʻelua mau mea pāʻani nui i ka lobby PR ʻoihana mahiʻai: ʻo Jay Byrne a he lālā o ka papahana Genetic Literacy Project. ʻO Byrne kau ʻia ma ka puka ma kahi hanana ʻo 2016 Press Press Club e hoʻolaha ana i kahi hui i kapa ʻia Kākoʻo i ka mahiʻai Precision. ʻO ka mana .com o kēlā pūnaewele i hoʻohuli ʻia i mau makahiki i ka Genetic Literacy Project, kahi hui mua e holo nei me Monsanto ma nā papahana PR me ka hōʻike ʻole i kēlā mau pilina. 

No laila ʻo wai i uku no ka hanana paʻi anti-Greenpeace? ʻO Sir Richard Roberts, kahi meaolaola nāna i ʻōlelo ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo ia i kahi leka laureate Nobel, ua wehewehe i ka backstory i kahi FAQ ma ka pūnaewele: ʻo ka "hoʻouka kaua he pipiʻi loa ia," i kākau ʻo ia, ʻo ia ka hapa nui o kāna uku i uku ʻia e kāna haku ʻo New England Biolabs a me "nā lilo o waho o ka ʻeke" i uku ʻia e Matt Winkler. ʻO Winkler, ka mea hoʻokumu a me ka luna o ka hui biotech ʻo Asuragen, he mea leʻaleʻa hoʻi ia ka lālā o ka papa o Genetic Literacy Project, e like me ka pūnaewele o ka hui. Ua wehewehe ʻo Roberts ua ʻimi ʻo Winkler i kahi hoa, ʻo Val Giddings, "(ka ʻo VP ka hui kālepa biotech mua) nāna "i ʻōlelo iā Jay Byrne" (ka luna kamaʻilio mua o Monsanto) nāna i hāʻawi i ke kākoʻo loiloi pro bono no ka hanana paʻi.

Ua kōkua pū ʻo Byrne lāua ʻo Giddings i ka orchestrate i ka loiloi ʻia e ka Academics Review, kahi hui mua a lākou i hoʻonohonoho ai e kūʻokoʻa i ka lawelawe ʻana ma ke ʻano he kaʻa e ʻumeʻume kālā kālā no ka hoʻouka kaua ʻana i nā loiloi o nā huahana ag-biotech. nā leka uila i loaʻa iā US Right to Know. I nā leka uila, ua kapa ʻia ʻo Byrne i kapa ʻia ʻo Greenpeace ma ka ʻO ka papa inoa "target" āna e hōʻuluʻulu nei no Monsanto. ʻO kekahi o Byrne's nā mea mālama mai ʻo ia ka International Rice Research Institute, ka hui ʻoihana nui e hoʻāʻo nei e kālepa aku iā GMO Golden Rice, ʻo ia ka mea nui o ka faitio Greenpeace. Ua loaʻa i ka noiʻi a Glenn Davis Stone o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona ma St. nā haʻawina haʻahaʻa a me nā pilikia ʻenehana ua paʻa i ka Rice Gula, ʻaʻole ke kūʻē mai nā hui kaiapuni.

I loko o kāna FAQ, ua kāpae ʻo Kauka Roberts i kā Dr. Stone ʻimi noiʻi kūʻokoʻa ʻana ma ke ʻano he "ʻaʻole he hōʻike pololei no ka mokuʻāina o nā hihia," a kuhikuhi ʻo ia i nā kumuwaiwai PR e pili ana i ka ʻoihana e kamaʻāina i ka poʻe heluhelu o ka nūpepa Bonus Eventus o Byrne. ʻO Julie Kelly, ʻO Henry Miller a Nānā ʻImi. Ua hana ʻia ka hanana paʻi ma kahi manawa politika koʻikoʻi, a ua kōkua i kahi kōkua moʻolelo i ka Wakinekona Post, hoʻokahi pule ma mua o ka koho ʻana o ka ʻAhaʻōlelo e pāpā i nā mokuʻāina mai ka lepili ʻana i nā GMO.

I Ianuali 2019, ua hoʻohuli ʻia ka mana .com o ke kākoʻo Precision Agriculture i ka Genetic Literacy Project. I loko o kāna FAQ, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Roberts ʻaʻohe ona pilina me GLP a ʻōlelo ʻo ia "he kanaka ʻike ʻole ʻia" i kūʻai i ka inoa like i loko o kahi "hoʻāʻo maopopo" e hoʻopili iā ia iā GLP. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia he laʻana kēia "ʻo nā hana hoʻopunipuni a ka poʻe kūʻē he palena ʻole."
(Ua hoʻopau ʻole ʻia ka hoʻohuli i kekahi manawa ma hope o ke ola ʻana o kēia kūlana.)

No ka 'ike hou aku:

Weaponizing i ka pūnaewele me nā kānaka hoʻopunipuni a me nā pūnaewele

Ke hōʻike nei no Ke Kahu i 2002, Ua wehewehe ʻo George Monbiot i kahi hana huna hūnā e hoʻohana ʻia ana e nā ʻoihana ahupuaʻa a me kā lākou mau ʻoihana PR no nā makahiki he nui e paipai a pale aku i kā lākou huahana: ka hana ʻana i nā pilikino hoʻopunipuni a me nā pūnaewele hoʻopunipuni e hoʻopau ai i nā mea loiloi a hoʻohuli i nā hopena huli pūnaewele.

Ua hōʻike ʻo Monbiot i nā "kamaʻāina hoʻopunipuni" (ka poʻe ʻaʻole maoli) "e hoʻopahū nei i nā papa inoa pūnaewele me nā leka e hōʻino ana i nā ʻepekema a me nā kaiāulu e hoʻopiʻi nei i nā hua GM" - a ua hoʻihoʻi ʻia nā kamaʻāina wahaheʻe i ko Monsanto PR PR Bivings.

Ua wehewehe ʻo Monbiot i kā Jay Byrne pili ʻana i nā Bivings:

"E noʻonoʻo i ka pūnaewele me he mea kaua lā ma ka papaʻaina ... e make paha kekahi."

"I ka hopena o ka makahiki i hala, ua wehewehe ʻo Jay Byrne, ka luna o ka pūnaewele ʻo [Monsanto] i ka manawa i kekahi mau loina ʻē aʻe i nā hana i hoʻohana ʻia e ia ma Monsanto. Ua hōʻike ʻo ia pehea, ma mua o ka hana ʻana, nā pae GM kiʻekiʻe i helu ʻia e kahi ʻenekia huli pūnaewele i mea hoʻopiʻi i ka ʻenehana. Ma hope o kāna hoʻopili ʻana, ua kākoʻo nā pūnaewele kiʻekiʻe (ʻehā o lākou i hoʻokumu ʻia e Monsanto's PR firm Bivings). Ua haʻi ʻo ia iā lākou e 'noʻonoʻo i ka pūnaewele me he mea kaua lā ma ka papa. E kiʻi paha ʻoe iā ia a i ʻole e hana ana kāu mea hoʻokūkū, akā e make paha kekahi. ' ʻOiai ʻo ia e hana ana no Monsanto, haʻi ʻo Byrne i ka nūhou pūnaewele Wow 'hoʻolilo ʻo ia i kona manawa a me kāna hana e komo' i nā kūkākūkā pūnaewele e pili ana i ka biotech. Ua koho ʻo ia i ka pūnaewele AgBioWorld, kahi e hōʻoia ai i kāna ʻoihana e loaʻa i nā pāʻani kūpono '. ʻO AgBioWorld kahi pūnaewele kahi a [kamaʻāina hoʻopunipuni] Smetacek i hoʻouka i kāna hoʻolālā. "

No ka 'ike hou aku:

Nā mea hou aʻe mai Jay Byrne

A Hōʻike Mana Mana 2013 hōʻike i ke kuleana a Byrne e pāʻani ai no kāna mea kūʻai aku ma ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. Ua wehewehe ʻo ia i kāna mau kumumanaʻo e pili ana i nā mea kākoʻo i ke kaiaola, hoʻonohonoho i ko lākou mana ma ka pūnaewele a koi i nā ʻoihana e hōʻuluʻulu i kā lākou kumuwaiwai e kūʻē iā lākou, i mea e hōʻalo ai i nā "kaohi a me nā kaohi o ka mākeke."

The 2006 buke "E ʻai lākou i ka mālama pono," i paʻi ʻia e ka Ke Keʻena HoʻonaʻauaoʻAmelika a hoʻoponopono ʻia e ka ʻoihana mahiʻai ʻO ka mea lawelawe PR ʻo Jon Entine, loaʻa kahi mokuna e Byrne i kapa ʻia, "Deconstructing the Agricultural Biotechnology Protest Industry."

He lālā ʻo Byrne o "AgBioChatter," a papa inoa leka uila pilikino ʻO nā limahana limahana ʻoihana mahiʻai, nā mea aʻoaʻo a me nā kālaiʻike i hoʻohana ʻia e hoʻohui i nā hana leka a me nā hana lobbying. Loaʻa nā leka uila e US Right to Know hōʻike iā Byrne e paipai nei i nā lālā o AgBioChatter e hoʻāʻo e hōʻino i ka poʻe a me nā hui i kūhewa i nā GMO a me nā pesticides. ʻO kahi hoʻolālā ʻo Monsanto PR 2015 i kapa ʻia ʻo AgBioChatter ma ke ʻano he hoʻokahi Ua hoʻolālā ʻo "hoa hana ʻoihana" ʻo Monsanto e komo e kōkua i ka hōʻino ʻana i nā hopohopo no ka maʻi ʻaʻai e pili ana i glyphosate.

No ka 'ike hou aku:

ʻO ka mea lanakila ʻO Rachel Carson ʻĀpana Hoʻolaha Hoʻolaha: Whitewash na Carey Gillam

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Carey Gillam'sWhitewash: ka moʻolelo o kahi mea hoʻomake i nā nāhelehele, maʻi ʻaʻai a me ka palaho o ka ʻepekema (Island Press) ua loaʻa nā loiloi maikaʻi mai kona hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana i ka hāʻule hope loa a ua loaʻa iā ia nā makana he nui no ka hōʻike poʻokela:

"Pākuʻi paʻakikī, haʻi haʻi maka… ʻO kahi paio ikaika no kahi ʻōnaehana hoʻoponopono mahiʻai e hoʻokau i ka hoihoi o ka lehulehu ma mua o nā loaʻa ʻoihana. "  Nā hōʻike manaʻo Kirkus

"Kēia mea he pono-heluhelu no kēlā me kēia mea e pili ana i ka hoʻonui i ka ukana o nā kemika ʻino i ka wai a me nā meaʻai, nā hopena olakino a me nā hopena o ia wahi, a me ka mana o nā ʻoihana i nā ʻoihana aupuni." Puka inoa 

“Gillam uhi loea i ka paio mua kahi e kū ai ka malfeasance ʻoihana me nā pilikia o kahi lehulehu health a me ke kaiaolaola. " Mea hoʻopuka pule 

“A heluhelu ʻumeʻume mai ka hoʻomaka a ka hopena, keu hoʻi no ka poʻe heluhelu leʻaleʻa i ke ʻano o ihu paʻakikī, hōʻike kāmaʻa-kāmaʻa ʻo ia ka hōʻailona o ka puke pai nui. ” ʻO ka Society for Environmental Journalists BookShelf

"Kākau maikaʻi maikaʻi ʻia o nā hewa, ka hoʻopunipuni, nā hakakā o ka hoihoi, nā ʻano kūpono ʻole, a me nā ʻano pīhoihoi o ka wā kahiko [PR]…. Kekahi o kāna huhū maoli nā hōʻike." ʻIke ʻo Los Angeles i nā puke 

E nānā i kekahi: Hoike a Carey Gillam ma mua o ke kōmike hui o ka Parliament Parliament ma 10/11/2017 a me ia e hōʻike mai ana mai ka Lohe Daubert i nā Kanaka Maʻi Kanaka vs. Hoʻopiʻi Monsanto glyphosate.

Ka wehewehe puke

ʻO ia ka pesticide ma kā mākou papa ʻaina awakea, kahi kemika i laha loa i ka ea a mākou e hanu nei, ka wai, ka lepo, a loaʻa pinepine i loko o kā mākou kino ponoʻī. ʻIke ʻia ʻo Monsanto's Roundup e nā mea kūʻai aku, a ma ke ʻano he glyphosate e nā ʻepekema, hoʻohana ʻia ka mea pepehi kanaka laha kaulana loa o ka honua ma nā wahi āpau mai nā māla o ka pā i nā papa kolepa i nā miliona o nā eka o ka ʻāina mahiʻai. No nā makahiki he nui i ʻōlelo ʻia he palekana ia e inu ai, akā ʻo kahi kino o nā hōʻike e ulu ana e hōʻike ana i ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, me ka noiʻi e hoʻopaʻa ana i ka kemika i nā maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā mea hoʻoweliweli olakino ʻē aʻe.

In ʻIliʻula, wehe ʻo Carey Gillam ka mea kākau moʻolelo kūpuna i kekahi o nā moʻolelo paio loa i ka moʻolelo o ka meaʻai a me ka mahiʻai, e hōʻike ana i nā hōʻike hou o ka mana o nā ʻoihana. Hoʻolauna ʻo Gillam i nā mea heluhelu i nā ʻohana mahiʻai i luku ʻia e nā maʻi ʻaʻai a lākou i manaʻo ai i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka kemikolo, a i nā ʻepekema nona ka inoa i hamo ʻia no ka paʻi ʻana i nā noiʻi i kūʻē i nā pono ʻoihana. E aʻo ka poʻe heluhelu e pili ana i ka wili ʻana o ka lima o nā mea hoʻokele nāna i kau inoa i ka kemika, e hōʻoia ana i ka palekana o nā ʻoihana e like me ka ʻae ʻana i nā koena pesticide kiʻekiʻe i ka meaʻai a haʻalele i nā hoʻāʻo ʻana. A, i nā kikoʻī pīhoihoi, hōʻike ʻo Gillam i nā kamaʻilio ʻona huna e huki i ka pale i nā hana ʻoihana e manipulate i ka ʻike o ka lehulehu.

ʻIliʻula ʻoi aku ma mua o kahi hōʻike e pili ana i nā makaʻi o hoʻokahi kemika a i ʻole ka hopena o hoʻokahi ʻoihana. He moʻolelo ia no ka mana, ka politika, a me nā hopena make o ka hoʻokau ʻana i nā pono ʻoihana ma mua o ka palekana o ka lehulehu.

http://careygillam.com/book
Lā paʻi ma ʻOkakopa 2017

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Hoʻonui ka mahalo no ka Whitewash

"Ka puke wehe i kahi lepa o nā pesticide ʻoihana pesticide e hana i ka ʻepekema ʻoiaʻiʻo e pili ana i kā lākou huahana ʻoiai e kau ana i nā waiwai ma luna o ke olakino a me ke kaiapuni. Ma ke ʻano he mea i ʻike i nā hana like e nā ʻoihana i kaʻu hana i ka manawa pinepine, lana koʻu manaʻo e lilo ana kā Carey puke i mea e ala aʻe ai no ka moakaka hou aku e pili ana i nā pilikia e pili ana i nā kemika he nui i ka mākeke. Erin Brockovich, mea hana kaiapuni a me ka mea kākau

Loaʻa iā Carey Gillam ʻākoakoa pū me nā mea i ʻike ʻia a wehewehe i ka wahaheʻe ʻana o Monsanto a me nā hui kemika mahiʻai e pili ana i kā lākou huahana, uhi ʻia ka ʻikepili hōʻino a hana hewa i nā luna aupuni i mea e kūʻai aku ai i kā lākou huahana ʻawaʻawa a puni ka honua.  ʻO David Schubert, Ph.D., ʻO Polofesa a me ke poʻo o ka Laboratory Neurobiology Cellular ma ka Salk Institute No ka Biological Studies

ʻO Carey Gillam kahi koa koa i ka moʻo o Rachel Carson. Ua hōʻike ʻo ia i ka makeʻe kolohe ʻole a me ka hoʻopunipuni i alakaʻi ai i ka lāʻau make o kā mākou honua. ʻO Brian GM Durie, MD Lunahoomalu o ka International Myeloma Foundation, loea oncology a me ke kauka e hele nei ma Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

I ka moʻomeheu nui o Silent Spring, ʻo Carey Gillam's Whitewash kahi he mea hōʻike mana e hoʻomālamalama i kahi kemika i - i ka hapanui o mākou - ʻike maka ʻole ʻia a hōʻino loa i ko mākou mau kino a me ko mākou kaiapuni. He noiʻi hohonu ia, e hōʻoiaʻiʻo loa nei i nā politika, nā waiwai a me nā hopena olakino o ka honua āpau i pili i ka hoʻolaha ʻana o ka lāʻau make. Ua hana ʻo Gillam i ka mea a nā mea nūpepa nui e hoʻāʻo nei e hana: ua hōʻike ʻo ia iā mākou e ʻike pono i ka mea o ka lōʻihi i mua o kā mākou maka. Paipai nui ʻia.  ʻO McKay Jenkins, ka mea kākau, Polofesa o English, Journalism and Environmental Humanities ma ke Kulanui o Delaware